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  • 201.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Johanna
    MR Research Center, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    MR Research Center, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Buckner, Randy L
    Departments of Psychology, Radiology, and Anatomy & Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA.
    Structure-function correlates of cognitive decline in aging2006Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 16, nr 7, s. 907-915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore neural correlates of cognitive decline in aging, we used longitudinal behavioral data to identify two groups of older adults (n = 40) that differed with regard to whether their performance on tests of episodic memory remained stable or declined over a decade. Analysis of structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed a heterogeneous set of differences associated with cognitive decline. Manual tracing of hippocampal volume showed significant reduction in those older adults with a declining memory performance as did DTI-measured fractional anisotropy in the anterior corpus callosum. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during incidental episodic encoding revealed increased activation in left prefrontal cortex for both groups and additional right prefrontal activation for the elderly subjects with the greatest decline in memory performance. Moreover, mean DTI measures in the anterior corpus callosum correlated negatively with activation in right prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that cognitive decline is associated with differences in the structure as well as function of the aging brain, and suggest that increased activation is either caused by structural disruption or is a compensatory response to such disruption.

  • 202.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pudas, Sara
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lind, Johanna
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Longitudinal structure-function correlates in elderly reveal MTL dysfunction with cognitive decline2012Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 22, nr 10, s. 2297-2304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By integrating behavioral measures and imaging data, previous investigations have explored the relationship between biological markers of aging and cognitive functions. Evidence from functional and structural neuroimaging has revealed that hippocampal volume and activation patterns in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) may predict cognitive performance in old age. Most past demonstrations of age-related differences in brain structure-function were based on cross-sectional comparisons. Here, the relationship between 6-year intraindividual change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal and change in memory performance over 2 decades was examined. Correlations between intraindividual change in fMRI signal during episodic encoding and change in memory performance measured outside of scanning were used as an estimate for relating brain-behavior changes. The results revealed a positive relationship between activation change in the hippocampus (HC) and change in memory performance, reflecting reduced hippocampal activation in participants with declining performance. Using a similar analytic approach as for the functional data, we found that individuals with declining performance had reduced HC volume compared with individuals with intact performance. These observations provide a strong link between cognitive change in older adults and MTL structure and function and thus provide insights into brain correlates of individual variability in aging trajectories.

  • 203.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Aging Research Center (ARC) at Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr ARC, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Longitudinal assessment of default-mode brain function in aging2014Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 35, nr 9, s. 2107-2117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related changes in the default-mode network (DMN) have been identified in prior cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Here, we investigated longitudinal change in DMN activity and connectivity. Cognitively intact participants (aged 49-79 years at baseline) were scanned twice, with a 6-year interval, while performing an episodic memory task interleaved with a passive control condition. Longitudinal analyses showed that the DMN (control condition > memory task) could be reliably identified at both baseline and follow-up. Differences in the magnitude of task-induced deactivation in posterior DMN regions were observed between baseline and follow-up indicating reduced deactivation in these regions with increasing age. Although no overall longitudinal changes in within-network connectivity were found across the whole sample, individual differences in memory change correlated with change in connectivity. Thus, our results show stability of whole-brain DMN topology and functional connectivity over time in healthy older adults, whereas within-region DMN analyses show reduced deactivation between baseline and follow-up. The current findings provide novel insights into DMN functioning that may assist in identifying brain changes in patient populations, as well as characterizing factors that distinguish between normal and pathologic aging.

  • 204.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Longitudinal evidence for increased functional response in frontal cortex for older adults with hippocampal atrophy and memory decline2018Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 936-948Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The functional organization of the frontal cortex is dynamic. Age-related increases in frontal functional responses have been shown during various cognitive tasks, but the cross-sectional nature of most past studies makes it unclear whether these increases reflect reorganization or stable individual differences. Here, we followed 130 older individuals' cognitive trajectories over 20-25 years with repeated neuropsychological assessments every 5th year, and identified individuals with stable or declining episodic memory. Both groups displayed significant gray matter atrophy over 2 successive magnetic resonance imaging sessions 4 years apart, but the decline group also had a smaller volume of the right hippocampus. Only individuals with declining memory demonstrated increased prefrontal functional responses during memory encoding and retrieval over the 4-year interval. Regions with increased functional recruitment were located outside, or on the borders of core task-related networks, indicating an expansion of these over time. These longitudinal findings offer novel insight into the mechanisms behind age-associated memory loss, and are consistent with a theoretical model in which hippocampus atrophy, past a critical threshold, induces episodic-memory decline and altered prefrontal functional organization.

  • 205.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Persson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Brain Characteristics of Individuals Resisting Age-Related Cognitive Decline over Two Decades2013Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 33, nr 20, s. 8668-8677Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some elderly appear to resist age-related decline in cognitive functions, but the neural correlates of successful cognitive aging are not well known. Here, older human participants from a longitudinal study were classified as successful or average relative to the mean attrition-corrected cognitive development across 15-20 years in a population-based sample (n = 1561). Fifty-one successful elderly and 51 age-matched average elderly (mean age: 68.8 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an episodic memory face-name paired-associates task. Successful older participants had higher BOLD signal during encoding than average participants, notably in the bilateral PFC and the left hippocampus (HC). The HC activation of the average, but not the successful, older group was lower than that of a young reference group (n = 45, mean age: 35.3 years). HC activation was correlated with task performance, thus likely contributing to the superior memory performance of successful older participants. The frontal BOLD response pattern might reflect individual differences present from young age. Additional analyses confirmed that both the initial cognitive level and the slope of cognitive change across the longitudinal measurement period contributed to the observed group differences in BOLD signal. Further, the differences between the older groups could not be accounted for by differences in brain structure. The current results suggest that one mechanism behind successful cognitive aging might be preservation of HC function combined with a high frontal responsivity. These findings highlight sources for heterogeneity in cognitive aging and may hold useful information for cognitive intervention studies.

  • 206.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Persson, Jonas
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Maintenance and manipulation in working memory: Differential ventral and dorsal frontal cortex fMRI activity2009Ingår i: Acta Psychologica Sinica, ISSN 0439-755X, Vol. 41, nr 11, s. 1054-1062Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A verbal working memory protocol was designed and evaluated on a group of healthy younger adults in preparation for a large-scale functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study on aging and memory. Letters were presented in two critical conditions: (i) maintenance, in which letters were to be memorized and kept in mind over a four second interval, and (ii) manipulation, in which letters were shifted forward in alphabetical order, and the new order was kept in mind. Analyses of fMRI data showed that the protocol elicited reliable activation in the frontal cortex, with manipulation producing more extensive activation patterns, both in whole-brain analyses and in predefined regions of interest (ROIs). There was also a distinction between dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal regions, such that manipulation elicited more dorsolateral prefrontal activation. The protocol also elicited activation in various subcortical areas, previously associated with working-memory tasks. It was concluded that this working memory protocol is appropriate for investigating age-related changes in frontal-cortex functioning.

  • 207.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Persson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Midlife memory ability accounts for brain activity differences in healthy aging2014Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 35, nr 11, s. 2495-2503Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions underlie individual differences in memory ability in older individuals, but it is unclear how individual differences in cognitive ability in youth contribute to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older age. Here, we investigated the relative influences of midlife memory ability and age-related memory change on memory-related BOLD-signal variability at one time point, using a sample from a longitudinal population-based aging study (N = 203, aged 55-80 years). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that midlife memory ability, assessed 15-20 years earlier, explained at least as much variance as memory change in clusters in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and the bilateral hippocampus, during memory encoding. Furthermore, memory change estimates demonstrated higher sensitivity than current memory levels in identifying distinct frontal regions where activity was selectively related to age-related memory change, as opposed to midlife memory. These findings highlight challenges in interpreting individual differences in neurocognitive measures as age-related changes in the absence of longitudinal data and also demonstrate the improved sensitivity of longitudinal measures.

  • 208. Ragnarsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Evang, Johan A.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Bollerslev, Jens
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Johannsson, Gudmundur
    Decreased prefrontal functional brain response during memory testing in women with Cushing's syndrome in remission2017Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 82, s. 117-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 commis matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working memory tasks. The primary regions of interest were the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. A voxel-wise comparison of functional brain responses in patients and controls was performed. During episodic-memory encoding, patients displayed lower functional brain responses in the left and right prefrontal gyrus (p < 0.001) and in the right inferior occipital gyrus (p < 0.001) compared with controls. There was a trend towards lower functional brain responses in the left posterior hippocampus in patients (p = 0.05). During episodic-memory retrieval, the patients displayed lower functional brain responses in several brain areas with the most predominant difference in the right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.001). During the working memory task, patients had lower response in the prefrontal cortices bilaterally (p < 0.005). Patients, but not controls, had lower functional brain response during a more complex working memory task compared with a simpler one. In conclusion, women with CS in long-term remission have reduced functional brain responses during episodic and working memory testing. This observation extends previous findings showing long-term adverse effects of severe hypercortisolaemia on brain function.

  • 209.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sari
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Farde, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dopamine D1 receptor associations within and between dopaminergic pathways in younger and elderly adults: links to cognitive performance2011Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 21, nr 9, s. 2023-2032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related dopamine (DA) losses have been extensively demonstrated for the D2 receptor subtype. Comparatively little is known about adult age changes regarding D1 receptors. In this study, we demonstrate marked age-related D1 receptor losses in striatal, limbic, and cortical areas using positron emission tomography and the radioligand [(11)C]SCH23390 in humans. Interregional correlations of binding potential (BP) values were high for areas within DA pathways in younger and elderly adults alike. Furthermore, interregional correlations in D1 BP between DA pathways were uniformly high in younger adults, indicating that D1 receptor densities in striatal, limbic, and cortical areas are not regulated independently, despite dopaminergic innervation from different midbrain areas. For elderly adults, between-pathway correlations of D1 receptor densities were preserved only between mesolimbic and mesocortical areas, whereas striatal BPs were weakly related to those in limbic and neocortical regions. Importantly, weak between-pathway correlations in elderly adults were found only for the slower half of the sample when BP was estimated during a cognitive interference task. These results suggest that D1 receptor densities in different pathways are not regulated independently in younger adults, but segregate in older age, and that this segregation of D1 receptor systems may be related to age-related cognitive slowing.

  • 210.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Longitudinal Changes in Component Processes of Working Memory2017Ingår i: eNeuro, E-ISSN 2373-2822, Vol. 4, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) entails maintenance and manipulation of information in the absence of sensory input. This study investigated the trajectories and neural basis of these component processes of WM functions in aging. Longitudinal human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are presented from 136 older individuals (55–80 years) who were scanned at baseline and again 4 years later. We obtained evidence that age-related changes in parietal and frontal components of the WM core network are dissociable in terms of their role in maintenance of perceptual representations and further manipulation of this information, respectively. Individual difference analyses in performance subgroups showed that only prefrontal changes in fMRI activation were accompanied by changes in performance, but parietal brain activity was related to study dropout. We discuss the results in terms of possible neurobiological causes underlying separable aging-related declines in inferior parietal cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex that differentially affect WM functions.

  • 211.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fransson, Peter
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, MR Research Centre, N8, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, MR Research Centre, N8, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Neural representation of binding lexical signs and words in the episodic buffer of working memory2007Ingår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 2258-2276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The episodic buffer accommodates formation and maintenance of unitary multidimensional representations based on information in different codes from different sources. Formation, based on submorphemic units, engages posterior brain regions, while maintenance engages frontal regions. Using a hybrid fMRI design, that allows separate analysis of transient and sustained components, an n-back task and an experimental group of 13 hearing native signers, with experience of Swedish Sign Language and Swedish since birth, we investigated binding of lexical signs and words in working memory. Results show that the transient component of these functions is supported by a buffer-specific network of posterior regions including the right middle temporal lobe, possibly relating to binding of phonological loop representations with semantic representations in long-term memory, as well as a loop-specific network, in line with predictions of a functional relationship between loop and buffer. The left hippocampus was engaged in transient and sustained components of buffer processing, possibly reflecting the meaningful nature of the stimuli. Only a minor role was found for executive functions in line with other recent work. A novel representation of the sustained component of working memory for audiovisual language in the right inferior temporal lobe may be related to perception of speech-related facial gestures. Previous findings of sign and speech loop representation in working memory were replicated and extended. Together, these findings support the notion of a module that mediates between codes and sources, such as the episodic buffer, and further our understanding of its nature.

  • 212. Rypma, Bart
    et al.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Hubbard, Nicholas A
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Dopamine D1 Binding Potential Predicts Fusiform BOLD Activity during Face-Recognition Performance2015Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, nr 44, s. 14702-14707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of face memory in humans and primates is well established, but little is known about the neurotransmitter systems involved in face recognition. We tested the hypothesis that face recognition is linked to dopamine (DA) activity in fusiform gyrus (FFG). DA availability was assessed by measuring D1 binding potential (BP) during rest using PET. We further assessed blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal change while subjects performed a face-recognition task during fMRI scanning. There was a strong association between D1 BP and BOLD activity in FFG, whereas D1 BP in striatal and other extrastriatal regions were unrelated to neural activity in FFG. These results suggest that D1 BP locally modulates FFG function during face recognition. Observed relationships among D1 BP, BOLD activity, and face-recognition performance further suggest that D1 receptors place constraints on the responsiveness of FFG neurons.

    SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The importance of face memory in humans and primates is well established, but little is known about the neurotransmitter systems involved in face recognition. Our work shows a role for a specific neurotransmitter system in face memory.

  • 213.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Psykologi.
    Backman, L
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stability, growth, and decline in adult life span development of declarative memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a population-based study2005Ingår i: PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING, ISSN 0882-7974, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 214.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Kompus, Kristiina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Habib, Reza
    Southern Illinois University , Carbondale.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Characterizing the neural correlates of modality-specific and modality-independent accessibility and availability signals in memory using partial-least squares2010Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 686-698Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that information that currently cannot be retrieved but will be retrieved on a subsequent, more supported task (i.e. is available but not accessible) has a distinct neural signature compared with non-available information. For verbal paired-associates, an availability signal has been revealed in left middle temporal cortex, an area potentially involved in the storage of such information, raising the possibility that availability signals are expressed in modality-specific storage sites. In the present study subjects encoded pictures and sounds representing concrete objects. One day later, during fMRI scanning, a verbal cued-recall task was administrated followed by a post-scan recognition task. Items remembered on both tasks were classified as accessible; items not remembered on the first but on the second task were classified as available; and items not remembered on any of the tasks were classified as not available. Multivariate partial-least-squares analyses revealed a modality-independent accessibility network with dominant contributions of left inferior parietal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, and left hippocampus. Additionally, a modality-specific availability network was identified which included increased activity in visual regions for available pictorial information and in auditory regions for available sound information. These findings show that availability in memory, at least in part, is characterized by systematic changes in brain activity in sensory regions whereas memory access reflects differential activity in a modality-independent, conceptual network, thus indicating qualitative differences between availability and accessibility in memory.

  • 215.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Age-related white matter microstructural differences partly mediate age-related decline in processing speed but not cognition2012Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, ISSN 0006-3002, E-ISSN 1878-2434, Vol. 1822, nr 3, s. 408-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging is associated with declining cognitive performance as well as structural changes in brain gray and white matter (WM). The WM deterioration contributes to a disconnection among distributed brain networks and may thus mediate age-related cognitive decline. The present diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study investigated age-related differences in WM microstructure and their relation to cognition (episodic memory, visuospatial processing, fluency, and speed) in a large group of healthy subjects (n=287) covering 6 decades of the human life span. Age related decreases in fractional anisotropy (FA) and increases in mean diffusivity (MD) were observed across the entire WM skeleton as well as in specific WM tracts, supporting the WM degeneration hypothesis. The anterior section of the corpus callosum was more susceptible to aging compared to the posterior section, lending support to the anterior-posterior gradient of WM integrity in the corpus callosum. Finally, and of critical interest, WM integrity differences were found to mediate age-related reductions in processing speed but no significant mediation was found for episodic memory, visuospatial ability, or fluency. These findings suggest that compromised WM integrity is not a major contributing factor to declining cognitive performance in normal aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease.

  • 216.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Opposing effects of aging on large-scale brain systems for memory encoding and cognitive control2012Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 32, nr 31, s. 10749-10757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Episodic memory declines with advancing age. Neuroimaging studies have associated such decline to age-related changes in general cognitive-control networks as well as to changes in process-specific encoding or retrieval networks. To assess the specific influence of aging on encoding and retrieval processes and associated brain systems, it is vital to dissociate encoding and retrieval from each other and from shared cognitive-control processes. We used multivariate partial-least-squares to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a large population-based sample (n = 292, 25-80 years). The participants performed a face-name paired-associates task and an active baseline task. The analysis revealed two significant network patterns. The first reflected a process-general encoding-retrieval network that included frontoparietal cortices and posterior hippocampus. The second pattern dissociated encoding and retrieval networks. The anterior hippocampus was differentially engaged during encoding. Brain scores, representing whole-brain integrated measures of how strongly an individual recruited a brain network, were correlated with cognitive performance and chronological age. The scores from the general cognitive-control network correlated negatively with episodic memory performance and positively with age. The encoding brain scores, which strongly reflected hippocampal functioning, correlated positively with episodic memory performance and negatively with age. Univariate analyses confirmed that bilateral hippocampus showed the most pronounced activity reduction in older age, and brain structure analyses found that the activity reduction partly related to hippocampus atrophy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related structural brain changes underlie age-related reductions in the efficient recruitment of a process-specific encoding network, which cascades into upregulated recruitment of a general cognitive-control network.

  • 217.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Dopamine D2/3 Binding Potential Modulates Neural Signatures of Working Memory in a Load-Dependent Fashion.2019Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 537-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dopamine (DA) modulates corticostriatal connections. Studies in which imaging of the DA system is integrated with functional imaging during cognitive performance have yielded mixed findings. Some work has shown a link between striatal DA (measured by PET) and fMRI activations, whereas others have failed to observe such a relationship. One possible reason for these discrepant findings is differences in task demands, such that a more demanding task with greater prefrontal activations may yield a stronger association with DA. Moreover, a potential DA–BOLD association may be modulated by task performance. We studied 155 (104 normal-performing and 51 low-performing) healthy older adults (43% females) who underwent fMRI scanning while performing a working memory (WM) n-back task along with DA D2/3 PET assessment using [11C]raclopride. Using multivariate partial-least-squares analysis, we observed a significant pattern revealing positive associations of striatal as well as extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors to BOLD response in the thalamo–striatal–cortical circuit, which supports WM functioning. Critically, the DA–BOLD association in normal-performing, but not low-performing, individuals was expressed in a load-dependent fashion, with stronger associations during 3-back than 1-/2-back conditions. Moreover, normal-performing adults expressing upregulated BOLD in response to increasing task demands showed a stronger DA–BOLD association during 3-back, whereas low-performing individuals expressed a stronger association during 2-back conditions. This pattern suggests a nonlinear DA–BOLD performance association, with the strongest link at the maximum capacity level. Together, our results suggest that DA may have a stronger impact on functional brain responses during more demanding cognitive tasks.

  • 218.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Karolinska Inst, Aging Res Ctr, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Elevated hippocampal resting-state connectivity underlies deficient neurocognitive function in aging2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, nr 49, s. 17654-17659Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain is not idle during rest. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have identified several resting-state networks, including the default mode network (DMN), which contains a set of cortical regions that interact with a hippocampus (HC) subsystem. Age-related alterations in the functional architecture of the DMN and HC may influence memory functions and possibly constitute a sensitive biomarker of forthcoming memory deficits. However, the exact form of DMN-HC alterations in aging and concomitant memory deficits is largely unknown. Here, using both task and resting data from 339 participants (25-80 y old), we have demonstrated age-related decrements in resting-state functional connectivity across most parts of the DMN, except for the HC network for which age-related elevation of connectivity between left and right HC was found along with attenuated HC-cortical connectivity. Elevated HC connectivity at rest, which was partly accounted for by age-related decline in white matter integrity of the fornix, was associated with lower cross-sectional episodic memory performance and declining longitudinal memory performance over 20 y. Additionally, elevated HC connectivity at rest was associated with reduced HC neural recruitment and HC-cortical connectivity during active memory encoding, which suggests that strong HC connectivity restricts the degree to which the HC interacts with other brain regions during active memory processing revealed by task fMRI. Collectively, our findings suggest a model in which age-related disruption in cortico-hippocampal functional connectivity leads to a more functionally isolated HC at rest, which translates into aberrant hippocampal decoupling and deficits during mnemonic processing.

  • 219.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Avelar-Pereira, Bárbara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction2018Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 2525-2539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance. The low-performing subgroup showed weaker load-dependent BOLD modulation and lower connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (FPN) as well as between FPN and striatum during n-back, along with lower FPN connectivity at rest. This group also exhibited lower FPN structural integrity, lower frontal dopamine D2 binding potential, inferior performance on offline WM tests, and a trend-level genetic predisposition for lower dopamine-system efficiency. By contrast, this group exhibited relatively intact episodic memory and associated brain measures (i.e., hippocampal volume, structural, and functional connectivity within the default-mode network). Collectively, these data provide converging evidence for the existence of a group of older adults with impaired WM functioning characterized by reduced cortico-striatal coupling and aberrant cortico-cortical integrity within FPN.

  • 220.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, SE-113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Kaboodvand, Neda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, SE-113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Longitudinal Evidence for Dissociation of Anterior and Posterior MTL Resting-State Connectivity in Aging: Links to Perfusion and Memory2016Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 26, nr 10, s. 3953-3963Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroimaging studies of spontaneous signal fluctuations as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed age-related alterations in the functional architecture of brain networks. One such network is located in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), showing structural and functional variations along the anterior-posterior axis. Past cross-sectional studies of MTL functional connectivity (FC) have yielded discrepant findings, likely reflecting the fact that specific MTL subregions are differentially affected in aging. Here, using longitudinal resting-state data from 198 participants, we investigated 5-year changes in FC of the anterior and posterior MTL. We found an opposite pattern, such that the degree of FC within the anterior MTL declined after age 60, whereas elevated FC within the posterior MTL was observed along with attenuated posterior MTL-cortical connectivity. A significant negative change-change relation was observed between episodic-memory decline and elevated FC in the posterior MTL. Additional analyses revealed age-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases in posterior MTL at the follow-up session, along with a positive relation of elevated FC and CBF, suggesting that elevated FC is a metabolically demanding alteration. Collectively, our findings indicate that elevated FC in posterior MTL along with increased local perfusion is a sign of brain aging that underlie episodic-memory decline.

  • 221. Salmi, Juha
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Laine, Matti
    Working memory training mostly engages general-purpose large-scale networks for learning2018Ingår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 93, s. 108-122Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present meta-analytic study examined brain activation changes following working memory (WM) training, a form of cognitive training that has attracted considerable interest. Comparisons with perceptual-motor (PM) learning revealed that WM training engages domain-general large-scale networks for learning encompassing the dorsal attention and salience networks, sensory areas, and striatum. Also the dynamics of the training-induced brain activation changes within these networks showed a high overlap between WM and PM training. The distinguishing feature for WM training was the consistent modulation of the dorso- and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC) activity. The strongest candidate for mediating transfer to similar untrained WM tasks was the frontostriatal system, showing higher striatal and VLPFC activations, and lower DLPFC activations after training. Modulation of transfer-related areas occurred mostly with longer training periods. Overall, our findings place WM training effects into a general perception-action cycle, where some modulations may depend on the specific cognitive demands of a training task.

  • 222.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Executive process training in young and old adults2014Ingår i: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 577-605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research on the modifiability of executive functions in different stages of life. Previous studies demonstrate robust training effects but limited transfer in younger and particularly in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a theoretically derived intervention for executive functioning, addressing several basic processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition), can induce transfer effects in early and late adulthood. Fifty-nine healthy adults, 29 young and 30 older adults, were randomly assigned to either training or no-contact control groups. The training groups received 15 sessions of executive process training for about 45 min/session during 5 weeks. A test battery including a criterion task and near, intermediate, and far transfer tasks was administered before and after training. Results showed pronounced age-equivalent gains on the criterion task. Near transfer was seen to non-trained updating and inhibition tasks for the young and older trained participants. However, only the young adults showed intermediate transfer to two complex working memory tasks. No far transfer effects were seen for either age group. These findings provide additional evidence for age-related constraints in the ability to generalize acquired executive skills, and specifically show that training of multiple executive processes is not sufficient to foster transfer beyond the very near in older adults.

  • 223.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Nyström Rhodin, Ingalill
    Quranten Stress and Trauma Institute, Umea, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Impaired cognitive performance in patients with chronic burnout syndrome2005Ingår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 271-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic burnout refers to a syndrome caused by chronic stress. Clinical observations indicate that chronic burnout is associated with impaired cognitive functioning. However, there have been no systematic studies of the cognitive performance in chronic burnout patients. We have evaluated general cognitive ability, memory, and attention in 67 female patients treated for chronic burnout. The patients and 15 healthy control subjects were tested with standardized tests of verbal and nonverbal cognitive ability (WAIS), verbal (Claeson–Dahl) and nonverbal (Rey complex figures) memory, and visual and auditory attention (IVA). Significant reductions in nonverbal memory and auditory and visual attention were found for the patient group. These results indicate that patients with chronic burnout have specific cognitive impairments, which should be emphasized in the evaluation of symptoms and treatment regimes in this disorder.

  • 224.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Peterson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Sandström, Erik
    Anesthesia and Intensive care, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rhodin Nyström, Ingalill
    Quranten Stress and Trauma Institute, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Cognitive deficits in relation to personality type and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction in women with stress-related exhaustion2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 71-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exhaustion caused by long-term work-related stress may cause cognitive dysfunction. We explored factors that may link chronic stress and cognitive impairment. Personality, psychiatric screening, and behavior were assessed by self-reporting measures in 20 female patients (mean age 39.3 years; range 26–53) with a preliminary diagnosis of stress-related exhaustion and in 16 healthy matched controls. Cognitive performance was investigated with a detailed neuropsychological test battery. Cortisol axis function was assessed by urinary and saliva collections of cortisol, dexamethasone suppression, Synacthen response, and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) tests. Proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate and univariate statistical methods were used to explore putative differences between groups and factors linked to cognitive impairment. Cognitive function clearly differed between groups, with decreased attention and visuospatial memory in the patient group, suggesting frontal cortex/medial temporal cortex-network dysfunction. Increased harm avoidance and persistence was present among patients, with lowered self-directedness linked to lower quality of life, increased anxious and depressive tendencies, and experiences of psychosocial stress. Attention was decreased with concomitantly impaired visuospatial memory. The pituitary (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH) response to CRH was decreased in patients, with an increased cortisol/ACTH response to CRH. However, cortisol production rates, diurnal or dexamethasone-suppressed saliva cortisol levels, and the cortisol response to Synacthen were unaltered. Hippocampal volumes did not differ between groups. These findings suggest that cognitive dysfunction in stress-related exhaustion is linked to distinct personality traits, low quality of life, and a decreased ACTH response to CRH.

  • 225.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Säll, R
    Peterson, Jonas
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Larsson, A
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Brain activation patterns in major depressive disorder and job stress-related long-term sick leaveArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 226.
    Sandström, Agneta
    et al.
    Remonthagen Stroke och hjärnskadecenter, Östersund.
    Säll, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Peterson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Brain activation patterns in major depressive disorder and work stress-related long-term sick leave among swedish females2012Ingår i: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 503-513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deficits in executive and working-memory functioning associated with frontal lobe dysfunction are prominent in depression and work-related long-term sick leave (LTSL). This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate potential differences in brain activation patterns in these conditions. In addition, the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis was examined and compared between groups. Since there is a clear overrepresentation of women in these diagnostic groups, and to ensure a more homogenous sample population, only women were included. To examine the neural correlates of relevant cognitive processes in patients on sick-leave > 90 days due to work-related LTSL, recently diagnosed patients with major depression (DSM-IV criteria, untreated), and healthy controls (n=10 each group), a 2-back working memory task and a visual long-term memory task were administered during fMRI scanning. HPA-axis functioning was investigated using a diurnal curve of saliva cortisol and a dexamethasone suppression test. Task performance was comparable among the three groups. Multivariate image analysis revealed that both memory tasks engaged a similar brain network in all three groups, including the prefrontal and parietal cortex. During the 2-back task, LTSL patients had significant frontal hypoactivation compared to controls and patients with depression. Saliva cortisol measurements showed a flattening of the diurnal rythmicity in LTSL patients compared to patients with depression and healthy contols. Taken together, these findings indicate that work stress-related LTSL and major depression are dissociable in terms of frontal activation and diurnal cortisol rhythmicity.

  • 227. Satizabal, Claudia L.
    et al.
    Adams, Hieab H. H.
    Hibar, Derrek P.
    White, Charles C.
    Knol, Maria J.
    Stein, Jason L.
    Scholz, Markus
    Sargurupremraj, Muralidharan
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Roshchupkin, Gennady, V
    Smith, Albert, V
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Jian, Xueqiu
    Luciano, Michelle
    Hofer, Edith
    Teumer, Alexander
    van der Lee, Sven J.
    Yang, Jingyun
    Yanek, Lisa R.
    Lee, Tom, V
    Li, Shuo
    Hu, Yanhui
    Koh, Jia Yu
    Eicher, John D.
    Desrivieres, Sylvane
    Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro
    Chauhan, Ganesh
    Athanasiu, Lavinia
    Rentera, Miguel E.
    Kim, Sungeun
    Hoehn, David
    Armstrong, Nicola J.
    Chen, Qiang
    Holmes, Avram J.
    den Braber, Anouk
    Kloszewska, Iwona
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Grimm, Oliver
    Abramovic, Lucija
    Alhusaini, Saud
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Papmeyer, Martina
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Ehrlich, Stefan
    Roiz-Santianez, Roberto
    Kraemer, Bernd
    Håberg, Asta K.
    Jones, Hannah J.
    Pike, G. Bruce
    Stein, Dan J.
    Stevens, Allison
    Bralten, Janita
    Vernooij, Meike W.
    Harris, Tamara B.
    Filippi, Irina
    Witte, A. Veronica
    Guadalupe, Tulio
    Wittfeld, Katharina
    Mosley, Thomas H.
    Becker, James T.
    Doan, Nhat Trung
    Hagenaars, Saskia P.
    Saba, Yasaman
    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel
    Amin, Najaf
    Hilal, Saima
    Nho, Kwangsik
    Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin
    Arfanakis, Konstantinos
    Becker, Diane M.
    Ames, David
    Goldman, Aaron L.
    Lee, Phil H.
    Boomsma, Dorret, I
    Lovestone, Simon
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    Bohlken, Marc M.
    Kasperaviciute, Dalia
    Schmaal, Lianne
    Lawrie, Stephen M.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Walton, Esther
    Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana
    Davies, Gareth E.
    Shin, Jean
    Ipser, Jonathan C.
    Vinke, Louis N.
    Hoogman, Martine
    Jia, Tianye
    Burkhardt, Ralph
    Klein, Marieke
    Crivello, Fabrice
    Janowitz, Deborah
    Carmichael, Owen
    Haukvik, Unn K.
    Aribisala, Benjamin S.
    Schmidt, Helena
    Strike, Lachlan T.
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Risacher, Shannon L.
    Puetz, Benno
    Fleischman, Debra A.
    Assareh, Amelia A.
    Mattay, Venkata S.
    Buckner, Randy L.
    Mecocci, Patrizia
    Dale, Anders M.
    Cichon, Sven
    Boks, Marco P.
    Matarin, Mar
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Calhoun, Vince D.
    Chakravarty, M. Mallar
    Marquand, Andre F.
    Macare, Christine
    Masouleh, Shahrzad Kharabian
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Hegenscheid, Katrin
    Rotter, Jerome, I
    Schork, Andrew J.
    Liewald, David C. M.
    de Zubicaray, Greig, I
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Shen, Li
    Saemann, Philipp G.
    Brodaty, Henry
    Roffman, Joshua L.
    de Geus, Eco J. C.
    Tsolaki, Magda
    Erk, Susanne
    van Eijk, Kristel R.
    Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    McIntosh, Andrew M.
    Gollub, Randy L.
    Bulayeva, Kazima B.
    Bernard, Manon
    Richards, Jennifer S.
    Himali, Jayandra J.
    Loeffler, Markus
    Rommelse, Nanda
    Hoffmann, Wolfgang
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes
    Hansell, Narelle K.
    van Erp, Theo G. M.
    Wolf, Christiane
    Kwok, John B. J.
    Vellas, Bruno
    Heinz, Andreas
    Loohuis, Loes M. Olde
    Delanty, Norman
    Ho, Beng-Choon
    Ching, Christopher R. K.
    Shumskaya, Elena
    Singh, Baljeet
    Hofman, Albert
    van der Meer, Dennis
    Homuth, Georg
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Bastin, Mark E.
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    Foroud, Tatiana M.
    Reppermund, Simone
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Simmons, Andrew
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Cahn, Wiepke
    Whelan, Christopher D.
    van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.
    Yang, Qiong
    Hosten, Norbert
    Green, Robert C.
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Mohnke, Sebastian
    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff
    Lin, Honghuang
    Jack, Clifford R., Jr.
    Schofield, Peter R.
    Muehleisen, Thomas W.
    Maillard, Pauline
    Potkin, Steven G.
    Wen, Wei
    Fletcher, Evan
    Toga, Arthur W.
    Gruber, Oliver
    Huentelman, Matthew
    Smith, George Davey
    Launer, Lenore J.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jönsson, Erik G.
    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
    Koen, Nastassja
    Greve, Douglas N.
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Weinberger, Daniel R.
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Fedko, Iryna O.
    Groenewold, Nynke A.
    Niessen, Wiro J.
    Toro, Roberto
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Longstreth, William T., Jr.
    Ikram, M. Kamran
    Smoller, Jordan W.
    van Tol, Marie-Jose
    Sussmann, Jessika E.
    Paus, Tomas
    Lemaitre, Herve
    Schroeter, Matthias L.
    Mazoyer, Bernard
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Holsboer, Florian
    Depondt, Chantal
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Turner, Jessica A.
    Pausova, Zdenka
    Schumann, Gunter
    van Rooij, Daan
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Deary, Ian J.
    McMahon, Katie L.
    Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram
    Brouwer, Rachel M.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Pandolfo, Massimo
    Wassink, Thomas H.
    Cheung, Joshua W.
    Wolfers, Thomas
    Martinot, Jean-Luc
    Zwiers, Marcel P.
    Nauck, Matthias
    Melle, Ingrid
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    Kanai, Ryota
    Westman, Eric
    Kahn, Rene S.
    Sisodiya, Sanjay M.
    White, Tonya
    Saremi, Arvin
    van Bokhoven, Hans
    Brunner, Han G.
    Voelzke, Henry
    Wright, Margaret J.
    van't Ent, Dennis
    Noethen, Markus M.
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    Buitelaar, Jan K.
    Fernandez, Guilln
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Rietschel, Marcella
    van Haren, Neeltje E. M.
    Fisher, Simon E.
    Beiser, Alexa S.
    Francks, Clyde
    Saykin, Andrew J.
    Mather, Karen A.
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    DeStefano, Anita L.
    Heslenfeld, Dirk J.
    Weiner, Michael W.
    Walter, Henrik
    Hoekstra, Pieter J.
    Nyquist, Paul A.
    Franke, Barbara
    Bennett, David A.
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Johnson, Andrew D.
    Chen, Christopher
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Lopez, Oscar L.
    Fornage, Myriam
    Wardlaw, Joanna M.
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    DeCarli, Charles
    De Jager, Philip L.
    Villringer, Arno
    Debette, Stephanie
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Medland, Sarah E.
    Shulman, Joshua M.
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals2019Ingår i: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 51, nr 11, s. 1624-+Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.

  • 228.
    Sigray, Pontus Plavén
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Farde, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borg, Jacqueline
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenkrona, Per
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dopamine D1 receptor availability is related to social behavior: a positron emission tomography study2014Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 102, nr 2, s. 590-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysfunctional interpersonal behavior is thought to underlie a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders; however, the neurobiological underpinnings of these behavioral disturbances are poorly understood. Previous molecular imaging studies have shown associations between striatal dopamine (DA) D2-receptor binding and interpersonal traits, such as social conformity. The objective of this study was to explore, for the first time, the role of DA D1-receptors (D1-R) in human interpersonal behavior. Twenty-three healthy subjects were examined using Positron Emission Tomography and the radioligand [11C]SCH23390, yielding D1-R binding potential values. Striatal D1-R binding was related to personality scales selected to specifically assess one dimension of interpersonal behavior, namely a combination of affiliation and dominance (i.e., the Social Desirability, Verbal Trait Aggression and Physical Trait Aggression scales from Swedish Universities Scales of Personality). An exploratory analysis was also performed for extrastriatal brain regions. D1-R binding potential values in limbic striatum (r=.52; p=.015), associative striatum (r=.55; p=.009), and sensorimotor striatum (r=.67; p=.001) were positively related to Social Desirability scores. D1-R binding potential in limbic striatum (r=-.51; p=.019) was negatively associated with Physical Trait Aggression scores. For extrastriatal regions, Social Desirability scores showed positive correlations in amygdala (r=.60; p=.006) and medial frontal cortex (r=.60; p=.004). This study provides further support for the role of DA function in the expression of disaffiliative and dominant traits. Specifically, D1-R availability may serve as a marker for interpersonal behavior in humans. Associations were demonstrated for the same dimension of interpersonal behavior as for D2-R, but in the opposite direction, suggesting that the two receptor subtypes are involved in the same behavioral processes, but with different functional roles.

  • 229.
    Sjölie, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Bodin, Kenneth
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Elgh, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Janlert, Lars-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Effects of interactivity and 3D-motion on mental rotation brain activity in an immersive virtual environment2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2010, s. 869-878Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of virtual reality (VR) and brain measurements is a promising development of HCI, but the maturation of this paradigm requires more knowledge about how brain activity is influenced by parameters of VR applications. To this end we investigate the influence of two prominent VR parameters, 3d-motion and interactivity, while brain activity is measured for a mental rotation task, using functional MRI (fMRI). A mental rotation network of brain areas is identified, matching previous results. The addition of interactivity increases the activation in core areas of this network, with more profound effects in frontal and preparatory motor areas. The increases from 3d-motion are restricted to primarily visual areas. We relate these effects to emerging theories of cognition and potential applications for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Our results demonstrate one way to provoke increased activity in task-relevant areas, making it easier to detect and use for adaptation and development of HCI.

  • 230. Sneve, Markus H.
    et al.
    Grydeland, Hakon
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bowles, Ben
    Amlien, Inge K.
    Langnes, Espen
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Mechanisms Underlying Encoding of Short-Lived Versus Durable Episodic Memories2015Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, nr 13, s. 5202-5212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We continuously encounter and process novel events in the surrounding world, but only some episodes will leave detailed memory traces that can be recollected after weeks and months. Here, our aim was to monitor brain activity during encoding of events that eventually transforms into long-term stable memories. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that the degree of activation of different brain regions during encoding is predictive of later recollection success. However, most of these studies tested participants' memories the same day as encoding occurred, whereas several lines of research suggest that extended post-encoding processing is of crucial importance for long-term consolidation. Using fMRI, we tested whether the same encoding mechanisms are predictive of recollection success after hours as after a retention interval of several weeks. Seventy-eight participants were scanned during an associative encoding task and given a source memory test the same day or after similar to 6 weeks. We found a strong link between regional activity levels during encoding and recollection success over short time intervals. However, results further showed that durable source memories, i.e., events recollected after several weeks, were not simply the events associated with the highest activity levels at encoding. Rather, strong levels of connectivity between the right hippocampus and perceptual areas, as well as with parts of the self-referential default-mode network, seemed instrumental in establishing durable source memories. Thus, we argue that an initial intensity-based encoding is necessary for short-term encoding of events, whereas additional processes involving hippocampal-cortical communication aid transformation into stable long-term memories.

  • 231.
    Sondell, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Engström, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Backman, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Holmlund, Kenneth
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Bucht, Gösta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Altered walking pattern in a virtual environment2005Ingår i: Presence - Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, ISSN 1054-7460, E-ISSN 1531-3263, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 191-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Falls and fractures among elderly persons constitute a major health problem. Many falls occur while walking and falls that occur during turning often result in a fracture. Methods aimed at understanding the complex mechanisms involved in walking should therefore assess tested individuals during walks and turns. In order to identify persons at risk and take the correct preventive measures, it is important to find methods that quantify movements as the tested persons are processing multisensory input. In a clinical setting this is sometimes difficult to achieve in a controlled manner, since tests are difficult to set exactly the same from one time to another. Using a virtual environment (VE) and a tracker system, conditions such as light, sound, events, body movements, and room size can be controlled and measured. Tests in VE can therefore be identically reproduced over and over again to evaluate if a person can withstand changing outer demands at any given moment. In order to perform quantitative measures 8 persons (21-74 years) were tested in immersive virtual reality. The VE was a corridor in which expected and unexpected events could be produced. Events studied were doors swinging open in front of the subjects during a walk and a virtual tilting of the environment. Trackers were used for collecting and analyzing the movement data. Our results show that the system was well tolerated among the subjects and that there was a clear tendency that the system could generate fall tendency among the subjects. There was also a difference among the subjects regarding walking strategies when subjected to the various events.

  • 232. Soveri, Anna
    et al.
    Tallus, Jussi
    Laine, Matti
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Backman, Lars
    Hugdahl, Kenneth
    Tuomainen, Jyrki
    Westerhausen, Rene
    Hamalainen, Heikki
    Modulation of Auditory Attention by Training Evidence From Dichotic Listening2013Ingår i: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 44-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effects of training on auditory attention in healthy adults with a speech perception task involving dichotically presented syllables. Training involved bottom-up manipulation (facilitating responses from the harder-to-report left ear through a decrease of right-ear stimulus intensity), top-down manipulation (focusing attention on the left-ear stimuli through instruction), or their combination. The results showed significant training-related effects for top-down training. These effects were evident as higher overall accuracy rates in the forced-left dichotic listening (DL) condition that sets demands on attentional control, as well as a response shift toward left-sided reports in the standard DL task. Moreover, a transfer effect was observed in an untrained auditory-spatial attention task involving bilateral stimulation where top-down training led to a relatively stronger focus on left-sided stimuli. Our results indicate that training of attentional control can modulate the allocation of attention in the auditory space in adults. Malleability of auditory attention in healthy adults raises the issue of potential training gains in individuals with attentional deficits.

  • 233.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Elinge, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Having had a hip fracture: association with dependency among the oldest old2005Ingår i: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 294-297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 234.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Englund, Undis
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Borssén, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    A multidisciplinary, multifactorial intervention program reduces postoperative falls and injuries after femoral neck fracture.2007Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 167-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates whether a postoperative multidisciplinary, intervention program, including systematic assessment and treatment of fall risk factors, active prevention, detection, and treatment of postoperative complications, could reduce inpatient falls and fall-related injuries after a femoral neck fracture.

    METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial at the orthopedic and geriatric departments at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, included 199 patients with femoral neck fracture, aged >or=70 years.

    RESULTS: Twelve patients fell 18 times in the intervention group compared with 26 patients suffering 60 falls in the control group. Only one patient with dementia fell in the intervention group compared with 11 in the control group. The crude postoperative fall incidence rate was 6.29/1,000 days in the intervention group vs 16.28/1,000 days in the control group. The incidence rate ratio was 0.38 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20 - 0.76, p=0.006] for the total sample and 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01-0.57, p=0.013) among patients with dementia. There were no new fractures in the intervention group but four in the control group.

    CONCLUSION: A team applying comprehensive geriatric assessment and rehabilitation, including prevention, detection, and treatment of fall risk factors, can successfully prevent inpatient falls and injuries, even in patients with dementia.

  • 235.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Inpatient falls and injuries in older patients treated for femoral neck fracture.2006Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 389-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A prospective inpatient study was performed at the Orthopedic and Geriatric Departments at the Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, to study inpatient falls, fall-related injuries, and risk factors for falls following femoral neck fracture surgery. Ninety-seven patients with femoral neck fracture aged 70 years or older were included, background characteristics, falls, injuries, and other postoperative complications were assessed and registered during the hospitalization. There were 60 postoperative falls among 26/97 patients (27%). The postoperative fall event rate was 16.3/1000 Days (95% CI 12.2-20.4). Thirty two percent of the falls resulted in injuries, 25% minor, and 7% serious ones. In multiple regression analyses, delirium after Day 7, HRR 4.62 (95% CI 1.24-16.37), male sex 3.92 (1.58-9.73), and sleeping disturbances 3.49 (1.24-9.86), were associated with inpatient falls. Forty-five percent of the patients were delirious the day they fell. Intervention programs, including prevention and treatment of delirium and sleeping disturbances, as well as better supervision of male patients, could be possible fall prevention strategies. Improvement of the quality of care and rehabilitation, with the focus on fall prevention based on these results, should be implemented in postoperative care of older people.

  • 236.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Bättre resultat med ett multidisciplinärt vårdprogram för äldre med höftfraktur2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 237.
    Stenvall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Lundström, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Improved performance in activities of daily living and mobility after a multidisciplinary postoperative rehabilitation in older people with femoral neck fracture: a randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up.2007Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 232-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short- and long-term effects of a multidisciplinary postoperative rehabilitation programme in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: A randomized controlled trial in patients (n = 199) with femoral neck fracture, aged >or= 70 years.

    METHODS: The primary outcomes were: living conditions, walking ability and activities of daily living performance on discharge, 4 and 12 months postoperatively. The intervention consisted of staff education, individualized care planning and rehabilitation, active prevention, detection and treatment of postoperative complications. The staff worked in teams to apply comprehensive geriatric assessment, management and rehabilitation. A geriatric team assessed those in the intervention group 4 months postoperatively, in order to detect and treat any complications. The control group followed conventional postoperative routines.

    RESULTS: Despite shorter hospitalization, significantly more people from the intervention group had regained independence in personal activities of daily living performance at the 4- and 12-month follow-ups; odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI) ) 2.51 (1.00-6.30) and 3.49 (1.31-9.23), respectively. More patients in the intervention group had also regained the ability to walk independently indoors without walking aids by the end of the study period, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 3.01 (1.18-7.61).

    CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary postoperative intervention programme enhances activities of daily living performance and mobility after hip fracture, from both a short-term and long-term perspective.

  • 238.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Examination of the common cause account in a population-based longitudinal study with narrow age cohort design2010Ingår i: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 553-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The common cause account suggests that there is a third factor causing aging effects in both sensory and cognitive functioning, hypothesized to be the integrity of the central nervous system [Lindenberger and Baltes; Psychol Aging 1994;9:339–355]. Importantly, the common cause account was developed based on cross-sectional data, which are especially biased by cohort effects. However, cohort effects can be controlled for in narrow age cohort (NAC) designs and by longitudinal examination. Findings from the few longitudinal studies that have studied the relation between age-related changes in sensory and cognitive functions are complex and give only partial support to the common cause account. Objective: The present paper examines the common cause account within a longitudinal setting.

    Method: Our study is unique in the sense that it tests the common cause account within a longitudinal NAC design sing data from the Betula project. The participants (n = 1,057) were in the age range of 45–90 years. Results: The findings indicate that the relationship between sensory and memory functioning in both a longitudinal age-heterogeneous and a longitudinal NAC design are much weaker than that detected by an age-heterogeneous cross-sectional design.

    Conclusion: The demonstrated weak age-associated sensory-cognitive link raises questions regarding the explanatory value of the common cause account and related theoretical accounts for accounting for age-related cognitive changes.

  • 239.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    A fronto-striatal workout to promote neuro-plasticity in old adults2013Ingår i: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 50, nr Special issue, suppl. 1, s. S7-S8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 240.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sehlstedt, I
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Working Memory Updating Training in Older Adults: Is Level of Performance After Training Related to Transfer?2013Ingår i: Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0269-8803, E-ISSN 2151-2124, Vol. 27, nr Supplement 1, s. 69-70Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 241.
    Stillesjö, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Building Memory Representations for Exemplar-Based Judgment: A Role for Ventral Precuneus2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, artikel-id 228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The brain networks underlying human multiple-cue judgment, the judgment of a continuous criterion based on multiple cues, have been examined in a few recent studies, and the ventral precuneus has been found to be a key region. Specifically, activation differences in ventral precuneus (as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) has been linked to an exemplar-based judgment process, where judgments are based on memory for previous similar cases. Ventral precuneus is implicated in various episodic memory processes, notably such that increased activity during learning in this region as well as in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the medial temporal lobes (MTL) have been linked to retrieval success. The present study used fMRI during a multiple-cue judgment task to gain novel neurocognitive evidence informative for the link between learning-related activity changes in ventral precuneus and exemplar-based judgment. Participants (N = 27) spontaneously learned to make judgments during fMRI, in a multiple-cue judgment task specifically designed to induce exemplar-based processing. Contrasting brain activity during late learning to early learning revealed higher activity in ventral precuneus, the bilateral MTL, and the vmPFC. Activity in the ventral precuneus and the vmPFC was found to parametrically increase between each judgment event, and activity levels in the ventral precuneus predicted performance after learning. These results are interpreted such that the ventral precuneus supports the aspects of exemplar-based processes that are related to episodic memory, tentatively by building, storing, and being implicated in retrieving memory representations for judgment.

  • 242.
    Stomby, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Higher diurnal salivary cortisol levels are related to smaller prefrontal cortex surface area in elderly men and women2016Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 175, nr 2, s. 117-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Elevated cortisol levels with aging have been associated with atrophy of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as with impaired cognitive functions in men. However, coexisting diseases have confounded many studies examining these relationships. Studies in women are lacking. Our objective was to test whether salivary cortisol levels were related to morphology of the hippocampus and the PFC, and to cognitive performance. Design: A cross-sectional study including 200 elderly (55-80 years old) men and women. Method: We used magnetic resonance imaging, tests of episodic-, semantic-, and working memory, visuospatial ability, and cortisol levels in four saliva samples collected during 1 day. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol levels was negatively related to cortical surface area of the left anterior cingulate gyrus (caudal P < 0.001; rostral P = 0.006), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (P = 0.004), and right rostral middle frontal gyrus (P = 0.003). In women, there was also a negative relationship with cortical surface area in the left rostral middle frontal gyrus (P = 0.006). No relationship was found between cortisol levels and hippocampal volume. Conclusion: This study suggests that the structure of the medial PFC is related to cortisol levels in both elderly women and men.

  • 243.
    Stomby, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Higher diurnal salivary cortisol levels are related to smaller prefrontal cortex surface area in women and menManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 244.
    Stomby, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Jönköping County Hospital, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Otten, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, artikel-id 391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 245.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Bergdahl, M
    Public Dental Service Competence Centre of Northern Norway (TkNN), PB 2406, N-9271, Norway .
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Cognitive status in persons with amalgam-related complaints2010Ingår i: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 89, nr 11, s. 1236-1240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported cognitive symptoms are frequent in persons with amalgam-related complaints, but few studies have focused on their cognitive function. The aim was to examine a symptom profile and whether participants with amalgam-related complaints have cognitive deficits in comparison with control individuals. We drew 342 participants with amalgam-related complaints and 342 one-to-one matched control individuals from a longitudinal population-based study. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and controls, data were available approximately five years before the onset of complaints, making a longitudinal analysis possible. All participants were assessed by a self-reported health questionnaire and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. The participants with amalgam-related complaints reported more symptoms, mainly musculoskeletal and neuropsychological, compared with control individuals (p < 0.001). The results revealed no significant difference between the amalgam and control group, either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, for any of the cognitive tests. These results suggest that cognitive decline is not associated with amalgam-related complaints.

  • 246.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Stressful negative life events and amalgam-related complaints2011Ingår i: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 12-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  The role of stressful life events in the onset of self-reported amalgam-related complaints is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between life events and amalgam-related complaints.

    Method:  The participants were selected from a longitudinal population-based study. One-to-one matching of 337 participants with amalgam-related complaints to 337 participants without such complaints was performed. For 81 of the participants with amalgam-related complaints and their matched controls, data was also available approximately 5 years before the onset of complaints, making longitudinal analysis possible. All participants completed questionnaires assessing the occurrence of 55 life events.

    Results:  The results showed that many participants with amalgam-related complaints experienced negative life events before and at the onset of amalgam-related complaints. They also reported more unexpected and uncontrollable events difficult to adjust to in comparison with controls. The groups did not differ on positive or neutral life events. Somatic illness or surgical operation was the most common life event. Death of a very close family member and a major change in financial situation were also commonly reported.

    Conclusions:  This study indicates that adverse negative life events could play a vital role in understanding and explaining amalgam-related complaints.

  • 247.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Marklund, Petter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Cruts, M.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    APOE influences on neurosychological function after mild head injury: within-person comparisons2004Ingår i: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 62, nr 11, s. 1963-1966Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the relationship between neuropsychological outcome following mild head injury (MHI) and APOE genotype.

    Methods: Data from a population-based longitudinal study (n = 3,500) were used to identify 34 adults who experienced MHI during the course of the study. Their pre- and postinjury performances on a battery of nine neuropsychological tests were compared within person, and the postinjury performance was compared with that of age- and gender-matched control subjects.

    Results: The within-person comparisons showed that participants with at least oneAPOE ε4 allele (n = 11) had a significantly decreased postinjury performance on three of the tests, whereas the postinjury performance for APOE ε4-negative participants (n = 23) was unchanged. There was no significant difference in postinjury performance between participants with/without the ε4 allele, and neither group was impaired relative to controls.

    Conclusions: APOE genotype may influence the outcome following an MHI. Pre/postinjury within-person comparisons seem more sensitive than control group comparisons for detecting injury-related effects.

  • 248.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Cruts, M.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    van Broeckhoven, C.
    Depatrment of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Fatigue before and after mild traumatic brain injury: Pre-post-injury comparisons in relation to Apolipoprotein E2007Ingår i: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 21, nr 10, s. 1049-1054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary objective: To assess the incidence of fatigue for persons following a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to evaluate the relationship between fatigue and APOE genotype. As fatigue is often found to be influenced by anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance, these factors were also measured. Methods and procedures: Thirty-one persons who sustained a MTBI were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study. Each person who sustained a MTBI was matched by age, gender, education and APOE genotype with two non-head injury controls. Self-reported pre- and post-injury incidence of fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance was compared within-group and between groups. Results: For the MTBI group, incidence of fatigue was almost twice as common post- than pre-injury, whereas there was no corresponding change in a non-injured control group. Within the MTBI-group, post-injury fatigue was particularly common for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele. Conclusions: Fatigue is common sequela after a MTBI and especially pronounced for carriers of the APOE ε4 allele.

  • 249.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cruts, M.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Increased risk of dementia following mild head injury for carriers but not for non-carriers of the APOE ε4 allele2007Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 159-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and head injury are risk factors for dementia diseases, and may act synergistically to further increase the risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between mild head injury, APOE and dementia.

    Methods: Data were obtained from the Betula prospective population-based study of aging, memory, and health. The study included 543 participants in the age range 40–85 years, free of dementia at baseline, who were followed up within a 5-year interval. Dementia was classified using DSM-IV criteria. Information on previous head injury was obtained through screening of the participants' answers to health questionnaires at baseline and at follow-up.

    Results: Subjects with head injury but without APOE ε4 had no increased risk of dementia. Subjects with APOE ε4 had an increased risk and those with both APOE ε4 and head injury had the highest risk of dementia (odds ratio = 5.2).

    Conclusions: APOE ε4 constitutes a risk factor for dementia, mild injury in isolation does not increase the risk, but head injury in combination with the APOE ε4 leads to increased risk of dementia.

  • 250.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Cognitive performance before and after mild head injury.2002Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. Suppl, nr B77, s. 60-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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