umu.sePublikationer
Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
2345678 201 - 250 av 361
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 201.
    Liu, Junfa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Thanikkal, Edvin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Obi, Ikenna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Francis, Matthew
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Elevated CpxR~P levels repress the Ysc-Yop type III secretion system of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis2012Ingår i: Research in Microbiology, ISSN 0923-2508, E-ISSN 1769-7123, Vol. 163, nr 8, s. 518-530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One way that Gram-negative bacteria respond to extracytoplasmic stress is through the CpxA-CpxR system. An activated CpxA sensor kinase phosphorylates the CpxR response regulator to instigate positive auto-amplification of Cpx pathway activation, as well as synthesis of various bacterial survival factors. In the absence of CpxA, human enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis accumulates high CpxR~P levels aided by the action of low molecular weight phosphodonors such as acetyl~P. Critically, these bacteria are also defective for plasmid encoded Ysc-Yop-dependent type III synthesis and secretion, an essential determinant of virulence. Herein, we investigated whether elevated CpxR~P levels account for lost Ysc-Yop function. Decisively, reducing CpxR~P in Yersinia defective for CpxA phosphatase activity - through incorporating second-site suppressor mutations in ackA-pta or cpxR - dramatically restored Ysc-Yop T3S function. Moreover, the repressive effect of accumulated CpxR~P is a direct consequence of binding to the promoter regions of the T3S genes. Thus, Cpx pathway activation has two consequences in Yersinia; one, to maintain quality control in the bacterial envelope, and the second, to restrict ysc-yop gene expression to those occasions where it will have maximal effect.

  • 202.
    Login, Frederic H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    YscU/FlhB of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Harbors a C-terminal Type III Secretion Signal2015Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 290, nr 43, s. 26282-26291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    All type III secretion systems (T3SS) harbor a member of the YscU/FlhB family of proteins that is characterized by an auto-proteolytic process that occurs at a conserved cytoplasmic NPTH motif. We have previously demonstrated that YscU(CC), the C-terminal peptide generated by auto-proteolysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YscU, is secreted by the T3SS when bacteria are grown in Ca2+ -depleted medium at 37 degrees C. Here, we investigated the secretion of this early T3S-substrate and showed that YscU(CC) encompasses a specific C-terminal T3S signal within the 15 last residues (U-15). U-15 promoted C-terminal secretion of reporter proteins like GST and YopE lacking its native secretion signal. Similar to the "classical" N-terminal secretion signal, U-15 interacted with the ATPase YscN. Although U-15 is critical for YscU(CC) secretion, deletion of the C-terminal secretion signal of YscU(CC) did neither affect Yop secretion nor Yop translocation. However, these deletions resulted in increased secretion of YscF, the needle subunit. Thus, these results suggest that YscU via its C-terminal secretion signal is involved in regulation of the YscF secretion.

  • 203.
    Loh, Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Dussurget, Olivier
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Gripenland, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Mandin, Pierre
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Repoila, Francis
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Buchrieser, Carmen
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Cossart, Pascale
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    A trans-acting riboswitch controls expression of the virulence regulator PrfA in Listeria monocytogenes2009Ingår i: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 139, nr 4, s. 770-779Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Riboswitches are RNA elements acting in cis, controlling expression of their downstream genes through a metabolite-induced alteration of their secondary structure. Here, we demonstrate that two S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) riboswitches, SreA and SreB, can also function in trans and act as noncoding RNAs in Listeria monocytogenes. SreA and SreB control expression of the virulence regulator PrfA by binding to the 5´-untranslated region of its mRNA. Absence of the SAM riboswitches SreA and SreB increases the level of PrfA and virulence gene expression in L. monocytogenes. Thus, the impact of the SAM riboswitches on PrfA expression highlights a link between bacterial virulence and nutrient availability. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for riboswitches and a distinct class of regulatory noncoding RNAs in bacteria.

  • 204.
    Loh, Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gripenland, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Control of Listeria monocytogenes virulence by 5´-untranslated RNA2006Ingår i: Trends in Microbiology, ISSN 0966-842X, E-ISSN 1878-4380, Vol. 14, nr 7, s. 294-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes uses a wide range of virulence factors for its pathogenesis. Expression of five of these factors has previously been shown to be subjected to posttranscriptional regulation as a result of their long 5´-untranslated region (5´-UTR). We have investigated the presence of 5´-UTRs among the other known virulence genes and genes that encode putatively virulence-associated surface proteins. Our results strongly suggest that L. monocytogenes controls many of its virulence genes by a mechanism that involves the 5´-UTR. These findings further emphasize the importance of post-transcriptional control for L. monocytogenes virulence.

  • 205.
    Loh, Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Memarpour, Faranak
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sondén, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    The first 20 codons of the prfA-mRNA are required for efficient translation in Listeria monocytogenesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression of virulence factors in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is almost exclusively regulated by the transcriptional activator PrfA. The translation of prfA is controlled by a thermosensor located in the 5´-untranslated RNA (UTR), which is high at 37°C and low at temperatures below 30°C. Also, translation of the prfA transcript is inhibited by a trans-acting riboswitch RNA, SreA, which binds to the 5´-end of the thermosensor. In order to develop a thermoregulated translational expression system in Mycobacterial species, the 5´-UTR and different lengths of the prfA-coding sequences were placed in front of lacZ. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the constructs retained their thermoregulation. However, the β-galactosidase expression was directly correlated to the length of the prfA-coding mRNA fused in front of lacZ. A similar regulation was also detected when gfp was used as a reporter gene. Transcriptional stability experiments indicated that the observed difference in expression was not due to a decreased stability of transcripts lacking more of the prfA-coding RNA. The gfp constructs behaved similarly in L. monocytogenes as in E. coli, emphasizing the requirement of the prfA-coding RNA for maximal expression, also in its natural genetic background. Moreover, the different PrfA-LacZ fusion proteins showed the same proteolytic stability, ruling out post-translational mechanisms. Instead, in vitro transcription/translation experiments suggest a role of the first 20 codons of the native prfA-mRNA for maximal expression. Our data indicated that the difference in expression was not due to rare codons, stretches of certain bases or a putative downstream box. We observed an inverse correlation between the stability of the RNA secondary structure and protein expression. The first 12 codons of prfA displayed a very weak RNA secondary structure. Similar weak stabilities were detected also for thermosensors in other species, indicating a common strategy of regulation. In summary, the present work determines the importance of an unstructured 5´-coding region of the prfA-RNA for efficient translation.

  • 206.
    Loh, Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Memarpour, Faranak
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.
    Univ So Denmark, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Sonden, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    An unstructured 5'-coding region of the prfA mRNA is required for efficient translation2012Ingår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 1818-1827Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression of virulence factors in the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is almost exclusively regulated by the transcriptional activator PrfA. The translation of prfA is controlled by a thermosensor located in the 5'-untranslated RNA (UTR), and is high at 37 degrees C and low at temperatures < 30 degrees C. In order to develop a thermoregulated translational expression system, the 5'-UTR and different lengths of the prfA-coding sequences were placed in front of lacZ. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the beta-galactosidase expression was directly correlated to the length of the prfA-coding mRNA lying in front of lacZ. A similar effect was detected with gfp as a reporter gene in both L. monocytogenes and E. coli, emphasizing the requirement of the prfA-coding RNA for maximal expression. In vitro transcription/translation and mutational analysis suggests a role for the first 20 codons of the native prfA-mRNA for maximal expression. By toe-print and RNA-probing analysis, a flexible hairpin-loop located immediately downstream of the start-codon was shown to be important for ribosomal binding. The present work determines the importance of an unstructured part of the 5'-coding region of the prfA-mRNA for efficient translation.

  • 207.
    Lopes, Jose Pedro
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Evasion of immune surveillance under low oxygen enhances Candida albicans survivalManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Human colonizers have evolved to sense and adapt environmental cues and nutrient availability. Oxygen is a constantly changing environmental parameter within different host tissues upon different types of infection. We describe how C. albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, can modulate the host response under hypoxia and anoxia. We found that high infiltration of neutrophils to the site of infection contributes to a low oxygen milieu. A persistent low oxygen milieu did not affect viability nor metabolism of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), however, disturbed anti-Candida responses. PMNs were not able to efficiently phagocytize, produce ROS or release extracellular DNA traps. This failure to respond was caused by C. albicans β-glucan cell wall masking upon exposure to low oxygen which hindered PAMP sensing by dectin-1. Overall, this contributed to immune evasion which in turn enhanced fungal survival. The effect is prolonged by the accumulation of lactate produced by PMNs under low oxygen condition. Finally, low oxygen adaptation increased the pathogenicity and successful colonization of C. albicans in vivo which we confirmed using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. 

  • 208.
    Lopes, Jose Pedro
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Stylianou, Marios
    Backman, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Holmberg, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Jass, Jana
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Urban, Constantin F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Evasion of Immune Surveillance in Low Oxygen Environments Enhances Candida albicans Virulence.2018Ingår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikel-id e02120-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial colonizers of humans have evolved to adapt to environmental cues and to sense nutrient availability. Oxygen is a constantly changing environmental parameter in different host tissues and in different types of infection. We describe how Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, can modulate the host response under hypoxia and anoxia. We found that high infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the site of infection contributes to a low oxygen milieu in a murine subdermal abscess. A persistent hypoxic environment did not affect viability or metabolism of PMNs. Under oxygen deprivation, however, infection with C. albicans disturbed specific PMN responses. PMNs were not able to efficiently phagocytose, produce ROS, or release extracellular DNA traps. Failure to launch an adequate response was caused by C. albicans cell wall masking of β-glucan upon exposure to low oxygen levels which hindered PAMP sensing by Dectin-1 on the surfaces of PMNs. This in turn contributed to immune evasion and enhanced fungal survival. The cell wall masking effect is prolonged by the accumulation of lactate produced by PMNs under low oxygen conditions. Finally, adaptation to oxygen deprivation increased virulence of C. albicans which we demonstrated using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.IMPORTANCE Successful human colonizers have evolved mechanisms to bypass immune surveillance. Infiltration of PMNs to the site of infection led to the generation of a low oxygen niche. Exposure to low oxygen levels induced fungal cell wall masking, which in turn hindered pathogen sensing and antifungal responses by PMNs. The cell wall masking effect was prolonged by increasing lactate amounts produced by neutrophil metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In an invertebrate infection model, C. albicans was able to kill infected C. elegans nematodes within 2 days under low oxygen conditions, whereas the majority of uninfected controls and infected worms under normoxic conditions survived. These results suggest that C. albicans benefited from low oxygen niches to increase virulence. The interplay of C. albicans with innate immune cells under these conditions contributed to the overall outcome of infection. Adaption to low oxygen levels was in addition beneficial for C. albicans by reducing susceptibility to selected antifungal drugs. Hence, immunomodulation of host cells under low oxygen conditions could provide a valuable approach to improve current antifungal therapies.

  • 209.
    Lopes, Jose Pedro
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Stylianou, Marios
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urban, Constantin F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans elicits a temporal response in primary human mast cells2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikel-id 12287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunosuppressed patients are frequently afflicted with severe mycoses caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens. Besides being a commensal, colonizing predominantly skin and mucosal surfaces, Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen. Mast cells are present in tissues prone to fungal colonization being expectedly among the first immune cells to get into contact with C. albicans. However, mast cell-fungus interaction remains a neglected area of study. Here we show that human mast cells mounted specific responses towards C. albicans. Collectively, mast cell responses included the launch of initial, intermediate and late phase components determined by the secretion of granular proteins and cytokines. Initially mast cells reduced fungal viability and occasionally internalized yeasts. C. albicans could evade ingestion by intracellular growth leading to cellular death. Furthermore, secreted factors in the supernatants of infected cells recruited neutrophils, but not monocytes. Late stages were marked by the release of cytokines that are known to be anti-inflammatory suggesting a modulation of initial responses. C. albicans-infected mast cells formed extracellular DNA traps, which ensnared but did not kill the fungus. Our results suggest that mast cells serve as tissue sentinels modulating antifungal immune responses during C. albicans infection. Consequently, these findings open new doors for understanding fungal pathogenicity.

  • 210.
    Lopes, Jose Pedro
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Urban, Constantin F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Visualizing Hypoxia in a Murine Model of Candida albicans Infection Using in vivo Biofluorencence2019Ingår i: BIO-PROTOCOL, ISSN 2331-8325, Vol. 9, nr 15, artikel-id UNSP e3326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Candida albicans is a leading human fungal pathogen that uses several metabolic adaptations to escape immune cells and causes systemic disease. Here, we describe a protocol for measuring one of these adaptations, the ability to thrive in hypoxic niches. Hypoxia was generated after successful subdermal infection with C. albicans in a murine infection model. Hypoxia was measured using a fluorescent dye for carbonic anhydrase 9, a host enzyme active under hypoxic conditions. Emitted fluorescence was subsequently quantified using an IVIS system. This protocol was optimized for the use in subdermal infection in mice but has the potential to be adapted to other models of fungal infection.

  • 211.
    Lopes, José Pedro
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Candida albicans adaption to host microenvironments drives immune evasion2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den mänskliga kroppen är ständigt utsatt för angrepp från mikrober i vår miljö. Varje dag träffar vår kropp på organismer som potentiellt kan infektera oss, så kallade patogener så som bakterier, virus, parasiter och svampar. Det är immunsystemets uppgift att befria oss från oönskade mikroorganismer. Vårt immunförsvar är mycket effektivt vilket framgår av att trots den ständiga närvaron av mikroorganismer så blir vi sällan allvarligt sjuka. Men, människor med nedsatt immunförsvar kan utveckla allvarliga infektioner från opportunister patogener så som svampen Candida albicans. C. albicans är en viktig orsak till sjukdom och död över hela världen. Syftet med denna avhandling är att bättre förstå samspelet mellan dessa svampar och vårt immunförsvar. Vi fokuserar på det medfödda immunförsvaret och försöker identifiera de delar som är nödvändiga för kontroll under en infektion. Vi studerar också hur svamparna utvecklar mekanismer för att möta värdorganismens försvar och vad som reglerar dessa mekanismer. Det medfödda immunförsvaret finns i hela kroppen och består bland annat av vävnader - huden och slemhinnorna - och en mängd olika celltyper. Mastcellerna är en del av det medfödda immunförsvaret och finns utspridda på kroppens ytor mot omvärlden. Främst finns de i huden, tarmens slemhinnor och luftvägarna och det är också här som patogena svampar förekommer i kroppen. Mastcellerna är därför strategiskt placerade för att snabbt kunna möta infekterande mikroorganismer. Här har vi visat att mastceller är kroppens vaktposter och mycket viktiga vid svampinfektioner, men de kan bara tillfälligt kontrollera C. albicans. Mastcellerna aktiveras när de möter C. albicans och släpper omedelbart ut inflammatoriska mediatorer som är lagrade i cellernas granula. Denna degranulering kan också rekrytera fler immunceller så som neutrofiler. De kan även släppa ut strukturer som kallas extracellulära fällor (MCETs), som fångar in inkräktarna för nedbrytning. Med dessa metoder kan Mastcellerna ta upp och oskadliggöra invaderande mikroorganismer, men här har även C. albicans utvecklat ett eget försvar mot Mastcellerna. När C. albicans tas upp av mastcellerna kan de undkomma avdödning och utnyttjar då istället den skyddade intracellulära miljön för döda mastcellerna inifrån.

    Neutrofiler är också en del av det medfödda immunförsvaret och de är den vanligaste typen av vita blodkroppar. Dessa celler cirkulerar i blodet men reagerar snabbt på hot och migrerar då från blodet in i vävnaden där bekämpandet av svamparna sker. De är oftast först på plats vid en infektion.

    I det andra projektet har vi tittat närmare på neutrofilers försvar mot C. albicans infektioner och hur detta skiljer sig mellan syrerika och syrefattiga miljöer. Vi fann att neutrofilernas försvarsförmåga är kraftigt minskad under syrefattiga förhållanden. Både formationen av neutrofila extracellulära fällor (NETs) och även fagocytering, eller förtäring är kraftigt nedsatta under dessa förhållanden och detta kan ha en stor betydelse för immunförsvarets förmåga att bekämpa C. albicans infektioner. Bekämpandet av mikroorganismer är en aktiv process, driven av neutrofilernas snabba migration från blodet ut till vävnaden där mycket av syret förbrukas. I syrefattiga miljöer kan C. albicans också ändra cellväggens komposition och det ändrar i sin tur hur immunförsvaret reagerar mot dem.

    Produktion av reaktiva syreradikaler är en av de mest påverkade försvarsmekanismerna i syrefattig miljö. Neutrofilerna använder reaktiva syreradikaler som en robust och effektiv kontroll-mekanism mot svamppatogener. I det tredje projektet undersöker vi om vi kan förhindra spridning av svampceller genom att påverka redoxpotentialen. Vi använder Tempol som är ett ämne med bevisad påverkan på metabolism och cellväggens komposition och har även inflammatorisk effekt. Behandling av svampcellerna med Tempol gav en framgångsrik anti-Candida effekt som karakteriserades med hjälp av RNA-sekvensering och metaboliska tester.

    Idag finns det ett mycket stort behov av nya och bättre läkemedel mot systemisk svampinfektion. Opportunistiska svampinfektioner är ett stort hot mot patienter med nedsatt immunförsvar e.g patienter med leukemi eller som fått organtransplantationer. I projekt nummer fyra tänker vi oss att dessa patienter kanske skulle kunna får endast ett läkemedel mot både sjukdomarna. Därför har vi undersökt 844 godkänt-FDA läkemedlen för effekt mot C. albicans. Vi identifierat 7 nya molekyler med god effekt mot C. albicans. Vi har karakteriserad dessa läkemedlen och visat att de är lika effektiva som kommersiellt tillgängliga läkemedel.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar våra resultat nödvändigheten till en fördjupad förståelse om immunceller och svampars samspel i mikromiljöer, så som de syrefattiga. En mer detaljerad förståelse kan därmed bidra till att utveckla bättre diagnostiska och terapeutiska verktyg för svampinfektioner.

  • 212.
    Lopes, José Pedro
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Stylianou, Marios
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Backman, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Holmberg, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Ekoff, Maria
    Nilsson, Gunnar
    Urban, Constantin F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Cryptococcus neoformans Induces MCP-1 Release and Delays the Death of Human Mast Cells2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 9, artikel-id 289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cryptococcosis, caused by the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, is a life-threatening disease affecting approximately one million people per year worldwide. Infection can occur when C. neoformans cells are inhaled by immunocompromised people. In order to establish infection, the yeast must bypass recognition and clearance by immune cells guarding the tissue. Using in vitro infections, we characterized the role of mast cells (MCs) in cryptococcosis. We found that MCs recognize C. neoformans and release inflammatory mediators such as tryptase and cytokines. From the latter group MCs released mainly CCL-2/MCP-1, a strong chemoattractant for monocytic cells. We demonstrated that supernatants of infected MCs recruit monocytes but not neutrophils. During infection with C. neoformans, MCs have a limited ability to kill the yeast depending on the serotype. C. neoformans, in turn, modulates the lifespan of MCs both, by presence of its polysaccharide capsule and by secreting soluble modulators. Taken together, MCs might have important contributions to fungal clearance during early stages of cryptocococis where these cells regulate recruitment of monocytes to mucosal tissues.

  • 213.
    Lu, Pei
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Zhang, Yong
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Hu, Yangbo
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Francis, Matthew
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Chen, Shiyun
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    A cis-encoded sRNA controls the expression of fabH2 in Yersinia2014Ingår i: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 588, nr 10, s. 1961-1966Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    YsrH is a novel cis-encoded sRNA located on the opposite strand to fabH2, which is essential for fatty acid biosynthesis in bacteria. In this study, YsrH-mediated regulation of fabH2 expression was investigated in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Constitutive and inducible over-expression of YsrH decreased the mRNA level of fabH2, while expression of downstream fabD and fabG remained unaffected. Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) also played an important role in this regulation process by mediating YsrH decay in the exponential phase. Thus, our data defines a cis-encoded sRNA that regulates fatty acid synthesis via a regulatory mechanism also involving PNPase.

  • 214.
    Lundqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Larsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Nelson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Andersson, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Persson, Cathrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Concomitant Infection Decreases the Malaria Burden but Escalates Relapsing Fever Borreliosis2010Ingår i: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 78, nr 5, s. 1924-1930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    About 500 million cases of malaria occur annually. However, a substantial number of patients who actually have relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia can be misdiagnosed with malaria due to similar manifestations and geographic distribution of the two diseases. More alarmingly, high prevalence of concomitant infections with malaria and RF Borrelia has been reported. Therefore, we used a mouse model to study the effects of such mixed infection. We observed a 21-fold increase in spirochete titers, whereas the numbers of parasitized erythrocytes were reduced 15-fold. This may be explained by polarization of the host immune response towards the intracellular malaria parasite, resulting in unaffected extracellular spirochetes and hosts that succumb to sepsis. Mixed infection also resulted in severe malaria anemia with low hemoglobin levels, even though the parasite counts were low. Overall, co-infected animals had higher fatality rate and shorter time to death than both malaria and RF single infection. Furthermore, secondary malaria infection reactivated a quiescent RF brain infection, which is the first evidence of a clinically and biologically relevant cue for reactivation of RF Borrelia infection. Our study highlights the importance of investigating concomitant infections in vivo to elucidate the immune responses that are involved in the clinical outcome.

  • 215.
    Lécrivain, Anne-Laure
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Post-transcriptional regulation by RNases in Streptococcus pyogenes2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are proteins that adjust cellular RNA levels by processing RNA transcripts, leading to their stabilization or degradation. RNases are grouped based on their ability to cleave the transcript internally (endoRNases) or degrade the transcript starting from the ends (exoRNases). Specificities of RNA degradation vary among bacterial species, attributable to different sets of endo- and exoRNases. Most of the current knowledge gathered about the roles of RNases and their targets relies on the study of a few model bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The aim of this thesis was to understand how Streptococcus pyogenes, a strict human pathogen, controls and adjusts gene expression by characterizing in vivo RNase activities.

    The transcriptome of S. pyogenes was inspected to identify cleavages in vivo performed by RNases of interest using RNA sequencing. For this purpose, we developed a method to compare transcript 5′ and 3′ ends in RNase deletion mutants with those in the parental strain. We first applied our method for the study of endoRNase III, which cleaves ds RNA, and endoRNase Y, which is specific for ss RNA. We accurately retrieved RNase III cleavage positions in structured regions, characterized by 2 nucleotide (nt) 3′ overhangs, and we showed RNase III nicking activity in vivo. We observed that RNase Y processed transcripts after a guanosine. The upstream and downstream fragments generated by a single cleavage event were never both identified, indicating that RNase Y processing always led to the degradation of one of the two fragments. To investigate further the degradation of the upstream fragment subsequent to RNase Y processing, we characterized the 3′-to-5′ exoRNases R, YhaM, and PNPase. RNase R did not have any detectable activity in standard laboratory conditions. YhaM is an intriguing enzyme that removed on average 3 nt of the majority of cellular transcripts. PNPase fully degraded fragments originating from endoRNase processing and is the main 3′-to-5′ exoRNase involved in RNA decay in S. pyogenes.

    To conclude, in this work, we developed a novel method to analyze RNA sequencing data. This method was successfully applied to the study of both endo- and exoRNases. Most importantly, we identified the targetomes of RNases III, Y, R, YhaM, and PNPase and we highlighted the distinctive features of these enzymes.

  • 216.
    Lécrivain, Anne-Laure
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, D-10117 Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, D-10117 Berlin, Germany..
    Broglia, Laura
    Renault, Thibaud
    Hahnke, Karin
    Ahmed-Begrich, Rina
    Le Rhun, Anaïs
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Interplay between 3′-to-5′ exoRNases and RNase Y in Streptococcus pyogenes2018Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 217.
    Lécrivain, Anne-Laure
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.
    Le Rhun, Anaïs
    Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.
    Renault, Thibaud T.
    Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany; nstitute for Biology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany .
    Ahmed-Begrich, Rina
    Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.
    Hahnke, Karin
    Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle
    Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany; Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany; nstitute for Biology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    In vivo 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease targetomes of Streptococcus pyogenes2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, nr 46, s. 11814-11819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    mRNA decay plays an essential role in the control of gene expression in bacteria. Exoribonucleases (exoRNases), which trim transcripts starting from the 5′ or 3′ end, are particularly important to fully degrade unwanted transcripts and renew the pool of nucleotides available in the cell. While recent techniques have allowed genome-wide identification of ribonuclease (RNase) targets in bacteria in vivo, none of the 3′-to-5′ exoRNase targetomes (i.e., global processing sites) have been studied so far. Here, we report the targetomes of YhaM, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), and RNase R of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We determined that YhaM is an unspecific enzyme that trims a few nucleotides and targets the majority of transcript ends, generated either by transcription termination or by endonucleolytic activity. The molecular determinants for YhaM-limited processivity are yet to be deciphered. We showed that PNPase clears the cell from mRNA decay fragments produced by endoribonucleases (endoRNases) and is the major 3′-to-5′ exoRNase for RNA turnover in S. pyogenes. In particular, PNPase is responsible for the degradation of regulatory elements from 5′ untranslated regions. However, we observed little RNase R activity in standard culture conditions. Overall, our study sheds light on the very distinct features of S. pyogenes 3′-to-5′ exoRNases.

  • 218. Makarova, Kira S
    et al.
    Haft, Daniel H
    Barrangou, Rodolphe
    Brouns, Stan J J
    Charpentier, Emmanuelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Horvath, Philippe
    Moineau, Sylvain
    Mojica, Francisco J M
    Wolf, Yuri I
    Yakunin, Alexander F
    van der Oost, John
    Koonin, Eugene V
    Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems2011Ingår i: Nature Reviews Microbiology, ISSN 1740-1526, E-ISSN 1740-1534, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 467-477Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of evolution for both the cas genes and the unique spacer content. Here, we provide an updated analysis of the evolutionary relationships between CRISPR-Cas systems and Cas proteins. Three major types of CRISPR-Cas system are delineated, with a further division into several subtypes and a few chimeric variants. Given the complexity of the genomic architectures and the extremely dynamic evolution of the CRISPR-Cas systems, a unified classification of these systems should be based on multiple criteria. Accordingly, we propose a 'polythetic' classification that integrates the phylogenies of the most common cas genes, the sequence and organization of the CRISPR repeats and the architecture of the CRISPR-cas loci.

  • 219.
    Mansjö, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    The Riboflavin analog roseoflavin targets an FMN-riboswitch and blocks Listeria monocytogenes growth, but also stimulates virulence gene-expression and infection2011Ingår i: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 674-680Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, riboswitches have emerged as potential targets for novel antibacterial substances. In this study, we investigated how one flavin analog, roseoflavin, affected the gene-expression, growth and infectivity of the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to determine the potential of this analog to function as an antibacterial substance. The results indicate that roseoflavin has a profound inhibiting effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes at very low concentrations. Also, expression of the gene located downstream of the FMN riboswitch, a riboflavin transporter, was blocked by the addition of roseoflavin. Base-substitution mutations in the FMN riboswitch allowed the bacteria to grow in the presence of roseoflavin, showing that roseoflavin targeted the FMN riboswitch directly. Surprisingly, we found that roseoflavin stimulated L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression and infection abilities in a mechanism independent of the FMN riboswitch. Our results suggest that roseoflavin can block growth but also enhance Listeria virulence.

  • 220.
    Marcinowska, Renata
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Mortiz, Thomas
    Surowiec, Izabella
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Optimization of a sample preparation method for the metabolomic analysis of clinically relevant bacteria2011Ingår i: Journal of Microbiological Methods, ISSN 0167-7012, E-ISSN 1872-8359, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 24-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolomics, or metabolite profiling, is an approach that is increasingly used to study the metabolism of diverse organisms, elucidate biological processes and/or find characteristic biomarkers of physiological states. Here, we describe the optimization of a method for global metabolomic analysis of bacterial cultures, with the following steps. Cells are grown to log-phase, starting from an overnight culture and bacterial concentrations are monitored by measuring the optical density of the cultures at 600nm. At an appropriate density they are harvested by centrifugation, washed three times with NaCl solution and metabolites are extracted using methanol and a bead-mill. Dried extracts are methoxymated and derivatized with methyltrimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) then analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-MS/TOF). Finally, patterns in the acquired data are examined by multivariate data modeling. This method enabled us to obtain reproducible metabolite profiles of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, with about 25% compound identification, based on comparison with entries in available GC-MS libraries. To assess the potential utility of the method for comparative analysis of other bacterial species we analyzed cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Multivariate analysis of the acquired data showed that it was possible to differentiate the species according to their metabolic profiles. Our results show that the presented procedure can be used for metabolomic analysis of a wide range of bacterial species of clinical interest.

  • 221. Marinho, Catarina M.
    et al.
    Dos Santos, Patricia T.
    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Ignatov, Dmitriy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Guerreiro, Duarte N.
    Piveteau, Pascal
    O'Byrne, Conor P.
    The σB-dependent regulatory sRNA Rli47 represses isoleucine biosynthesis in Listeria monocytogenes through a direct interaction with the ilvA transcript2019Ingår i: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can persist and grow in a diverse range of environmental conditions, both outside and within its mammalian host. The alternative sigma factor Sigma B (sigma(B)) plays an important role in this adaptability and is critical for the transition into the host. While some of the functions of the sigma(B) regulon in facilitating this transition are understood the role of sigma(B)-dependent small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) remain poorly characterized. In this study, we focused on elucidating the function of Rli47, a sigma(B)-dependent sRNA that is highly induced in the intestine and in macrophages. Using a combination of in silico and in vivo approaches, a binding interaction was predicted with the Shine-Dalgarno region of the ilvA mRNA, which encodes threonine deaminase, an enzyme required for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. Both ilvA transcript levels and threonine deaminase activity were increased in a deletion mutant lacking the rli47 gene. The Delta rli47 mutant displayed a shorter growth lag in isoleucine-depleted growth media relative to the wild-type, and a similar phenotype was also observed in a mutant lacking sigma(B). The impact of the Delta rli47 on the global transcription profile of the cell was investigated using RNA-seq, and a significant role for Rli47 in modulating amino acid metabolism was uncovered. Taken together, the data point to a model where Rli47 is responsible for specifically repressing isoleucine biosynthesis as a way to restrict growth under harsh conditions, potentially contributing to the survival of L. monocytogenes in niches both outside and within the mammalian host.

  • 222. Martinez, Nancy E.
    et al.
    Zimmermann, Tobias J.
    Goosmann, Christian
    Alexander, Tobias
    Hedberg, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Ziegler, Slava
    Zychlinsky, Arturo
    Waldmann, Herbert
    Tetrahydroisoquinolines: New Inhibitors of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) Formation2017Ingår i: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 18, nr 10, s. 888-893Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrophils are short-lived leukocytes that migrate to sites of infection as part of the acute immune response, where they phagocytose, degranulate, and form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). During NET formation, the nuclear lobules of neutrophils disappear and the chromatin expands and, accessorized with neutrophilic granule proteins, is expelled. NETs can be pathogenic in, for example, sepsis, cancer, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the identification of inhibitors of NET formation is of great interest. Screening of a focused library of natural-product-inspired compounds by using a previously validated phenotypic NET assay identified a group of tetrahydroisoquinolines as new NET formation inhibitors. This compound class opens up new avenues for the study of cellular death through NET formation (NETosis) at different stages, and might inspire new medicinal chemistry programs aimed at NET-dependent diseases.

  • 223.
    Marwaha, Sania
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Uvell, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Salin, Olli
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Lindgren, Anders E. G.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Silver, Jim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Gylfe, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Klinisk bakteriologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    N-acylated derivatives of sulfamethoxazole and sulfafurazole inhibit intracellular growth of Chlamydia trachomatis2014Ingår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 58, nr 5, s. 2968-2971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibacterial compounds with novel modes of action are needed for management of bacterial infections. Here we describe a high-content screen of 9,800 compounds identifying acylated sulfonamides as novel growth inhibitors of the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. The effect was bactericidal and distinct from that of sulfonamide antibiotics, as para-aminobenzoic acid did not reduce efficacy. Chemical inhibitors play an important role in Chlamydia research as probes of potential targets and as drug development starting points.

  • 224.
    Massai, Francesco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Saleeb, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Doruk, Tugrul
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Development, Optimization, and Validation of a High Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of Tat and Type II Secretion Inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 9, artikel-id 250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are becoming less effective in treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial therapies based on the inhibition of specific virulence-related traits, as opposed to growth inhibitors, constitute an innovative and appealing approach to tackle the threat of P. aeruginosa infections. The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, and constitutes a promising target for the development of anti-pseudomonal drugs. In this study we developed and optimized a whole-cell, one-well assay, based on native phospholipase C activity, to identify compounds active against the Tat system. Statistical robustness, sensitivity and consequently suitability for high-throughput screening (HTS) were confirmed by a dry run/pre-screening test scoring a Z' of 0.82 and a signal-to-noise ratio of 49. Using this assay, we evaluated ca. 40,000 molecules and identified 59 initial hits as possible Tat inhibitors. Since phospholipase C is exported into the periplasm by Tat, and subsequently translocated across the outer membrane by the type II secretion system (T2SS), our assay could also identify T2SS inhibitors. To validate our hits and discriminate between compounds that inhibited either Tat or T2SS, two separate counter assays were developed and optimized. Finally, three Tat inhibitors and one T2SS inhibitor were confirmed by means of dose-response analysis and additional counter and confirming assays. Although none of the identified inhibitors was suitable as a lead compound for drug development, this study validates our assay as a simple, efficient, and HTS compatible method for the identification of Tat and T2SS inhibitors.

  • 225. Meinzer, Ulrich
    et al.
    Esmiol-Welterlin, Sophie
    Barreau, Frederick
    Berrebi, Dominique
    Dussaillant, Monique
    Bonacorsi, Stephane
    Chareyre, Fabrice
    Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko
    Alberti, Corinne
    Sterkers, Ghislaine
    Villard, Claude
    Lesuffleur, Thecla
    Peuchmaur, Michel
    Karin, Michael
    Eckmann, Lars
    Giovannini, Marco
    Ollendorff, Vincent
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Hugot, Jean-Pierre
    Nod2 mediates susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice.2008Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, nr 7, s. e2769-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2) is a component of the innate immunity known to be involved in the homeostasis of Peyer patches (PPs) in mice. However, little is known about its role during gut infection in vivo. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis, adenolymphitis and septicaemia which is able to invade its host through PPs. We investigated the role of Nod2 during Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Death was delayed in Nod2 deleted and Crohn's disease associated Nod2 mutated mice orogastrically inoculated with Y. pseudotuberculosis. In PPs, the local immune response was characterized by a higher KC level and a more intense infiltration by neutrophils and macrophages. The apoptotic and bacterial cell counts were decreased. Finally, Nod2 deleted mice had a lower systemic bacterial dissemination and less damage of the haematopoeitic organs. This resistance phenotype was lost in case of intraperitoneal infection. We concluded that Nod2 contributes to the susceptibility to Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice.

  • 226.
    Mogemark, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    McGee, Karen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Yuan, Ming
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Deleuil, Fabienne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Disruption of target cell adhesion structures by the Yersinia effector YopH requires interaction with the substrate domain of p130Cas.2005Ingår i: European Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0171-9335, E-ISSN 1618-1298, Vol. 84, nr 4, s. 477-489Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The docking protein p130Cas has, together with FAK, been found as a target of the Yersinia virulence effector YopH. YopH is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that is delivered into host cells via the bacterial type III secretion machinery, and the outcome of its activity is inhibition of host cell phagocytosis. In the present study using p130Cas-/- cells, and p130Cas-/- cells expressing variants of GFPp130Cas, we show that this docking protein, via its substrate domain, is responsible for subcellular targeting of YopH in eukaryotic cells. Since YopH inhibits phagocytosis, p130Cas was expected to be critical for signalling mediating bacterial internalization. However, p130Cas-/- cells did not exhibit reduced capacity to internalize Yersinia. On the other hand, when a dominant negative variant of p130Cas was expressed in these cells, the phagocytic capacity was severely impaired. Moreover, the p130Cas-/- cells displayed a marked reduced sensitivity towards YopH-mediated detachment compared to wild-type cells. Transfecting these cells with full-length p130Cas rendered cells hypersensitive to both mechanical and Yersinia-mediated detachment. This hypersensitivity was not seen upon transfection with the dominant negative substrate domain-deleted variant of p130Cas. This implicates p130Cas as a prominent regulator of cell adhesion, where its substrate-binding domain has a significant function.The docking protein p130Cas has, together with FAK, been found as a target of the Yersinia virulence effector YopH. YopH is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that is delivered into host cells via the bacterial type III secretion machinery, and the outcome of its activity is inhibition of host cell phagocytosis. In the present study using p130Cas-/- cells, and p130Cas-/- cells expressing variants of GFPp130Cas, we show that this docking protein, via its substrate domain, is responsible for subcellular targeting of YopH in eukaryotic cells. Since YopH inhibits phagocytosis, p130Cas was expected to be critical for signalling mediating bacterial internalization. However, p130Cas-/- cells did not exhibit reduced capacity to internalize Yersinia. On the other hand, when a dominant negative variant of p130Cas was expressed in these cells, the phagocytic capacity was severely impaired. Moreover, the p130Cas-/- cells displayed a marked reduced sensitivity towards YopH-mediated detachment compared to wild-type cells. Transfecting these cells with full-length p130Cas rendered cells hypersensitive to both mechanical and Yersinia-mediated detachment. This hypersensitivity was not seen upon transfection with the dominant negative substrate domain-deleted variant of p130Cas. This implicates p130Cas as a prominent regulator of cell adhesion, where its substrate-binding domain has a significant function.

  • 227.
    Mojica, Sergio A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Salin, Olli
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Bastidas, Robert J.
    Sunduru, Naresh
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, C. David
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Núñez-Otero, Carlos
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Engström, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Valdivia, Raphael H.
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gylfe, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    N-acylated derivatives of sulfamethoxazole block Chlamydia fatty acid synthesis and interact with FabF2017Ingår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 61, nr 10, artikel-id e00716-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway is essential for bacterial lipid biosynthesis and continues to be a promising target for novel antibacterial compounds. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Chlamydia is capable of FASII and this pathway is indispensable for Chlamydia growth. Previously, a high-content screen with Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells was performed, and acylated sulfonamides were identified to be potent growth inhibitors of the bacteria. C. trachomatis strains resistant to acylated sulfonamides were isolated by serial passage of a wild-type strain in the presence of low compound concentrations. Results from whole-genome sequencing of 10 isolates from two independent drug-resistant populations revealed that mutations that accumulated in fabF were predominant. Studies of the interaction between the FabF protein and small molecules showed that acylated sulfonamides directly bind to recombinant FabF in vitro and treatment of C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells with the compounds leads to a decrease in the synthesis of Chlamydia fatty acids. This work demonstrates the importance of FASII for Chlamydia development and may lead to the development of new antimicrobials.

  • 228.
    Mojica, Sergio
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Eriksson, Anna U.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Davis, Rohan A.
    Bahnan, Wael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gylfe, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Red Fluorescent Chlamydia trachomatis Applied to Live Cell Imaging and Screening for Antibacterial Agents2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 3151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we describe the application of a transformed Chlamydia trachomatis strain constitutively expressing the red fluorescent protein mCherry, to allow real-time monitoring of the infection cycle and screening for agents that block replication of C. trachomatis. The red fluorescent C. trachomatis strain was detected autonomously without antibody staining and was equally susceptible to doxycycline as the wild type strain. A high-throughput screening assay was developed using the transformed strain and automated fluorescence microscopy. The assay was used in a pilot screen of a 349 compound library containing natural products from Australian flora and fauna. Compounds with anti-chlamydial activity were tested for dose response and toxicity to host cells and two non-toxic compounds had 50% effective concentration (EC50) values in the low micromolar range. Natural products are valuable sources for drug discovery and the identified Chlamydia growth inhibition may be starting points for future drug development. Live cell imaging was used to visualize growth of the red fluorescent C. trachomatis strain over time. The screening assay reduced workload and reagents compared to an assay requiring immunostaining and could further be used to monitor the development of Chlamydia inclusions and anti-chlamydial effect in real time.

  • 229. Mondal, Ayan
    et al.
    Tapader, Rima
    Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar
    Ghosh, Amit
    Sinha, Ritam
    Koley, Hemanta
    Saha, Dhira Rani
    Chakrabarti, Manoj K.
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Pal, Amit
    Cytotoxic and Inflammatory Responses Induced by Outer Membrane Vesicle-Associated Biologically Active Proteases from Vibrio cholerae2016Ingår i: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 84, nr 5, s. 1478-1490Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteases in Vibrio cholerae have been shown to play a role in its pathogenesis. V. cholerae secretes Zn-dependent hemagglutinin protease (HAP) and calcium-dependent trypsin-like serine protease (VesC) by using the type II secretion system (TIISS). Our present studies demonstrated that these proteases are also secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and transported to human intestinal epithelial cells in an active form. OMV-associated HAP induces dose-dependent apoptosis in Int407 cells and an enterotoxic response in the mouse ileal loop (MIL) assay, whereas OMV-associated VesC showed a hemorrhagic fluid response in the MIL assay, necrosis in Int407 cells, and an increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) response in T84 cells, which were significantly reduced in OMVs from VesC mutant strain. Our results also showed that serine protease VesC plays a role in intestinal colonization of V. cholerae strains in adult mice. In conclusion, our study shows that V. cholerae OMVs secrete biologically active proteases which may play a role in cytotoxic and inflammatory responses.

  • 230. Moreno-Guzman, Maria
    et al.
    Garcia-Carmona, Laura
    Molinero-Fernandez, Agueda
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Lopez Gil, Miguel Angel
    Escarpa, Alberto
    Bi-enzymatic biosensor for on-site, fast and reliable electrochemical detection of relevant D-amino acids in bacterial samples2017Ingår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 242, s. 95-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a bi-enzymatic biosensor allowed the total content of D-amino acids (DAAs) determination in highly relevant matrices involving bacteria. The strategy is based on the unique coimmobilization of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes onto a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified screen-printed electrode (SPCE). The greater amount of AuNPs deposited and hence the greater loading of both enzymes was observed when they were deposited after the activation of the carboxylated MWCNTs with EDC/Sulfo-NHS chemistry. These platforms provided a fast (300s) and selective quantification of DAAs with excellent precision (RSD < 5%) and accuracy (Recoveries 100-104%) in bacterial samples. Collectively, the electrochemical bi-enzymatic biosensor become an universal, fast, sensitive and easy-to-use approach to determine total content of DAAs in complex matrices.

  • 231.
    Mortezaei, Narges
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Singh, Bhupender
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Zakrisson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Bullitt, Esther
    Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Biomechanical and Structural features of CS2 fimbriae of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 2015Ingår i: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 49-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide, and infection of children in underdeveloped countries often leads to high mortality rates. Isolated ETEC express a plethora of colonization factors (fimbriae/pili), of which CFA/I and CFA/II that are assembled via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP), are amongst the most common. Fimbriae are filamentous structures, whose shafts are primarily composed of helically arranged single pilin-protein subunits, with a unique biomechanical capability allowing them to unwind and rewind. A sustained ETEC infection, under adverse conditions of dynamic shear forces, is primarily attributed to this biomechanical feature of ETEC fimbriae. Recent understandings about the role of fimbriae as virulence factors are pointing to an evolutionary adaptation of their structural and biomechanical features. In this work, we investigated the biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae from the CFA/II group. Homology modelling its major structural subunit CotA reveals structural clues and these are related to the niche in which they are expressed. Using optical tweezers force spectroscopy we found that CS2 fimbriae unwind at a constant force of 10 pN and have a corner velocity of 1300 nm/s, i.e., the velocity at which the force required for unwinding rises exponentially with increased speed. The biophysical properties of CS2 fimbriae assessed in this work classify them into a low-force unwinding group of fimbriae together with the CFA/I and CS20 fimbriae expressed by ETEC strains. The three fimbriae are expressed by ETEC, colonize in similar gut environments, and exhibit similar biophysical features, but differ in their biogenesis. Our observation suggests that the environment has a strong impact on the biophysical characteristics of fimbriae expressed by ETEC.

  • 232. Najdenski, H
    et al.
    Golkocheva-Markova, E
    Kussovski, V
    Vesselinova, A
    Garbom, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Attenuation and preserved immunogenic potential of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant strains evidenced in oral pig model2009Ingår i: Zoonoses and Public Health, ISSN 1863-1959, E-ISSN 1863-2378, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 157-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental oral infection of pigs with a parental Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain pIB102, serotype O:3 and two mutant isogenic strains - pIB155,DeltayopK and pIB44,DeltaypkA has been carried out. Clinical findings, microbiological and immunological parameters were examined in dynamics from day 7 to day 60 post-infection (p.i.). All types of infections ran asymptomatically, without hyperthermia, loss of appetite, etc. Experiments on the blood parameters demonstrated a transient leucocytosis with lymphocytosis and monocytosis better expressed after yopK infection. Even though pig is usually known as a reservoir of yersiniae, bacterial colonization was found in mesenterial lymph nodes and tonsils on day 7, respectively 14 p.i. with parental strain, and only in tonsils on day 14 p.i. with both mutant strains. The augmented sensitivity of mutants to the bactericidal effect of leukocytes and blood sera is the characteristic feature of attenuation in their pathogenicity, compared to the parental strain. Comparative in vitro experiments on the immune response and immunostimulating capacity of Y. pseudotuberculosis mutant strains verify their preserved immunogenic potential, predominantly in case of yopK. Hyperplasia and strong activation of the lymph tissue of Peyer's patches, mesenterial lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen of pigs challenged with both mutant strains were proved as immunomorphological rearrangements. The results obtained give the reason to claim that the genetically constructed yopK null mutant strain is significantly attenuated but is still immunogenic and has the potential for a live vaccine carrier strain.

  • 233.
    Nakao, Ryoma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
    Myint, Si Lhyam
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Enhanced Biofilm Formation and Membrane Vesicle Release by Escherichia coli Expressing a Commonly Occurring Plasmid Gene, kil2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 2605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Escherichia coli is one of the most prevalent microorganisms forming biofilms on indwelling medical devices, as well as a representative model to study the biology and ecology of biofilms. Here, we report that a small plasmid gene, kil, enhances biofilm formation of E coli. The kil gene is widely conserved among naturally occurring colicinogenic plasmids such as ColE1 plasmid, and is also present in some plasmid derivatives used as cloning vectors. First, we found that overexpression of the kil gene product dramatically increased biofilm mass enriched with extracellular DNA in the outer membrane-compromised strain RN102, a deep rough LPS mutant E. coli K-12 derivative. We also found that the kil-enhanced biofilm formation was further promoted by addition of physiologically relevant concentrations of Mg2+, not only in the case of RN102, but also with the parental strain BW25113, which retains intact core-oligosaccharide LPS. Biofilm formation by kil-expressing BW25113 strain (BW25113 kil+) was significantly inhibited by protease but not DNase I. In addition, a large amount of proteinous materials were released from the BW25113 kil+ cells. These materials contained soluble cytoplasmic and periplasmic proteins, and insoluble membrane vesicles (MVs). The kil-induced MVs were composed of not only outer membrane/periplasmic proteins, but also inner membrane/cytoplasmic proteins, indicating that MVs from both of the outer and inner membranes could be released into the extracellular milieu. Subcellular fractionation analysis revealed that the Kil proteins translocated to both the outer and inner membranes in whole cells of BW25113 kil+. Furthermore, the BW25113 kil+ showed not only reduced viability in the stationary growth phase, but also increased susceptibility to killing by predator bacteria, Vibrio cholerae expressing the type VI secretion system, despite no obvious change in morphology and physiology of the bacterial membrane under regular culture conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that there is risk of increasing biofilm formation and spreading of numerous MVs releasing various cellular components due to kil gene expression. From another point of view, our findings could also offer efficient MV production strategies using a conditional kil vector in biotechnological applications.

  • 234.
    Nakao, Ryoma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Enhanced biofilm formation by Escherichia coli LPS mutants defective in hep biosynthesis2012Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 12, s. e51241-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the surface of Gram-negative bacteria and its polysaccharide portion is situated at the outermost region. We investigated the relationship between the polysaccharide portion of LPS and biofilm formation using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes earlier shown to affect the LPS sugar compositions. Biofilm formation by a deep rough LPS mutant, the hldE strain, was strongly enhanced in comparison with the parental strain and other LPS mutants. The hldE strain also showed a phenotype of increased auto-aggregation and stronger cell surface hydrophobicity compared to the wild-type. Similar results were obtained with another deep rough LPS mutant, the waaC strain whose LPS showed same molecular mass as that of the hldE strain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis and biofilm formation assay using DNase I revealed that biofilm formation by the hldE strain was dependent on extracellular DNA. Furthermore, a loss of flagella and an increase in amount of outer membrane vesicles in case of the hldE strain were also observed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that a mutation in the hldE locus, which alters the LPS structure, caused changes in both expression and properties of several surface bacterial factors involved in biofilm formation and virulence. We suggest that the implication of these results should be considered in the context of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, which is frequently associated with nosocominal infections such as the catheter-associated infections.

  • 235.
    Nelson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Niemic, Maria Joanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Nahrevanian, Shahab
    Urban, Constantin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Normark, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Malaria-enhanced Neutrophil Dependent Clearance of S. pneumoniae in an in vivo Co-infection ModelManuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 236.
    Normark, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Nelson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Engström, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
    Andersson, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Björk, Rafael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Moritz, Thomas
    Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Maladjusted Host Immune Responses Induce Experimental Cerebral Malaria-Like Pathology in a Murine Borrelia and Plasmodium Co-Infection Model2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 7, artikel-id e103295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Plasmodium infected host, a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is required to clear the parasites without inducing major host pathology. Clinical reports suggest that bacterial infection in conjunction with malaria aggravates disease and raises both mortality and morbidity in these patients. In this study, we investigated the immune responses in BALB/c mice, co-infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 parasites and the relapsing fever bacterium Borrelia duttonii. In contrast to single infections, we identified in the co-infected mice a reduction of L-Arginine levels in the serum. It indicated diminished bioavailability of NO, which argued for a dysfunctional endothelium. Consistent with this, we observed increased sequestration of CD8+ cells in the brain as well over expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM by brain endothelial cells. Co-infected mice further showed an increased inflammatory response through IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, as well as inability to down regulate the same through IL-10. In addition we found loss of synchronicity of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals seen in dendritic cells and macrophages, as well as increased numbers of regulatory T-cells. Our study shows that a situation mimicking experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) is induced in co-infected mice due to loss of timing and control over regulatory mechanisms in antigen presenting cells.

  • 237.
    Näslund Salomonsson, Emelie
    et al.
    CBRN Defence and Security, FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forslund, Anna-Lena
    CBRN Defence and Security, FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Type IV pili in Francisella: a virulence trait in an intracellular pathogen2011Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 2, artikel-id 29Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular human pathogen that is capable of rapid proliferation in the infected host. Mutants affected in intracellular survival and growth are highly attenuated which highlights the importance of the intracellular phase of the infection. Genomic analysis has revealed that Francisella encodes all genes required for expression of functional type IV pili (Tfp), and in this focused review we summarize recent findings regarding this system in the pathogenesis of tularemia. Tfp are dynamic adhesive structures that have been identified as major virulence determinants in several human pathogens, but it is not obvious what role these structures could have in an intracellular pathogen like Francisella. In the human pathogenic strains, genes required for secretion and assembly of Tfp and one pilin, PilA, have shown to be required for full virulence. Importantly, specific genetic differences have been identified between the different Francisella subspecies where in the most pathogenic type A variants all genes are intact while several Tfp genes are pseudogenes in the less pathogenic type B strains. This suggests that there has been a selection for expression of Tfp with different properties in the different subspecies. There is also a possibility that the genetic differences reflect adaptation to different environmental niches of the subspecies and plays a role in transmission of tularemia. This is also in line with recent findings where Tfp pilins are found to be glycosylated which could reflect a role for Tfp in the environment to promote survival and transmission. We are still far from understanding the role of Tfp in virulence and transmission of tularemia, but with the genomic information and genetic tools available we are in a good position to address these issues in the future.

  • 238.
    Obi, Ikenna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Francis, Matthew
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Demarcating SurA activities required for outer membrane targeting of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis adhesins2013Ingår i: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 81, nr 7, s. 2296-2308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SurA is a periplasmic protein folding factor involved in chaperoning and trafficking of outer membrane proteins across the Gram-negative bacterial periplasm. In addition, SurA also possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. In enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, we have previously reported that SurA is needed for bacterial virulence and envelope integrity. In this study, we investigated the role of SurA in the assembly of important Yersinia adhesins. Using genetic mutation, biochemical characterization and an in vitro-based bacterial host cell association assay, we confirmed that surface localization of the invasin adhesin is dependent on SurA. As a surA deletion also has some impact on the levels of individual components of the BAM complex in the Yersinia outer membrane, abolished invasin surface assembly could reflect both a direct loss of SurA-dependent periplasmic targeting as well as a potentially compromised BAM complex assembly platform in the outer membrane. To varying degrees, the assembly of two other adhesins, Ail and the pH 6 antigen fibrillum PsaA also depend on SurA. Consequently, loss of SurA leads to a dramatic reduction in Yersinia attachment to eukaryotic host cells. Genetic complementation of surA deletion mutants indicated a prominent role for SurA chaperone function in outer membrane protein assembly. Significantly, the N-terminus of SurA contributed most of this SurA chaperone function. Despite a dominant chaperoning role, it was also evident that SurA isomerization activity did make a modest contribution to this assembly process.

  • 239.
    Obi, Ikenna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Nordfelth, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Francis, Matthew
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Varying dependency of periplasmic peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases in promoting Yersinia pseudotuberculosis stress tolerance and pathogenicity2011Ingår i: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 439, nr 2, s. 321-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Periplasmic PPIases (peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases) catalyse the cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds, which is a rate-limiting step during protein folding. We demonstrate that the surA, ppiA, ppiD, fkpA and fklB alleles each encode a periplasmic PPIase in the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Of these, four were purified to homogeneity. Purified SurA, FkpA and FklB, but not PpiD, displayed detectable PPIase activity in vitro. Significantly, only Y. pseudotuberculosis lacking surA caused drastic alterations to the outer membrane protein profile and FA (fatty acid) composition. They also exhibited aberrant cellular morphology, leaking LPS (lipopolysaccharide) into the extracellular environment. The SurA PPIase is therefore most critical for maintaining Y. pseudotuberculosis envelope integrity during routine culturing. On the other hand, bacteria lacking either surA or all of the genes ppiA, ppiD, fkpA and fklB were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and were attenuated in mice infections. Thus Y. pseudotuberculosis exhibits both SurA-dependent and -independent requirements for periplasmic PPIase activity to ensure in vivo survival and a full virulence effect in a mammalian host.

  • 240. O'Donoghue, Beth
    et al.
    NicAogain, Kerrie
    Bennett, Claire
    Conneely, Alan
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    O'Byrne, Conor
    Blue-Light Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes Growth Is Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species and Is Influenced by sigma(B) and the Blue-Light Sensor Lmo07992016Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 82, nr 13, s. 4017-4027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes senses blue light via the flavin mononucleotide-containing sensory protein Lmo0799, leading to activation of the general stress response sigma factor SigB (sigma(B)). In this study, we investigated the physiological response of this foodborne pathogen to blue light. We show that blue light (460 to 470 nm) doses of 1.5 to 2 mW cm(-2) cause inhibition of growth on agar-based and liquid culture media. The inhibitory effects are dependent on cell density, with reduced effects evident when high cell numbers are present. The addition of 20 mM dimethylthiourea, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, or catalase to the medium reverses the inhibitory effects of blue light, suggesting that growth inhibition is mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species. A mutant strain lacking sigma(B) (Delta sigB) was found to be less inhibited by blue light than the wild type, likely indicating the energetic cost of deploying the general stress response. When a lethal dose of light (8 mW cm(-2)) was applied to cells, the Delta sigB mutant displayed a marked increase in sensitivity to light compared to the wild type. To investigate the role of the blue-light sensor Lmo0799, mutants were constructed that either had a deletion of the gene (Delta lmo0799) or alteration in a conserved cysteine residue at position 56, which is predicted to play a pivotal role in the photocycle of the protein (lmo0799 C56A). Both mutants displayed phenotypes similar to the Delta sigB mutant in the presence of blue light, providing genetic evidence that residue 56 is critical for light sensing in L. monocytogenes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes is inhibited by blue light in a manner that depends on reactive oxygen species, and they demonstrate clear light-dependent phenotypes associated with sigma(B) and the blue-light sensor Lmo0799.

  • 241. Ohno, Tomoyuki
    et al.
    Vallström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Rugge, Massimo
    Ota, Hiroyoshi
    Graham, David Y
    Arnqvist, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Yamaoka, Yoshio
    Effects of blood group antigen-binding adhesin expression during Helicobacter pylori infection of Mongolian gerbils2011Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 203, nr 5, s. 726-735Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins, such as the blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), are associated with severe pathological outcomes. However, the in vivo role of BabA during long-term infection is not clear. In this study, Mongolian gerbils were infected with H. pylori and necropsied continuously during 18 months. Bacterial clones were recovered and analyzed for BabA expression, Leb-binding activity, and adhesion to gastric mucosa. BabA expression was completely absent by 6 months post-infection. Loss of BabA expression was attributable to nucleotide changes within the babA gene that resulted in a truncated BabA. In response to the infection, changes in the epithelial glycosylation pattern were observed that were similar to responses observed in humans and monkeys. Furthermore, infections with BabA-expressing and BabA-nonexpressing H. pylori showed no differences in colonization, but infection with the BabA-expressing strain exhibited histological changes and increased inflammatory cell infiltration. This suggests that BabA expression contributes to severe mucosal injury.

  • 242.
    Okumura, Cheryl
    et al.
    University of California.
    Anderson, Ericka L
    University of California.
    Döhrmann, Simon
    Tran, Dan N
    University of California.
    Olson, Joshua
    University of California.
    von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Nizet, Victor
    University of California.
    IgG protease Mac/IdeS is not essential for phagocyte resistance or mouse virulence of M1T1 group A Streptococcus2013Ingår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. e00499-e00513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mac/IdeS protein of group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a secreted cysteine protease with cleavage specificity for IgG and is highly expressed in the GAS serotype M1T1 clone, which is the serotype most frequently isolated from patients with life-threatening invasive infections. While studies of Mac/IdeS with recombinant protein have shown that the protein can potentially prevent opsonophagocytosis of GAS by neutrophils, the role of the protein in immune evasion as physiologically produced by the living organism has not been studied. Here we examined the contribution of Mac/IdeS to invasive GAS disease by generating a mutant lacking Mac/IdeS in the hyperinvasive M1T1 background. While Mac/IdeS was highly expressed and proteolytically active in the hyperinvasive strain, elimination of the bacterial protease did not significantly influence GAS phagocytic uptake, oxidative-burst induction, cathelicidin sensitivity, resistance to neutrophil or macrophage killing, or pathogenicity in pre- or postimmune mouse infectious challenges. We conclude that in the highly virulent M1T1 background, Mac/IdeS is not essential for either phagocyte resistance or virulence. Given the conservation of Mac/IdeS and homologues across GAS strains, it is possible that Mac/IdeS serves another important function in GAS ecology or contributes to virulence in other strain backgrounds.

    IMPORTANCE Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human infections ranging from strep throat to life-threatening conditions such as flesh-eating disease and toxic shock syndrome. Common disease-associated clones of GAS can cause both mild and severe infections because of a characteristic mutation and subsequent change in the expression of several genes that develops under host immune selection. One of these genes encodes Mac/IdeS, a protease that has been shown to cleave antibodies important to the immune defense system. In this study, we found that while Mac/IdeS is highly expressed in hypervirulent GAS, it does not significantly contribute to the ability of the bacteria to survive white blood cell killing or produce invasive infection in the mouse. These data underscore the importance of correlating studies on virulence factor function with physiologic expression levels and the complexity of streptococcal pathogenesis and contribute to our overall understanding of how GAS causes disease.

  • 243.
    Olsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Edqvist, Petra J
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Bröms, Jeanette E
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Forsberg, Ake
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    The YopD translocator of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a multifunctional protein comprised of discrete domains.2004Ingår i: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 186, nr 13, s. 4110-4123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To establish an infection, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis utilizes a plasmid-encoded type III translocon to microinject several anti-host Yop effectors into the cytosol of target eukaryotic cells. YopD has been implicated in several key steps during Yop effector translocation, including maintenance of yop regulatory control and pore formation in the target cell membrane through which effectors traverse. These functions are mediated, in part, by an interaction with the cognate chaperone, LcrH. To gain insight into the complex molecular mechanisms of YopD function, we performed a systematic mutagenesis study to search for discrete functional domains. We highlighted amino acids beyond the first three N-terminal residues that are dispensable for YopD secretion and confirmed that an interaction between YopD and LcrH is essential for maintenance of yop regulatory control. In addition, discrete domains within YopD that are essential for both pore formation and translocation of Yop effectors were identified. Significantly, other domains were found to be important for effector microinjection but not for pore formation. Therefore, YopD is clearly essential for several discrete steps during efficient Yop effector translocation. Recognition of this modular YopD domain structure provides important insights into the function of YopD.

  • 244. Omattage, Natalie S.
    et al.
    Deng, Zengqin
    Pinkner, Jerome S.
    Dodson, Karen W.
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Yuan, Peng
    Hultgren, Scott J.
    Structural basis for usher activation and intramolecular subunit transfer in P pilus biogenesis in Escherichia coli2018Ingår i: Nature Microbiology, E-ISSN 2058-5276, Vol. 3, nr 12, s. 1362-1368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chaperone-usher pathway pili are extracellular proteinaceous fibres ubiquitously found on Gram-negative bacteria, and mediate host-pathogen interactions and biofilm formation critical in pathogenesis in numerous human diseases(1). During pilus assembly, an outer membrane macromolecular machine called the usher catalyses pilus biogenesis from the individual subunits that are delivered as chaperone-subunit complexes in the periplasm. The usher orchestrates pilus assembly using all five functional domains: a 24-stranded transmembrane beta-barrel translocation domain, a beta-sandwich plug domain, an amino-terminal periplasmic domain and two carboxy-terminal periplasmic domains (CTD1 and CTD2)(2-6). Despite extensive structural and functional characterization, the mechanism by which the usher is activated to initiate pilus biogenesis is unknown. Here, we present the crystal structure of the full-length PapC usher from Escherichia coli in complex with its cognate PapDG chaperone-subunit complex in a pre-activation state, elucidating molecular details of how the usher is specifically engaged by allosteric interactions with its substrate preceding activation and how the usher facilitates the transfer of subunits from the amino-terminal periplasmic domain to the CTDs during pilus assembly. This work elucidates the intricate workings of a molecular machine that catalyses chaperone-usher pathway pilus assembly and opens the door for the development of potent inhibitors to block pilus biogenesis.

  • 245. Orikiiriza, Judy
    et al.
    Surowiec, Izabella
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindquist, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Bonde, Mari
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Magambo, Jimmy
    Muhinda, Charles
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Normark, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Infektionssjukdomar. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Lipid response patterns in acute phase paediatric Plasmodium falciparum malaria2017Ingår i: Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, E-ISSN 1573-3890, Vol. 13, nr 4, artikel-id 41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Several studies have observed serum lipid changes during malaria infection in humans. All of them were focused at analysis of lipoproteins, not specific lipid molecules. The aim of our study was to identify novel patterns of lipid species in malaria infected patients using lipidomics profiling, to enhance diagnosis of malaria and to evaluate biochemical pathways activated during parasite infection.

    Methods: Using a multivariate characterization approach, 60 samples were representatively selected, 20 from each category (mild, severe and controls) of the 690 study participants between age of 0.5–6 years. Lipids from patient’s plasma were extracted with chloroform/methanol mixture and subjected to lipid profiling with application of the LCMS-QTOF method.

    Results: We observed a structured plasma lipid response among the malaria-infected patients as compared to healthy controls, demonstrated by higher levels of a majority of plasma lipids with the exception of even-chain length lysophosphatidylcholines and triglycerides with lower mass and higher saturation of the fatty acid chains. An inverse lipid profile relationship was observed when plasma lipids were correlated to parasitaemia.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates how mapping the full physiological lipid response in plasma from malaria-infected individuals can be used to understand biochemical processes during infection. It also gives insights to how the levels of these molecules relate to acute immune responses.

  • 246. Orrego, Alejandro H.
    et al.
    Lopez-Gallego, Fernando
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Guisan, Jose M.
    Rocha-Martin, Javier
    One‐step Synthesis of α‐Keto Acids from Racemic Amino Acids by A Versatile Immobilized Multienzyme Cell‐free System2018Ingår i: ChemCatChem, ISSN 1867-3880, E-ISSN 1867-3899, Vol. 10, nr 14, s. 3002-3011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The elevated value of α‐keto acids has pushed scientists to explore more efficient and less expensive alternatives for their synthesis. In this work, an immobilized tri‐enzyme system that produced α‐keto acids in “one‐pot” from l‐ or racemic mixtures of diverse amino acids was presented. The system combined a broad‐spectrum amino acid racemase (BsrV), a d‐amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and catalase (CAT). BsrV racemized l‐amino acids into their d‐enantiomers, DAAO catalyzed the stereospecific oxidative deamination of the d‐amino acids into their corresponding α‐keto acids, ammonium ion, and H2O2. Finally, CAT converted the inactivating H2O2 into H2O and O2, which can be reused by the oxidase reaction. BsrV thermal stability was improved 3,300‐fold by immobilizing the enzyme on glyoxyl‐activated agarose beads. DAAO and CAT were co‐immobilized on agarose beads functionalized with glutaraldehyde groups for enhancing their stabilities and eliminating H2O2 in a much more effective way. To show the versatility of this system, racemic mixtures of amino acids were converted in their corresponding α‐keto acids. The coupling of the three immobilized enzymes permitted conversions of approximately 99 % through a dynamic kinetic resolution process. This system conserved 100 % of its initial effectiveness after 8 reaction cycles. Collectively, our innovative tri‐enzyme system for the synthesis of α‐keto acids opens the door for a cheapening in the production of many pharmaceutical and cosmetics.

  • 247. Osterblad, Monica
    et al.
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Halkilahti, Jani
    Sarkkinen, Hannu
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Jalava, Jari
    Rare Detection of the Acinetobacter Class D Carbapenemase bla(OXA-23) Gene in Proteus mirabilis2016Ingår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 60, nr 5, s. 3243-3245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 248. Ottmann, Christian
    et al.
    Yasmin, Lubna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Weyand, Michael
    Veesenmeyer, Jeffrey L
    Diaz, Maureen H
    Palmer, Ruth H
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär patogenes (UCMP) (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Hauser, Alan R
    Wittinghofer, Alfred
    Hallberg, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Phosphorylation-independent interaction between 14-3-3 and exoenzyme S: from structure to pathogenesis.2007Ingår i: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 902-913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-recognizing adapter proteins that regulate the activity of a vast array of targets. There are also examples of 14-3-3 proteins binding their targets via unphosphorylated motifs. Here we present a structural and biological investigation of the phosphorylation-independent interaction between 14-3-3 and exoenzyme S (ExoS), an ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoS binds to 14-3-3 in a novel binding mode mostly relying on hydrophobic contacts. The 1.5 A crystal structure is supported by cytotoxicity analysis, which reveals that substitution of the corresponding hydrophobic residues significantly weakens the ability of ExoS to modify the endogenous targets RAS/RAP1 and to induce cell death. Furthermore, mutation of key residues within the ExoS binding site for 14-3-3 impairs virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. In conclusion, we show that ExoS binds 14-3-3 in a novel reversed orientation that is primarily dependent on hydrophobic residues. This interaction is phosphorylation independent and is required for the function of ExoS.

  • 249.
    Panda, Swarupa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gekara, Nelson O.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    The deubiquitinase MYSM1 dampens NOD2-mediated inflammation and tissue damage by inactivating the RIP2 complex2018Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, artikel-id 4654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    NOD2 is essential for antimicrobial innate immunity and tissue homeostasis, but require tight regulation to avert pathology. A focal point of NOD2 signaling is RIP2, which upon polyubiquitination nucleates the NOD2:RIP2 complex, enabling signaling events leading to inflammation, yet the precise nature and the regulation of the polyubiquitins coordinating this process remain unclear. Here we show that NOD2 signaling involves conjugation of RIP2 with lysine 63 (K63), K48 and M1 polyubiquitin chains, as well as with non-canonical K27 chains. In addition, we identify MYSM1 as a proximal deubiquitinase that attenuates NOD2:RIP2 complex assembly by selectively removing the K63, K27 and M1 chains, but sparing the K48 chains. Consequently, MYSM1 deficient mice have unrestrained NOD2-mediated peritonitis, systemic inflammation and liver injury. This study provides a complete overview of the polyubiquitins in NOD2:RIP2 signaling and reveal MYSM1 as a central negative regulator restricting these polyubiquitins to prevent excessive inflammation.

  • 250.
    Panda, Swarupa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Nilsson, Jonas A.
    Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gekara, Nelson O.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Deubiquitinase MYSM1 Regulates Innate Immunity through Inactivation of TRAF3 and TRAF6 Complexes2015Ingår i: Immunity, ISSN 1074-7613, E-ISSN 1097-4180, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 647-659Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) including Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, and cytoplasmic DNA receptors are essential for protection against pathogens but require tight control to avert inflammatory diseases. The mechanisms underlying this strict regulation are unclear. MYSM1 was previously described as a key component of epigenetic signaling machinery. We found that in response to microbial stimuli, MYSM1 accumulated in the cytoplasm where it interacted with and inactivated TRAF3 and TRAF6 complexes to terminate PRR pathways for pro-inflammatory and type I interferon responses. Consequently, Mysm1 deficiency in mice resulted in hyper-inflammation and enhanced viral clearance but also susceptibility to septic shock. We identified two motifs in MYSM1 that were essential for innate immune suppression: the SWIRM domain that interacted with TRAF3 and TRAF6 and the metalloproteinase domain that removed K63 polyubiquitins. This study identifies MYSM1 as a key negative regulator of the innate immune system that guards against an overzealous self-destructive immune response.

2345678 201 - 250 av 361
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf