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  • 201. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Skidmore, Peter
    Snæsdóttir, Mjöll
    Institute of Archaeology, Iceland.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Insect faunas from Stóraborg, a farm mound in Southern Iceland2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 202.
    Buckland, Philip
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Lessons from extinctions2017Inngår i: Wood Wise, s. 22-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Many beetles are very good at colonising new areas when changes in the landscape open up new possibilities. Equally, they are highly susceptible to local extinction in the face of landscape scale changes in their environment.

  • 203.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Archaeological Field Assessment of the Proposed Borrow Pits at Staythorpe Power Station, Staythorpe, Nottinghamshire: Assessment of the fossil insects1999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 204.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    ARCUS project 220: report on palaeochannel prospection at Elvaston Castle Tarmac site, Derbyshire1995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 205.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    ARCUS: Report on a site at Walmgate, York: Report on the fossil insect fauna from a site at Walmgate, York1995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 206.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Environmental Archaeology: Climate Change and E-Science2010Inngår i: Thule: Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok 2010, Umeå: Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundet , 2010, s. 55-69Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 207.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Freeing information to the people: Using the past to aid the future2011Inngår i: International Innovation - Disseminating Science Research and Technology, ISSN 2041-4552, nr 4, s. 51-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Dr Philip Buckland discusses his recent project SEAD: the web-accessible scientific database that crosses archaeological and environmental disciplines. 

    Disciplines as diverse as anthropology and palaeoecology take an interest in our environment and how we have treated it. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database aims to create a multi-proxy, GIS-ready database for environmental and archaeological data to aid multidisciplinary research

  • 208.
    Buckland, Philip I
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Insect remains from Pástóftir, Kárahnjúkar, Iceland2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 209.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Lichenometry and Soil Erosion in Northwest Iceland1994Inngår i: Environmental Change in Iceland, München: nstitut für Geographie der Universität München , 1994, s. 31-40Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 210.
    Buckland, Philip I
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Preliminary report: fossil insect remains from Karahnjukar, Iceland2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 211.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database Inter-linking Multiproxy Environmental Data with Archaeological Investigations and Ecology2013Inngår i: Archaeology in the Digital Era: Papers from the 40th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Southampton, 26-29 March 2012 / [ed] Graeme Earl, Tim Sly, Angeliki Chrysanthi, Patricia Murrieta-Flores, Constantinos Papadopoulos, Iza Romanowska & David Wheatley, Amsterdam University Press, 2013, Vol. 1, s. 320-331Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume of data on past environmental and climate changes, as well as human interactions with these, has long since passed the level where it is manageable outside of large scale database systems. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database project aims to not only store and disseminate such data, but also provide tools for querying and analysing them, whilst maintaining a close connection with the archaeological and ecological data that are essential for their comprehensive interpretation. Large scale, geographically and chronologically unrestricted databases provide us with essentially unlimited scope for putting individual sites into a broader context and applying locally collated data to the investigation of earth system level changes. By providing integrated access to data from a variety of proxies, including plant macrofossils, pollen, insects and geochemistry, along with dating evidence, more complex questions can be answered where any single proxy would not be able to provide comprehensive answers.

  • 212.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP): the development and implementation of software for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological research2009Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book describes the development and practical application of a unique database orientated software package, BugsCEP, for environmental, climatic and biodiversity reconstruction from beetle assemblages. BugsCEP consists of a database of ecology and distribution data for over 9400 insect taxa, and includes temperature tolerance data for 436 species. It contains abundance and summary data for over 770 sites, most of the known European Quaternary fossil coleopteran record, supported by a bibliography of over 3700 sources. Built in statistics, including a specially developed habitat classification system, provide semi-quantitative environmental reconstructions to aid in the interpretation of sites. BugsCEP's querying and reporting functions also increase the efficiency with which analyses can be undertaken, including the facility to explore the fossil record of species by searching ecology and distribution data. The Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) reconstruction method is implemented and improved upon, including predictive modelling and the graphical output of reconstructions and climate space maps. BugsCEP is available from www.bugscep.com.

  • 213.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP) database: 1000 sites and half a million fossils later2014Inngår i: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 341, s. 272-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bugs database project started in the late 1980s as what would now be considered a relatively simple system, albeit advanced for its time, linking fossil beetle species lists to modern habitat and distribution information. Since then, Bugs has grown into a complex database of fossils records, habitat and distribution data, dating and climate reference data wrapped into an advanced software analysis package. At the time of writing, the database contains raw data and metadata for 1124 sites, and Russell Coope directly contributed to the analysis of over 154 (14%) of them, some 98790 identifications published in 231 publications. Such quantifications are infeasible without databases, and the analytical power of combining a database of modern and fossil insects with analysis tools is potentially immense for numerous areas of science ranging from conservation to Quaternary geology.

    BugsCEP, The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package, is the latest incarnation of the Bugs database project. Released in 2007, the database is continually added too and is available for free download from http://www.bugscep.com. The software tools include quantitative habitat reconstruction and visualisation, correlation matrices, MCR climate reconstruction, searching by habitat and retrieving, among other things, a list of taxa known from the selected habitat types. It also provides a system for entering, storing and managing palaeoentomological data as well as a number of expert system like reporting facilities.

    Work is underway to create an online version of BugsCEP, implemented through the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD) project (http://www.sead.se). The aim is to provide more direct access to the latest data, a community orientated updating system, and integration with other proxy data. Eventually, the tools available in the offline BugsCEP will be duplicated and Bugs will be entirely in the web.

    This paper summarises aspects of the current scope, capabilities and applications of the BugsCEP database and software, with special reference to and quantifications of the contributions of Russell Coope to the field of palaeoentomology as represented in the database. The paper also serves to illustrate the potential for the use of BugsCEP in biographical studies, and discusses some of the issues relating to the use of large scale sources of quantitative data.

    All datasets used in this article are available through the current version of BugsCEP available at http://www.bugscep.com.

  • 214.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Bateman, Mark D.
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.
    Bennike, Ole
    GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, ØsterVoldgade 10, Copenhagen 1350, Denmark.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Chase, Brian M.
    Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution-Montpellier (ISEM), Universite´ de Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Bat 22, CC061, Place Euge`ne Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France.
    Frederick, Charles
    6Department of Geography and the Environment, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Greenwood, Malcolm
    Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU, UK.
    Murton, Julian
    Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RH, UK.
    Murton, Della
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, University of Edinburgh, Drummond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK.
    Mid-Devensian climate and landscape in England: new data from Finningley, South Yorkshire2019Inngår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 7, artikkel-id 190577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is extensive evidence for the Late Devensian, less is known about Early and Middle Devensian (approx. 110-30 ka) climates and environments in the UK. The Greenland ice-core record suggests the UK should have endured multiple changes, but the terrestrial palaeo-record lacks sufficient detail for confirmation from sites in the British Isles. Data from deposits at Finningley, South Yorkshire, can help redress this. A channel with organic silts, dated 40 314-39 552 cal a BP, contained plant macrofossil and insect remains showing tundra with dwarf-shrub heath and bare ground. Soil moisture conditions varied from free draining to riparian, with ponds and wetter vegetated areas. The climate was probably low arctic with snow cover during the winter. Mutual climatic range (MCR), based on Coleoptera, shows the mean monthly winter temperatures of -22 to -2 degrees C and summer ones of 8-14 degrees C. Periglacial structures within the basal gravel deposits and beyond the glacial limits indicate cold-climate conditions, including permafrost. A compilation of MCR reconstructions for other Middle Devensian English sites shows that marine isotope stage 3-between 59 and 28 ka-experienced substantial variation in climate consistent with the Greenland ice-core record. The exact correlation is hampered by temporal resolution, but the Finningley site stadial at approximately 40 ka may correlate with the one of the Greenland stadials 7-11.

  • 215.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP, an entomological database twenty-five years on2014Inngår i: Antenna (Journal of the Royal Entomological Society), ISSN 0140-1890, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 21-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 216.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP: Coleopteran Ecology Package (software)2006Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    BugsCEP is a research and teaching aid for palaeoentomology, entomology and ecology. As well as habitat and distribution data, it includes tools for climate and environmental reconstruction, and facilities for storing site based abundance/collection data. A variety of searching and reporting functions greatly augment the efficiency of beetle based research.

    Bugs is built around a comprehensive database of beetle ecology and European fossil records which has been accumulated over the past 20 years.

  • 217.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    How can a database full of Bugs help reconstruct the climate?2002Inngår i: Archaeological Informatics - Pushing the Envelope - CAA 2001 - Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology: Proceedings of the 29th Conference, Gotland, April 2001, British Archaeological Reports , 2002, s. 453-461Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The BUGS Insect Ecology Package was originally constructed (using Dbase and Clipper) to compile Coleoptera (beetle) habitat and distribution data from a myriad of sources into one, easy to use, and publicly available database. Its primary users were researchers and teachers within the palaeoentomology field. The present system, five versions and many revisions later, is built in MS Access 2000, and covers some 5300 species, 2000 references, and 240 sites (archaeological and Quaternary), and is of value to archaeologists, ecologists, and conservationists alike.

    BUGS is essentially a relational database management system constructed around three components:

    - the species data (modern ecology and distribution)

    - the bibliography

    - the site data with species lists

    Its implementation in several institutions has greatly accelerated the efficiency with which palaeoentomological investigations can be carried out, and greatly improved the teaching of the subject.

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are performed by the superimposition of the ecology and distribution of modern insect populations over fossil assemblages. At the moment, this is essentially performed semi-quantitatively by cross-reference of the data (which BUGS collates for a species list and then exports as an RTF file to any word processing package). BUGS contains a wealth of ecological data which can be employed in the interpretation of archaeological sites and contexts. In natural deposits, away from the artificial heat islands created by human activity, insect distributions are essentially constrained by climatic parameters. Tim Atkinson (UEA) and Dave Perry (formerly at Birmingham University) digitally encoded the temperature range data for over 400 species into a program for the calculation of palaeoclimates through the MCR (Mutual Climatic Range) method, and this has been extensively used in the modelling of Quaternary climates from beetle remains. The aim of our present phase of BUGS development is to implement MCR functionality into the BUGS database system. From this point it should be possible to move on to other ecological variables such as habitat and vegetation types, and increase the precision of modern climatic data, thus enhancing the value of insects in archaeological interpretation and the modelling of past climates.

  • 218.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Species found as fossils in Quaternary sediments2012Inngår i: Checklist of Beetles of the British Isles / [ed] A.G. Duff, United Kingdom: Pemberley Books , 2012, 2nd, s. 127-130Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This new checklist is the most up-to-date and comprehensive checklist of the beetle fauna of the British Isles, representing many man-years of effort by leading British coleopterists. The main checklist is fully annotated with detailed endnotes.

  • 219.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Species found as fossils in Quaternary sediments2018Inngår i: Checklist of beetles of the British Isles: with a chapter on fossil beetles / [ed] Andrew G. Duff, Iver: Pemberley Books , 2018, 3, s. 171-174Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 220.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    When a Waterhole is Full of Dung: An Illustration of the Importance of Environmental Evidence for Refining Archaeological Interpretation of Excavated Features2019Inngår i: Archaeometry, ISSN 0003-813X, E-ISSN 1475-4754, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 977-990Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehistoric field systems sometimes encompass excavated, pit-like features which are difficult to classify due to the complex stratigraphies resulting from reuse, infilling and collapse. They are frequently classified as wells and watering holes, but other potential uses for excavated depressions are rarely cited. We argue the need for environmental archaeology in the interpretation of features of this nature, and present a case study from a Bronze Age site at Pode Hole, near Peterborough (UK), where fossil insect material clearly contradicts the archaeological interpretation. We present empirical evidence for a sealed context filled with dung which cannot be interpreted as a water source. This evidence strongly contrasts with other superficially similar features at the site.

  • 221.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Paleoentomology: Insects and other Arthropods in Environmental Archaeology2014Inngår i: The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, s. 5740-5755Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, and as suchare present in a wider variety of habitats than most other organism groups.This diversity, in addition to a long evolutionary history (Grimaldi &Engel 2005), and together with a propensity to be preserved in both desiccatingand anaerobic environments, has provided an excellent tool for thereconstruction of both Quaternary and more immediate archaeologicalenvironments. Insect remains often provide proxy environmental information onthe immediate context from which the fossils are derived, and as such may beeither complementary to the more regional picture provided by palynology orindicate site conditions, such as levels of hygiene and evidence of tradingconnections, which are rarely available from any other palaeoecological source.They therefore provide information on a broad range of habitats and conditions,on- and off-site, and in addition, in appropriate contexts, also climate.Processing of samples is essentially simple, requiring readily availablematerials, yet is time consuming, and identification of the usuallydisarticulated fragments (sclerites) requires diligence and patience and accessto well curated reference collections. Fortunately, abundant literature,computer software and database tools now exist to aid in their interpretation.

  • 222.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Paleoentomology: insects and other arthropods in environmental archaeology2018Inngår i: Encyclopedia of global archaeology / [ed] Claire Smith, Cham: Springer, 2018, 2Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insects are the most diverse group of animals on the planet and as such are present in a wider variety of habitats than most other complex organisms. This diversity, in addition to a long evolutionary history (Grimaldi and Engel 2005), and together with a propensity to be preserved in both desiccating and anaerobic environments, has provided an excellent tool for the reconstruction of both Quaternary and more immediate archaeological environments. Insect remains often provide proxy environmental information on the immediate context from which the fossils are derived, and as such may be either complementary to the more regional picture provided by palynology or indicate site conditions, such as levels of hygiene and evidence of trading connections, which are rarely available from any other palaeoecological source. They therefore provide information on a broad range of habitats and conditions, on- and off-site, and in addition, in appropriate contexts, also climate. Processing of samples is essentially simple, requiring readily available materials, yet is time consuming, and identification of the usually disarticulated fragments (sclerites) requires diligence and patience and access to well-curated reference collections. Fortunately, abundant literature, computer software, and database tools now exist to aid in their interpretation.

  • 223.
    Buckland, Philip I
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Wagner, Patricia
    Environmental archaeological investigation of samples from the Kaupang 2000 excavations2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 224.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: Progress Report Spring 20142014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the progress and results of the VR:KFI infrastructure projects 2007-7494 and (825-)2010-5976. It should be considered as a status report in an on-going long-term research infrastructure development project.

  • 225.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Viklund, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Svensson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Uppsala Municipal Council, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Integrating human dimensions of Arctic palaeoenvironmental science: SEAD – the strategic environmental archaeology database2011Inngår i: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 345-351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change has a human dimension, and has had so for at least the last 10 000 years. The prehistoric impact of people on the Arctic landscape has occasionally left visible traces, such as house and field structures. More often than not, however, the only evidence available is at the microscopic or geochemical level, such as fossil insect and seed assemblages or changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils and sediments. These records are the subject of SEAD, a multidisciplinary database and software project currently underway at Umeå University, Sweden, which aims to create an online database and set of tools for investigating these traces, as part of an international research infrastructure for palaeoecology and environmental archaeology.

  • 226.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Hjärthner-Holdar, Eva
    Swedish National Historical Museums.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Lund University.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University.
    The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (>5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software.

     

    SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems.

     

    SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

  • 227.
    Buckland, Philip I
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Johan, Olofsson
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    SEAD: Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, planning report2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This document lays out a strategy for the development of SEAD – A Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, which will facilitate the digitisation and accessibility augmentation of MAL’s existing data from nearly thirty years of work in the fields of archaeology and environmental science. SEAD will also provide a framework for the entry of data from all future research and consultancy work at MAL, and allow guest researchers and external partners to contribute to, and work with the same data. The planned system will be implemented at both local and internet levels, and be designed with an aim towards broadening its scope with external partners in the future. SEAD will be made available online in order to increase the ease of access to environmental archaeology data and encourage an expansion of both the discipline and Sweden’s role in it. This is inline with current EU strategies on enhancing research infrastructure, and providing a greater insight into human-environment interactions for long term planning.

  • 228.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Jordan, Peter
    Sugden, Heather
    ARCUS Project 220: Analysis of organic deposits from trenching at Elvaston, Derbyshire. Level One Assessment1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A Level One assessment was carried out to evaluate the state of preservation within the organic deposits, and to assess their potential usefulness, should further work be undertaken, for the retrieval of palaeoenvironmental information. Selected profiles within palaeochannel sequences were examined, and assessed as to whether these contained macrofossils in a state of preservation which was likely to provide data adequate for the reconstruction of past landscapes within the area. Other factors of special interest were those relating to environmental change, such as changes in sedimentation or vegetation, be they human or naturally induced. The potential for the use of three complementary data retrieval methods was reviewed.

  • 229.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Explaining Late Quaternary beetle extinctions in the UK using palaeoenvironmental databases for quantitative environmental reconstruction2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of palaeoenvironmental and archaeological records of fossil insects with modern red data books can provide a picture of local extinctions. Buckland & Buckland (2012) performed such a study on the Coleoptera of the British Isles, using the BugsCEP database for the fossil data, and looking at broad chronological divisions. The ecology of these regionally extinct beetles, all of which are extant in other parts of the World, may be used to investigate the environmental and climatic changes which may have lead to their extirpation. This process can be semi-automated and habitats quantified through the use of ecological classification and a database infrastructure which links fossil and modern ecological and climate data (Buckland & Buckland 2006; http://www.bugscep.com). Preliminary results indicate that the majority of extirpated species with mid-Holocene records were dependent on woodland environments (Buckland 2014). These investigations can be refined by using narrower time-slices, interpolating dating evidence and including more comprehensive archaeological dating evidence. The expansion of the analysis to include the full assemblages found in the samples containing the extirpated species also allows for a more comprehensive picture of the long-term relationships between biodiversity, environmental and climatic change and human activity.

  • 230.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Samuel, Ericson
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Environmental archaeological analysis from the archaeological excavations at Ørland kampflybase, Vik 70/1, Ørland, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. 2015-20162017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 322 bulk samples, 267 bulk subsamples and 1632 survey samples from the excavation of Iron Age settlements at Ørland, Vik, Sør-Trondelag, were analysed at the Environmental Archaeology Laboratory (MAL) at Umeå University. The overall aim of these analyses was to look for evidence which could help identify possible prehistoric activity areas, understand building functions and divisions, and shed light on land management around the farmsteads.

  • 231.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Nicolo, Dell'Unto
    Lund University.
    Palsson, Gisli
    Umeå universitet.
    To tree, or not to tree? On the Empirical Basis for Having Past Landscapes to Experience2018Inngår i: Digital Humanities Quarterly, ISSN 1938-4122, E-ISSN 1938-4122, Vol. 12, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Our intention with this point of view paper is to help refocus an increasingly abstract and theoretically orientated Digital Humanities (DH). We will present a critical perspective on some of the problems and potentials relating to the visualisation of past (primarily non-urban) landscapes, with particular emphasis on the use of empirical evidence, from a combined environmental and archaeological point of view. We will outline some of the major challenges associated with reconstructing past landscapes from data, and give some examples of recent attempts to create platforms for addressing some of these issues. We will also briefly discuss the importance of landscape visualisation in the context of heritage management.

  • 232.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Nyqvist, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Alexander, Benedict
    WSP, Sweden.
    Palsson, Gisli
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    The Swedish Transport Administration’s Toolbox and its Potential in Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Survey: Including a brief review of remote sensing, prospection and geodata analysis methods for archaeology and cultural heritage2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the main remote sensing methods and geodata types used in archaeological prospection and cultural heritage survey. Based on a literature review, it provides an initial survey of the state of the art nationally and internationally, followed by details on the potential usage of different methods in a Swedish context. The details include pros and cons of methods as well as information on considerations that should be taken into account when applying the methods in different situations. Examples are provided where relevant to explain specific details or illustrate important points. Particular attention has been paid to laser scanning (LiDAR) data due to its increasing prevalence and prominence in landscape and archaeological surveys.

    The report continues with a preliminary evaluation of the possibilities for using data provided by Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), obtained for other stages of the planning process, in archaeological and cultural heritage work. Specifically, the report looks at a number of geodata types obtained from The Geological Survey of Sweden (Sveriges geologiska undersökning/SGU), a nature conservation survey in report form, a ground penetrating radar technical report, terrain laser scanning (LiDAR) and orthophotos (geometrically corrected aerial photographs). The SGU geodata consist of a number of Geographical Information System (GIS) layers describing bedrock and soil types, and the nature conservation survey included accompanying, but incomplete, GIS data. This section consists of concise descriptions of the potential of each group of GIS layers or data, and is complemented by brief, bullet point summaries along with additional technical information in Appendix 1. Comments have been made where additional, related, data sources would be useful. Swedish terms are included in parenthesis where the term differs significantly from the English equivalent.

    A final summary provides a compact overview of the main points of the report before providing some conclusions and ideas for further work. This is in turn followed by a list of ideas for enhancing the efficiency with which the types of data discussed can be used in infrastructure projects which have a potential to impact on archaeology/cultural heritage.

    References are provided to support important or potentially contentious points or where further reading or research would be advised for a more comprehensive understanding of relevant issues.

  • 233.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Sadler, Jon
    Manual for the Beta test version of BUGS: a computer based palaeoentomological research aid1995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 234.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Blombocken avslöjar forntiden: Databaser.2017Inngår i: Populär arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014, nr 5, s. 28-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Databaser. Fossila insekter och förkolnade fröer kan ge mycket information om de miljöer som människor har levt i och kan liksom annan biologisk information tjäna arkeologi

  • 235.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    ICT Services and System Development (ITS), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD)2018Inngår i: Encyclopedia of global archaeology / [ed] Smith, C., Cham: Springer, 2018, 2Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archaeology encompasses a wide range of scientific methods for analyzing the results of past human activities, environments, climates, and perhaps, most importantly, the relationships between these. Many of these methods are referred to as proxy analyses, denoting the illumination of the past as interpreted indirectly through the evidence of fossil organisms or properties. These lines of evidence, or proxy data sources, are assumed to reflect past conditions by way of their dependence on them. For example, a species of beetle may only survive within a specific climate range, and thus its presence in samples indicates this climate at the time of deposition; organic waste deposited around a farmstead will raise soil phosphate levels above those of the surrounding land; and the presence of cereal grains in postholes suggests their local cultivation or import, usage, or storage.

  • 236.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Symonds, James
    Archaeological Investigation into Subsurface Features at Elvaston, Derbyshire;  A Proposal1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 237.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Symonds, James
    ARCUS Project 220: archaeology at Elvaston, Derbyshire1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 238.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Pollen analysis of samples from the defensive ditch (vollgrav) at Site FO4 Klypen-Øst, Follobanen, Oslo2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine samples were submitted for pollen analyses from three profiles from the "Vollgrav"defensive ditch feature, at the Follobanen FO4 Klypen-Øst excavation in Oslo. These samples were investigated with respect to their pollen contents and, in a separate investigation, soil micromorphology. The micromorphological methods and results are described in detail in a separate report from Richard Macphail (2016). Where relevant, these findings are commented on with respect to the other analysis results below.

  • 239.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Yuan Zhuo, Don
    University of Sheffield.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    University of Sheffield.
    Towards an Expert System in Palaeoentomology1997Inngår i: Studies in Quaternary Entomology: an Inordinate Fondness for Insects / [ed] A.C. Ashworth, P.C. Buckland & J.P. Sadler, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. , 1997, s. 71-77Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of Quaternary insect fossils, principally of Coleoptera, the beetles, are now sufficiently frequent to warrant the construction of a database to maintain easy access to the record. BUGS, however, seeks to go beyond this and provide ecological and distributional data on the modern fauna to enable more precise reconstructions of apst environments. This paper summarizes the program and its salient features and discusses the application of intra- and intersite statistics, which the database allows.

  • 240.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Samuel, Ericson
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Pollen, plant macrofossil and geoarchaeological analyses of profile 11632, Follobanen FO3, Oslo2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 241.
    Buckland, Philip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Pollenanalys från Rörbäcksnäs, Sälen, Dalarna2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet anlitades för att undersöka ett flertal torvmossar innanför föreslagna alternativa vägkorridorer i området nordöst om byn Rörbäcksnäs i Malung-Sälens kommun, Dalarna. Målen var att 1) undersöka den arkeologiska potentialen av våtmarkssediment som skulle förstöras av det föreslagna vägbygget och 2) utföra analyser på ett urval av materialet om det bedömdes vara tillräckligt välbevarat och av vetenskapligt intresse för området.

  • 242.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bacterioplankton in the light of seasonality and environmental drivers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton are keystone organisms in marine ecosystems. They are important for element cycles, by transforming dissolved organic carbon and other nutrients. Bacterioplankton community composition and productivity rates change in surface waters over spatial and temporal scales. Yet, many underlying biological processes determining when, why and how bacterioplankton react to changes in environmental conditions are poorly understood. Here, I used experiments with model bacteria and natural assemblages as well as field studies to determine molecular, physiological and ecological responses allowing marine bacteria to adapt to their environment.

    Experiments with the flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. MED134 aimed to determine how the metabolism of bacteria is influenced by light and different organic matter. Under light exposure, Dokdonia sp. MED134 expressed proteorhodopsin and adjusted its metabolism to use resources more efficiently when growing with lower-quality organic matter. Similar expression patterns were found in oceanic datasets, implying a global importance of photoheterotrophic metabolisms for the ecology of bacterioplankton.

    Further, I investigated how the composition and physiology of bacterial assemblages are affected by elevated CO2 concentrations and inorganic nutrients. In a large-scale experiment, bacterioplankton could keep productivity and community structure unaltered by adapting the gene expression under CO2 stress. To maintain pH homeostasis, bacteria induced higher expression of genes related to respiration, membrane transport and light acquisition under low-nutrient conditions. Under high-nutrient conditions with phytoplankton blooms, such regulatory mechanisms were not necessary. These findings indicate that open ocean systems are more vulnerable to ocean acidification than coastal waters.

    Lastly, I used field studies to resolve how bacterioplankton is influenced by environmental changes, and how this leads to seasonal succession of marine bacteria. Using high frequency sampling over three years, we uncovered notable variability both between and within years in several biological features that rapidly changed over short time scales. These included potential phytoplankton-bacteria linkages, substrate uptake rates, and shifts in bacterial community structure. Thus, high resolution time series can provide important insights into the mechanisms controlling microbial communities.

    Overall, this thesis highlights the advantages of combining molecular and traditional oceanographic methodological approaches to study ecosystems at high resolution for improving our understanding of the physiology and ecology of microbial communities and, ultimately, how they influence biogeochemical processes.

  • 243.
    Bunse, Carina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Karlsson, Christofer M. G.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Akram, Neelam
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Vila-Costa, Maria
    Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes-CSIC, Spain.
    Palovaara, Joakim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Svensson, Lovisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Holmfeldt, Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    González, José M.
    University of La Laguna, Spain.
    Calvo, Eva
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pelejero, Carles
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Marrasé, Cèlia
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Dopson, Mark
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Gasol, Josep M.
    Institut de Ciències del Mar—CSIC, Spain.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Response of marine bacterioplankton pH homeostasis gene expression to elevated CO22016Inngår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 483-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced ocean acidification impacts marine life. Marine bacteria are major drivers of biogeochemical nutrient cycles and energy fluxes1; hence, understanding their performance under projected climate change scenarios is crucial for assessing ecosystem functioning. Whereas genetic and physiological responses of phytoplankton to ocean acidification are being disentangled2, 3, 4, corresponding functional responses of bacterioplankton to pH reduction from elevated CO2 are essentially unknown. Here we show, from metatranscriptome analyses of a phytoplankton bloom mesocosm experiment, that marine bacteria responded to lowered pH by enhancing the expression of genes encoding proton pumps, such as respiration complexes, proteorhodopsin and membrane transporters. Moreover, taxonomic transcript analysis showed that distinct bacterial groups expressed different pH homeostasis genes in response to elevated CO2. These responses were substantial for numerous pH homeostasis genes under low-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a <2.5 μg l−1); however, the changes in gene expression under high-chlorophyll conditions (chlorophyll a >20 μg l−1) were low. Given that proton expulsion through pH homeostasis mechanisms is energetically costly, these findings suggest that bacterioplankton adaptation to ocean acidification could have long-term effects on the economy of ocean ecosystems.

  • 244.
    Burdon, Jeremy J.
    et al.
    CSIRO-Plant Industry, Canberra, Australia.
    Thrall, Peter H.
    CSIRO-Plant Industry, Canberra, Australia.
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The current and future dynamics of disease in plant communities2006Inngår i: Annual Review of Phytopathology, ISSN 0066-4286, E-ISSN 1545-2107, Vol. 44, s. 19-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogens are powerful evolutionary forces shaping the structure and dynamics of both individual species and of the communities of which they are part, at a broad range of genetic, ecological, spatial, and temporal scales. At all these levels their impact varies from the subtle and little recognized through to the most obvious destruction. Today the direct role of pathogens in natural plant communities is better recognized than at previous times, although the nuances of their interactions and the cascade of ramifications that can flow through changing biotic and abiotic effects are only now gaining recognition. However, as human influence on pathogens increases either directly through enhanced if accidental dispersal, or through anthropogenic impacts on climate-we may expect to see increasing evidence of pathogens affecting plant species, community structure, and ecosystem function.

  • 245. Buss, Wolfram
    et al.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Mašek, Ondřej
    Unexplored potential of novel biochar-ash composites for use as organo-mineral fertilizers2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 208, s. 960-967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of wood ash on forest and agricultural soils can provide nutrients and increase soil pH, however, it changes the soil chemistry rapidly and temporarily, often resulting in reduced plant growth and potassium leaching. Biochar from woody materials are nutrient poor and need nutrient enhancement prior to soil application. In this study, spruce residues were mixed with spruce/pine ash in different ratios (0–50%) to produce biochar-ash composites at 450 °C. The biochar yield (ash-free basis) increased by 80–90% with the addition of 50% ash due to catalytic biochar formation. Consequently, nearly half the amount of wood is needed to produce the same amount of (ash-free) biochar. Mineral release was moderated in the composites compared to pure ash, demonstrated by a lower electric conductivity and % available K content (a factor of 2.5–4.4 lower than in wood ash). Furthermore, the % available chromium content, which is a key potentially toxic element in wood ash, decreased by a factor of 50–160. Soil application of biochar-ash composites decreases the risk of Cr toxicity, salinity stress and leaching of K in soil substantially compared to ash application. Biochar-ash composites are a novel product with vast unexplored potential for use in forestry and agriculture.

  • 246.
    Bylund, Karolin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bygg- och rivningsavfall utifrån ett miljöperspektiv: Med fokus på EU:s avfallsmål och en hållbar avfallshantering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to identify the current waste management of non-hazardous construction and demolition waste in a few Swedish construction companies, based on the different steps in the waste hierarchy with a focus on waste prevention, reuse and recycle. Additionally, the purpose was to attempt identifying opportunities, obstacles and as well as to propose possible solutions from an environmental perspective. The method used was a qualitative study using interviews conducted through emails and phone with employees occupying positions that could answer this reports questions. The results of this report indicates that waste management of construction and demolition waste has improved, and less waste goes into landfills. The concern is that the overall amount of waste being produced is not decreasing, thus calling for actions preventing the production of waste. Construction companies are relatively inexperienced dealing with waste prevention, however, they have embraced the challenge and set out ambitious goals. Further, it can be argued that a solution to raise the level of waste recycling and reuse can be achieved through a more detailed sorting process onsite, which can lead to an increased resource-efficiency. Obstacles to this solution was allocated to a lack of time and space onsite in order to ensure an efficient sorting process. The conclusion is to continue advocate for waste prevention and implementing 100 percent sorting of waste material onsite in order to prevent further negative environmental impact.

  • 247.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ulf
    Hjälten, Alexander
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ståhl, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, David
    Olsson, Jens
    Declining coastal piscivore populations in the Baltic Sea: where and when do sticklebacks matter?2015Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, nr Suppl 3, s. S462-S471Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraguild predation interactions make fish communities prone to exhibit alternative stable states with either piscivore or prey fish dominance. In the Baltic Sea, local declines of coastal piscivores like perch (Perca fluviatilis) have been observed to coincide with high densities of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Mechanisms behind this shift between piscivore and stickleback dominance were studied both experimentally and in field. Results showed that predation by sticklebacks has a strong negative effect on perch larvae survival, but this effect rapidly decreases with increasing perch size, likely due to gape limitations and digestion constraints in sticklebacks. Large spatial and temporal variations in patterns of stickleback migration into perch spawning sites were observed. Whether or not high density of sticklebacks will cause declines in coastal piscivore populations is suggested to depend on the availability of spawning sites in which sticklebacks do not migrate into or arrive late in the reproduction season of coastal piscivores.

  • 248.
    Båmstedt, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Blomqvist, Sven
    Konsekvenser för Östersjöns biologi av förändrat klimat under 21:a århundradet2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 249.
    Båmstedt, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Larsson, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    An indoor pelagic mesocosm facility to simulate multiple water-column characteristics2018Inngår i: International Aquatic Research, ISSN 2008-4935, E-ISSN 2008-6970, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 13-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesocosms are important research tools in aquatic ecology because they close the gap between laboratory studies at the individual or lower organization level and field studies at the population and ecosystem level. However, most mesocosm studies regarding the pelagic environment do not consider the effects of physical factors like water-column stratification, turbulence and mixing. Neglecting such factors might bias the results compared to the natural system. Using a unique indoor mesocosm facility, we present results on how different water-column stratifications can be made and how they act as barriers for exchange between water layers. Turbulent mixing, simulated by vertically rotating incubation vessels, is shown to be of high importance for primary production, generating up to nine times higher production in humus-rich water than incubation vessels at fixed depths. Convective stirring is shown to be an attractive method for generating different turbulence conditions, and different temperature settings can be used to get turnover times from 84 h or more down to 17 min for a 5-m water parcel. We also demonstrate how an anoxic bottom layer can be achieved by stimulating heterotrophic bacteria through addition of bioavailable organic carbon.

  • 250.
    Béguin, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hales, Simon
    University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Louis, Valérie R
    Institute for Public Health, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The opposing effects of climate change and socio-economic development on the global distribution of malaria2011Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 1209-1214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current global geographic distribution of malaria results from a complex interaction between climatic and non-climatic factors. Over the past century, socio-economic development and public health measures have contributed to a marked contraction in the distribution of malaria. Previous assessments of the potential impact of global changes on malaria have not quantified the effects of non-climate factors. In this paper, we describe an empirical model of the past, present and future-potential geographic distribution of malaria which incorporates both the effects of climate change and of socio-economic development. A logistic regression model using temperature, precipitation and gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) identifies the recent global geographic distribution of malaria with high accuracy (sensitivity 85% and specificity 95%). Empirically, climate factors have a substantial effect on malaria transmission in countries where GDPpc is currently less than US$20,000. Using projections of future climate, GDPpc and population consistent with the IPCC A1B scenario, we estimate the potential future population living in areas where malaria can be transmitted in 2030 and 2050. In 2050, the projected population at risk is approximately 5.2 billion when considering climatic effects only, 1.95 billion when considering the combined effects of GDP and climate, and 1.74 billion when considering GDP effects only. Under the A1B scenario, we project that climate change has much weaker effects on malaria than GDPpc increase. This outcome is, however, dependent on optimistic estimates of continued socioeconomic development. Even then, climate change has important effects on the projected distribution of malaria, leading to an increase of over 200 million in the projected population at risk.

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