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  • 201.
    Ducoing, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Pacull, Montserrat
    Innovación, redes y recursos naturales: Los empresarios cupríferos del Huasco, 1810-18602017In: Empresas y empresarios en la historia de Chile: 1810-1930 / [ed] Manuel Llorca-Jaña y Diego Barría T., Santiago: Editorial Universitaria , 2017, 1, p. 77-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Ducoing, Cristián
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Machinery and Horse Power Prices: 1850 – 19132017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on the industrial revolution (IR) has been focused on the incentives behind investment decisions and how the preliminary conditions for it appeared in England / Great Britain. One of the most famous theories to explain the IR is the one developed by Allen (2012, 2009b,a), who argues that the IR was British due to a unique combination of expensive labour and cheap energy, producing incentives to invest in labour-saving machinery. His theory takes into account a vast literature on organic fuels and the transition to fossil fuels (WRIGLEY, 1962; Wrigley, 2013). Several works have proved the existence of cheap fossil fuels during the 19th century, determined by the introduction of coal. Even though the figures on wages and energy are broadly accepted, machinery price indices are challenged. The most widely used index is based almost completely on the price of iron (Feinstein, 1972, 1988). To prove Allen’s hypothesis we require a better index of machinery prices, measuring horsepower prices, relative costs and international changes in their trade. This article presents such a series, using novel data from merchants’ catalogues, international trade statistics plus all the price indices previously available. The new series corresponds to the UK in the period 1850 - 1913; given the influence of British Machinery & Equipment in the world market until 1913, this price index could be useful to understand the transformation of relative costs in several regions.

  • 203. Ducoing, Cristián
    et al.
    Peres-Cajias, José
    Badia-Miró, Marc
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Contreras, Carlos
    Ranestad, Kristin
    Torregrosa, Sara
    Natural Resources Curse in the Long Run? Boliva, Chile and Peru in the Nordic Countries´Mirror2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new estimates of the Maddison Project show that GDP per capita ratio at purchasing power parity (ppp) between Bolivia and Finland has changed from 0.68 ca. 1850 to 0.16 in 2015; similarly, that between Chile and Norway from 0.65 to 0.28. The aim of this article is to present a review of the literature and available quantitative evidence to understand how these extreme differences became possible between countries with similarly enormous natural resource endowments. Specifically, the article seeks to: (a) identify some stylized facts that may help understand the divergence between Andean and Nordic countries; (b) identify key historical processes that explain the divergent effect of natural resource abundance in Andean and Nordic economies. In order to achieve these objectives, four topics are covered: GDPpc, population, trade and taxation. The analysis comprises three Nordic countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden) and three Andean countries (Bolivia, Chile and Peru) from the mid-Nineteenth Century to present day. The sample size, time span covered and thematic approach provide new evidence regarding previous work.

  • 204.
    Ducoing, Cristián
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå Universitet.
    Torregrosa, Sara
    Lunds Universitet.
    Growth, inequality and extraction in Ibero-American democratizations2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Will democracy improve the distribution of economic welfare? Do dictatorships leave long-run legacies behind? In this paper we explore four Ibero-American countries with some common historical traits, but also different contexts: Spain, Portugal, Brazil, and Chile. The two Iberian nations suffered long periods of autocratic regime in the 20th Century, while our south American cases had relatively later and shorter dictatorships. We intend to assess the extent to which democratization brought about improvements in societal welfare, combining indicators of inequality and economic performance. We propose the applicability of the concept of Inequality Extraction Ratio, initially suggested for ancient societies but adapted by Milanovic (2013b) to the analysis of contemporary economies. Our hypothesis is that democratizations, while probably not able to achieve reductions in inequality, could have promoted decreases in relative extraction.

  • 205.
    Ducoing Ruiz, Cristián
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Guajardo Guillermo and Labrador Alejandro , eds. La empresa pública en México y en América Latina: entre el mercado y el estado. México DF, Mexico: UNAM/INAP, 2015. 372 pp. ISBN 978–607–02–5854-1, $16 (Spanish, paper).2017In: Enterprise & society, ISSN 1467-2227, E-ISSN 1467-2235, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 467-469Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Ducoing Ruiz, Cristián
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Un siglo de expansión y divergencia: Inversión en maquinaria en una economía periférica Chile 1830 – 19382016In: Perfiles Económicos, ISSN ISSN 0719-756X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 43-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic development of Chile represents an interesting case of divergence and convergence with developed countries. In the late nineteenth century, its GDP per ca-pita was comparable with some countries of the European periphery and far exceeded the current developed countries of South East Asia. However, after the First World War and particularly in the years following the Great Depression, Chile began to show clear signs of exhaustion of its growth model. This article, using quantitative series of physical capital in machinery of recent works (doctoral theses, articles and book chapters) plus primary sources, the influence of physical capital formation in machi-nery is analyzed and their relationship with the divergence of Chile with the group of advanced countries. Additionally, this article presents a sectoral analysis of investment in machinery for the main productive sectors.

  • 207.
    Dupuis, Johann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. IDHEAP, Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration, Université de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Biesbroek, Robbert
    Comparing apples and oranges: The dependent variable problem in comparing and evaluating climate change adaptation policies2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1476-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of studies have compared climate change adaptation policies within and between different countries. In this paper we show that these comparative studies suffer from what is known as the "dependent variable problem' - the indistinctness of the phenomenon that is being measured, and disagreement on its scope and boundaries. This problem has been signaled in other scientific fields where it proved to hamper meaningful comparisons and policy evaluations, transnational learning, and policy transfer. This paper aims to raise consciousness of the dependent variable problem in comparative studies on climate change adaptation policy by exploring its origins and proposes ways to deal with it. Three main sources of the problem are discussed: (1) conceptual indistinctness of adaptation policy and the heterogeneity and lack of consistency of what is being compared between cases. (2) Inadequate research designs to compare cases. (3) Unclear indicators and explanatory variables to compare across cases. We propose a way to operationalize the concept of adaptation policy, provide a narrower description of the research designs for policy change or outcomes analysis, and finally discuss possible measurements concepts.

  • 208.
    Edelbro, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Teknisk utveckling av sekreteraryrket: En intervjustudie om taligenkänning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 209.
    Edelheim, Johan R.
    et al.
    The Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, Norway; Multidimensional Tourism Institute, University of Lapland, Finland.
    Thomas, Kimberly
    School of Hospitality, Food and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, OT, Canada.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Phi, Giang
    Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    What do conferences do?: What is academics' intangible return of investment (ROI) from attending an academic conference?2018In: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 94-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conferences are funny events. They are self-evident elements of our lives as academics: meetings that occur, often annually; take place in various locations; and involve (hopefully) like-minded people, aiming to share their latest research findings. Conferences are actually so selfevident that very little research exists analysing what takes place at conferences, why people attend them in the first place, and essentially what the conference does to delegates as participants. This article is, on one hand, a reflective report from an academic conference: TEFI 9 —Celebrating the Disruptive Power of Caring in Tourism Education. But it is also simultaneously an analysis of the implicit and explicit rationale and return on investment for attending academic conferences, in the words of three, at that time, PhD candidate rapporteurs and one professor rapporteur, who acts as this article's narrator.

  • 210.
    Edholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Marknadsföring av en destination efter en kris: Tunisien efter terrorattackerna 20152018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to reveal what marketing strategies Tunisia has used to alter their place image for the better after the terror attacks that occurred in the country 2015. These terror attacks had a negative effect on Tunisia’s tourism industry; the annual GDP brought by the tourist industry decreased by 19,73%. By using “the multi-step model for altering place image” developed by Eli Avraham and Eran Ketter, this study contains a thematic analysis on qualitative content such as news reports, advertising campaigns and press interviews to uncover what marketing strategies were used by Tunisian official tourism marketers and officials to restore the destinations positive place image and bring back tourist after the terror attacks. The result shows that Tunisia has used strategies from all three categories of strategies; source, audience and message. Furthermore, this study contributes to a better understanding on what marketing strategies a destination could use to alter their place image after gone through a crisis. 

  • 211.
    Edin, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Kostnad och behov i vårddebatten: En studie av inramningen under två årtionden2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 212.
    Edler, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Cyklisters preferenser för val av cykelväg: En studie om vägval och preferenser vid cykling genom Öst på stan i Umeå2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie berör studenters preferenser när det gäller transporter som görs med cykel. Studien begränsas till området Öst på stan med universitetsområdet och centrum som start och målpunkt inom Umeå kommun. Studien bygger på en fallstudie där ett 70-tal studenters resonemang och åsikter behandlas utifrån vad som är mer och mindre attraktiva inslag rörande cykelvägars utformning. Samt om det finns andra beståndsdelar som är viktiga vid val av cykelväg förutom utformningen. Deras åsikter preciseras både genom en kvantitativ enkätundersökning samt en kvalitativ gruppintervju. Vidare genomfördes en tematisering för att strukturera den data som framkommit från respondenterna.

     

    Respondenterna utrycker att cykelvägarna bör erbjuda god framkomlighet och standard för att dessa ska anses värda att användas. Exempel på positiv utformning är: God sikt, underhåll av vägens hårda ytor samt hantering av snö och vatten. Även vägbredd och separering är attraktiva inslag för god utformning. Utöver utformning är kopplingar mellan målpunkter viktigt för att vägen ska anses användarvänlig. De slutsatser som dras inom studien är att Öst på stans fyra cykelvägar erbjuder olika standard sinsemellan. Kvalitén på vägarna anses ändå så pass bra att detta inte inverkar i valet av färdväg. Vad som spelar in i valet av färdväg för respondenterna är istället den upplevda kopplingen mellan de två målpunkter som behandlas för denna fallstudie. Samt den upplevda tid det tar att nyttja en väg. Den upplevda kopplingen är i sin tur baserad på den lokalkännedom som studenterna har om platsen. Detta innebär således att valet av cykelväg grundas främst på den kännedom studenter har om möjliga vägar och i andra hand vilka punkter dessa vägar kopplar samman för detta studieområde.

  • 213.
    Edlund, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Journaler på internet: en möjlighet eller en risk?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 214.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Do unequal societies cause death among the elderly?: a study of the health effects of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 20062013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 19116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality. However, previous research provides an ambiguous picture, with positive association mainly having been found on higher geographical levels. One explanation for this could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings differs between levels of aggregation. 

    Methods: We examine the association between income inequality (using the Gini coefficient) and all-cause mortality in Swedish municipalities in the age group 65-74. A multi-level analysis is applied and we control for e.g. individual income and average income level in the unicipality. The analyses are based on individual register data on all residents born between 1932 and 1941, and outcomes are measured for the year 2006.

    Results: Lower individual income as well as lower average income level in the municipality of residence increased mortality significantly. We found an association between income inequality and mortality with excessive deaths in unequal municipalities even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. The results from the analysis of individual data differed substantially from analyses using aggregate data.

    Conclusions: Income inequality has a significant association with mortality in the age groups 65 to 75 at municipality level. The association is small compared to many other variables, but it is not negligible. Even in a comparatively equal society like Sweden, we need to consider possible effects of income inequality on mortality at the local level. 

  • 215.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Neighbourhood inequality as a health risk: Empirical evidence from Swedish registers2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the impact on mortality of income inequality in residential neighbourhoods and municipalities among elderly 65-84 years in the year 2004, using Swedish longitudinal micro-data covering the entire Swedish population for the period 1970 – 2006. Preliminary cross-sectional multi-level analyses are now complemented by longitudinal analyses of long-term residential histories with exposure to equal/unequal municipalities and neighbourhoods and the long-term impact on mortality. We investigate the association between mortality and income inequality at place of residence at different time lags and the effect of a summary measure of previous exposures to environments characterised by different inequality levels. We also compare groups that have different experiences of residential characteristics, i.e. those that have resided in unequal or equal places and those that have changed from equal to unequal residences or vice versa. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional analysis on 2006, show that income inequality in the municipality of residence had an independent effect on mortality in the age group 65-74 years

  • 216.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Do unequal societies cause death and disease?: A study of the health effects on elderly of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 20062011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality (Wilkinson and Pickett 2007; 2009). It is argued that inequality may add to increasing health differentials over the life course. However, previous research provides so far an ambiguous picture. One explanation could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings may differ between levels of aggregation. A hypothesis is that homogeneity is positive on the national or regional level, while on a lower level of aggregation living in homogeneous settings could be detrimental for health, at least in poor neighborhoods.

    In this paper we present the preliminary results of our examination on how residence in unequal versus homogeneous areas is associated with health outcome of elderly people in Sweden. These first results are based on municipality level data on individuals born between 1932 and 1941 and the outcome is measured for the year 2006. Furthermore, we analyze the effect on health of income inequality (measured by Gini-coefficient) as compared to the effect of individual income and the average income level in the area. We analysed the associations both with individual-level and multi-level analysis. Our main finding is that inequality has an independent effect on mortality in the way that unequal municipalities have excessive deaths even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. This result was found not only in the individual-level analysis but also in the multilevel analysis.

  • 217.
    Egan Sjölander, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The multiple meanings of water: wastewater treatment and reuse seen from a communication perspective2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Ehrström, Peter
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Eriksson, MadeleineUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Bottniska trästäder2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är mycket mera som förenar än åtskiljer bottniska trästäder från varandra. Denna antologi samlar artiklar från flera städer kring Bottniska viken, från Norrbotten, Västerbotten och Österbotten. Gemensamt är bland annat att det på 1960- och 1970-talen revs värdefulla trähusmiljöer som ersattes med moderna byggnader. De städer och stadsdelar som ingår i Bottniska trästäder delar också likartade erfarenheter av att utgöra geografisk periferi och står på 2010-talet inför likartade utmaningar vad gäller det byggda kulturarvets framtid. Fyra av artiklarna behandlar vad som hänt sedan 1970-talet med den gamla trähusbebyggelsen i Skellefteå, Piteå, Öjebyn och Luleå. Det finländska materialet uppvisar en större tidsmässig, geografisk och tematisk spännvidd. Kaskö exemplifierar en trästad som i praktiken har bevarats intakt medan Neristan i Karleby utgör en bevarad trähusmiljö i staden. Brändö i Vasa uppvisar enbart en delvis bevarad trähusstadsdel, där byggnadsskyddet återigen utmanas. Bottniska trästäder hoppas väcka intresse för, och diskussion om, stadsomvandling och vikten av att värna det byggda kulturarvet.

  • 219.
    Eichholz, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    ’Leisure time of German business travelers in Örnsköldsvik during business trips?’2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 220.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Ambivalent Dutch lifestyle migrants in rural Sweden2014In: AEMI Journal, ISSN 1729-3561, Vol. 12, p. 48-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Dutch families who moved to Hällefors municipality (rural Sweden) in the early 21st century. It discusses ambivalent discourses comparing pre-migration to post-migration life. As studied in this text, the direction of the move (north), the destination (a deprived municipality) and the structure for the decision process (a municipality and an agency deliberately attracting incomers) are novel aspects to existing studies of lifestyle migration. The paper aims to examine the migration process of Dutch lifestyle migrants in Hällefors and their ambivalent attitudes towards returning. The main question addressed enhances our understanding of the motivations for a possible move away from Hällefors. This question is addressed through a qualitative study, conducted in 2011. The findings suggest that spontaneous movers are more ambivalent than long-term planning migrants. This leads to the conclusion that the permanent-temporary binary of movement is less valuable for conceptualising this group of migrants.

  • 221.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Flying dutchmen?: return reasoning among dutch lifestyle migrants in rural Sweden2017In: Mobilities, ISSN 1745-0101, E-ISSN 1745-011X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 116-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine return reasoning among Dutch lifestyle migrant families in Hällefors, rural Sweden. It addresses two questions: after migrating to Hällefors, what influences return reasoning among Dutch families? What does this imply for return migration and transnationalism within lifestyle migration research? The questions are addressed through analysis of Dutch migrant families’ narratives, collected in 2011 and subsequent years. The findings are related to issues of transnationalism and return migration within lifestyle migration research. As many of these intra-EU urban–rural migrants are seriously considering returning, this study draws attention to temporary lifestyle migration over longer periods.

  • 222.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Örebro universitet.
    Holländska livsstilsmigranter i Bergslagen2014In: PLAN - Planering av stad och land, ISSN 0032-0560, no 2, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 223.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lifestyle Migration beyond Consumption – Production Binaries: Dutch Migrants and Multifunctional Rural Land Use in Sweden2015In: Dve Domovini / Two Homelands, ISSN 0353-6777, E-ISSN 1581-1212, no 42, p. 81-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle migration literature often focuses on lifestyle migrants as consumers. However, this paper shows how various modes of production are involved in everyday migrant lives as they seek to pro-duce the lifestyles sought. The paper’s aim is twofold: to explore issues of production in lifestyle mi-grants’ everyday lives, and to examine these migrants’ potential contributions to local rural develop-ment in lagging rural areas such as Swedish Bergslagen. This aim is addressed through two in-depth interview studies. The findings suggest that the respondents combine lifestyle-led motivations with seeking labour opportunities. Hence, studying these migrants is useful for investigating newcomers’ multifunctional rural land use and examining how their engagements with local rural development increases our understanding of their post-migration lives in lagging rural areas.

  • 224.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Centre for Urban and Regional Studies (CUReS), Örebro universitet.
    Two sides of the same coin: Dutch rural tourism entrepreneurs and countryside capital in Sweden2016In: Rural Society, ISSN 1037-1656, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 55-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contrasts Sweden’s tourism policy considering sustainable growth and increased employment with experiences and evaluations of Dutch rural tourism entrepreneurs in Sweden. The study employs notions of countryside capital, investigating the effects on Dutch rural tourism entrepreneurs of experiences with Swedish national tourism policy aims and local populations. A tourism-migration nexus occurs where the entrepreneurs are attracted by countryside capital before migration and use this capital in their firms to attract new tourists after migration. Interviewees tell of experiences which frustrate optimal utilization of countryside capital. In combination with flexible attitudes conceptualized as multi-local living and strategic switching, this results in the risk of losing the entrepreneurs’ socio-economic impetus for lagging rural areas. The article relates this loss to incomers’ rural tourism business transfers after the initial start-up phase and questions the alleged transition from countrysides of production to countrysides of consumption.

  • 225.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Woube, Annie
    Rural place marketing and consumption-driven mobilities in Northern Sweden: challenges and opportunities for community sustainability2017In: Journal of Rural and Community Development, ISSN 1712-8277, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 12, no 2-3, p. 114-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to other northern peripheries, remote, and sparsely populated areas (SPAs) in Sweden’s far north have been confronted with decreasing populations and economic stagnation, forcing local governments to more actively engage in strategies for attracting and retaining populations. This exploratory community case study considers rural place-marketing efforts in the municipalities of Åsele and Storuman, with a particular focus on understanding differing local strategies for attracting consumption-driven movers to "amenity-poor" and "amenity-rich" areas. The case study examines two research questions: what target groups do these municipalities envisage as desired new populations; and to what extent, and how, do they engage in rural place-marketing efforts? Our study reveals that the municipal officials’ views on rural place-marketing strategies differ considerably, as Åsele participates in Europe’s largest emigration expo while Storuman draws on its increasing tourism development to attract seasonal residents and returning young adults in the family-building stage of the life course. The findings further illustrate how production and performance aspects of mobility are essential when studying the socio-economic sustainability of everyday life in sparsely populated northern Swedish municipalities at different geographical places and levels.

  • 226.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    European lifestyle migrant entrepreneurs and their business networks in Swedish sparsely populated areas2018In: Processes of immigration in rural Europe: the status quo, implications and development strategies / [ed] Stefan Kordel, Tobias Weidinger and Igor Jelen, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018, p. 243-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of declining rural areas, active lifestyle migrants are expected to contribute to demographic rejuvenation and new economic development via their networks and access to novel knowledge, markets and capital. [...] this chapter studies local and transnational social networks as critical resources mainly for enabling or constraining migrant entrepreneurs' developing business practices.

  • 227.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Örebro universitet.
    Forsell, Håkan
    Örebro universitet.
    Introduction: themes and trajectories of urban and regional development in Swedish society2015In: Place and Identity: A new landscape of social and political change in Sweden / [ed] Eimermann, Marco & Anders Trumberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2015, p. 7-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Department of Geography, Media and Communication, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Swede.
    Globalising Swedish countrysides?: A relational approach to rural immigrant restaurateurs with refugee backgrounds2018In: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1951, E-ISSN 1502-5292, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 82-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the article is to connect rural immigrants’ business ventures and development in Sweden to relational perspectives on their proximate and distant family and co-ethnic networks at structural and individual levels. Accordingly, the authors employ a relational approach and draw on in-depth interviews. In the context of urban–rural relationships’ meanings for the restaurateurs’ business benefits and constraints, they address two questions: (1) What does embeddedness in proximate and distant family and co-ethnic networks mean for the interviewed restaurateurs and for their businesses? and (2) How do previous and anticipated transitions in the restaurateurs' families influence their business decisions and migration trajectories? The results suggest that the interviewees employed transnational dimensions in their social embeddedness and that they maintained material and emotional relationships with their countries of origin. This relational approach thus contributes to a better understanding of what the studied businesses mean for the entrepreneurs and the selected localities. The restaurateurs contribute to a globalisation of Swedish countrysides, but their socio-economic potential for countering rural depopulation in Sweden is not fully realised. Additionally, the study illuminates how individuals influence, and are influenced by, place-to-place mobilities on a daily basis and during their life course.

  • 229.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Kordel, Stefan
    Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    International lifestyle migrant entrepreneurs in two New Immigration Destinations: Understanding their evolving mix of embeddedness2018In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 64, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on consumption and production in lifestyle migration to New Immigration Destinations (NIDs). The aim is to understand how and why lifestyle migrants' structural and individual peculiarities affect socio-economic changes in NIDs. Data are drawn from biographical interviews with lifestyle migrants in rural Slovenia and Sweden, adding issues of production to the otherwise prevailing focus on consumption in lifestyle migration studies. We ask how the ongoing quest for a better life and the lifestyle migrants' embedding processes in various contexts affect each other. Studying lifestyle migrants’ strives for better lives implies both an implicit and an explicit focus on temporality, which can result in a complex mix of embeddedness. Although our participants desire social relations with local populations, they establish them to only a limited degree, deploying multiple local and social networks in various locations for business purposes. As such, this article contributes to discussions on the incorporation of novel populations in NIDs and how to evaluate their contributions to local rural development.

  • 230.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Tillberg Mattsson, Karin
    Centre for Research and Development,Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle,Sweden.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    International tourism entrepreneurs in Swedish peripheries: compliance and collision with public tourism strategies2019In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 479-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the entrepreneurial strategies and development aspirations of immigrant tourism entrepreneurs in rural Sweden, and how they support or conflict with local and regional public sector tourism strategies. Our conceptual framework contrasts the immigrant entrepreneurs' business and lifestyle priorities with public sector responsibilities and development interests. Findings from three case studies suggest that immigrants both collaborate and compete with public sector stakeholders in different tourism destination systems. We identify mismatches in terms of economic, lifestyle and public interest goals, as well as institutional and cultural differences between immigrant entrepreneurs and public sector stakeholders that hinder effective public‐private collaboration.

  • 231.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    David, Inês
    A critical exploration of an emerging lifestyle mobility industry2014In: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: The Values of Tourism. Proceedings book. / [ed] Adriana Budeanu, Marie Möckel, Szilvia Gyimóthy, Köpenhamn, 2014, p. 107-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobility to second homes, sometimes referred to as residential tourism, can be conceptually framed within the emerging concept of lifestyle mobilities. Although related, it differs from tourism in that it refers to relatively permanent movement which entails the intention and material efforts to create a home and a living in the destination context. Tourism mobility is facilitated by agents offering services and products enabling experiences of novelty, difference, authenticity, quality of life and the like. Lifestyle mobilities in many ways taps into this production system but also include products and services related to housing, furbishing and to making a living in place. On an international level the production system is further complicated. In migration studies, the concept of a migration industry refers to the amalgam of agents making a profit out of catering to the needs of migrants. This study is a joint reflection on the production dimension of lifestyle mobilities in the European context. We explore the agents brokering lifestyle for Swedes in Malta; Swedish rural municipalities' place marketing in the Netherlands; and the role of lifestyle media in the Algarve, Portugal. We aim to answer the question: “how (if at all) could the concept of a migration industry be applied to lifestyle mobilities?”.

  • 232.
    Eitzenberger Boork, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Är dagens journalsystem patientsäkra?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 233.
    Ekelin, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Det kommunala processarbetet: Motivation, effekter och hinder i övergången från funktions- till processorienterad organisation2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 234.
    Eklund, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    En kvantitativ studie om besöksnäringens effekt i de svenska landsbygdskommunerna2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population decline and the rural restructuring of the Swedish countryside has been an issue for the last decades. The restructuring of rural areas had led to the migration of young people that leave the countryside for education and work, and a wider supply of culture and activities in the growing metropolitan regions. Rural areas have difficulty competing with the labour markets in urban areas and larger cities that can offer to a wider range of job opportunities. The rural restructuring has led to that municipalities in these areas face various kinds of challenges, such as an elderly population and big strains on the welfare system.

    The tourism industry has grown into one of the largest businesses of the world, and it continue to expand. The global development of the tourism and recreation brings increased share of employment rate and increased GDP. Likewise, tourism in Sweden has shown a strong growth and many people also argue that the tourism industry can be the future of many rural areas. As employment is one of the main reasons for migration, increased tourism may affect the population growth in these areas. The rural areas in Sweden need to attract young people to move, and stay, to these areas to make the demographic distribution more balanced.

    There are some rural areas in Sweden that are known as tourism-related areas and the purpose with this thesis is to examine whether this tourism areas have a more positive population development than other rural municipalities. This thesis is based on a quantitative method and includes information about the Swedish municipalities in aim to examine the differences and development since the year 2000. 

  • 235.
    Eklund, Rosanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Att sälja platser genom visuell marknadsföring.: En bildanalys av Öland och Gotlands destinationshemsidor.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 236.
    Ekström, Ella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Sjuksköterskors löneutveckling 1977-2017: Lönebildning och institutionella förändringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1940-talet påbörjades en omfattande utbyggnad av en offentlig tjänstesektor som ett led i att

    göra Sverige till en universell välfärdsstat. I samband med den offentliga tjänstesektorns utbyggnad

    ökade andelen kvinnor på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. En omfattande utbyggnad av sjukvården

    gjordes vilket resulterade i en kraftigt ökad efterfrågan på vårdpersonal, och då inte minst

    sjuksköterskor.

    Sjuksköterskors löner har varit omdiskuterade ända sedan 1900-talets början. Yrket har historiskt

    varit lågavlönat, vilket kan förklaras på en mängd olika sätt. I uppsatsen studeras om och hur

    institutionella förändringar på området har påverkat sjuksköterskeyrkets löneutveckling under

    perioden 1977 till 2017. De institutionella förändringar som har undersökts är främst politiska

    reformer och lagstiftning på hälso- och sjukvårdens område. Även reformer av

    sjuksköterskeutbildningen har undersökts, eftersom att professionalisera sjuksköterskeyrket sågs

    vara ett steg mot en förbättrad löneutveckling. Trots att sjukvården har genomgått stora reformer

    under perioden 1977 till 2017 har det haft en till synes liten påverkan på löneutvecklingen. Inte

    heller professionaliseringen tycks ha påverkat utvecklingen.

    Sjuksköterskeyrket var under 1900-talets början ett renodlat kvinnoyrke. Än idag består yrket till

    90 procent kvinnor. Att sjuksköterskors löner är låga, liksom många andra kvinnodominerade

    yrkens löner, kan förklaras genom att det föreligger en värdediskriminering av vad som betraktas

    som kvinnligt arbete. Vid undersökning av sjuksköterskeyrket är det därmed viktigt att beakta

    yrkets genusarbetsdelning, vilket har påverkat, och än idag påverkar, yrket och dess löneutveckling.

    Yrkets genusarbetsdelning kan förklaras som ett informellt spårberoende. Ju närmare vår tid vi

    kommer ju mer har genusarbetsdelningen uppmärksammats både politiskt och inom forskningen.

    En följd av det är jämställdhetslagen som infördes 1979. Trots att värdediskrimineringen av det

    kvinnodominerade sjuksköterskeyrket uppmärksammats har det inte haft en synbar påverkan på

    lönerna.

  • 237.
    Elestedt, Lukas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Flygskolan & Arvidsjaur- En utbildningsverksamhets ekonomiska betydelse för en norrbottnisk inlandskommun.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 238.
    Elf, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Arbete för kömiljarden: Påverkar den äldre befolkningen resultaten?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 239. Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Geographical labour mobility: Migration or commuting1999Report (Other academic)
  • 240.
    Ellison, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Bishop, Kevin
    On the forest cover-water yield debate: from demand- to supply-side thinking2012In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 806-820Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several major articles from the past decade and beyond conclude the impact of reforestation or afforestation on water yield is negative: additional forest cover will reduce and removing forests will raise downstream water availability. A second group of authors argue the opposite: planting additional forests should raise downstream water availability and intensify the hydrologic cycle. Obtaining supporting evidence for this second group of authors has been more difficult due to the larger scales at which the positive effects of forests on the water cycle may be seen. We argue that forest cover is inextricably linked to precipitation. Forest-driven evapotranspiration removed from a particular catchment contributes to the availability of atmospheric moisture vapor and its cross-continental transport, raising the likelihood of precipitation events and increasing water yield, in particular in continental interiors more distant from oceans. Seasonal relationships heighten the importance of this phenomenon. We review the arguments from different scales and perspectives. This clarifies the generally beneficial relationship between forest cover and the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. While evidence supports both sides of the argument trees can reduce runoff at the small catchment scale at larger scales, trees are more clearly linked to increased precipitation and water availability. Progressive deforestation, land conversion from forest to agriculture and urbanization have potentially negative consequences for global precipitation, prompting us to think of forest ecosystems as global public goods. Policy-making attempts to measure product water footprints, estimate the value of ecosystem services, promote afforestation, develop drought mitigation strategies and otherwise manage land use must consider the linkage of forests to the supply of precipitation.

  • 241.
    Elmlund, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Kulturhuvudstaden en del av Umeås tillväxtmål: En studie om evenemang kan hjälpa till ökad tillväxt i Umeå2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 242.
    Emilsson, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Kommunsammanslagning i Västerbotten -En fråga för framtiden?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 243.
    Emma, Nyman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Trafikverket.
    Turismens samhällsekonomiska effekter: förstudie om utvecklingsbehovet av bättre metoder och modeller i den nationella transportinfrastrukturplaneringen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Enlund, Desirée
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Fighting for public health: How a Swedish rural community confronted neoliberal cutbacks2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The rural communities in the Västernorrland county of Northern Sweden are not used to being in the national spotlight, but in 2017 their struggle to stop cutbacks in maternity and emergency care made national news. What are the lessons for all those involved in building counter-power in rural areas of the Global North?

  • 245.
    Enlund, Desirée
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Kvinnor leder kampen för välfärd i glesbygden2018In: Jordemodern, ISSN 0021-7468, Vol. 130, no 3, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 246.
    Enlund, Desirée
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Luchando por la sanidad pública: La batalla de una comunidad rural en Suecia contra los recortes neoliberales en el servicio de salud2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [es]

    Las comunidades rurales de la provincia de Västernorrland, en el norte de Suecia, no están acostumbradas a ser protagonistas de la actualidad mediática, pero, en 2017, su lucha por acabar con los recortes en la atención de la maternidad y las urgencias médicas ocupó muchos titulares de la prensa nacional. ¿Qué lecciones pueden extraer de esta experiencia quienes luchan por construir contrapoderes en las áreas rurales del Norte Global?

  • 247.
    Enlund, Desirée
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Shanghai – A Geographer’s Reflections on a First Academic Visit2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 248.
    Enquist, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hemavan och säsongsanställda: Ökar behovet av säsongsanställda risken för inlåsning?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a need for seasonal workers in the tourism industry in Hemavan risk creating a lock-in effect for the resort. As seasonal workers do not reside permanently in the locality they are not in the local database and it is difficult to find complete statistics on them. Therefore tourism companies in Hemavan have been contacted and asked to share information regarding their use of seasonal employees and what their remaining workforce look like. The study is written from a business perspective, focussing on Hemavans needs of seasonally workers. However, there are some companies that are more dependent on seasonal labour than others. Therefore, some companies perform better without seasonal workers than other companies. All businesses in the tourism industry in Hemavan are interdependent. If a company is having problems with, for example getting enough seasonal workers during the high season, it will affect all companies within the industry in one way or another. Therefore, it is important to have cooperation between the companies to create a sustainable experience as possible for the tourists. Unemployment affects firms’ labour supply by less locals to hire as permanent employees. The average age of the resort also provides restrictions on labour. With an aging population, the shortage of workers take place at an early stage due to retirement. Hence there is a need for development.  Will Hemavan succeed in managing local development or are they "forced" to use seasonal workers because the low population density and an aging population?

  • 249.
    Ericson, Maud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Planera för havet - Friluftsliv i planeringsprocessen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was that, in view of the upcoming marine spatial planning, examine in what way active outdoor recreation interests has been meet in Umea municipalities current planning. In addition, outdoor recreation geographic patterns and social values has been examined, and how a dialogue could be created with those involved in outdoor activities and come the marine spatial planning to gain. This work was conducted with a qualitative statement.

    The result of the study has shown that the active outdoor life at sea has a vast geographical spread. Outdoor recreation generates a great social value and wellbeing of the practitioners. Among those actively engaged in outdoor activities there is a strong drive and wish to engage in, and being able to influence the related planning of the sea. Where and how consultations and dialogues are held is very important for the commitment to become. The study has also shows the importance of establishing a dialogue with the relevant associations involved on early stages of the planning process and let the material be included as decision support in the ongoing process. By personal invitations to unions and placing consultation in connection to their activities will increase the incentive to get involved. It is also important that the municipality reconnects to the information regularly to those who chose to get involved. By creating a strong commitment from the grassroots level increases the chances that planning should be accepted and dissatisfaction can be avoided.

  • 250.
    Ericson, Maud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Planera för havet: friluftsliv i planeringsprocessen2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purposeof this study wasthat, in view of the upcomingmaritime spatial planning (MSP), examinein what wayactive outdoorrecreationinterestshas been met in Umeå municipality’s current planning. In addition,outdoor recreationgeographic patternsand social valueshas been examined,and howa dialogue could be createdwiththose involved inoutdoor activitiesandcomethe marine spatial planningto gain. This work was conductedwithaqualitative approach.The result of the study has shown that theactive outdoorlifeat seahasavast geographical spread.Outdoor recreationgeneratessubstantialsocialvaluesand well-being ofthe practitioners.Among thoseactivelyengaged inoutdoor activitiesthere is a strong driveand wish toengage in,andbeing able to influencetherelatedplanning ofthe sea.Where and howconsultations anddialoguesare heldis very important forthe commitment tobecome. The study also showsthe importance of establishinga dialogue withthe relevant NGOs on an early stageofthe planning processandletthematerialbe included asdecision supportinthe ongoing process.By personal invita-tionstoNGOs andplacingconsultationin connection totheir activitieswill increase the incentive toget involved.It is also importantthat the municipalityreconnectswith the NGOs and provide feed-back.By creatinga strong commitmentfrom the grassroots level, thisincreases the chancesthat maritime spatial planningis accepted anddis-satisfactioncan be avoided.

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