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  • 201. Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Kucerova, Jana
    Ozcelebi, Oguzhan
    Snow reliability and climate elasticity: case of a Slovak ski resort2015Ingår i: Tourism Review, ISSN 1660-5373, E-ISSN 1759-8451, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Purpose – The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between climate and tourism development data as an example of an emerging winter and ski tourism destination in Slovakia. Design/methodology/approach – The method aims to discover the relationship through snow-reliability and regression analyses and to further implicate the consequences of such established relationship under a changing (warming) climate. Findings – As a result of the research, the authors can predict that a 1 per cent fall in snow depth and visibility would erode the ski demand by 1.2 and 0.12 per cent, respectively, a 1°C rise of the mean temperature, on the other hand, would indicate a 6 per cent loss of skipass sales. The latter finding translates into a further 6.6 to 19.2 per cent loss of sales on account of the anticipated temperature increases for the twenty-first century. The capacity of the resort for the utmost adaptation strategy, snowmaking, is also to deteriorate with the daytime/fulltime annual good quality production range to reduce from 33/45 days to 10-26/14-34 days, according to the emissions-related warming scenarios and in terms of the commonly available current technology. Practical implications – The results of the study can help the management of ski resorts to adopt strategies for the future development by taking into account the predicted climatic changes. Originality/value – This study is the first type of study performed in Slovakia and can contribute to the better understanding of the relationship between climate change and the performance of the ski tourism resorts. It also delivers innovation by considering wet-bulb temperature in snow-reliability analyses and also by coining the “climate elasticity” concept. Keywords Climate change, Climate elasticity, Cochrane-Orcutt procedure, Ski tourism, Slovakia, Snow reliability Paper type Case study

  • 202.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Tokmakcioglu, Kaya
    Department of Management Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Second Home Property Values in the Swedish Mountain2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has and will have its impacts on the tourism industry, especially where weather-dependent amenities constitute the key attractions. In this study, our aim is to assess the impacts of climate change on existing and proposed second homes in and around ski resorts in the Swedish mountains, which are determined as among the most attractive locations for such development. It is thought that, along with climate change induced natural disasters and phenomena such as landslides, avalanches, floods and permafrost thaw, property value loss (or gain) is a major climate change impact that needs to be considered in conjunction with the vulnerability of skiing-based second homes and their immediate and wider regions. For this purpose, firstly, corresponding (and lagged) states of the ski climate are treated as estimators for second home sales prices for the 2000-2016 period and, secondly, the quantified relationship is simulated according to future climate projections, based on data available from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The results are mapped in terms of existing and potential skiing-based second home regions, the latter with a certain focus on the "winners", and according to different representative concentration pathways.

  • 203.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Development of downhill skiing tourism in Sweden: past, present, and future2019Ingår i: Winter tourism: trends and challenges / [ed] Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, Harold Richins and Stefan Türk, CABI Publishing, 2019, s. 305-323Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 204.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Establishing Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) in Azerbaijan, Cameroon and Iran2019Ingår i: AIRTH 2019,  Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Sustainable SuccessInnsbruck, Austria, September 12–14, 2019, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 205.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ülgen, İ. Gökalp
    Climate Change and Tourism: An Extended Framework2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and tourism mutually interact under complexity. Initially, climate change imposes its impacts on various tourism types while origins, destinations and flows of the tourism system constitute a certain amount of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that drive climate change. As responses to these initial conditions, tourism supply and demand engage in strategies and behaviours that allow for adaptation to impacts whereas global and local efforts for mitigation of climate change focus on reducing emissions resulting from tourism activities. At a tertiary level, one finds the rebound effects that arise from underdeveloped adaptation and mitigation efforts. These effects manifest themselves as amplified vulnerabilities and emissions due to maladaptation and mal-mitigation moves. This study explains the climate-tourism relationship with an emphasis on such tertiary dimension, and presents the extended framework by a holistic case of winter tourism.

  • 206.
    Demiroglu, Osman Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    Oulun yliopisto, Oulu, Finland; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    The last resort?: Ski tourism and climate change in Arctic Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of Tourism Futures, ISSN 2055-5911, E-ISSN 2055-592XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the external and internal factors that support or challenge a possible transformation of Arctic Sweden into a major ski destination under a changing climate. Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions future availability of the physical and the human factors that foster ski tourism development in Arctic Sweden and suggests a comparative case study in relation to the already existing large resort-based ski destinations in Arctic Finland. Findings – Preliminary documentary analysis shows that the governmental and the industrial discourses over the past decade have acknowledged a competitive edge for Sweden and its northernmost regions in particular and may even propose a structural shift for ski tourism in the near future agenda. The visualisations based on natural snow projections presented in this paper confirm this comparative advantage but other technical and socioeconomic development factors are further discussed, in relation to Arctic Finland. Research limitations/implications – Future research agenda is suggested to cover, first, assessment of natural and technical snow reliability of existing and all potential ski areas in Sweden and within its competitive set extending to all the Nordics and the Alps, then, incorporation of adaptive capacities of the suppliers but especially the likely substitution tendencies of the consumers, and finally, evaluation of the overall situation in terms of the regional development needs. Social implications – It is apparent that land use conflicts will arise in case of large ski resort-based destination development in Arctic Sweden, especially around the environmentally protected areas, which are not only already important attractions for nature-based tourism but also traditional livelihoods for the Sami. Originality/value – This is the first paper to discuss a potential regional and structural shift of ski tourism in Sweden.

  • 207.
    Demiroglu, Osman Cenk
    et al.
    School of Tourism and Hospitality, Istanbul Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Turp, Mustafa Tufan
    Ozturk, Tugba
    An, Nazan
    Kurnaz, Mehmet Levent
    Technical climate change adaptation options of the major ski resorts in Bulgaria2016Ingår i: Sustainable mountain regions: challenges and perspectives in Southeastern Europe / [ed] Boian Koulov and Georgi Zhelezov, Springer, 2016, s. 77-88Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has been and increasingly will be a major threat to the ski tourism industry, whose survival is highly dependent on the existence of snow cover of sufficient depth and duration. For this matter, it is even now more usual for the ski resorts to adapt to this issue by various measures at the technical, operational, and political levels. Technically speaking, snowmaking has become the method most used throughout the industry to combat the immediate impacts of climate change, while moving the ski areas to higher terrains has been standing out as an another option, wherever available and feasible. In this study, the aim is to project the future climatic changes in snowmaking capacity; in other words, technical snow reliability, and the moving requirements, if any, of the four major ski resorts in Bulgaria for the period of 2016–2030 with respect to the control period of 1991–2005. For this purpose, the past and the future climatic conditions for the technical snow reliability of the ski resorts and their immediate surroundings are determined by the temperature and the relative humidity values generated and projected through the Regional Climate Model RegCM 4.4 of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) by scaling the global climate model MPI-ESM-MR of Max Planck Institute for Meteorology down to a resolution of 10 km. The model is further processed according to the recent RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 concentration scenarios of the IPCC. The model outputs on air temperature and relative humidity are utilized for determination of wet-bulb temperatures through psychographic conversions that ultimately provide us with thresholds for snowmaking limits. Findings display the temporal changes in the snowmaking hours of the ski resorts at various altitudinal levels calculated according to the environmental lapse rates. Such displays can guide the practitioners in considering investment lives and moving the ski resorts according to optimistic and pessimistic projections.

  • 208.
    Dohee, Kim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Causes, Experiences, and Consequences of Ethnic Food Consumption: A Case Study of Korean Restaurants in Sweden2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate relations among causes, experiences, and consequences of consuming Korean food at Korean restaurants in Sweden. With a specific focus on Korean food in Stockholm, where most of the Korean restaurants in Sweden are located in, this study identifies significant push and pull factors regarding ethnic food experience at ethnic restaurants and consequences affected by actual customer experience. Based on knowledge and insights from related studies in the mobility, hospitality and tourism literature, food consumption and sociological research, 21 push and pull factors are identified and the levels of expectation and satisfaction are measured. Relations between customer satisfaction and the consequences of Korean food experience at Korean restaurants are also examined. A survey designed for those who have been to Korean restaurants in Stockholm was distributed via online communities. The findings identify perceptions, satisfaction and future behavior intention of consumers at Korean restaurants in Stockholm. Also, the findings present significant relationships among causes, experiences, and consequences of consuming Korean food. It suggests that food and service are important factors to attract customers to Korean restaurants and that Korean restaurants need to improve food and service attributes for better customer satisfaction, which can result in the positive future behavioral intention of customers. Also, the relationship between Korean food experience and intention to travel to Korea, in general terms, food-induced tourism, need to be further studies, as it can be useful for Korean tourism organizations and destination marketers to make strategies in order to attract more tourists from Sweden.

  • 209. Dubois, Alexandre
    et al.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Die hard: On the persistence of Swedish upland farming2019Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 69, s. 41-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an inductive quantitative approach, this article examines empirically the main characteristics of upland farming in the northern periphery of Sweden. This approach allows us to stepwise 'reconstruct' upland farming in its north Swedish manifestation. The data features farm-level and aggregated data from four municipalities stretching from the Bothnian Golf to the Norwegian border. The combination of GIS and advanced statistical analysis (clustering and regression) provides a robust evidence-base characterising upland farming at the nexus of multiple dimensions: territoriality (e.g. remote location, harsh climate, scattered settlement structure), style (e.g. labour extensive, small-scale, mixed fanning) and livelihood (e.g. plurlactive, diversification, subsidy dependent). The article emphasizes the potentially central role of upland farming in bringing into coherent policy initiatives promoting sustainable community development in the periphery. The study also looks ahead and urges scholars to adopt more systematically mixed methods in future upland farming studies in order to render the complexity of this socio-spatial phenomenon.

  • 210.
    Edelheim, Johan R.
    et al.
    The Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, Norway; Multidimensional Tourism Institute, University of Lapland, Finland.
    Thomas, Kimberly
    School of Hospitality, Food and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, OT, Canada.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Phi, Giang
    Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    What do conferences do?: What is academics' intangible return of investment (ROI) from attending an academic conference?2018Ingår i: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 94-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conferences are funny events. They are self-evident elements of our lives as academics: meetings that occur, often annually; take place in various locations; and involve (hopefully) like-minded people, aiming to share their latest research findings. Conferences are actually so selfevident that very little research exists analysing what takes place at conferences, why people attend them in the first place, and essentially what the conference does to delegates as participants. This article is, on one hand, a reflective report from an academic conference: TEFI 9 —Celebrating the Disruptive Power of Caring in Tourism Education. But it is also simultaneously an analysis of the implicit and explicit rationale and return on investment for attending academic conferences, in the words of three, at that time, PhD candidate rapporteurs and one professor rapporteur, who acts as this article's narrator.

  • 211.
    Edholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Marknadsföring av en destination efter en kris: Tunisien efter terrorattackerna 20152018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to reveal what marketing strategies Tunisia has used to alter their place image for the better after the terror attacks that occurred in the country 2015. These terror attacks had a negative effect on Tunisia’s tourism industry; the annual GDP brought by the tourist industry decreased by 19,73%. By using “the multi-step model for altering place image” developed by Eli Avraham and Eran Ketter, this study contains a thematic analysis on qualitative content such as news reports, advertising campaigns and press interviews to uncover what marketing strategies were used by Tunisian official tourism marketers and officials to restore the destinations positive place image and bring back tourist after the terror attacks. The result shows that Tunisia has used strategies from all three categories of strategies; source, audience and message. Furthermore, this study contributes to a better understanding on what marketing strategies a destination could use to alter their place image after gone through a crisis. 

  • 212.
    Edholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Property Crime in The City and County of San Francisco 2016 - 2017: Applying GIS to Crime Pattern Theory2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s aim is to reveal statistically significant hot spots and temporal patterns of property crime in the City and County of San Francisco and to also analyse the relationship between property crimes and the environment in which these crimes occur by using Geographic Information System (GIS). Crime pattern theory was used as the framework for the analysis of environmental surroundings and occurrence of crime. This theory indicates that certain places can be crime generators and attractors. The result showed that there are hot spots of crime in the north-eastern part of San Francisco, and that crime in these high-risk areas are intensifying. Then, by visual examination of density maps of property crime and facilities, such as shopping centres, pubs/bars/nightclubs and Bay Area Rapid Transit stations, it is shown that these facilities can explain concentrations of crime in certain areas. Furthermore, this study shows GIS can be a practical tool to utilize when presenting data of crime when used in combination with social theories which focuses on the causes of crime occurrence. 

  • 213.
    Edler, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Cyklisters preferenser för val av cykelväg: En studie om vägval och preferenser vid cykling genom Öst på stan i Umeå2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie berör studenters preferenser när det gäller transporter som görs med cykel. Studien begränsas till området Öst på stan med universitetsområdet och centrum som start och målpunkt inom Umeå kommun. Studien bygger på en fallstudie där ett 70-tal studenters resonemang och åsikter behandlas utifrån vad som är mer och mindre attraktiva inslag rörande cykelvägars utformning. Samt om det finns andra beståndsdelar som är viktiga vid val av cykelväg förutom utformningen. Deras åsikter preciseras både genom en kvantitativ enkätundersökning samt en kvalitativ gruppintervju. Vidare genomfördes en tematisering för att strukturera den data som framkommit från respondenterna.

     

    Respondenterna utrycker att cykelvägarna bör erbjuda god framkomlighet och standard för att dessa ska anses värda att användas. Exempel på positiv utformning är: God sikt, underhåll av vägens hårda ytor samt hantering av snö och vatten. Även vägbredd och separering är attraktiva inslag för god utformning. Utöver utformning är kopplingar mellan målpunkter viktigt för att vägen ska anses användarvänlig. De slutsatser som dras inom studien är att Öst på stans fyra cykelvägar erbjuder olika standard sinsemellan. Kvalitén på vägarna anses ändå så pass bra att detta inte inverkar i valet av färdväg. Vad som spelar in i valet av färdväg för respondenterna är istället den upplevda kopplingen mellan de två målpunkter som behandlas för denna fallstudie. Samt den upplevda tid det tar att nyttja en väg. Den upplevda kopplingen är i sin tur baserad på den lokalkännedom som studenterna har om platsen. Detta innebär således att valet av cykelväg grundas främst på den kännedom studenter har om möjliga vägar och i andra hand vilka punkter dessa vägar kopplar samman för detta studieområde.

  • 214.
    Edlund, Lars-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Litteraturvetenskap och nordiska språk.
    Kartor: - mentala och andra2006Ingår i: Gränslöst: - Forskning i Sverige och i världen [Festkrift tillägnad Dan Brändström], Natur och Kultur, Stockholm , 2006, s. 175-191 + 12 kartorKapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 215.
    Edlund, Lars-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Some reflections on mental maps2018Ingår i: Journal of Cultural Geography, ISSN 0887-3631, E-ISSN 1940-6320, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 274-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The point of departure for this essay is a map drawn in 1963 by the writer’s maternal grandfather. It represents the village of Berg, located in northern Sweden, and depicts his activities as a farmer and hunter. But it is also based on grandfather’s collective knowledge of the village. In what follows I will examine mental maps of microspaces that reflect what is important to an individual or to the members of a community. One shows how Aivilik Inuits perceive their local environment; another set of urban maps from Los Angeles, California, are based on the views of residents in different areas. The social divides become strikingly apparent on these mental maps. Among the conspicuous features of my grandfather’s map are the images he drew to supplement the various geographical locations he laid out. In this respect one might compare medieval mappae mundi that is, maps of the world representing compendiums of all things worth knowing. I also consider the appearance of mysterious gaps on grandfather’s map, that is, “the silences”. Many general perspectives on mental mapping are suggested by a consideration of the map my grandfather drew.

  • 216.
    Ednarsson, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Svensk samhällsvetenskaplig viltforskning - en kunskapsöversikt2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present review addresses the Swedish social science game research, but outlooks are made to both the Norwegian qualitative research about the large carnivore conflicts and when it has been appropriate, looks are also taken towards more international research. The review concerns mainly two major areas of research. The first area deals with research related to hunting and game, in which such research on the economic importance of hunting is analyzed. Here we also find the relatively comprehensive environmental economic research on people’s willingness to pay for different species. The second major area of research concerns the social science research conducted in Sweden (and Norway) around the large carnivores. The conflict surrounding large carnivores naturally dominates among the reviewed studies. But even studies about the media coverage of large carnivores and large carnivore-based wildlife tourism are also covered in this review.

  • 217.
    Eerbeek, van, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Thai local brokers in the Swedish berry industry: Roles and positions across time and space2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, each year 2500 - 6000 Thai go to Sweden to work as berry pickers during the berry season via a regulated system of temporary work permits. Bangkok-based staffing agencies rely on the networks of local brokers to recruit workers in Thailand’s more peripheral northeastern Isan region, as part of the larger migration industry in Thailand. During the berry season, these local brokers also travel to Sweden and are part of the division of labour. Next to picking berries, their jobs can be cook, camp leader, and driver. Key concerns raised in relation to this seasonal work are precarity and vulnerability to exploitation, resulting from to the need to pay high fees to staffing agencies and a piece-rate wage-system.

    This thesis aims to analyze roles and positions across time and space of local Thai brokers. It does so by examining how they have come to occupy their current positions, and what their roles are in the recruitment process in Thailand and during the during the berry season in Sweden. Moreover, it investigates the interlinkages between these two roles, and how differences in remuneration and payments of fees shape precarity at the micro-scale.

    Based on the analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted in the Kaeng Khro district in Thailand in March 2019, this study suggests that the local brokers are industry veterans. Moreover, is suggests a large degree of variation in size and scope of local brokerage. During the berry season in Sweden, the local brokers tend to occupy positions above the regular berry pickers. Moreover, it is suggested that there is a differentiated precarity within the group of brokers, resulting from differences in the payment of wages and the need to pay fees to staffing agencies.

  • 218.
    Egerbladh, Inez
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen.
    Bittles, AH
    Socioeconomic, demographic and legal influences on consanguinity and kinship in northern coastal Sweden 1780-18992011Ingår i: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 413-435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies on consanguinity have been conducted on contemporary populations and have focused on the prevalence and types of preferred intra-familial marriage. With its comprehensive birth, marriage and deaths records dating back to the late 17th century, and the legal bar on first cousin marriage removed in the mid-19th century, Sweden offers unique opportunities to examine the factors that determine by whom, where and why consanguineous marriages were contracted. The present study covers the period 1780-1899 and presents a detailed portrait of cousin and sibling exchange marriages in the Skelleftea region of northern coastal Sweden. The combined prevalence of first, second and third cousin marriage increased from 2.3% in 1790-1810 to 8.8% in 1880-1899, and multi-generation consanguinity also increased significantly over the study period. The distribution and prevalence of first cousin marriages was strikingly non-random, with a significantly greater propensity for consanguinity among land-owning families, especially involving first-born sons, within specific pedigrees, and in a number of more remote inland communities. Additional factors associated with a greater likelihood of consanguineous marriage included physical or mental disability among males, and among females the prior birth of an illegitimate child. Besides the inherent interest in the social and demographic structure of this region of northern Sweden during the course of the 19th century, in future studies it will be important to determine the degree to which the observed patterns of consanguineous and sibling exchange marriages in these past generations could have influenced present-day genetic structure.

  • 219.
    Ehrström, Peter
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Eriksson, MadeleineUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Bottniska trästäder2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är mycket mera som förenar än åtskiljer bottniska trästäder från varandra. Denna antologi samlar artiklar från flera städer kring Bottniska viken, från Norrbotten, Västerbotten och Österbotten. Gemensamt är bland annat att det på 1960- och 1970-talen revs värdefulla trähusmiljöer som ersattes med moderna byggnader. De städer och stadsdelar som ingår i Bottniska trästäder delar också likartade erfarenheter av att utgöra geografisk periferi och står på 2010-talet inför likartade utmaningar vad gäller det byggda kulturarvets framtid. Fyra av artiklarna behandlar vad som hänt sedan 1970-talet med den gamla trähusbebyggelsen i Skellefteå, Piteå, Öjebyn och Luleå. Det finländska materialet uppvisar en större tidsmässig, geografisk och tematisk spännvidd. Kaskö exemplifierar en trästad som i praktiken har bevarats intakt medan Neristan i Karleby utgör en bevarad trähusmiljö i staden. Brändö i Vasa uppvisar enbart en delvis bevarad trähusstadsdel, där byggnadsskyddet återigen utmanas. Bottniska trästäder hoppas väcka intresse för, och diskussion om, stadsomvandling och vikten av att värna det byggda kulturarvet.

  • 220.
    Eichholz, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    ’Leisure time of German business travelers in Örnsköldsvik during business trips?’2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 221.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Ambivalent Dutch lifestyle migrants in rural Sweden2014Ingår i: AEMI Journal, ISSN 1729-3561, Vol. 12, s. 48-57Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Dutch families who moved to Hällefors municipality (rural Sweden) in the early 21st century. It discusses ambivalent discourses comparing pre-migration to post-migration life. As studied in this text, the direction of the move (north), the destination (a deprived municipality) and the structure for the decision process (a municipality and an agency deliberately attracting incomers) are novel aspects to existing studies of lifestyle migration. The paper aims to examine the migration process of Dutch lifestyle migrants in Hällefors and their ambivalent attitudes towards returning. The main question addressed enhances our understanding of the motivations for a possible move away from Hällefors. This question is addressed through a qualitative study, conducted in 2011. The findings suggest that spontaneous movers are more ambivalent than long-term planning migrants. This leads to the conclusion that the permanent-temporary binary of movement is less valuable for conceptualising this group of migrants.

  • 222.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Flying dutchmen?: return reasoning among dutch lifestyle migrants in rural Sweden2017Ingår i: Mobilities, ISSN 1745-0101, E-ISSN 1745-011X, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 116-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to examine return reasoning among Dutch lifestyle migrant families in Hällefors, rural Sweden. It addresses two questions: after migrating to Hällefors, what influences return reasoning among Dutch families? What does this imply for return migration and transnationalism within lifestyle migration research? The questions are addressed through analysis of Dutch migrant families’ narratives, collected in 2011 and subsequent years. The findings are related to issues of transnationalism and return migration within lifestyle migration research. As many of these intra-EU urban–rural migrants are seriously considering returning, this study draws attention to temporary lifestyle migration over longer periods.

  • 223.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Örebro universitet.
    Holländska livsstilsmigranter i Bergslagen2014Ingår i: PLAN - Planering av stad och land, ISSN 0032-0560, nr 2, s. 36-38Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 224.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Örebro universitet.
    "I felt confined": Narratives of ambivalence among Dutch lifestyle migrants in rural Sweden.2015Ingår i: Place and Identity: A new landscape of Social and Political change in Sweden / [ed] Marco Eimermann & Anders Trumberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2015, s. 31-56Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary era of globalisation and time-space compression (Janelle 1991), many rural areas in Sweden and Europe have experienced international urban-to-rural migration (Hedberg & Do Carmo 2011). For instance, Müller (1999) studies German second-home owners in Småland. Among population geographers in Sweden, the county of Värmland is well-known for its large Dutch population (Andersen & Engström 2005, Eriksson Robertson 2010). However, rural municipalities such as Hällefors have not been studied in the context of Dutch lifestyle migration to the Swedish countryside.

  • 225.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lifestyle Migration beyond Consumption – Production Binaries: Dutch Migrants and Multifunctional Rural Land Use in Sweden2015Ingår i: Dve Domovini / Two Homelands, ISSN 0353-6777, E-ISSN 1581-1212, nr 42, s. 81-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle migration literature often focuses on lifestyle migrants as consumers. However, this paper shows how various modes of production are involved in everyday migrant lives as they seek to pro-duce the lifestyles sought. The paper’s aim is twofold: to explore issues of production in lifestyle mi-grants’ everyday lives, and to examine these migrants’ potential contributions to local rural develop-ment in lagging rural areas such as Swedish Bergslagen. This aim is addressed through two in-depth interview studies. The findings suggest that the respondents combine lifestyle-led motivations with seeking labour opportunities. Hence, studying these migrants is useful for investigating newcomers’ multifunctional rural land use and examining how their engagements with local rural development increases our understanding of their post-migration lives in lagging rural areas.

  • 226.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lifestyle Migration to the North: dutch Families and the Decision to Move to Rural Sweden2015Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 68-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle migration is part of an ongoing quest for a better way of life. More or less affluent migrants moving to a destination with a perceived better climate are studied in the context of social rather than economic motivations. This paper focuses on Dutch families and their decision to move to the rural municipality of Hällefors in the Bergslagen area, Sweden. Such a Nordic destination, actively attracting migrants, has not previously been investigated in the context of lifestyle migration. The purpose of the paper is to examine what factors contribute to the decision to move. The research questions are the following: what are the socio-demographic characteristics of the migrating families? What meanings do the migrants attach to their work environments and places of residence prior to moving? What motivations and expectations have shaped the decision to move? These questions are addressed through an interview study. Results show that the adult family members were mainly born in the late 1950s or in the 1960s. The children were born in the 1990s and early 21st century. According to most respondents, effects of overpopulation and rapid urbanisation, both felt on the work floor and in the living environment, became a serious trigger to leave the Netherlands. Differences between the families consider the character of occupations (within or outside the creative industries) and the length of the decision process. In contrast to some other lifestyle migrant populations, families in this study considered returning as part of their ongoing quest.

  • 227.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Örebro universitet.
    Promoting Swedish countryside in the Netherlands: international rural place marketing to attract new residents2015Ingår i: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 398-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban-to-rural consumption-led mobility contributes to restructuring stagnating rural areas in Europe. Against this background, this article explores international rural place-marketing efforts by Swedish municipalities towards affluent western European migrants, exemplified by campaigns in the Netherlands. The analysis is based on the concepts of rural place marketing and lifestyle migration. Research methods employed in this article are observation and a survey during migration information meetings, followed by interviews with both stakeholders and migrants. The results suggest that rural municipalities with less favourable or unfavourable geographic conditions are the most actively engaged in international place-marketing efforts. Participation in migration information meetings and the Internet are the most commonly used communication strategies. The engaged municipalities are selective in their consideration of target groups. Attracting even a few of the 'right type' of migrants (i.e. families and entrepreneurs from affluent countries) over the course of some years contributes considerably to maintaining a small municipality's population and economic viability. However, although stakeholders claim that the marketing efforts have been effective and statistics point out that the number of Dutch migrants has increased, it is hard to distinguish the effect of rural place-marketing campaigns from the myriad possibilities for migrants to gather information about potential destination areas. Therefore, regional policy makers may consider shifting their focus to actively receiving potential migrants who are in the final stage of their decision process.

  • 228.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Centre for Urban and Regional Studies (CUReS), Örebro universitet.
    Two sides of the same coin: Dutch rural tourism entrepreneurs and countryside capital in Sweden2016Ingår i: Rural Society, ISSN 1037-1656, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 55-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contrasts Sweden’s tourism policy considering sustainable growth and increased employment with experiences and evaluations of Dutch rural tourism entrepreneurs in Sweden. The study employs notions of countryside capital, investigating the effects on Dutch rural tourism entrepreneurs of experiences with Swedish national tourism policy aims and local populations. A tourism-migration nexus occurs where the entrepreneurs are attracted by countryside capital before migration and use this capital in their firms to attract new tourists after migration. Interviewees tell of experiences which frustrate optimal utilization of countryside capital. In combination with flexible attitudes conceptualized as multi-local living and strategic switching, this results in the risk of losing the entrepreneurs’ socio-economic impetus for lagging rural areas. The article relates this loss to incomers’ rural tourism business transfers after the initial start-up phase and questions the alleged transition from countrysides of production to countrysides of consumption.

  • 229.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Woube, Annie
    Rural place marketing and consumption-driven mobilities in Northern Sweden: challenges and opportunities for community sustainability2017Ingår i: Journal of Rural and Community Development, ISSN 1712-8277, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 12, nr 2-3, s. 114-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to other northern peripheries, remote, and sparsely populated areas (SPAs) in Sweden’s far north have been confronted with decreasing populations and economic stagnation, forcing local governments to more actively engage in strategies for attracting and retaining populations. This exploratory community case study considers rural place-marketing efforts in the municipalities of Åsele and Storuman, with a particular focus on understanding differing local strategies for attracting consumption-driven movers to "amenity-poor" and "amenity-rich" areas. The case study examines two research questions: what target groups do these municipalities envisage as desired new populations; and to what extent, and how, do they engage in rural place-marketing efforts? Our study reveals that the municipal officials’ views on rural place-marketing strategies differ considerably, as Åsele participates in Europe’s largest emigration expo while Storuman draws on its increasing tourism development to attract seasonal residents and returning young adults in the family-building stage of the life course. The findings further illustrate how production and performance aspects of mobility are essential when studying the socio-economic sustainability of everyday life in sparsely populated northern Swedish municipalities at different geographical places and levels.

  • 230.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    European lifestyle migrant entrepreneurs and their business networks in Swedish sparsely populated areas2018Ingår i: Processes of immigration in rural Europe: the status quo, implications and development strategies / [ed] Stefan Kordel, Tobias Weidinger and Igor Jelen, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018, s. 243-269Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of declining rural areas, active lifestyle migrants are expected to contribute to demographic rejuvenation and new economic development via their networks and access to novel knowledge, markets and capital. [...] this chapter studies local and transnational social networks as critical resources mainly for enabling or constraining migrant entrepreneurs' developing business practices.

  • 231.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Örebro universitet.
    Forsell, Håkan
    Örebro universitet.
    Introduction: themes and trajectories of urban and regional development in Swedish society2015Ingår i: Place and Identity: A new landscape of social and political change in Sweden / [ed] Eimermann, Marco & Anders Trumberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2015, s. 7-14Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 232.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Hayes, MatthewKorpela, Mari
    Conference proceedings for the Lifestyle migrationHub meeting28-29 November 2019Umeå University, Sweden: GERUM Geografisk Arbetsrapport (Working paper)2019Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle migration refers to the relocation of citizens from affluent industrialised nations in order to find a more meaningful and relaxed life, usually in places with lower living costs and sunny or otherwise attractive climates. Often, they claim to be escaping from the “rat-race”, hectic lifestyles and pressures at work. Retirees, on the other hand, often claim to search for a more active old age by moving abroad. Scholars of lifestyle migration and tourism-informed mobilities are interested in the social conditions that lead individuals to pursue ‘the good life’ through geographic mobility and travel. Lifestyle-informed migration creates new forms of transnational community and identity. It also has important social and environmental effects on receiving communities. Studies have e.g. focused on North Europeans moving to Spain (O’Reilly 2000), or buying second homes in Malta (Åkerlund 2013), or on the migration of North Americans and West Europeans to Latin American destinations (Hayes 2015), and to South or Southeast Asia (Benson & O’Reilly 2018).

  • 233.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Department of Geography, Media and Communication, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Swede.
    Globalising Swedish countrysides?: A relational approach to rural immigrant restaurateurs with refugee backgrounds2018Ingår i: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1951, E-ISSN 1502-5292, Vol. 72, nr 2, s. 82-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the article is to connect rural immigrants’ business ventures and development in Sweden to relational perspectives on their proximate and distant family and co-ethnic networks at structural and individual levels. Accordingly, the authors employ a relational approach and draw on in-depth interviews. In the context of urban–rural relationships’ meanings for the restaurateurs’ business benefits and constraints, they address two questions: (1) What does embeddedness in proximate and distant family and co-ethnic networks mean for the interviewed restaurateurs and for their businesses? and (2) How do previous and anticipated transitions in the restaurateurs' families influence their business decisions and migration trajectories? The results suggest that the interviewees employed transnational dimensions in their social embeddedness and that they maintained material and emotional relationships with their countries of origin. This relational approach thus contributes to a better understanding of what the studied businesses mean for the entrepreneurs and the selected localities. The restaurateurs contribute to a globalisation of Swedish countrysides, but their socio-economic potential for countering rural depopulation in Sweden is not fully realised. Additionally, the study illuminates how individuals influence, and are influenced by, place-to-place mobilities on a daily basis and during their life course.

  • 234.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Kordel, Stefan
    Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    International lifestyle migrant entrepreneurs in two New Immigration Destinations: Understanding their evolving mix of embeddedness2018Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 64, s. 241-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on consumption and production in lifestyle migration to New Immigration Destinations (NIDs). The aim is to understand how and why lifestyle migrants' structural and individual peculiarities affect socio-economic changes in NIDs. Data are drawn from biographical interviews with lifestyle migrants in rural Slovenia and Sweden, adding issues of production to the otherwise prevailing focus on consumption in lifestyle migration studies. We ask how the ongoing quest for a better life and the lifestyle migrants' embedding processes in various contexts affect each other. Studying lifestyle migrants’ strives for better lives implies both an implicit and an explicit focus on temporality, which can result in a complex mix of embeddedness. Although our participants desire social relations with local populations, they establish them to only a limited degree, deploying multiple local and social networks in various locations for business purposes. As such, this article contributes to discussions on the incorporation of novel populations in NIDs and how to evaluate their contributions to local rural development.

  • 235.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Lundmark, Mats
    Örebro University.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Exploring Dutch Migration to Rural Sweden: International Counterurbanisation in the EU2012Ingår i: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 103, nr 3, s. 330-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores whether the concept of counterurbanisation, expanded with an internationaldimension, offers a valuable framework for understanding recent migration flows from theNetherlands to Sweden. Using a geo-referenced database comprising demographic and socioeconomicvariables, the post-migration employment status, employment sector and settlementlocation of Dutch migrants in Central Sweden are analysed. In addition, results from observation,interviews and a survey during emigration fairs are employed to describe the motives for migrationfrom the Netherlands to Central Sweden. We argue that counterurbanisation is not an exhaustedresearch topic, when international political, economic and socio-cultural factors are added to thestudy.

  • 236.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Tillberg Mattsson, Karin
    Centre for Research and Development,Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle,Sweden.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    International tourism entrepreneurs in Swedish peripheries: compliance and collision with public tourism strategies2019Ingår i: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 479-492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the entrepreneurial strategies and development aspirations of immigrant tourism entrepreneurs in rural Sweden, and how they support or conflict with local and regional public sector tourism strategies. Our conceptual framework contrasts the immigrant entrepreneurs' business and lifestyle priorities with public sector responsibilities and development interests. Findings from three case studies suggest that immigrants both collaborate and compete with public sector stakeholders in different tourism destination systems. We identify mismatches in terms of economic, lifestyle and public interest goals, as well as institutional and cultural differences between immigrant entrepreneurs and public sector stakeholders that hinder effective public‐private collaboration.

  • 237.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Trumberg, AndersÖrebro universitet.
    Place and Identity: a new landscape of social and political change in Sweden2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is internationally renowned for its generous welfare state. However, over the past decades, changes in economic circumstances and population composition, as well as increasing population concentration in larger urban areas, have imposed new challenges to the Swedish model. What does this imply for individual and collective identity formation? Why and how have some places become more attractive than others? What individuals or groups prosper from these changes and who looses? The authors of this anthology highlight social and political change in Sweden from different perspectives, based on various studies in urban and rural Sweden. They represent five disciplines: history, human geography, political science, social work and sociology. Contextualised by theories on place and identity, the book's ten chapters focus on ageing, lifestyle migration, rural landscape, place branding, group identity, religion, music, the school as a meeting place, unsafety and residential projects. The participating authors are affiliated with the Centre for Urban and Regional Studies (CUReS) at Örebro University, Sweden.

  • 238.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    David, Inês
    A critical exploration of an emerging lifestyle mobility industry2014Ingår i: The 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: The Values of Tourism. Proceedings book. / [ed] Adriana Budeanu, Marie Möckel, Szilvia Gyimóthy, Köpenhamn, 2014, s. 107-108Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobility to second homes, sometimes referred to as residential tourism, can be conceptually framed within the emerging concept of lifestyle mobilities. Although related, it differs from tourism in that it refers to relatively permanent movement which entails the intention and material efforts to create a home and a living in the destination context. Tourism mobility is facilitated by agents offering services and products enabling experiences of novelty, difference, authenticity, quality of life and the like. Lifestyle mobilities in many ways taps into this production system but also include products and services related to housing, furbishing and to making a living in place. On an international level the production system is further complicated. In migration studies, the concept of a migration industry refers to the amalgam of agents making a profit out of catering to the needs of migrants. This study is a joint reflection on the production dimension of lifestyle mobilities in the European context. We explore the agents brokering lifestyle for Swedes in Malta; Swedish rural municipalities' place marketing in the Netherlands; and the role of lifestyle media in the Algarve, Portugal. We aim to answer the question: “how (if at all) could the concept of a migration industry be applied to lifestyle mobilities?”.

  • 239.
    Einarsson, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Meet the locals: Ett bidrag till ökad hållbarhet?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    People all over the world have always been sharing things and experiences but due to rapid technological development, new digital platforms emerged which led to a new way of sharing and the phenomenon sharing economy started to be a common concept.

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Turistrådet Västsveriges newly launched platform Meet the locals could contribute to increased social and economic sustainability. Using existing theories such as sense of place, types of tourists and the host-tourist relationship this was done through multiple interviews together with locals in the project Meet the locals - a platform where you are given opportunities to ‘explore the Swedish lifestyle from a local perspective’.

    The data collected from the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the thematic analysis which aimed to find connections with the chosen themes based on the theories. These themes were; place attachment, the meeting between host and tourist and sustainability.

    The results in this study establish that sustainability is important for the locals interviewed. However, it is unclear how Meet the locals really are contributing to social and economic sustainability since sustainability is still a complex subject and the project itself is still growing.

  • 240.
    Eklund, John
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Unequal opportunities in the knowledge economy: A social network analysis of formal and informalnetworks2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A new capitalistic era known as the knowledge economy has emerged since the middle of the 20thcentury, identified by ‘knowledge-based work’ and ‘immaterial labor’ generating innovation inleading-edge sectors, and recognized as a driver for economic change and future growth. As aspatial consequence, the importance of regions as economic entities has increased. Where regionsoften are dependent on innovative activities to generate competitive advantage and prospect. Topromote a socially inclusive regional economic development, scholars stress the significance of

    addressing issues of gender, particularity in male-dominated occupations such as knowledge-intensive industries, where masculine cultures tend to be deeply rooted. However, the regional

    learning and innovation literature is criticized for being firm-centric, gender-blind and ignoringthe wider existence of the knowledge worker, thus reproducing patterns of gender constraintssuch as barriers of equal advancements, discriminatory practices and social exclusion. This thesisaims to address these ignored issues by conducting a social network analysis on formal andinformal network within firms in the knowledge economy, and examine how individual

    characteristic might affect a workers position within these networks. A case study of Umeå ICT-industry was carried out where intra-firm social networks were analyzed of 16 firms and 204

    workers. The result from the analysis indicates that female knowledge worker tends to be sociallyexcluded within the informal network of these firms, while at the same time more dependent ona well-connected social position to be able to advance to a more influential position within firm’sformal networks. These findings support earlier claims that there is a need to incorporate a genderperspective into future research agendas as well as regional economic policymaking.

  • 241.
    Eklund, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    En kvantitativ studie om besöksnäringens effekt i de svenska landsbygdskommunerna2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The population decline and the rural restructuring of the Swedish countryside has been an issue for the last decades. The restructuring of rural areas had led to the migration of young people that leave the countryside for education and work, and a wider supply of culture and activities in the growing metropolitan regions. Rural areas have difficulty competing with the labour markets in urban areas and larger cities that can offer to a wider range of job opportunities. The rural restructuring has led to that municipalities in these areas face various kinds of challenges, such as an elderly population and big strains on the welfare system.

    The tourism industry has grown into one of the largest businesses of the world, and it continue to expand. The global development of the tourism and recreation brings increased share of employment rate and increased GDP. Likewise, tourism in Sweden has shown a strong growth and many people also argue that the tourism industry can be the future of many rural areas. As employment is one of the main reasons for migration, increased tourism may affect the population growth in these areas. The rural areas in Sweden need to attract young people to move, and stay, to these areas to make the demographic distribution more balanced.

    There are some rural areas in Sweden that are known as tourism-related areas and the purpose with this thesis is to examine whether this tourism areas have a more positive population development than other rural municipalities. This thesis is based on a quantitative method and includes information about the Swedish municipalities in aim to examine the differences and development since the year 2000. 

  • 242.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: Detaljstudie av de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna i Örnsköldsvik, Sollefteå, Kramfors och Sundsvall2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla lokala arbetsmarknader i Västernorrland har jämfört med Sverige i övrigt tydliga specialiseringar inom offentligt finansierad service (skola, vård och omsorg samt till viss del offentlig service och tjänster i alla arbetsmarknader förutom Örnsköldsvik). Två andra gemensamma karaktärsdrag är koncentrationer i skogsnäringarna även om det finns viss variation i vilka skogsnäringar respektive region är specialiserad inom (tex massa och papper i Kramfors, Örnsköldsvik och Sundsvall, sågning/hyvling i Kramfors och drivning och skogsskötsel i framförallt Sollefteå). Utöver detta delar alla av regionens lokala arbetsmarknader en tydlig profil kring maskinindustriell tillverkning. Här bör det noteras att dessa tydliga regionala specialiseringar också är märkbart könsuppdelade då de offentligt finansierade verksamheterna (framförallt vård och omsorg) domineras av kvinnor medan tillverkningsindustri och skogsnäringarna i högre utsträckning domineras av män. Denna könsfördelning är också sammankopplad med skillnader i inkomstnivåer då de mer kvinnodominerande verksamheterna har avsevärt lägre lönenivåer än de mansdominerande tillverkningssektorerna.

    Utöver dessa gemensamma karaktärsdrag finns också tydliga lokala specialiseringar som inom mer funktionella gränser kanske bättre speglar regionens näringsliv än vad den övergripande regionala strukturen gör. Örnsköldsvik är föga förvånande relativt specialiserad inom fordonstillverkning och teknisk konsultverksamhet, men har inte lika tydlig närvaro av exempelvis offentlig förvaltning, finans och försäkring eller IKT. Sollefteå å andra sidan har inte lika tydliga specialiseringar och det är framförallt offentligt finansierade verksamheter som dominerar liksom besöksnäringar, transport samt kraftförsörjning. I Kramfors och framförallt i Sundsvall återfinns de tydligaste koncentrationerna av finans och försäkring. I Kramfors återfinns också tydliga koncentrationer av offentliga tjänster samt sågning/hyvling och tillverkning av kablar och maskiner liksom besöksnäringar. Sundsvall speglar å andra sidan en mer servicebetonad del av näringslivet där förutom ett tydligt kompetensknippe kring finans och försäkring återfinns specialiseringar inom IKT och media, teknisk konsultverksamhet, detaljhandel och offentlig förvaltning.

    Den övergripande slutsatsen vi kan dra av detta fokus på de funktionella arbetsmarknaderna är att en generell regional utvecklingsstrategi för hela regionen också måste ta hänsyn till de lokala variationerna då respektive arbetsmarknad består av olika kompetensresurser och därmed också har olika förutsättningar för framtida specialiseringar. Utöver skogsnäringarna återfinns inte någon av regionens identifierade styrkeområden i alla fyra av regionens arbetsmarknader. Istället är det mer lokala specialiseringar som karaktäriserar sammansättningen av regionens näringsliv. Det innebär i princip två olika vägar för framtida regionala utvecklingsstrategier. Antingen kan dessa skillnader bejakas och utveckla respektive delarbetsmarknad utifrån vad som finns där idag då det kan gynna hela regionens utveckling, eller verka för att regionens styrkeområden bättre ska representeras i hela regionen. För en mer hållbar utveckling som bygger på befintliga lokala resurser bör dessa lokala särdrag bejakas då det underlättar bildandet av nya framtida specialiseringar (Elekes & Eriksson 2019a). Det är också främst inom den funktionella arbetsmarknaden där den lokala kompetensstrukturen reproduceras genom att det möjliggör jobbyten utan att nödvändigtvis behöva byta bostadsort.

    Slutligen bör framtida strategier tydligt verka för att öka mångfalden inom respektive del av arbetsmarknaden. En tydlig utmaning ligger i att exempelvis öka andelen kvinnor i de mer tillverkningsorienterade specialiseringarna. Framtida studier bör därför särskilt betona hur strukturomvandlingen (skapandet av nya och försvinnandet av gamla specialiseringar) påverkar män respektive kvinnor. Ytterligare studier på yrkesstrukturers förändring kan också tydligare fånga förändrade kompetensbehov inom sektorer, huruvida det påverkar könsfördelningen i näringslivet, och om det skiljer sig mellan de lokala arbetsmarknaderna

  • 243.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: Detaljstudie av skogsnäringarna, fordonsindustrin, IKT, bank/försäkring samt teknisk konsultverksamhet ur ett kompetensperspektiv2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport analyserar några av Region Västernorrlands styrkeområden (skogsnäringarna, fordonsindustrin, IKT, bank/finans och teknisk konsultverksamhet) genom att lyfta fram det industriella system de tillhör utifrån de kompetenser de delar, och sätta det i relation till specialiseringsgrad och inkomstnivåer.

    Rapporten visar att styrkeområdena i stort tillhör både de mest inbäddade och högavlönade sektorerna i regionen. De olika styrkeområdena skiljer sig dock i avseende med vilka sektorer de är kopplade till ur ett kompetensperspektiv. Skogsnäringarna är generellt väl inbäddade, men i huvudsak med andra skogs- och jordbruksrelaterade verksamheter. Fordonsindustrin är visserligen starkt inbäddade, men endast med ett fåtal sektorer som alla har avsevärt lägre inkomstnivåer. Det pekar dels mot ett tydligt fordonsindustriellt system, men att det är väldigt beroende av Militära fordon. IKT och Finans har relativt hög inbäddning, men samtidigt en relativt låg specialiseringsgrad. Mest noterbart är dessa styrkeområdens ömsesidiga kompetensstrukturer. Då graden av relaterade verksamheter kan härledas till kompetensförsörjningsfrågor (många relaterade sektorer ökar sannolikheten att kunna rekrytera kompetent arbetskraft) bör fokus också riktas mot dessa typer av verksamheter i strävan att diversifiera näringslivet genom att skapa nya specialiseringar.

  • 244.
    Elekes, Zoltán
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Västernorrlands styrkeområden: översikt av näringslivets styrkeområden och relationer till varandra ur ett kompetensperspektiv2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har föreliggande rapport gjort en översiktlig analys av Västernorrlands näringslivsstruktur. Detta gjordes genom att teckna ett så kallat industry-spacesom visar vilka sektorer som är starkt närvarande i regionen, men också i vilken utsträckning sektorerna är kopplade till varandra genom att vara beroende av liknande kompetenser. 

     

    I korthet pekar rapporten på att av de 15 sektorer med högst specialiseringsgrad i regionen så utgör endast pappers och massatillverkning (2,7%) samt försäkring (1,7)% någon av de 15 sysselsättningsrikaste sektorerna. De 15 mest specialiserade sektorerna utgör sammanlagt endast 12% av regionens totala sysselsättning 2016 vilket går att jämföra med de 15 största sektorerna som tillsammans utgör nästan hälften av den totala sysselsättningen. Med andra ord ligger regionens ekonomiska tyngdpunkt på andra ställen i näringslivet än i de relativt sett mest närvarande sektorerna. Det kan i sin tur medföra att en regionalpolitik som fokuserar på existerande starkt regionalt koncentrerade sektorer riskerar att exkludera stora delar av den regionala ekonomin. Exempelvis kan skillnader i mans- respektive kvinnodominerande yrken förstärkas. 

     

    När det kommer till etableringen av nya specialiseringar (och försvinnandet av existerande) finner vi en tydlig korrelation till hur inbäddad sektorn är i regionens kompetensstruktur. Kraftigt inbäddade sektorer (som delar liknande humankapital som många andra sektorer i regionen) har högre sannolikhet att etablera nya specialiseringar (eller öka sin relativa närvaro) medan mindre inbäddade sektorer har högre sannolikhet att minska sin relativa regionala närvaro. Då detta kan härledas till kompetensförsörjningsfrågor (många relaterade sektorer ökar sannolikheten att kunna rekrytera kompetent arbetskraft) bör fokus också riktas mot dessa typer av verksamheter i strävan att diversifiera näringslivet genom att skapa nya specialiseringar. 

  • 245. Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Geographical labour mobility: Migration or commuting1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 246.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, MA/ Tufts University, Boston, MA.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Zimmer, Michael A.
    Department of Economics, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN, USA.
    All in the Family: self Selection and Migration by Couples2014Ingår i: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 101-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines determinants of couple migration in a model that accounts for self-selection of migrant couples. The study is based on a sample of married couples from the Swedish population. The model incorporates controls for earnings of both spouses preceding the move, and explicitly addresses unmeasured heterogeneity in the family decision to migrate. Two statistical formulations are presented. In the first version, migration is measured as a dichotomous move/stay decision. A second formulation replaces the dichotomous indicator with the distance moved by migrants. Results suggest that family migration is selective of relatively low earning wives with unmeasured potential for strong earnings.

  • 247.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westlund, Hans
    Johansson, Mats
    Determinants of Net Migration to Rural Areas, and the Impacts of Migration on Rural Labour Markets and Self-Employment in Rural Sweden2015Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 693-709Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of "rural gentrification" and "rurbanization", symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the "rurbanization" processes on countryside's labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of in-migration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003-2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could-at least partly-be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area in-migrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 248.
    Ellison, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Addressing Adaptation in the EU Policy Framework2010Ingår i: Developing Adaptation Policy and Practice in Europe: Multi-level Governance of Climate Change / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, s. 39-96Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the EU's climate change mitigation strategy has taken precedence over adaptation, there are signs this is beginning to change With the publication of both a Green (2007) and a White Paper (2009) on an EU Adaptation strategy, the European Commission has taken the important step of initiating broad discussion and encouraging the mainstreaming or integration of adaptation strategies into the existing EU and Member state policy framework Still, without extensive revision in particular in the direction of ecosystem preservation, improvement and creation and the parallel introduction of a Climate Change Commission mandated to pursue mitigation AND adaptation strategies in the Community interest, policy outcomes are likely to remain fragmented and suboptimal Institutional divisions at the EU and national levels reinforce sectorally-driven climate strategies that only partially address the goals of either mitigation or adaptation Among other policy suggestions, this chapter makes two broad recommendations First, the EU and the Member states should seriously re-evaluate the approach to such policies as the water framework directive, Natura 2000 sites and biodiversity, afforestation, ecosystem services and ecosystem preservation Second, significant institutional reforms could heighten EU commitment to the climate change agenda, reinforce its already significant international bargaining authority and broaden the focus and impact of the EU's growing mitigation and adaptation agenda Rapidly changing climate dynamics leave little room to dally.

  • 249.
    Ellison, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Bishop, Kevin
    On the forest cover-water yield debate: from demand- to supply-side thinking2012Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 806-820Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several major articles from the past decade and beyond conclude the impact of reforestation or afforestation on water yield is negative: additional forest cover will reduce and removing forests will raise downstream water availability. A second group of authors argue the opposite: planting additional forests should raise downstream water availability and intensify the hydrologic cycle. Obtaining supporting evidence for this second group of authors has been more difficult due to the larger scales at which the positive effects of forests on the water cycle may be seen. We argue that forest cover is inextricably linked to precipitation. Forest-driven evapotranspiration removed from a particular catchment contributes to the availability of atmospheric moisture vapor and its cross-continental transport, raising the likelihood of precipitation events and increasing water yield, in particular in continental interiors more distant from oceans. Seasonal relationships heighten the importance of this phenomenon. We review the arguments from different scales and perspectives. This clarifies the generally beneficial relationship between forest cover and the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. While evidence supports both sides of the argument trees can reduce runoff at the small catchment scale at larger scales, trees are more clearly linked to increased precipitation and water availability. Progressive deforestation, land conversion from forest to agriculture and urbanization have potentially negative consequences for global precipitation, prompting us to think of forest ecosystems as global public goods. Policy-making attempts to measure product water footprints, estimate the value of ecosystem services, promote afforestation, develop drought mitigation strategies and otherwise manage land use must consider the linkage of forests to the supply of precipitation.

  • 250.
    Ellison, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Lundblad, Mattias
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppasala, Sweden.
    Petersson, Hans
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Carbon accounting and the climate politics of forestry2011Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 1062-1078Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many proposals have been made for the more successful inclusion of LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry) in the Kyoto framework. Though the positions of individual states or the goal of avoided deforestation guide many approaches, our model sets cost-effective strategies for climate change mitigation and the efficient and balanced use of forest resources at its center. Current approaches to forest resource-based carbon accounting consider only a fraction of its potential and fail to adequately mobilize the LULUCF sector for the successful stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. The presence of a significantly large "incentive gap" justifies the urgency of reforming the current LULUCF carbon accounting framework. In addition to significantly broadening the scope of carbon pools accounted under LULUCF, we recommend paying far greater attention to the troika of competing but potentially compatible interests surrounding the promotion of standing forests (in particular for the purposes of carbon sequestration, biodiversity protection and ecosystem promotion/preservation), harvested wood products (HWP) and bioenergy use. The successful balancing of competing interests, the enhancement of efficiency and effectiveness and the balanced use of forest resources require an accounting mechanism that weighs and rewards each component according to its real climate mitigation potential. Further, our data suggest the benefits of such a broadly based carbon accounting strategy and the inclusion of LULUCF in national and international accounting and emission trading mechanisms far outweigh potential disadvantages. Political arguments suggesting countries could take advantage of LULUCF accounting to reduce their commitments are not supported by the evidence we present. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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