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  • 201.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Longitudinal Changes in Component Processes of Working Memory2017In: eNeuro, E-ISSN 2373-2822, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) entails maintenance and manipulation of information in the absence of sensory input. This study investigated the trajectories and neural basis of these component processes of WM functions in aging. Longitudinal human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are presented from 136 older individuals (55–80 years) who were scanned at baseline and again 4 years later. We obtained evidence that age-related changes in parietal and frontal components of the WM core network are dissociable in terms of their role in maintenance of perceptual representations and further manipulation of this information, respectively. Individual difference analyses in performance subgroups showed that only prefrontal changes in fMRI activation were accompanied by changes in performance, but parietal brain activity was related to study dropout. We discuss the results in terms of possible neurobiological causes underlying separable aging-related declines in inferior parietal cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex that differentially affect WM functions.

  • 202.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fransson, Peter
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, MR Research Centre, N8, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, MR Research Centre, N8, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Neural representation of binding lexical signs and words in the episodic buffer of working memory2007In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 2258-2276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The episodic buffer accommodates formation and maintenance of unitary multidimensional representations based on information in different codes from different sources. Formation, based on submorphemic units, engages posterior brain regions, while maintenance engages frontal regions. Using a hybrid fMRI design, that allows separate analysis of transient and sustained components, an n-back task and an experimental group of 13 hearing native signers, with experience of Swedish Sign Language and Swedish since birth, we investigated binding of lexical signs and words in working memory. Results show that the transient component of these functions is supported by a buffer-specific network of posterior regions including the right middle temporal lobe, possibly relating to binding of phonological loop representations with semantic representations in long-term memory, as well as a loop-specific network, in line with predictions of a functional relationship between loop and buffer. The left hippocampus was engaged in transient and sustained components of buffer processing, possibly reflecting the meaningful nature of the stimuli. Only a minor role was found for executive functions in line with other recent work. A novel representation of the sustained component of working memory for audiovisual language in the right inferior temporal lobe may be related to perception of speech-related facial gestures. Previous findings of sign and speech loop representation in working memory were replicated and extended. Together, these findings support the notion of a module that mediates between codes and sources, such as the episodic buffer, and further our understanding of its nature.

  • 203. Rypma, Bart
    et al.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Hubbard, Nicholas A
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Dopamine D1 Binding Potential Predicts Fusiform BOLD Activity during Face-Recognition Performance2015In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, no 44, p. 14702-14707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of face memory in humans and primates is well established, but little is known about the neurotransmitter systems involved in face recognition. We tested the hypothesis that face recognition is linked to dopamine (DA) activity in fusiform gyrus (FFG). DA availability was assessed by measuring D1 binding potential (BP) during rest using PET. We further assessed blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal change while subjects performed a face-recognition task during fMRI scanning. There was a strong association between D1 BP and BOLD activity in FFG, whereas D1 BP in striatal and other extrastriatal regions were unrelated to neural activity in FFG. These results suggest that D1 BP locally modulates FFG function during face recognition. Observed relationships among D1 BP, BOLD activity, and face-recognition performance further suggest that D1 receptors place constraints on the responsiveness of FFG neurons.

    SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The importance of face memory in humans and primates is well established, but little is known about the neurotransmitter systems involved in face recognition. Our work shows a role for a specific neurotransmitter system in face memory.

  • 204.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Backman, L
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stability, growth, and decline in adult life span development of declarative memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a population-based study2005In: PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING, ISSN 0882-7974, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 3-18Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 205.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Kompus, Kristiina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Habib, Reza
    Southern Illinois University , Carbondale.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Characterizing the neural correlates of modality-specific and modality-independent accessibility and availability signals in memory using partial-least squares2010In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 686-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that information that currently cannot be retrieved but will be retrieved on a subsequent, more supported task (i.e. is available but not accessible) has a distinct neural signature compared with non-available information. For verbal paired-associates, an availability signal has been revealed in left middle temporal cortex, an area potentially involved in the storage of such information, raising the possibility that availability signals are expressed in modality-specific storage sites. In the present study subjects encoded pictures and sounds representing concrete objects. One day later, during fMRI scanning, a verbal cued-recall task was administrated followed by a post-scan recognition task. Items remembered on both tasks were classified as accessible; items not remembered on the first but on the second task were classified as available; and items not remembered on any of the tasks were classified as not available. Multivariate partial-least-squares analyses revealed a modality-independent accessibility network with dominant contributions of left inferior parietal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, and left hippocampus. Additionally, a modality-specific availability network was identified which included increased activity in visual regions for available pictorial information and in auditory regions for available sound information. These findings show that availability in memory, at least in part, is characterized by systematic changes in brain activity in sensory regions whereas memory access reflects differential activity in a modality-independent, conceptual network, thus indicating qualitative differences between availability and accessibility in memory.

  • 206.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Age-related white matter microstructural differences partly mediate age-related decline in processing speed but not cognition2012In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, ISSN 0006-3002, E-ISSN 1878-2434, Vol. 1822, no 3, p. 408-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging is associated with declining cognitive performance as well as structural changes in brain gray and white matter (WM). The WM deterioration contributes to a disconnection among distributed brain networks and may thus mediate age-related cognitive decline. The present diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study investigated age-related differences in WM microstructure and their relation to cognition (episodic memory, visuospatial processing, fluency, and speed) in a large group of healthy subjects (n=287) covering 6 decades of the human life span. Age related decreases in fractional anisotropy (FA) and increases in mean diffusivity (MD) were observed across the entire WM skeleton as well as in specific WM tracts, supporting the WM degeneration hypothesis. The anterior section of the corpus callosum was more susceptible to aging compared to the posterior section, lending support to the anterior-posterior gradient of WM integrity in the corpus callosum. Finally, and of critical interest, WM integrity differences were found to mediate age-related reductions in processing speed but no significant mediation was found for episodic memory, visuospatial ability, or fluency. These findings suggest that compromised WM integrity is not a major contributing factor to declining cognitive performance in normal aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease.

  • 207.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Opposing effects of aging on large-scale brain systems for memory encoding and cognitive control2012In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 32, no 31, p. 10749-10757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Episodic memory declines with advancing age. Neuroimaging studies have associated such decline to age-related changes in general cognitive-control networks as well as to changes in process-specific encoding or retrieval networks. To assess the specific influence of aging on encoding and retrieval processes and associated brain systems, it is vital to dissociate encoding and retrieval from each other and from shared cognitive-control processes. We used multivariate partial-least-squares to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a large population-based sample (n = 292, 25-80 years). The participants performed a face-name paired-associates task and an active baseline task. The analysis revealed two significant network patterns. The first reflected a process-general encoding-retrieval network that included frontoparietal cortices and posterior hippocampus. The second pattern dissociated encoding and retrieval networks. The anterior hippocampus was differentially engaged during encoding. Brain scores, representing whole-brain integrated measures of how strongly an individual recruited a brain network, were correlated with cognitive performance and chronological age. The scores from the general cognitive-control network correlated negatively with episodic memory performance and positively with age. The encoding brain scores, which strongly reflected hippocampal functioning, correlated positively with episodic memory performance and negatively with age. Univariate analyses confirmed that bilateral hippocampus showed the most pronounced activity reduction in older age, and brain structure analyses found that the activity reduction partly related to hippocampus atrophy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related structural brain changes underlie age-related reductions in the efficient recruitment of a process-specific encoding network, which cascades into upregulated recruitment of a general cognitive-control network.

  • 208.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Dopamine D2/3 Binding Potential Modulates Neural Signatures of Working Memory in a Load-Dependent Fashion.2019In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 537-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dopamine (DA) modulates corticostriatal connections. Studies in which imaging of the DA system is integrated with functional imaging during cognitive performance have yielded mixed findings. Some work has shown a link between striatal DA (measured by PET) and fMRI activations, whereas others have failed to observe such a relationship. One possible reason for these discrepant findings is differences in task demands, such that a more demanding task with greater prefrontal activations may yield a stronger association with DA. Moreover, a potential DA–BOLD association may be modulated by task performance. We studied 155 (104 normal-performing and 51 low-performing) healthy older adults (43% females) who underwent fMRI scanning while performing a working memory (WM) n-back task along with DA D2/3 PET assessment using [11C]raclopride. Using multivariate partial-least-squares analysis, we observed a significant pattern revealing positive associations of striatal as well as extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors to BOLD response in the thalamo–striatal–cortical circuit, which supports WM functioning. Critically, the DA–BOLD association in normal-performing, but not low-performing, individuals was expressed in a load-dependent fashion, with stronger associations during 3-back than 1-/2-back conditions. Moreover, normal-performing adults expressing upregulated BOLD in response to increasing task demands showed a stronger DA–BOLD association during 3-back, whereas low-performing individuals expressed a stronger association during 2-back conditions. This pattern suggests a nonlinear DA–BOLD performance association, with the strongest link at the maximum capacity level. Together, our results suggest that DA may have a stronger impact on functional brain responses during more demanding cognitive tasks.

  • 209.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Elevated hippocampal resting-state connectivity underlies deficient neurocognitive function in aging2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 49, p. 17654-17659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain is not idle during rest. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have identified several resting-state networks, including the default mode network (DMN), which contains a set of cortical regions that interact with a hippocampus (HC) subsystem. Age-related alterations in the functional architecture of the DMN and HC may influence memory functions and possibly constitute a sensitive biomarker of forthcoming memory deficits. However, the exact form of DMN-HC alterations in aging and concomitant memory deficits is largely unknown. Here, using both task and resting data from 339 participants (25-80 y old), we have demonstrated age-related decrements in resting-state functional connectivity across most parts of the DMN, except for the HC network for which age-related elevation of connectivity between left and right HC was found along with attenuated HC-cortical connectivity. Elevated HC connectivity at rest, which was partly accounted for by age-related decline in white matter integrity of the fornix, was associated with lower cross-sectional episodic memory performance and declining longitudinal memory performance over 20 y. Additionally, elevated HC connectivity at rest was associated with reduced HC neural recruitment and HC-cortical connectivity during active memory encoding, which suggests that strong HC connectivity restricts the degree to which the HC interacts with other brain regions during active memory processing revealed by task fMRI. Collectively, our findings suggest a model in which age-related disruption in cortico-hippocampal functional connectivity leads to a more functionally isolated HC at rest, which translates into aberrant hippocampal decoupling and deficits during mnemonic processing.

  • 210.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Avelar-Pereira, Bárbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction2018In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 2525-2539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance. The low-performing subgroup showed weaker load-dependent BOLD modulation and lower connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (FPN) as well as between FPN and striatum during n-back, along with lower FPN connectivity at rest. This group also exhibited lower FPN structural integrity, lower frontal dopamine D2 binding potential, inferior performance on offline WM tests, and a trend-level genetic predisposition for lower dopamine-system efficiency. By contrast, this group exhibited relatively intact episodic memory and associated brain measures (i.e., hippocampal volume, structural, and functional connectivity within the default-mode network). Collectively, these data provide converging evidence for the existence of a group of older adults with impaired WM functioning characterized by reduced cortico-striatal coupling and aberrant cortico-cortical integrity within FPN.

  • 211.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, SE-113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Kaboodvand, Neda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, SE-113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Longitudinal Evidence for Dissociation of Anterior and Posterior MTL Resting-State Connectivity in Aging: Links to Perfusion and Memory2016In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 3953-3963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroimaging studies of spontaneous signal fluctuations as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed age-related alterations in the functional architecture of brain networks. One such network is located in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), showing structural and functional variations along the anterior-posterior axis. Past cross-sectional studies of MTL functional connectivity (FC) have yielded discrepant findings, likely reflecting the fact that specific MTL subregions are differentially affected in aging. Here, using longitudinal resting-state data from 198 participants, we investigated 5-year changes in FC of the anterior and posterior MTL. We found an opposite pattern, such that the degree of FC within the anterior MTL declined after age 60, whereas elevated FC within the posterior MTL was observed along with attenuated posterior MTL-cortical connectivity. A significant negative change-change relation was observed between episodic-memory decline and elevated FC in the posterior MTL. Additional analyses revealed age-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases in posterior MTL at the follow-up session, along with a positive relation of elevated FC and CBF, suggesting that elevated FC is a metabolically demanding alteration. Collectively, our findings indicate that elevated FC in posterior MTL along with increased local perfusion is a sign of brain aging that underlie episodic-memory decline.

  • 212. Salmi, Juha
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Laine, Matti
    Working memory training mostly engages general-purpose large-scale networks for learning2018In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 93, p. 108-122Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present meta-analytic study examined brain activation changes following working memory (WM) training, a form of cognitive training that has attracted considerable interest. Comparisons with perceptual-motor (PM) learning revealed that WM training engages domain-general large-scale networks for learning encompassing the dorsal attention and salience networks, sensory areas, and striatum. Also the dynamics of the training-induced brain activation changes within these networks showed a high overlap between WM and PM training. The distinguishing feature for WM training was the consistent modulation of the dorso- and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) activity. The strongest candidate for mediating transfer to similar untrained WM tasks was the frontostriatal system, showing higher striatal and VLPFC activations, and lower DLPFC activations after training. Modulation of transfer-related areas occurred mostly with longer training periods. Overall, our findings place WM training effects into a general perception-action cycle, where some modulations may depend on the specific cognitive demands of a training task.

  • 213.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Executive process training in young and old adults2014In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 577-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research on the modifiability of executive functions in different stages of life. Previous studies demonstrate robust training effects but limited transfer in younger and particularly in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a theoretically derived intervention for executive functioning, addressing several basic processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition), can induce transfer effects in early and late adulthood. Fifty-nine healthy adults, 29 young and 30 older adults, were randomly assigned to either training or no-contact control groups. The training groups received 15 sessions of executive process training for about 45 min/session during 5 weeks. A test battery including a criterion task and near, intermediate, and far transfer tasks was administered before and after training. Results showed pronounced age-equivalent gains on the criterion task. Near transfer was seen to non-trained updating and inhibition tasks for the young and older trained participants. However, only the young adults showed intermediate transfer to two complex working memory tasks. No far transfer effects were seen for either age group. These findings provide additional evidence for age-related constraints in the ability to generalize acquired executive skills, and specifically show that training of multiple executive processes is not sufficient to foster transfer beyond the very near in older adults.

  • 214.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nyström Rhodin, Ingalill
    Quranten Stress and Trauma Institute, Umea, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impaired cognitive performance in patients with chronic burnout syndrome2005In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 271-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic burnout refers to a syndrome caused by chronic stress. Clinical observations indicate that chronic burnout is associated with impaired cognitive functioning. However, there have been no systematic studies of the cognitive performance in chronic burnout patients. We have evaluated general cognitive ability, memory, and attention in 67 female patients treated for chronic burnout. The patients and 15 healthy control subjects were tested with standardized tests of verbal and nonverbal cognitive ability (WAIS), verbal (Claeson–Dahl) and nonverbal (Rey complex figures) memory, and visual and auditory attention (IVA). Significant reductions in nonverbal memory and auditory and visual attention were found for the patient group. These results indicate that patients with chronic burnout have specific cognitive impairments, which should be emphasized in the evaluation of symptoms and treatment regimes in this disorder.

  • 215.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Peterson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sandström, Erik
    Anesthesia and Intensive care, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rhodin Nyström, Ingalill
    Quranten Stress and Trauma Institute, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Cognitive deficits in relation to personality type and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction in women with stress-related exhaustion2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exhaustion caused by long-term work-related stress may cause cognitive dysfunction. We explored factors that may link chronic stress and cognitive impairment. Personality, psychiatric screening, and behavior were assessed by self-reporting measures in 20 female patients (mean age 39.3 years; range 26–53) with a preliminary diagnosis of stress-related exhaustion and in 16 healthy matched controls. Cognitive performance was investigated with a detailed neuropsychological test battery. Cortisol axis function was assessed by urinary and saliva collections of cortisol, dexamethasone suppression, Synacthen response, and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) tests. Proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate and univariate statistical methods were used to explore putative differences between groups and factors linked to cognitive impairment. Cognitive function clearly differed between groups, with decreased attention and visuospatial memory in the patient group, suggesting frontal cortex/medial temporal cortex-network dysfunction. Increased harm avoidance and persistence was present among patients, with lowered self-directedness linked to lower quality of life, increased anxious and depressive tendencies, and experiences of psychosocial stress. Attention was decreased with concomitantly impaired visuospatial memory. The pituitary (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH) response to CRH was decreased in patients, with an increased cortisol/ACTH response to CRH. However, cortisol production rates, diurnal or dexamethasone-suppressed saliva cortisol levels, and the cortisol response to Synacthen were unaltered. Hippocampal volumes did not differ between groups. These findings suggest that cognitive dysfunction in stress-related exhaustion is linked to distinct personality traits, low quality of life, and a decreased ACTH response to CRH.

  • 216.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Säll, R
    Peterson, Jonas
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Larsson, A
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Brain activation patterns in major depressive disorder and job stress-related long-term sick leaveArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Remonthagen Stroke och hjärnskadecenter, Östersund.
    Säll, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Peterson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Brain activation patterns in major depressive disorder and work stress-related long-term sick leave among swedish females2012In: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 503-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deficits in executive and working-memory functioning associated with frontal lobe dysfunction are prominent in depression and work-related long-term sick leave (LTSL). This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate potential differences in brain activation patterns in these conditions. In addition, the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis was examined and compared between groups. Since there is a clear overrepresentation of women in these diagnostic groups, and to ensure a more homogenous sample population, only women were included. To examine the neural correlates of relevant cognitive processes in patients on sick-leave > 90 days due to work-related LTSL, recently diagnosed patients with major depression (DSM-IV criteria, untreated), and healthy controls (n=10 each group), a 2-back working memory task and a visual long-term memory task were administered during fMRI scanning. HPA-axis functioning was investigated using a diurnal curve of saliva cortisol and a dexamethasone suppression test. Task performance was comparable among the three groups. Multivariate image analysis revealed that both memory tasks engaged a similar brain network in all three groups, including the prefrontal and parietal cortex. During the 2-back task, LTSL patients had significant frontal hypoactivation compared to controls and patients with depression. Saliva cortisol measurements showed a flattening of the diurnal rythmicity in LTSL patients compared to patients with depression and healthy contols. Taken together, these findings indicate that work stress-related LTSL and major depression are dissociable in terms of frontal activation and diurnal cortisol rhythmicity.

  • 218.
    Sigray, Pontus Plavén
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Farde, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borg, Jacqueline
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenkrona, Per
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dopamine D1 receptor availability is related to social behavior: a positron emission tomography study2014In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 590-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysfunctional interpersonal behavior is thought to underlie a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders; however, the neurobiological underpinnings of these behavioral disturbances are poorly understood. Previous molecular imaging studies have shown associations between striatal dopamine (DA) D2-receptor binding and interpersonal traits, such as social conformity. The objective of this study was to explore, for the first time, the role of DA D1-receptors (D1-R) in human interpersonal behavior. Twenty-three healthy subjects were examined using Positron Emission Tomography and the radioligand [11C]SCH23390, yielding D1-R binding potential values. Striatal D1-R binding was related to personality scales selected to specifically assess one dimension of interpersonal behavior, namely a combination of affiliation and dominance (i.e., the Social Desirability, Verbal Trait Aggression and Physical Trait Aggression scales from Swedish Universities Scales of Personality). An exploratory analysis was also performed for extrastriatal brain regions. D1-R binding potential values in limbic striatum (r=.52; p=.015), associative striatum (r=.55; p=.009), and sensorimotor striatum (r=.67; p=.001) were positively related to Social Desirability scores. D1-R binding potential in limbic striatum (r=-.51; p=.019) was negatively associated with Physical Trait Aggression scores. For extrastriatal regions, Social Desirability scores showed positive correlations in amygdala (r=.60; p=.006) and medial frontal cortex (r=.60; p=.004). This study provides further support for the role of DA function in the expression of disaffiliative and dominant traits. Specifically, D1-R availability may serve as a marker for interpersonal behavior in humans. Associations were demonstrated for the same dimension of interpersonal behavior as for D2-R, but in the opposite direction, suggesting that the two receptor subtypes are involved in the same behavioral processes, but with different functional roles.

  • 219.
    Sjölie, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Bodin, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Janlert, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Effects of interactivity and 3D-motion on mental rotation brain activity in an immersive virtual environment2010In: Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2010, p. 869-878Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of virtual reality (VR) and brain measurements is a promising development of HCI, but the maturation of this paradigm requires more knowledge about how brain activity is influenced by parameters of VR applications. To this end we investigate the influence of two prominent VR parameters, 3d-motion and interactivity, while brain activity is measured for a mental rotation task, using functional MRI (fMRI). A mental rotation network of brain areas is identified, matching previous results. The addition of interactivity increases the activation in core areas of this network, with more profound effects in frontal and preparatory motor areas. The increases from 3d-motion are restricted to primarily visual areas. We relate these effects to emerging theories of cognition and potential applications for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Our results demonstrate one way to provoke increased activity in task-relevant areas, making it easier to detect and use for adaptation and development of HCI.

  • 220. Sneve, Markus H.
    et al.
    Grydeland, Hakon
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Bowles, Ben
    Amlien, Inge K.
    Langnes, Espen
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Mechanisms Underlying Encoding of Short-Lived Versus Durable Episodic Memories2015In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, no 13, p. 5202-5212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We continuously encounter and process novel events in the surrounding world, but only some episodes will leave detailed memory traces that can be recollected after weeks and months. Here, our aim was to monitor brain activity during encoding of events that eventually transforms into long-term stable memories. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that the degree of activation of different brain regions during encoding is predictive of later recollection success. However, most of these studies tested participants' memories the same day as encoding occurred, whereas several lines of research suggest that extended post-encoding processing is of crucial importance for long-term consolidation. Using fMRI, we tested whether the same encoding mechanisms are predictive of recollection success after hours as after a retention interval of several weeks. Seventy-eight participants were scanned during an associative encoding task and given a source memory test the same day or after similar to 6 weeks. We found a strong link between regional activity levels during encoding and recollection success over short time intervals. However, results further showed that durable source memories, i.e., events recollected after several weeks, were not simply the events associated with the highest activity levels at encoding. Rather, strong levels of connectivity between the right hippocampus and perceptual areas, as well as with parts of the self-referential default-mode network, seemed instrumental in establishing durable source memories. Thus, we argue that an initial intensity-based encoding is necessary for short-term encoding of events, whereas additional processes involving hippocampal-cortical communication aid transformation into stable long-term memories.

  • 221.
    Sondell, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Engström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Backman, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Holmlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Bucht, Gösta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Altered walking pattern in a virtual environment2005In: Presence - Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, ISSN 1054-7460, E-ISSN 1531-3263, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 191-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Falls and fractures among elderly persons constitute a major health problem. Many falls occur while walking and falls that occur during turning often result in a fracture. Methods aimed at understanding the complex mechanisms involved in walking should therefore assess tested individuals during walks and turns. In order to identify persons at risk and take the correct preventive measures, it is important to find methods that quantify movements as the tested persons are processing multisensory input. In a clinical setting this is sometimes difficult to achieve in a controlled manner, since tests are difficult to set exactly the same from one time to another. Using a virtual environment (VE) and a tracker system, conditions such as light, sound, events, body movements, and room size can be controlled and measured. Tests in VE can therefore be identically reproduced over and over again to evaluate if a person can withstand changing outer demands at any given moment. In order to perform quantitative measures 8 persons (21-74 years) were tested in immersive virtual reality. The VE was a corridor in which expected and unexpected events could be produced. Events studied were doors swinging open in front of the subjects during a walk and a virtual tilting of the environment. Trackers were used for collecting and analyzing the movement data. Our results show that the system was well tolerated among the subjects and that there was a clear tendency that the system could generate fall tendency among the subjects. There was also a difference among the subjects regarding walking strategies when subjected to the various events.

  • 222. Soveri, Anna
    et al.
    Tallus, Jussi
    Laine, Matti
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Backman, Lars
    Hugdahl, Kenneth
    Tuomainen, Jyrki
    Westerhausen, Rene
    Hamalainen, Heikki
    Modulation of Auditory Attention by Training Evidence From Dichotic Listening2013In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effects of training on auditory attention in healthy adults with a speech perception task involving dichotically presented syllables. Training involved bottom-up manipulation (facilitating responses from the harder-to-report left ear through a decrease of right-ear stimulus intensity), top-down manipulation (focusing attention on the left-ear stimuli through instruction), or their combination. The results showed significant training-related effects for top-down training. These effects were evident as higher overall accuracy rates in the forced-left dichotic listening (DL) condition that sets demands on attentional control, as well as a response shift toward left-sided reports in the standard DL task. Moreover, a transfer effect was observed in an untrained auditory-spatial attention task involving bilateral stimulation where top-down training led to a relatively stronger focus on left-sided stimuli. Our results indicate that training of attentional control can modulate the allocation of attention in the auditory space in adults. Malleability of auditory attention in healthy adults raises the issue of potential training gains in individuals with attentional deficits.

  • 223.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Elinge, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Having had a hip fracture: association with dependency among the oldest old2005In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 294-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Englund, Undis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Borssén, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    A multidisciplinary, multifactorial intervention program reduces postoperative falls and injuries after femoral neck fracture.2007In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates whether a postoperative multidisciplinary, intervention program, including systematic assessment and treatment of fall risk factors, active prevention, detection, and treatment of postoperative complications, could reduce inpatient falls and fall-related injuries after a femoral neck fracture.

    METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial at the orthopedic and geriatric departments at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, included 199 patients with femoral neck fracture, aged >or=70 years.

    RESULTS: Twelve patients fell 18 times in the intervention group compared with 26 patients suffering 60 falls in the control group. Only one patient with dementia fell in the intervention group compared with 11 in the control group. The crude postoperative fall incidence rate was 6.29/1,000 days in the intervention group vs 16.28/1,000 days in the control group. The incidence rate ratio was 0.38 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20 - 0.76, p=0.006] for the total sample and 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01-0.57, p=0.013) among patients with dementia. There were no new fractures in the intervention group but four in the control group.

    CONCLUSION: A team applying comprehensive geriatric assessment and rehabilitation, including prevention, detection, and treatment of fall risk factors, can successfully prevent inpatient falls and injuries, even in patients with dementia.

  • 225.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Inpatient falls and injuries in older patients treated for femoral neck fracture.2006In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 389-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prospective inpatient study was performed at the Orthopedic and Geriatric Departments at the Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, to study inpatient falls, fall-related injuries, and risk factors for falls following femoral neck fracture surgery. Ninety-seven patients with femoral neck fracture aged 70 years or older were included, background characteristics, falls, injuries, and other postoperative complications were assessed and registered during the hospitalization. There were 60 postoperative falls among 26/97 patients (27%). The postoperative fall event rate was 16.3/1000 Days (95% CI 12.2-20.4). Thirty two percent of the falls resulted in injuries, 25% minor, and 7% serious ones. In multiple regression analyses, delirium after Day 7, HRR 4.62 (95% CI 1.24-16.37), male sex 3.92 (1.58-9.73), and sleeping disturbances 3.49 (1.24-9.86), were associated with inpatient falls. Forty-five percent of the patients were delirious the day they fell. Intervention programs, including prevention and treatment of delirium and sleeping disturbances, as well as better supervision of male patients, could be possible fall prevention strategies. Improvement of the quality of care and rehabilitation, with the focus on fall prevention based on these results, should be implemented in postoperative care of older people.

  • 226.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Bättre resultat med ett multidisciplinärt vårdprogram för äldre med höftfraktur2008Report (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Improved performance in activities of daily living and mobility after a multidisciplinary postoperative rehabilitation in older people with femoral neck fracture: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up.2007In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 232-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short- and long-term effects of a multidisciplinary postoperative rehabilitation programme in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A randomized controlled trial in patients (n = 199) with femoral neck fracture, aged >or= 70 years.

    METHODS: The primary outcomes were: living conditions, walking ability and activities of daily living performance on discharge, 4 and 12 months postoperatively. The intervention consisted of staff education, individualized care planning and rehabilitation, active prevention, detection and treatment of postoperative complications. The staff worked in teams to apply comprehensive geriatric assessment, management and rehabilitation. A geriatric team assessed those in the intervention group 4 months postoperatively, in order to detect and treat any complications. The control group followed conventional postoperative routines.

    RESULTS: Despite shorter hospitalization, significantly more people from the intervention group had regained independence in personal activities of daily living performance at the 4- and 12-month follow-ups; odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI) ) 2.51 (1.00-6.30) and 3.49 (1.31-9.23), respectively. More patients in the intervention group had also regained the ability to walk independently indoors without walking aids by the end of the study period, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 3.01 (1.18-7.61).

    CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary postoperative intervention programme enhances activities of daily living performance and mobility after hip fracture, from both a short-term and long-term perspective.

  • 228.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Examination of the common cause account in a population-based longitudinal study with narrow age cohort design2010In: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 553-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The common cause account suggests that there is a third factor causing aging effects in both sensory and cognitive functioning, hypothesized to be the integrity of the central nervous system [Lindenberger and Baltes; Psychol Aging 1994;9:339–355]. Importantly, the common cause account was developed based on cross-sectional data, which are especially biased by cohort effects. However, cohort effects can be controlled for in narrow age cohort (NAC) designs and by longitudinal examination. Findings from the few longitudinal studies that have studied the relation between age-related changes in sensory and cognitive functions are complex and give only partial support to the common cause account. Objective: The present paper examines the common cause account within a longitudinal setting.

    Method: Our study is unique in the sense that it tests the common cause account within a longitudinal NAC design sing data from the Betula project. The participants (n = 1,057) were in the age range of 45–90 years. Results: The findings indicate that the relationship between sensory and memory functioning in both a longitudinal age-heterogeneous and a longitudinal NAC design are much weaker than that detected by an age-heterogeneous cross-sectional design.

    Conclusion: The demonstrated weak age-associated sensory-cognitive link raises questions regarding the explanatory value of the common cause account and related theoretical accounts for accounting for age-related cognitive changes.

  • 229.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    A fronto-striatal workout to promote neuro-plasticity in old adults2013In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 50, no Special issue, suppl. 1, p. S7-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sehlstedt, I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Working Memory Updating Training in Older Adults: Is Level of Performance After Training Related to Transfer?2013In: Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0269-8803, E-ISSN 2151-2124, Vol. 27, no Supplement 1, p. 69-70Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Stillesjö, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Building Memory Representations for Exemplar-Based Judgment: A Role for Ventral Precuneus2019In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain networks underlying human multiple-cue judgment, the judgment of a continuous criterion based on multiple cues, have been examined in a few recent studies, and the ventral precuneus has been found to be a key region. Specifically, activation differences in ventral precuneus (as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) has been linked to an exemplar-based judgment process, where judgments are based on memory for previous similar cases. Ventral precuneus is implicated in various episodic memory processes, notably such that increased activity during learning in this region as well as in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the medial temporal lobes (MTL) have been linked to retrieval success. The present study used fMRI during a multiple-cue judgment task to gain novel neurocognitive evidence informative for the link between learning-related activity changes in ventral precuneus and exemplar-based judgment. Participants (N = 27) spontaneously learned to make judgments during fMRI, in a multiple-cue judgment task specifically designed to induce exemplar-based processing. Contrasting brain activity during late learning to early learning revealed higher activity in ventral precuneus, the bilateral MTL, and the vmPFC. Activity in the ventral precuneus and the vmPFC was found to parametrically increase between each judgment event, and activity levels in the ventral precuneus predicted performance after learning. These results are interpreted such that the ventral precuneus supports the aspects of exemplar-based processes that are related to episodic memory, tentatively by building, storing, and being implicated in retrieving memory representations for judgment.

  • 232.
    Stomby, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Higher diurnal salivary cortisol levels are related to smaller prefrontal cortex surface area in elderly men and women2016In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 175, no 2, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Elevated cortisol levels with aging have been associated with atrophy of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as with impaired cognitive functions in men. However, coexisting diseases have confounded many studies examining these relationships. Studies in women are lacking. Our objective was to test whether salivary cortisol levels were related to morphology of the hippocampus and the PFC, and to cognitive performance. Design: A cross-sectional study including 200 elderly (55-80 years old) men and women. Method: We used magnetic resonance imaging, tests of episodic-, semantic-, and working memory, visuospatial ability, and cortisol levels in four saliva samples collected during 1 day. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol levels was negatively related to cortical surface area of the left anterior cingulate gyrus (caudal P < 0.001; rostral P = 0.006), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (P = 0.004), and right rostral middle frontal gyrus (P = 0.003). In women, there was also a negative relationship with cortical surface area in the left rostral middle frontal gyrus (P = 0.006). No relationship was found between cortisol levels and hippocampal volume. Conclusion: This study suggests that the structure of the medial PFC is related to cortisol levels in both elderly women and men.

  • 233.
    Stomby, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Higher diurnal salivary cortisol levels are related to smaller prefrontal cortex surface area in women and menManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Stomby, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Jönköping County Hospital, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Otten, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, article id 391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 235.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Bergdahl, M
    Public Dental Service Competence Centre of Northern Norway (TkNN), PB 2406, N-9271, Norway .
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Cognitive status in persons with amalgam-related complaints2010In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 89, no 11, p. 1236-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported cognitive symptoms are frequent in persons with amalgam-related complaints, but few studies have focused on their cognitive function. The aim was to examine a symptom profile and whether participants with amalgam-related complaints have cognitive deficits in comparison with control individuals. We drew 342 participants with amalgam-related complaints and 342 one-to-one matched control individuals from a longitudinal population-based study. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and controls, data were available approximately five years before the onset of complaints, making a longitudinal analysis possible. All participants were assessed by a self-reported health questionnaire and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. The participants with amalgam-related complaints reported more symptoms, mainly musculoskeletal and neuropsychological, compared with control individuals (p < 0.001). The results revealed no significant difference between the amalgam and control group, either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, for any of the cognitive tests. These results suggest that cognitive decline is not associated with amalgam-related complaints.

  • 236.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stressful negative life events and amalgam-related complaints2011In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  The role of stressful life events in the onset of self-reported amalgam-related complaints is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between life events and amalgam-related complaints.

    Method:  The participants were selected from a longitudinal population-based study. One-to-one matching of 337 participants with amalgam-related complaints to 337 participants without such complaints was performed. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and their matched controls, data was also available approximately 5 years before the onset of complaints, making longitudinal analysis possible. All participants completed questionnaires assessing the occurrence of 55 life events.

    Results:  The results showed that many participants with amalgam-related complaints experienced negative life events before and at the onset of amalgam-related complaints. They also reported more unexpected and uncontrollable events difficult to adjust to in comparison with controls. The groups did not differ on positive or neutral life events. Somatic illness or surgical operation was the most common life event. Death of a very close family member and a major change in financial situation were also commonly reported.

    Conclusions:  This study indicates that adverse negative life events could play a vital role in understanding and explaining amalgam-related complaints.

  • 237.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Cruts, M.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    APOE influences on neurosychological function after mild head injury: within-person comparisons2004In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 1963-1966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the relationship between neuropsychological outcome following mild head injury (MHI) and APOE genotype.

    Methods: Data from a population-based longitudinal study (n = 3,500) were used to identify 34 adults who experienced MHI during the course of the study. Their pre- and postinjury performances on a battery of nine neuropsychological tests were compared within person, and the postinjury performance was compared with that of age- and gender-matched control subjects.

    Results: The within-person comparisons showed that participants with at least oneAPOE ε4 allele (n = 11) had a significantly decreased postinjury performance on three of the tests, whereas the postinjury performance for APOE ε4-negative participants (n = 23) was unchanged. There was no significant difference in postinjury performance between participants with/without the ε4 allele, and neither group was impaired relative to controls.

    Conclusions: APOE genotype may influence the outcome following an MHI. Pre/postinjury within-person comparisons seem more sensitive than control group comparisons for detecting injury-related effects.

  • 238.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Cruts, M.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    van Broeckhoven, C.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Fatigue before and after mild traumatic brain injury: Pre-post-injury comparisons in relation to Apolipoprotein E2007In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1049-1054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary objective: To assess the incidence of fatigue for persons following a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to evaluate the relationship between fatigue and APOE genotype. As fatigue is often found to be influenced by anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance, these factors were also measured. Methods and procedures: Thirty-one persons who sustained a MTBI were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study. Each person who sustained a MTBI was matched by age, gender, education and APOE genotype with two non-head injury controls. Self-reported pre- and post-injury incidence of fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance was compared within-group and between groups. Results: For the MTBI group, incidence of fatigue was almost twice as common post- than pre-injury, whereas there was no corresponding change in a non-injured control group. Within the MTBI-group, post-injury fatigue was particularly common for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele. Conclusions: Fatigue is common sequela after a MTBI and especially pronounced for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele.

  • 239.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cruts, M.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Increased risk of dementia following mild head injury for carriers but not for non-carriers of the APOE ε4 allele2007In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and head injury are risk factors for dementia diseases, and may act synergistically to further increase the risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between mild head injury, APOE and dementia.

    Methods: Data were obtained from the Betula prospective population-based study of aging, memory, and health. The study included 543 participants in the age range 40–85 years, free of dementia at baseline, who were followed up within a 5-year interval. Dementia was classified using DSM-IV criteria. Information on previous head injury was obtained through screening of the participants' answers to health questionnaires at baseline and at follow-up.

    Results: Subjects with head injury but without APOE ε4 had no increased risk of dementia. Subjects with APOE ε4 had an increased risk and those with both APOE ε4 and head injury had the highest risk of dementia (odds ratio = 5.2).

    Conclusions: APOE ε4 constitutes a risk factor for dementia, mild injury in isolation does not increase the risk, but head injury in combination with the APOE ε4 leads to increased risk of dementia.

  • 240.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Cognitive performance before and after mild head injury.2002In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. Suppl, no B77, p. 60-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 241.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    APOE influences in neuropsychological function after mild head injury: Within-person comparisons - Reply2004In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 63, p. 2460-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Sundström, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Näsman, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Å Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer's disease?2006In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a primary degenerative disease that progressively affects all brain functions, with devastating consequences for the patient, the patient's family and society. Rest regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) could have a strategic role in differentiating between AD patients and normal controls, but its use for this purpose has a low discriminatory capacity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic sensitivity of rCBF single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be increased by using an episodic memory task provocation, i.e. memory-provoked rCBF-SPECT (MP-SPECT). METHODS: Eighteen persons (73.2+/-4.8 years) with mild AD and 18 healthy elderly (69.4+/-3.9 years) were included in the study. The subjects were injected with (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) during memory provocation with faces and names, followed by an rCBF-SPECT study. The rCBF (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Peaks with a false discovery rate corrected value of 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: On MP-SPECT, the AD group showed a significant rCBF reduction in the left parietal cortex in comparison with healthy elderly. At rest, no significant group differences were seen. CONCLUSION: Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. Further studies are needed to evaluate MP-SPECT as a diagnostic tool at the individual level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is verified in future studies, a single MP-SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting.

  • 243.
    Sundström, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Guez, Michel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Hildingsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Toolanen, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Altered cerebral blood flow in chronic neck pain patients but not in whiplash patients: a 99mTc-HMPAO rCBF study2006In: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1189-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-sectional study to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with chronic whiplash syndrome and chronic neck pain patients without previous history of trauma along with a healthy control group. Chronic neck pain is a common disorder and a history of cervical spine injury including whiplash trauma constitute a risk factor for persistent neck pain. The aetiology of the late whiplash syndrome is unknown with no specific diagnostic criteria based on imaging, physiological, or psychological examination. Earlier studies indicate a parieto-occipital hypoperfusion but it is unclear if the hypoperfusion represents a response to chronic pain. The rCBF was monitored in 45 patients with chronic neck pain: 27 cases with chronic whiplash syndrome and 18 age and gender matched cases with non-traumatic chronic neck pain. The rCBF was estimated with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). The non-traumatic patients displayed rCBF changes in comparison with the whiplash group and the healthy control group. These changes included rCBF decreases in a right temporal region close to hippocampus, and increased rCBF in left insula. The whiplash group displayed no significant differences in rCBF in comparison with the healthy controls. The present study suggests different pain mechanisms in patients with chronic neck pain of non-traumatic origin compared to those with chronic neck pain due to a whiplash trauma.

  • 244.
    Sundström, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Influences of age and length of education on rCBF-SPECT in healthy elderly: diagnostic implications for dementia2011In: International Journal of Clinical Medicine, ISSN 2158-284X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few previous studies have described other than age- and gender related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in healthy elderly. What is the influence of other common clinically relevant variables such as ache, education, MMSE, and smoking history?

    Purpose: To study rCBF in Swedish healthy elderly by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and evaluate the influence on rCBF of age, gender, education, MMSE, ache, and smoking with a focus on education in relation to the ‘cognitive reserve’.

    Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 45, 50 -75 y), sampled from a large longitudinal aging study took part in an extensive examination of health and memory, including cognitive testing and socio-economic survey. After injection of 99 mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) followed by SPECT the rCBF-SPECT images were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM).

    Results: Age-related decreases in uptake were seen in interhemispheric and interlobar regions. There was a positive rCBF correlation with education in the inferior frontal lobe and a higher uptake in the left temporal lobe in an age-gender-matched high education subgroup.

    Conclusion: The localization of the age related findings except for the medial temporal lobe differs markedly from typical dementia related findings. A reduction close to interhemispheric or interlobar space should always be related to chronological age. Education seems to have an influence on basal brain function at a resting-state condition. Knowledge of normal rCBF variations for variables such as age and education should be considered when making clinical diagnosis. The findings could be interpreted as further support for the theory of cognitive reserve.

  • 245.
    Söderlund, H
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden / Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cerebral atrophy as predictor of cognitive function in old, community-dwelling individuals2004In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 109, no 6, p. 398-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The impact of cortical and subcortical atrophy on cognitive function was examined in a sample of older community-dwelling men and women.

    Material and methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a sample of 129 individuals [age: 68.4 ± 3.6 years (mean ± SD), range 64–74 years, 64 women and 65 men, Mini-Mental State Examination scores above 23] to assess cortical and subcortical atrophy. Participants also performed a number of cognitive tasks, and the measures of atrophy were used to predict performance in these tasks.

    Results: In men, frontal cortical atrophy predicted worse performance in word fluency and the Stroop test, and occipital cortical atrophy was associated with poor performance in motor speed. In women, poor performance in motor speed was associated with subcortical atrophy at the level of the caudate nucleus.

    Conclusion: Atrophy in certain areas was associated with poor performance in specific cognitive tasks, although the amount of explained variance was rather limited in this quite homogenous sample.

  • 246. Thompson, Paul M.
    et al.
    Stein, Jason L.
    Medland, Sarah E.
    Hibar, Derrek P.
    Vasquez, Alejandro Arias
    Renteria, Miguel E.
    Toro, Roberto
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Schumann, Gunter
    Franke, Barbara
    Wright, Margaret J.
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Alda, Martin
    Alhusaini, Saud
    Almasy, Laura
    Almeida, Jorge
    Alpert, Kathryn
    Andreasen, Nancy C.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Apostolova, Liana G.
    Appel, Katja
    Armstrong, Nicola J.
    Aribisala, Benjamin
    Bastin, Mark E.
    Bauer, Michael
    Bearden, Carrie E.
    Bergmann, Orjan
    Binder, Elisabeth B.
    Blangero, John
    Bockholt, Henry J.
    Boen, Erlend
    Bois, Catherine
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Booth, Tom
    Bowman, Ian J.
    Bralten, Janita
    Brouwer, Rachel M.
    Brunner, Han G.
    Brohawn, David G.
    Buckner, Randy L.
    Buitelaar, Jan
    Bulayeva, Kazima
    Bustillo, Juan R.
    Calhoun, Vince D.
    Cannon, Dara M.
    Cantor, Rita M.
    Carless, Melanie A.
    Caseras, Xavier
    Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.
    Chakravarty, M. Mallar
    Chang, Kiki D.
    Ching, Christopher R. K.
    Christoforou, Andrea
    Cichon, Sven
    Clark, Vincent P.
    Conrod, Patricia
    Coppola, Giovanni
    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
    Curran, Joanne E.
    Czisch, Michael
    Deary, Ian J.
    de Geus, Eco J. C.
    den Braber, Anouk
    Delvecchio, Giuseppe
    Depondt, Chantal
    de Haan, Lieuwe
    de Zubicaray, Greig I.
    Dima, Danai
    Dimitrova, Rali
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Dong, Hongwei
    Donohoe, Gary
    Duggirala, Ravindranath
    Dyer, Thomas D.
    Ehrlich, Stefan
    Ekman, Carl Johan
    Elvsashagen, Torbjorn
    Emsell, Louise
    Erk, Susanne
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Fagerness, Jesen
    Fears, Scott
    Fedko, Iryna
    Fernandez, Guillen
    Fisher, Simon E.
    Foroud, Tatiana
    Fox, Peter T.
    Francks, Clyde
    Frangou, Sophia
    Frey, Eva Maria
    Frodl, Thomas
    Frouin, Vincent
    Garavan, Hugh
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Glahn, David C.
    Godlewska, Beata
    Goldstein, Rita Z.
    Gollub, Randy L.
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Grimm, Oliver
    Gruber, Oliver
    Guadalupe, Tulio
    Gur, Raquel E.
    Gur, Ruben C.
    Goering, Harald H. H.
    Hagenaars, Saskia
    Hajek, Tomas
    Hall, Geoffrey B.
    Hall, Jeremy
    Hardy, John
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    Hass, Johanna
    Hatton, Sean N.
    Haukvik, Unn K.
    Hegenscheid, Katrin
    Heinz, Andreas
    Hickie, Ian B.
    Ho, Beng-Choon
    Hoehn, David
    Hoekstra, Pieter J.
    Hollinshead, Marisa
    Holmes, Avram J.
    Homuth, Georg
    Hoogman, Martine
    Hong, L. Elliot
    Hosten, Norbert
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff
    Hwang, Kristy S.
    Jack, Clifford R., Jr.
    Jenkinson, Mark
    Johnston, Caroline
    Joensson, Erik G.
    Kahn, Rene S.
    Kasperaviciute, Dalia
    Kelly, Sinead
    Kim, Sungeun
    Kochunov, Peter
    Koenders, Laura
    Kraemer, Bernd
    Kwok, John B. J.
    Lagopoulos, Jim
    Laje, Gonzalo
    Landen, Mikael
    Landman, Bennett A.
    Lauriello, John
    Lawrie, Stephen M.
    Lee, Phil H.
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Lemaitre, Herve
    Leonardo, Cassandra D.
    Li, Chiang-shan
    Liberg, Benny
    Liewald, David C.
    Liu, Xinmin
    Lopez, Lorna M.
    Loth, Eva
    Lourdusamy, Anbarasu
    Luciano, Michelle
    Macciardi, Fabio
    Machielsen, Marise W. J.
    MacQueen, Glenda M.
    Malt, Ulrik F.
    Mandl, Rene
    Manoach, Dara S.
    Martinot, Jean-Luc
    Matarin, Mar
    Mather, Karen A.
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    Mattingsdal, Morten
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    McDonald, Colm
    McIntosh, Andrew M.
    McMahon, Francis J.
    McMahon, Katie L.
    Meisenzahl, Eva
    Melle, Ingrid
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Mohnke, Sebastian
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    Morris, Derek W.
    Moses, Eric K.
    Mueller, Bryon A.
    Maniega, Susana Munoz
    Muehleisen, Thomas W.
    Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram
    Mwangi, Benson
    Nauck, Matthias
    Nho, Kwangsik
    Nichols, Thomas E.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goeran
    Nugent, Allison C.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Olvera, Rene L.
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    Pandolfo, Massimo
    Papalampropoulou-Tsiridou, Melina
    Papmeyer, Martina
    Paus, Tomas
    Pausova, Zdenka
    Pearlson, Godfrey D.
    Penninx, Brenda W.
    Peterson, Charles P.
    Pfennig, Andrea
    Phillips, Mary
    Pike, G. Bruce
    Poline, Jean-Baptiste
    Potkin, Steven G.
    Puetz, Benno
    Ramasamy, Adaikalavan
    Rasmussen, Jerod
    Rietschel, Marcella
    Rijpkema, Mark
    Risacher, Shannon L.
    Roffman, Joshua L.
    Roiz-Santianez, Roberto
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina
    Rose, Emma J.
    Royle, Natalie A.
    Rujescu, Dan
    Ryten, Mina
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.
    Savitz, Jonathan
    Saykin, Andrew J.
    Scanlon, Cathy
    Schmaal, Lianne
    Schnack, Hugo G.
    Schork, Andrew J.
    Schulz, S. Charles
    Schuer, Remmelt
    Seidman, Larry
    Shen, Li
    Shoemaker, Jody M.
    Simmons, Andrew
    Sisodiya, Sanjay M.
    Smith, Colin
    Smoller, Jordan W.
    Soares, Jair C.
    Sponheim, Scott R.
    Sprooten, Emma
    Starr, John M.
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Strakowski, Stephen
    Strike, Lachlan
    Sussmann, Jessika
    Saemann, Philipp G.
    Teumer, Alexander
    Toga, Arthur W.
    Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana
    Trabzuni, Daniah
    Trost, Sarah
    Turner, Jessica
    Van den Heuvel, Martijn
    van der Wee, Nic J.
    van Eijk, Kristel
    van Erp, Theo G. M.
    van Haren, Neeltje E. M.
    van 't Ent, Dennis
    van Tol, Marie-Jose
    Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Versace, Amelia
    Voelzke, Henry
    Walker, Robert
    Walter, Henrik
    Wang, Lei
    Wardlaw, Joanna M.
    Weale, Michael E.
    Weiner, Michael W.
    Wen, Wei
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Whalley, Heather C.
    Whelan, Christopher D.
    White, Tonya
    Winkler, Anderson M.
    Wittfeld, Katharina
    Woldehawariat, Girma
    Wolf, Christiane
    Zilles, David
    Zwiers, Marcel P.
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Schofield, Peter R.
    Freimer, Nelson B.
    Lawrence, Natalia S.
    Drevets, Wayne
    The ENIGMA Consortium: large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data2014In: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV, ISSN 1931-7557, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 153-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.

  • 247.
    van den Broek, Gesa
    et al.
    Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Takashima, Atsuko
    Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Segers, Eliane
    Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Verhoeven, Ludo
    Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Neurocognitive mechanisms of the "testing effect": a review2016In: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2452-0837, E-ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 52-66Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory retrieval is an active process that can alter the content and accessibility of stored memories. Of potential relevance for educational practice are findings that memory retrieval fosters better retention than mere studying. This so-called testing effect has been demonstrated for different materials and populations, but there is limited consensus on the neurocognitive mechanisms involved. In this review, we relate cognitive accounts of the testing effect to findings from recent brain-imaging studies to identify neurocognitive factors that could explain the testing effect. Results indicate that testing facilitates later performance through several processes, including effects on semantic memory representations, the selective strengthening of relevant associations and inhibition of irrelevant associations, as well as potentiation of subsequent learning.

  • 248. van der Meer, Dennis
    et al.
    Kaufmann, Tobias
    Cordova-Palomera, Aldo
    Bettella, Francesco
    Frei, Oleksandr
    Doan, N. Trung
    Alnaes, Dag
    Moberget, Torgeir
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Bertolino, Alessandro
    Brandt, Christine L.
    Buitelaar, Jan K.
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Dorum, Erlend D.
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Faraone, Stephen V.
    Franke, Barbara
    Haberg, Asta
    Haatveit, Beathe C.
    Hartman, Catharina
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Heslenfeld, Dirk
    Hoekstra, Pieter
    Jonsson, Erik G.
    Kolskar, Knut
    Lund, Martina J.
    Melle, Ingrid
    Norbom, Linn B.
    Nordvik, Jan E.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas
    Pergola, Giulio
    Richard, Genevieve
    Sanders, Anne-Marthe
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Ulrichsen, Kristine M.
    Andreassen, Ole
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Genetic Architecture of Hippocampal Subfield Volumes: Shared and Specific Influences2018In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 83, no 9, p. S257-S257Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Does testing enhance memory by influencing subsequent restudy?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 250.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Testing alters brain activity during subsequent restudy: Evidence for test-potentiated encoding2014In: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed testing/studying lead to better memory retention compared to repeated study only. A potentiating influence of tests on encoding, particularly during restudy of non-retrieved items, may contribute to this effect. This study investigated whether and how testing affects brain activity during subsequent restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs after a cued-recall test. Item-events during fMRI were categorized according to history (tested/studied only) and recall outcome at prescan and postscan tests. Activity was higher for tested compared to studied-only items in anterior insula, orbital parts of inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus, and lower in regions implicated in the default network, such as precuneus, supramarginal gyrus and the posterior middle cingulate. Findings are discussed in terms of top-down biasing of attention to tested items with concomitant deactivation of regions in the default network. Increased/focused attention to tested items during restudy may lead to test-potentiated encoding via deeper semantic processing and increased associative binding.

23456 201 - 250 of 270
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