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  • 251.
    Adamo, Hanibal Hani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Strömvall, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Halin Bergström, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Adaptive (TINT) Changes in the Tumor Bearing Organ Are Related to Prostate Tumor Size and Aggressiveness2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0141601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to grow, tumors need to induce supportive alterations in the tumor-bearing organ, by us named tumor instructed normal tissue (TINT) changes. We now examined if the nature and magnitude of these responses were related to tumor size and aggressiveness. Three different Dunning rat prostate tumor cells were implanted into the prostate of immune-competent rats; 1) fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu tumor cells 2) fast growing and poorly metastatic AT-1 tumor cells, and 3) slow growing and non-metastatic G tumor cells. All tumor types induced increases in macrophage, mast cell and vascular densities and in vascular cell-proliferation in the tumor-bearing prostate lobe compared to controls. These increases occurred in parallel with tumor growth. The most pronounced and rapid responses were seen in the prostate tissue surrounding MatLyLu tumors. They were, also when small, particularly effective in attracting macrophages and stimulating growth of not only micro-vessels but also small arteries and veins compared to the less aggressive AT-1 and G tumors. The nature and magnitude of tumor-induced changes in the tumor-bearing organ are related to tumor size but also to tumor aggressiveness. These findings, supported by previous observation in patient samples, suggest that one additional way to evaluate prostate tumor aggressiveness could be to monitor its effect on adjacent tissues.

  • 252.
    Adamo, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    Brännström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Strigård, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Prevalence and recurrence rate of perianal abscess -a population-based study, Sweden 1997-20092016In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 669-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, HIV/aids, and obesity on the prevalence and readmission rate of perianal abscess.

    METHODS: The study cohort was based on the Swedish National Patient Register and included all patients treated for perianal abscess in Sweden 1997-2009. The prevalence and risk for readmission were assessed in association with four comorbidity diagnoses: diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, HIV, and/or AIDS and obesity.

    RESULTS: A total of 18,877 patients were admitted during the study period including 11,138 men and 4557 women (2.4:1). Crohn's disease, diabetes, and obesity were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of perianal abscess than an age- and gender-matched background population (p < 0.05). In univariate analysis, neither age nor gender had any significant impact on the risk for readmission. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, Crohns disease was the only significant risk factor for readmission of perianal abscess.

    CONCLUSION: Crohn's disease, diabetes, and obesity increase the risk for perianal abscess. Of these, Crohn's and HIV has an impact on readmission. The pathogenesis and the influence of diabetes and obesity need further research if we are to understand why these diseases increase the risk for perianal abscess but not its recurrence.

  • 253.
    Adamo, Hanibal Hani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Hammarsten, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Hägglöf, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Scherdin, Tove Dahl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Egevad, Lars
    Stattin, Paer
    Halin Bergström, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Prostate cancer induces C/EBP expression in surrounding epithelial cells which relates to tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome2019In: The Prostate, ISSN 0270-4137, E-ISSN 1097-0045, Vol. 79, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Implantation of rat prostate cancer cells into the normal rat prostate results in tumor-stimulating adaptations in the tumor-bearing organ. Similar changes are seen in prostate cancer patients and they are related to outcome. One gene previously found to be upregulated in the non-malignant part of tumor-bearing prostate lobe in rats was the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein- (C/EBP).

    Methods: To explore this further, we examined C/EBP expression by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot in normal rat prostate tissue surrounding slow-growing non-metastatic Dunning G, rapidly growing poorly metastatic (AT-1), and rapidly growing highly metastatic (MatLyLu) rat prostate tumors?and also by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA) from prostate cancer patients managed by watchful waiting.

    Results: In rats, C/EBP mRNA expression was upregulated in the surrounding tumor-bearing prostate lobe. In tumors and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue, C/EBP was detected by immunohistochemistry in some epithelial cells and in infiltrating macrophages. The magnitude of glandular epithelial C/EBP expression in the tumor-bearing prostates was associated with tumor size, distance to the tumor, and metastatic capacity. In prostate cancer patients, high expression of C/EBP in glandular epithelial cells in the surrounding tumor-bearing tissue was associated with accumulation of M1 macrophages (iNOS+) and favorable outcome. High expression of C/EBP in tumor epithelial cells was associated with high Gleason score, high tumor cell proliferation, metastases, and poor outcome.

    Conclusions: This study suggest that the expression of C/EBP-beta, a transcription factor mediating multiple biological effects, is differentially expressed both in the benign parts of the tumor-bearing prostate and in prostate tumors, and that alterations in this may be related to patient outcome.

  • 254.
    Adamowicz, Tomasz
    et al.
    Institute of Mathematics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Lundström, Niklas L.P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    The boundary Harnack inequality for variable exponent p-Laplacian, Carleson estimates, barrier functions and p(⋅)-harmonic measures2016In: Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, ISSN 0373-3114, E-ISSN 1618-1891, Vol. 195, no 2, p. 623-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate various boundary decay estimates for p(⋅)-harmonic functions. For domains in Rn,n≥2satisfying the ball condition (C1,1-domains), we show the boundary Harnack inequality for p(⋅)-harmonic functions under the assumption that the variable exponent p is a bounded Lipschitz function. The proof involves barrier functions and chaining arguments. Moreover, we prove a Carleson-type estimate for p(⋅)-harmonic functions in NTA domains in Rn and provide lower and upper growth estimates and a doubling property for a p(⋅)-harmonic measure.

  • 255. Adam-Poupart, Ariane
    et al.
    Labreche, France
    Smargiassi, Audrey
    Duguay, Patrice
    Busque, Marc-Antoine
    Gagne, Charles
    Rintamaki, Hannu
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Zayed, Joseph
    Climate Change and Occupational Health and Safety in a Temperate Climate: Potential Impacts and Research Priorities in Quebec, Canada2013In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 68-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impacts of climate change (CC) on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) have been studied a little in tropical countries, while they received no attention in northern industrialized countries with a temperate climate. This work aimed to establish an overview of the potential links between CC and OHS in those countries and to determine research priorities for Quebec, Canada. A narrative review of the scientific literature (2005-2010) was presented to a working group of international and national experts and stakeholders during a workshop held in 2010. The working group was invited to identify knowledge gaps, and a modified Delphi method helped prioritize research avenues. This process highlighted five categories of hazards that are likely to impact OHS in northern industrialized countries: heat waves/increased temperatures, air pollutants, UV radiation, extreme weather events, vector-borne/zoonotic diseases. These hazards will affect working activities related to natural resources (i.e. agriculture, fishing and forestry) and may influence the socioeconomic context (built environment and green industries), thus indirectly modifying OHS. From this consensus approach, three categories of research were identified: 1) Knowledge acquisition on hazards, target populations and methods of adaptation; 2) Surveillance of diseases/accidents/occupational hazards; and 3) Development of new occupational adaptation strategies.

  • 256.
    Adams, Brent Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tran, Thi Bich Van
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Project Manager Competencies in managing International Development Projects: The Project Managers' Perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research studies the competencies of International Development (ID) project managers from their perspectives, taking into consideration the contextual factors and the challenges that they face when managing ID projects.

    The study adopts a constructionist ontological viewpoint and an interpretivist epistemological philosophical assumption. The nature of the research is exploratory with an inductive approach, using qualitative research method. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with experienced project managers in International Development projects. Template analysis strategy was used to analyse the data.

    The findings show that contextual factors have a significant influence on the challenges that ID project managers face when managing projects. Contextual factors are operating environment, large network of stakeholders and intangible goals of ID projects. Five challenges were identified as the results of the context, namely stakeholder management challenge, beneficiary needs analysis challenge, the challenge of balancing strategic and operational views, capacity building and training challenge and sustainable funding challenge. To overcome these challenges, seven ID project manager competencies were identified management skills, personal qualities, interpersonal skills, stakeholder engagement skills, capacity building skills, and change management skills. These competencies are found to be interrelated and complementary. While the role and responsibilities of ID project managers were also uncovered during the research, the findings on contextual factors, challenges and competencies help to better understand the ID project manager role and responsibilities.

    This study makes the contributions from both theoretical and practical point of view. With regards to theoretical contribution, our findings expanded on ID project manager competencies as well as relating them to the context and challenges in ID projects. The role and responsibilities of ID project manager is another theoretical contribution in this study. From a practical point of view, this thesis’s findings would be useful for various organizations who deliver ID projects, particularly human resources management. In addition, it can act as knowledge sharing with ID project managers and help in designing and enhancing educational programmes in ID project management. Overall, this could result in better delivery and overcoming the challenges of International Development projects.

  • 257. Adams, D.
    et al.
    Coelho, T.
    Conceicao, E.
    Waddington-Cruz, M.
    Schmidt, H.
    Buades, J.
    Campistol, J. M.
    Pouget, J.
    Berk, J. L.
    Polydefkis, M.
    Ziyadeh, N.
    Partisano, A. M.
    Chen, J.
    Gollob, J.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    PHASE 2 OPEN-LABEL EXTENSION (OLE) STUDY OF PATISIRAN, AN INVESTIGATIONAL RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAI) THERAPEUTIC FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEREDITARY ATTR AMYLOIDOSIS WITH POLYNEUROPATHY2017In: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 20, no 5, p. A211-A212Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 258. Adams, D.
    et al.
    Coelho, T.
    Conceicao, I.
    Cruz, M. Waddington
    Schmidt, H.
    Buades, J.
    Campistol, J.
    Pouget, J.
    Berk, J. L.
    Ziyadeh, N.
    Partisano, A. M.
    Sweetser, M.
    Chen, J.
    Gollob, J.
    Suhr, Ole
    Umeå University.
    Phase 2 open-label extension (OLE) study of patisiran for the treatment of hereditary ATTR (hATTR) amyloidosis: 24-month safety and efficacy in subgroup of patients with cardiac involvement2017In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844, Vol. 19, no Suppl: 1, p. 19-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 259. Adams, D.
    et al.
    Coelho, T.
    Conceicao, I.
    Cruz, M. Waddington
    Schmidt, H.
    Buades, J.
    Campistol, J.
    Pouget, J.
    Berk, J.
    Ziyadeh, N.
    Partisano, A.
    Chen, J.
    Sweetser, M.
    Gollob, J.
    Suhr, Ole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Phase 2 open-label extension (OLE) study of patisiran with or without a TTR stabilizer for the treatment of hereditary ATTR (hATTR) amyloidosis with polyneuropathy2017In: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 24, p. 31-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 260. Adams, D.
    et al.
    Coelho, T.
    Suhr, Ole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Conceicao, I.
    Waddington-Cruz, M.
    Schmidt, H.
    Campistol, J.
    Pouget, J.
    Buades, J.
    Falzone, R.
    Harrop, J.
    De Frutos, R.
    Butler, J.
    Cehelsky, J.
    Nochur, S.
    Vaishnaw, A.
    Gollob, J.
    Interim results from phase ii trial of aln-ttr02, a novel RNAi therapeutic for the treatment of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy2013In: Journal of the peripheral nervous system, ISSN 1085-9489, E-ISSN 1529-8027, Vol. 18, no Supplement 2, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 261. Adams, D.
    et al.
    Gonzalez-Duarte, A.
    O'Riordan, W. D.
    Yang, C. -C
    Ueda, M.
    Kristen, A. V.
    Tournev, I.
    Schmidt, H. H.
    Coelho, T.
    Berk, J. L.
    Lin, K. -P
    Vita, G.
    Attarian, S.
    Plante-Bordeneuve, V.
    Mezei, M. M.
    Campistol, J. M.
    Buades, J.
    Brannagan, T. H. , I I I
    Kim, B. J.
    Oh, J.
    Parman, Y.
    Sekijima, Y.
    Hawkins, P. N.
    Solomon, S. D.
    Polydefkis, M.
    Dyck, P. J.
    Gandhi, P. J.
    Goyal, S.
    Chen, J.
    Strahs, A. L.
    Nochur, S. V.
    Sweetser, M. T.
    Garg, P. P.
    Vaishnaw, A. K.
    Gollob, J. A.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Patisiran, an RNAi Therapeutic, for Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis2018In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 379, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patisiran, an investigational RNA interference therapeutic agent, specifically inhibits hepatic synthesis of transthyretin.

    METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive intravenous patisiran (0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo once every 3 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score+7 (mNIS+7; range, 0 to 304, with higher scores indicating more impairment) at 18 months. Other assessments included the Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (Norfolk QOL-DN) questionnaire (range, -4 to 136, with higher scores indicating worse quality of life), 10-m walk test (with gait speed measured in meters per second), and modified body-mass index (modified BMI, defined as [weight in kilograms divided by square of height in meters] x albumin level in grams per liter; lower values indicated worse nutritional status).

    RESULTS: A total of 225 patients underwent randomization (148 to the patisiran group and 77 to the placebo group). The mean (+/- SD) mNIS+7 at baseline was 80.9 +/- 41.5 in the patisiran group and 74.6 +/- 37.0 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (+/- SE) change from baseline was -6.0 +/- 1.7 versus 28.0 +/- 2.6 (difference, -34.0 points; P<0.001) at 18 months. The mean (+/- SD) baseline Norfolk QOL-DN score was 59.6 +/- 28.2 in the patisiran group and 55.5 +/- 24.3 in the placebo group; the least-squares mean (+/- SE) change from baseline was -6.7 +/- 1.8 versus 14.4 +/- 2.7 (difference, -21.1 points; P<0.001) at 18 months. Patisiran also showed an effect on gait speed and modified BMI. At 18 months, the least-squares mean change from baseline in gait speed was 0.08 +/- 0.02 m per second with patisiran versus -0.24 +/- 0.04 m per second with placebo (difference, 0.31 m per second; P<0.001), and the least-squares mean change from baseline in the modified BMI was -3.7 +/- 9.6 versus -119.4 +/- 14.5 (difference, 115.7; P<0.001). Approximately 20% of the patients who received patisiran and 10% of those who received placebo had mild or moderate infusion-related reactions; the overall incidence and types of adverse events were similar in the two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, patisiran improved multiple clinical manifestations of hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.

  • 262. Adams, David
    et al.
    Suhr, Ole B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hund, Ernst
    Obici, Laura
    Tournev, Ivailo
    Campistol, Josep M.
    Slama, Michel S.
    Hazenberg, Bouke P.
    Coelho, Teresa
    First European consensus for diagnosis, management, and treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy2016In: Current Opinion in Neurology, ISSN 1350-7540, E-ISSN 1473-6551, Vol. 29, p. S14-S26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review Early and accurate diagnosis of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) represents one of the major challenges faced by physicians when caring for patients with idiopathic progressive neuropathy. There is little consensus in diagnostic and management approaches across Europe. Recent findings The low prevalence of TTR-FAP across Europe and the high variation in both genotype and phenotypic expression of the disease means that recognizing symptoms can be difficult outside of a specialized diagnostic environment. The resulting delay in diagnosis and the possibility of misdiagnosis can misguide clinical decision-making and negatively impact subsequent treatment approaches and outcomes. Summary This review summarizes the findings from two meetings of the European Network for TTR-FAP (ATTReuNET). This is an emerging group comprising representatives from 10 European countries with expertise in the diagnosis and management of TTR-FAP, including nine National Reference Centres. The current review presents management strategies and a consensus on the gold standard for diagnosis of TTR-FAP as well as a structured approach to ongoing multidisciplinary care for the patient. Greater communication, not just between members of an individual patient's treatment team, but also between regional and national centres of expertise, is the key to the effective management of TTR-FAP.

  • 263. Adams, David
    et al.
    Suhr, Ole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Conceicao, Isabel
    Waddington-Cruz, Marcia
    Schmidt, Hartmut
    Buades, Juan
    Campistol, Josep
    Pouget, Jean
    Berk, John
    Coelho, Teresa
    Phase 2 open-label extension study of patisiran, an investigational RNAi therapeutic for the treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathy2015In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN 0022-3050, E-ISSN 1468-330X, Vol. 86, no 11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 264. Adams, Hieab H. H.
    et al.
    Hibar, Derrek P.
    Chouraki, Vincent
    Stein, Jason L.
    Nyquist, Paul A.
    Renteria, Miguel E.
    Trompet, Stella
    Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Desrivieres, Sylvane
    Beecham, Ashley H.
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Wittfeld, Katharine
    Van der Lee, Sven J.
    Abramovic, Lucija
    Alhusaini, Saud
    Amin, Najaf
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Arfanakis, Konstantinos
    Aribisala, Benjamin S.
    Armstrong, Nicola J.
    Athanasiu, Lavinia
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Beiser, Alexa
    Bernard, Manon
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Blanken, Laura M. E.
    Blanton, Susan H.
    Bohlken, Marc M.
    Boks, Marco P.
    Bralten, Janita
    Brickman, Adam M.
    Carmichael, Owen
    Chakravarty, M. Mallar
    Chauhan, Ganesh
    Chen, Qiang
    Ching, Christopher R. K.
    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel
    Den Braber, Anouk
    Doan, Nhat Trung
    Ehrlich, Stefan
    Filippi, Irina
    Ge, Tian
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Goldman, Aaron L.
    Gottesman, Rebecca F.
    Greven, Corina U.
    Grimm, Oliver
    Griswold, Michael E.
    Guadalupe, Tulio
    Hass, Johanna
    Haukvik, Unn K.
    Hilal, Saima
    Hofer, Edith
    Hoehn, David
    Holmes, Avram J.
    Hoogman, Martine
    Janowitz, Deborah
    Jia, Tianye
    Kasperaviciute, Dalia
    Kim, Sungeun
    Klein, Marieke
    Kraemer, Bernd
    Lee, Phil H.
    Liao, Jiemin
    Liewald, David C. M.
    Lopez, Lorna M.
    Luciano, Michelle
    Macare, Christine
    Marquand, Andre
    Matarin, Mar
    Mather, Karen A.
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    Mazoyer, Bernard
    Mckay, David R.
    McWhirter, Rebekah
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin
    Muetzel, Ryan L.
    Maniega, Susana Munoz
    Nho, Kwangsik
    Nugent, Allison C.
    Loohuis, Loes M. Olde
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Papmeyer, Martina
    Pappa, Irene
    Pirpamer, Lukas
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Puetz, Benno
    Rajan, Kumar B.
    Ramasamy, Adaikalavan
    Richards, Jennifer S.
    Risacher, Shannon L.
    Roiz-Santianez, Roberto
    Rommelse, Nanda
    Rose, Emma J.
    Royle, Natalie A.
    Rundek, Tatjana
    Saemann, Philipp G.
    Satizabal, Claudia L.
    Schmaal, Lianne
    Schork, Andrew J.
    Shen, Li
    Shin, Jean
    Shumskaya, Elena
    Smith, Albert V.
    Sprooten, Emma
    Strike, Lachlan T.
    Teumer, Alexander
    Thomson, Russell
    Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana
    Toro, Roberto
    Trabzuni, Daniah
    Vaidya, Dhananjay
    Van der Grond, Jeroen
    Van der Meer, Dennis
    Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.
    Van Eijk, Kristel R.
    Van Erp, Theo G. M.
    Van Rooij, Daan
    Walton, Esther
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Whelan, Christopher D.
    Windham, Beverly G.
    Winkler, Anderson M.
    Woldehawariat, Girma
    Wolf, Christiane
    Wolfers, Thomas
    Xu, Bing
    Yanek, Lisa R.
    Yang, Jingyun
    Zijdenbos, Alex
    Zwiers, Marcel P.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Aggarwal, Neelum T.
    Almasy, Laura
    Ames, David
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Arepalli, Sampath
    Assareh, Amelia A.
    Barral, Sandra
    Bastin, Mark E.
    Becker, Diane M.
    Becker, James T.
    Bennett, David A.
    Blangero, John
    van Bokhoven, Hans
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Brodaty, Henry
    Brouwer, Rachel M.
    Brunner, Han G.
    Buckner, Randy L.
    Buitelaar, Jan K.
    Bulayeva, Kazima B.
    Cahn, Wiepke
    Calhoun, Vince D.
    Cannon, Dara M.
    Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.
    Chen, Christopher
    Cheng, Ching -Yu
    Cichon, Sven
    Cookson, Mark R.
    Corvin, Aiden
    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
    Curran, Joanne E.
    Czisch, Michael
    Dale, Anders M.
    Davies, Gareth E.
    De Geus, Eco J. C.
    De Jager, Philip L.
    de Zubicaray, Greig I.
    Delanty, Norman
    Depondt, Chantal
    DeStefano, Anita L.
    Dillman, Allissa
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Donohoe, Gary
    Drevets, Wayne C.
    Duggirala, Ravi
    Dyer, Thomas D.
    Erk, Susanne
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Evans, Denis A.
    Fedko, Iryna
    Fernandez, Guillen
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Fisher, Simon E.
    Fleischman, Debra A.
    Ford, Ian
    Foroud, Tatiana M.
    Fox, Peter T.
    Francks, Clyde
    Fukunaga, Masaki
    Gibbs, J. Raphael
    Glahn, David C.
    Gollub, Randy L.
    Goring, Harald H. H.
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Green, Robert C.
    Gruber, Oliver
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Guelfi, Sebastian
    Hansell, Narelle K.
    Hardy, John
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    Hashimoto, Ryota
    Hegenscheid, Katrin
    Heinz, Andreas
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Hernandez, Dena G.
    Heslenfeld, Dirk J.
    Ho, Beng-Choon
    Hoekstra, Pieter J.
    Hoffmann, Wolfgang
    Hofman, Albert
    Holsboer, Florian
    Homuth, Georg
    Hosten, Norbert
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff
    Ikeda, Masashi
    Ikram, M. Kamran
    Jack, Clifford R., Jr.
    Jenldnson, Mark
    Johnson, Robert
    Jonsson, Erik G.
    Jukema, J. Wouter
    Kahn, Rene S.
    Kanai, Ryota
    Kloszewska, Iwona
    Knopman, David S.
    Kochunov, Peter
    Kwok, John B.
    Lawrie, Stephen M.
    Lemaitre, Herve
    Liu, Xinmin
    Longo, Dan L.
    Longstreth, W. T., Jr.
    Lopez, Oscar L.
    Lovestone, Simon
    Martinez, Oliver
    Martinot, Jean-Luc
    Mattay, Venkata S.
    McDonald, Colm
    McIntosh, Andrew M.
    McMahon, Katie L.
    McMahon, Francis J.
    Mecocci, Patrizia
    Melle, Ingrid
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Mohnke, Sebastian
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    Morris, Derek W.
    Mosley, Thomas H.
    Muhleisen, Thomas W.
    Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram
    Nalls, Michael A.
    Nauck, Matthias
    Nichols, Thomas E.
    Niessen, Wiro J.
    Noethen, Markus M.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Ohi, Kazutaka
    Olvera, Rene L.
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    Pandolfo, Massimo
    Paus, Tomas
    Pausova, Zdenka
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Pike, G. Bruce
    Potkin, Steven G.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Reppermund, Simone
    Rietschel, Marcella
    Roffman, Joshua L.
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Ryten, Mina
    Sacco, Ralph L.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Saykin, Andrew J.
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    Schofield, Peter R.
    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur
    Simmons, Andy
    Singleton, Andrew
    Sisodiya, Sanjay M.
    Smith, Colin
    Smoller, Jordan W.
    Soininen, Hindu.
    Srikanth, Velandai
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Stott, David J.
    Sussmann, Jessika E.
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Toga, Arthur W.
    Traynor, Bryan J.
    Troncoso, Juan
    Turner, Jessica A.
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes
    Van der Brug, Marcel
    Van der Lugt, Aad
    Van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.
    Van't Ent, Dennis
    Van Tol, Marie Jose
    Vardarajan, Badri N.
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Vernooij, Meike W.
    Voelzke, Henry
    Walter, Henrik
    Wardlaw, Joanna M.
    Wassink, Thomas H.
    Weale, Michael E.
    Weinberger, Daniel R.
    Weiner, Michael W.
    Wen, Wei
    Westman, Eric
    White, Tonya
    Wong, Tien Y.
    Wright, Clinton B.
    Zielke, H. Ronald
    Zonderman, Alan B.
    Deary, Ian J.
    DeCarli, Charles
    Schmidt, Helena
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    De Craen, Anton J. M.
    Wright, Margaret J.
    Launer, Lenore J.
    Schumann, Gunter
    Fornage, Myriam
    Franke, Barbara
    Debette, Stephanie
    Medland, Sarah E.
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association2016In: Nature Neuroscience, ISSN 1097-6256, E-ISSN 1546-1726, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 1569-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.

  • 265. Adams, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Veprauskaite, E.
    Competing models of organizational form: Risk management strategies and underwriting profitability in the Swedish fire insurance market between 1903 and 19392012In: Journal of Economic History, ISSN 0022-0507, E-ISSN 1471-6372, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 990-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual and stock insurers have coexisted and competed against each other in insurance markets for centuries. In this article, we examine the risk management strategies and underwriting profitability of the different organizational forms in Sweden's property fire insurance market between 1903 and 1939. We demonstrate that stock insurers acted as intermediaries between policyholders and reinsurers to operate effectively in the potentially high-risk segments of the fire insurance market. In contrast, nationwide mutual insurers kept larger reserves to balance fluctuations in claims experiences, while local insurance pools relied on social obligation and trust to mobilize capital after adverse fire events.

  • 266.
    Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Commercial banking, insurance and economic growth in Sweden between 1830 and 19982009In: Accounting Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, E-ISSN 1466-4275, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine empirically the dynamic historical relation between commercial bank lending, insurance and economic (income) growth in Sweden using time-series data from 1830 to 1998 and performing tests for Granger causality. Because of the non-stationary nature of the time series examined the procedure of Toda andYamamoto (1995) is used. Our results, which have accounted for possible regime changes due to different exchange rate mechanisms over time, indicate that insurance has Granger-caused economic growth and bank lending. Therefore, we conclude that insurance is an important prerequisite for stimulating economic growth and that this could have important implications for contemporary developing economies.

  • 267. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Yihui Jia, Joy
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: a historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insur ance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 19392011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1074-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form onunderwritingperformance usingdatafromtheSwedish fireinsuranceindustry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock insurance companies. However, an alternative view is that stock insurers seek to reduce information asymmetry problems by issuing non-participatory rights insurance contracts with high deductibles that induce risk-sharing between the insurer’s shareholders and policyholders. This implies that stock insurers are likely to report lower annual claims than mutual insurers. Our results show that organisational form is an important determinant of the claims experience of Swedish fire insurers, suggesting that mutuality acts as an effective control for information asymmetries in the market.

  • 268. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 956-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 269. Adams, R.
    et al.
    Fincher, S.
    Pears, A.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Bousted, J.
    Dalenius, P.
    Eken, G.
    Heyer, T.
    Jacobsson, A.
    Lindberg, V.
    Molin, B.
    Moström, J.-E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wiggberg, M.
    What is the Word for Engineering in Swedish: Swedish Students' Conceptions of their Discipline2007Report (Other academic)
  • 270. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden’s life insurance market between 1915 and 19472018In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-08-22 00:00
  • 271.
    Adamson, Frank
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Karlstads universitet.
    Privatization or public investment? A global question2016In: Global education reform: How privatization and public investment influence education outcomes / [ed] Adamson, F, Åstrand, B & Darling-Hammond, L, Routledge , 2016, 1, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Adamson, Frank
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Åstrand, BjörnKarlstads universitet.Darling-Hammond, LindaStanford University.
    Global education reform: How privatization and public investment influence education outcomes2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Adamsson, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Johansson, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kön, IT och domesticeringsprocessen. 2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 274. Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Ellegård, Lasse
    Rossander Hulthén, Lena
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Validity of reported energy intake and energy expenditure of Swedish elite cross-country skiers2004In: Public Health Nutrition 8th Nordic Nutrition Conference, Tønsberg, Norway, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 275. Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Viktigt att granska kostundersökningar2005In: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, no 2, p. 14-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Adane, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Effectiveness of PMTCT programs in Sub-Saharan Africa, a meta-analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 277.
    Adawi, Nadia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Jewaratnam, Sukanya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Tooth Extraction and Implant Placement Causes Changes in Both Muscle Fiber Composition and Motor Cortex in Rats. Experimental study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tooth loss has been shown to induce neuroplastic changes in the sensorimotor cortical area of the brain that represents jaw muscles. Dental implants placed into extraction sites reversed these changes. Since muscles are highly plastic, we hypothesize that the cortical changes after dental extraction also are reflected in jaw-opening muscles and that these changes are prevented/reversed following dental implant placement.

     

    Fifteen rats were randomly allocated in four groups; extraction 1 (Ext-1, n=4), extraction 2 (Ext-2, n=4), implant group (n=4) and control group (n=3). The anterior digastric (AD) muscle was obtained from the extraction groups after 1 and 2 months, respectively, and from the implant group after 3 weeks. The samples were analyzed with immunohistochemical and morphological techniques. Our results showed; 1) intermediate and low oxidative fast MyHCII fibers predominated AD muscle, 2) oxidative capacity of fibers was higher in the central region, 3) extraction caused a shift towards fibers with lower oxidative capacity in the central region, 4) placement of dental implants increased the oxidative capacity of fibers in both central and peripheral region.

     

    We conclude that in the AD muscle, loss of teeth cause a tendency to shift against fibers with faster contraction properties and lower oxidative capacity, while treatment with implants tends to reverse it. Interestingly, these alterations followed the change pattern of the cortical motor area for the AD muscle i.e. larger proportion of fibers with higher oxidative capacity and fine motor control were associated with increased motor representation sites (MRS) for the AD muscle.

     

  • 278.
    Adcock, Joanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
    Fottrell, Edward
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    The North-South information highway: case studies of publication access among health researchers in resource-poor countries2008In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Less than 2% of scientific publications originate in low-income countries. Transfer of information from South to North and from South to South is grossly limited and hinders understanding of global health, while Northern-generated information fails to adequately address the needs of a Southern readership.

    Methods: A survey of a new generation of health researchers from nine low-income countries was conducted using a combination of email questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Data were gathered on personal experiences, use and aspirations regarding access and contribution to published research.

    Results: A total of 23 individuals from 9 countries responded. Preference for journal use over textbooks was apparent, however a preference for print over online formats was described among African respondents compared to respondents from other areas. Almost all respondents (96%) described ambition to publish in international journals, but cited English language as a significant barrier.

    Conclusion: The desire to contribute to and utilise contemporary scientific debate appears to be strong among study respondents. However, longstanding barriers

  • 279. Adcock, Tina
    et al.
    Roberts, Peder
    Nations, Natures, and Networks: The New Environments of Northern Studies2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 7-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 280.
    Addario, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Alpha-actinin - an amazing journey through time and species2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In eukaryotes, the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in a large variety of cellular events. Its reorganization is regulated by a plethora of actin-modulating proteins, such as α-actinin.

    α-actinin is a ubiquitous actin-binding protein that belongs to the spectrin superfamily. This family, besides α-actinin, includes spectrin, dystrophin and utrophin. Phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the family members arose after several intragene duplications and rearrangements of a common ancestral α-actinin isoform. Up to the invertebrate-vertebrate bifurcation, organisms seemed to have a single, calcium-dependent α‑actinin. After the split, invertebrates have kept this single isoform, in contrast to vertebrates that acquired four distinct isoforms. Of the four vertebrate α-actinin isoforms, the two present in non-muscle cells are typically calcium sensitive while the two muscle isoforms are calcium insensitive.

    α-actinin in higher organisms is characterized by the presence of three distinct structural domains: a highly conserved N-terminal actin-binding domain, a central rod domain with four spectrin repeats and a calcium-binding C terminus with EF-hand motifs. In some primitive organisms, such as protozoa and fungi, the rod domain of α-actinin contains only one or two spectrin repeats. With the completion of an ever increasing number of genomes, new and atypical α‑actinin sequences had been available that have not been characterized yet. To obtain a firmer understanding of the evolutionary history of α-actinin, the main objective of this study was to identify, purify and biochemically characterize atypical α‑actinin or α‑actinin-like proteins of the parasite Entamoeba histolytica and of the fungus Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our results show that both isoforms, despite the much shorter rod domain, are able to bind and cross-link actin filaments and therefore can be considered genuine α-actinins. 

  • 281.
    Addario, Barbara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Backman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Alpha-actinin of Schizosaccharomyces pombeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Addario, Barbara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Backman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The domain structure of Entamoeba α-actinin22010In: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters (Druk), ISSN 1425-8153, E-ISSN 1689-1392, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 665-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entamoeba histolytica, a major agent of human amoebiasis, expresses two distinct forms of α-actinin, a ubiquitous actin-binding protein that is present in most eukaryotic organisms. In contrast to all metazoan α-actinins, in both isoforms the intervening rod domain that connects the N-terminal actin-binding domain with the C-terminal EF-hands is much shorter. It is suggested that these α-actinins may be involved in amoeboid motility and phagocytosis, so we cloned and characterised each domain of one of these α-actinins to better understand their functional role. The results clearly showed that the domains have properties very similar to those of conventional α-actinins.

  • 283.
    Addario, Barbara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Huang, Shenghua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sauer, Uwe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Backman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Entamoeba histolytica α-actinin-2 rod domain2011In: Acta Crystallographica. Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, ISSN 1744-3091, E-ISSN 1744-3091, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 1214-1217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    -Actinins form antiparallel homodimers that are able to cross-link actin filaments. The protein contains three domains: an N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by a central rod domain and a calmodulin-like EF-hand domain at the C-terminus. Here, crystallization of the rod domain of Entamoeba histolytica -actinin-2 is reported; it crystallized in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.8, b = 79.1, c = 141.8 Å. A Matthews coefficient VM of 2.6 Å3 Da-1 suggests that there are two molecules and 52.5% solvent content in the asymmetric unit. A complete native data set extending to a d-spacing of 2.8 Å was collected on beamline I911-2 at MAX-lab, Sweden.

     

  • 284. Addario, Barbara
    et al.
    Sandblad, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Backman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Characterisation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe alpha-actinin2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e1858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in eukaryotic cells. Its reorganization is regulated by a plethora of actin-modulating proteins, such as a-actinin. In higher organisms, alpha-actinin is characterized by the presence of three distinct structural domains: an N-terminal actin-binding domain and a C-terminal region with EF-hand motif separated by a central rod domain with four spectrin repeats. Sequence analysis has revealed that the central rod domain of alpha-actinin from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe consists of only two spectrin repeats. To obtain a firmer understanding of the structure and function of this unconventional alpha-actinin, we have cloned and characterized each structural domain. Our results show that this alpha-actinin isoform is capable of forming dimers and that the rod domain is required for this. However, its actin-binding and cross-linking activity appears less efficient compared to conventional alpha-actinins. The solved crystal structure of the actin-binding domain indicates that the closed state is stabilised by hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge not present in other a-actinins, which may reduce the affinity for actin.

  • 285.
    Addi, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Materials Science.
    Hedayati-Khams, Arjang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Materials Science.
    Poya, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Materials Science.
    Sjögren, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Materials Science.
    Interface gap size of manually and CAD/CAM-manufactured ceramic inlays/onlays in vitro.2002In: Journal of Dentistry, ISSN 0300-5712, E-ISSN 1879-176X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives : To determine the fit of ceramic inlays manufactured using a recently introduced CAD/CAM-system (Decim) and of two types of laboratory-made heat-pressed ceramics (IPS Empress and Opc).

    Materials and methods : Extracted human premolars were prepared to receive mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) ceramic inlays, for which 10 Denzir, 10 IPS Empress, and 10 Opc were fabricated. The Denzir restorations were produced by the manufacturer of the CAD/CAM-system, and the IPS Empress and Opc by student dental technicians. Before luting the internal fit on the diestone models and on the premolars was determined using replicas. After luting on the premolars with a resin composite the marginal and internal fit were measured. The values were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Scheffe's test at a significance level of p<0.05.

    Results : Before luting there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) in the internal gap width between the three systems studied when placed on their matching diestone models. When placed on the premolars a significant difference ( p<0.01) in the internal fit was seen between Empress and Opc before luting, whereas there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between Empress and Denzir and between Opc and Denzir. Between the diestone models and the premolars there were significant differences ( p<0.01) in the internal fit, except for IPS Empress. After luting there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between IPS Empress and Denzir, whereas the marginal gap width was significantly wider ( p<0.001) for Opc than for IPS Empress and Denzir. The internal fit was significantly ( p<0.001) wider for Opc than for IPS Empress, whereas there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between IPS Empress and Denzir or between Opc and Denzir.

    Conclusion : After luting there were only slight differences in the fit between the restorations fabricated using the three different manufacturing techniques and ceramics. Therefore, long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of the slight differences between the three systems.

  • 286. Adebahr, J
    et al.
    Forsyth, M
    Gavelin, P
    Jacobsson, P
    Orädd, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Ion and Solvent Dynamics in Gel Electrolytes Based on Ethylene Oxide Grafted Acrylate Polymers2002In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 106, no 47, p. 12119-12123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multinuclear pulsed field gradient NMR measurements and rheological viscosity measurements were performed on three series of polymer gel electrolytes. The gels were based on a lithium salt electrolyte swollen into a copolymer matrix comprising an acrylate backbone and ethylene oxide side chains. In each series the side chains differed in length and number, but the acrylate-to-ethylene oxide ratio was kept constant. It was found that the self-diffusion coefficient of the cations was much lower than that of the anions, and that it decreased rapidly when the side chains got longer. In contrast, the self-diffusion coefficient of the anions was found to be independent of chain length. In the gel electrolytes, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules are relatively constant despite an increased viscosity with increasing length of the side chains. However, in salt-free gels made for comparison, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules decreased with increasing length of the side chains, which is consistent with an increased viscosity.

  • 287.
    Adebiyi, Abdulafeez
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.
    Valiev, Damir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Center for Combustion Energy, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of the Ministry of Education of China, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Akkerman, V’yacheslav
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.
    Effect of surface friction on ultrafast flame acceleration in obstructed cylindrical pipes2019In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 035249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bychkov model of ultrafast flame acceleration in obstructed tubes [Valiev et al., “Flame Acceleration in Channels with Obstacles in the Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition,” Combust. Flame 157, 1012 (2010)] employed a number of simplifying assumptions, including those of free-slip and adiabatic surfaces of the obstacles and of the tube wall. In the present work, the influence of free-slip/non-slip surface conditions on the flame dynamics in a cylindrical tube of radius R, involving an array of parallel, tightly-spaced obstacles of size αR, is scrutinized by means of the computational simulations of the axisymmetric fully-compressible gasdynamics and combustion equations with an Arrhenius chemical kinetics. Specifically, non-slip and free-slip surfaces are compared for the blockage ratio, α, and the spacing between the obstacles, ΔZ, in the ranges 1/3 ≤ α ≤ 2/3 and 0.25 ≤ ΔZ/R ≤ 2.0, respectively. 

    For these parameters, an impact of surface friction on flameacceleration is shown to be minor, only 1-4%, slightly facilitating acceleration in a tube with ΔZ/R = 0.5 and moderating acceleration in thecase of ΔZ/R = 0.25. Given the fact that the physical boundary conditions are non-slip as far as the continuum assumption is valid, the presentwork thereby justifies the Bychkov model, employing the free-slip conditions, and makes its wider applicable to the practical reality. Whilethis result can be anticipated and explained by a fact that flame propagation is mainly driven by its spreading in the unobstructed portion ofan obstructed tube (i.e. far from the tube wall), the situation is, however, qualitatively different from that in the unobstructed tubes, wheresurface friction modifies the flame dynamics conceptually.

  • 288.
    Adebiyi, Abdulafeez
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6106, United States.
    Idowu, Gbolahan
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6106, United States.
    Valiev, Damir
    Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Akkerman, V'yacheslav
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6106, United States.
    Computational simulations of nonequidiffusive premixed flames in obstructed pipes2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the Lewis number, Le, on the dynamics and morphology of a premixed flame front, spreading through a toothbrush-like array of obstacles in a semi-open channel, is studied by means of the computational simulations of the reacting flow equations with fully-compressible hydrodynamics and Arrhenius chemical kinetics. The computational approach employs a cell-centered, finite-volume numerical scheme, which is of the 2nd-order accuracy in time, 4th-order in space for the convective terms, and of the 2nd-order in space for the diffusive terms. The channels of blockage ratios 0.33∼0.67 are considered, with the Lewis numbers in the range 0.2≤Le≤2.0 employed. It is shown that the Lewis number influences the flame evolution substantially. Specifically, flame acceleration weakens for Le>1 (inherent to fuel-lean hydrogen or fuel-rich hydrocarbon burning), presumably, due to a thickening of the flame front. In contrast, Le<1 flames (such as that of rich hydrogen or lean hydrocarbon) acquire an extra strong folding of the front and thereby accelerate even much faster. The later effect can be devoted to the onset of the diffusional-Thermal combustion instability. © 2018 Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  • 289. Adelmann, Kenneth
    et al.
    Bergman, Lotta
    Dahlbeck, Per
    Hermansson, Carina
    Malmö högskola.
    Jönsson, Karin
    Nygård Larsson, Pia
    Olsson Jers, Cecilia
    Persson, Magnus
    Thavenius, Marie
    Widén, Pär
    Språkutveckling, medier och demokrati2014In: Medie- och informationskunnighet i Norden: en nyckel till demokrati och yttrandefrihet / [ed] Ulla Carlsson, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2014, p. 117-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Adelphine, Ishimwe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Road traffic injuries in Rwanda:: A study protocol of trend and prevalence in Kigali city.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Road traffic injuries constitute the health burden all over the World. Every year more than a million people are killed and 50 million are injured as a result of road unsafety. The cost of dealing with associated consequences is even greater than many infectious diseases, since it runs to billions dollars every year. This issue is particularly alarming in the developing World, but African region is more affected than others continents.

    Rwanda is facing similar problems as other developing countries in terms of road traffic injuries. Apart from environment factors, vehicles conditions and human risky behaviours, the ignorance of road users is the major leading cause of many road traffic crashes. As many studies revealed, road accident is a preventable issue. Improvement of road safety by commitment of governments and population engagement, it is possible to save a significant number of lives.

    Objective: Since a decade of action for road safety has been launched by the World health organization in 2010, the government of Rwanda fixed a target of road fatality reduction of 50% by 2015. The aim of this study is to identify the change of road traffic accidents over a period of ten years (2005- 2015).

    Method: This write-up is a study protocol. A quantitative retrospective study involving secondary data analysis will be described. Information will be collected in the capital city of the Rwanda, since it has been identified as the most affected by road accidents. Data will be gathered from traffic Police records because it has the responsibility to collect all data related to traffic accidents in the country. Due to underreporting of some accidents, hospital records will be used to deal with that underestimation issue. Further later, data will be analysed and the estimation of the trend will be achieved by using multi linear regression. The trend analysis of change in number of deaths and injuries will be conducted. This information will be useful to localize where more effort is needed and how can be achieved. The result might be used by different organization in charge of transport safety, to improve countermeasures designed to tackle road accidents. 

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    Almoflihi, Abdullah
    Huwait, Abdulmalik
    Al-Shammari, Abeer
    Al-Mousa, Mashael
    Alghamdi, Masood
    Adham, Walid
    Albeladi, Bandar
    Alfarsi, Muayad Ahmed
    Mahdi, Atif
    Al Awwad, Saad
    Nouh, Thamer
    Hassanain, Mazen
    Aldhafeeri, Salman
    Sadig, Nawal
    Algohary, Osama
    Aledrisy, Mohannad
    Gudal, Ahmad
    Alrifaie, Ahmad
    AlRowais, Mohammed
    Althwainy, Amani
    Shabkah, Alaa
    Alamoudi, Uthman
    Alrajraji, Mawaddah
    Alghamdi, Basim
    Aljohani, Saud
    Daqeeq, Abdullah
    Al-Faifi, Jubran J.
    Jennings, Vicky
    Ngayu, Nyawira
    Moore, Rachel
    Kong, Victor
    Sampson, Colleen
    Panieri, Eugenio
    Tun, Myint
    Mphatsoe, Albert Mohale
    Carreira, Jo-Anne
    Teasdale, Ella
    Wagener, Mark
    Botes, Stefan
    Du Plessis, Danelo
    Pagnozzi, Janet
    Quezada, Jimy Harold Jara
    Rodicio, Jose Luis
    Minguez, German
    Rodriguez-Uria, Raquel
    Ugalde, Paul
    Lopez-Arevalo, Camilo
    Barneo, Luis
    Gonzales Stuva, Jessica Patricia
    Aguilar-Jimenez, Jose
    Andres Garcia-Marin, Jose
    Ortega-Vazquez, Irene
    Rodriguez, Lorena
    Herrera, Norberto
    Arachchi, Prasad Pitigala
    Jan, Wanigasekara Senanayake Mudiyanselage Kithsiri
    Arachchige, Lalith Asanka Jayasooriya Jayasooriya
    Sivaganesh, Sivasuriya
    Samaraweera, Dulan Irusha
    Thanusan, Vimalakanthan
    Musa, Ahmed Elgaili Khalid
    Balila, Reem Mohammed Hassan
    Mohamed, Mohamed Awad Elkarim Hamad
    Ali, Hussein
    Elabdin, Hagir Zain
    Hassan, Alaa
    Mahdi, Sefeldin
    Ahmed, Hala
    Idris, Sahar Abdoun Ishag
    Elsayed, Makki
    Elsayed, Mohammed
    Mahmoud, Mohamed
    Thorarinsdottir, Hildur
    Utter, Maria
    Sundstrom, Sami Martin
    Wredberg, Cecilia
    Kjellin, Ann
    Nyberg, Johanna
    Frisk, Bjorn
    Ahlqvist, Sandra
    Bjorklund, Ida
    Hjertberg, Maria
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Andersson, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Royson, Hanna
    Weber, Per
    Schmid, Roger
    Schivo, Debora
    Despotidis, Vasileios
    Breitenstein, Stefan
    Staerkle, Ralph F.
    Schadde, Erik
    Deichsel, Fabian
    Gerosa, Alexandra
    Nocito, Antonio
    Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle
    Mijuskovic, Barbara
    Zuber, Markus
    Eisner, Lukas
    Kruspi, Swantje
    Reinisch, Katharina Beate
    Schoewe, Christin
    Novak, Allan
    Palma, Adrian F.
    Teufelberger, Gerfried
    Balkan, Ali Zeynel Abidin
    Gumar, Mehmet
    Yavuz, Mehmet Ali
    Karabacak, Ufuk
    Lap, Gokhan
    Ozkan, Bahar Busra
    Adams, Ryan
    Morton, Robert
    Henderson, Liam
    Gratton, Ruth
    Clement, Keiran David
    Chang, Kate Yu-Ching
    McNish, David
    McIntosh, Ryan
    Milligan, William
    Skelly, Brendan
    Anderson-Knight, Hannah
    Lawther, Roger
    Onimowo, Jemina
    Shatkar, Veereanna
    Tharmalingam, Shivanee
    Woin, Evelina
    Fautz, Tessa
    Ziff, Oliver
    Dindyal, Shiva
    Arman, Sam
    Talukder, Shagorika
    Gadhvi, Vijay
    Chew, Luen Shaun
    Heath, Jonathan
    Mannu, Gurdeep Singh
    Zachariades, Dimitris-Christos
    Snaith, Ailsa Claire
    Hettiarachchi, Thusitha Sampath
    Nesaratnam, Arjun
    Wheeler, James
    Sykes, Mark
    Behar, Nebil
    Jordan, Harriet
    Arulampalam, Tan
    Shah, Apar
    Brown, Damien
    Blower, Emma
    Sutton, Paul
    Gasteratos, Konstantinos
    Vimalachandran, Dale
    Magee, Cathy
    Mcguigan, Andrew
    Mcaleer, Stephen
    Morgan, Clare
    Braungart, Sarah
    Lafferty, Kirsten
    Labib, Peter
    Tanase, Andrei
    Mangan, Clodagh
    Reza, Lillian
    Woodward, Helen
    Gouldthorpe, Craig
    Turner, Megan
    Wild, Jonathan R. L.
    Malik, Tom Am
    Proctor, Victoria K.
    Hewage, Kalon
    Davies, James
    Dubois, Andre
    Sarwary, Sayed
    Zardab, Ali
    Grant, Alan
    Mcintyre, Robert
    Tewari, Shirish
    Humm, Gemma
    Farinella, Eriberto
    Parthiban, Sunil
    Hall, Nigel J.
    Wright, Naomi J.
    Major, Christina P.
    Xerri, Thelma
    De Bono, Phoebe
    Amin, Jasim
    Farhad, Mustafa
    Camilleri-Brennan, John F.
    Robertson, Andrew G. N.
    Swann, Joanna
    Richards, James
    Jabbar, Aijaz
    Attard, Myranda
    Burns, Hannah
    Macdonald, Euan
    Baldacchino, Matthew
    Skehan, Jennifer
    Camilleri-Brennan, Julian
    Hall, Tom Falconer
    Gimzewska, Madelaine
    Mclachlan, Greta
    Shah, Jamie
    Giles, James
    Hassan, Maleeha
    Beasley, William
    Vlachogiorgos, Apostolos
    Dias, Stephen
    Maharaj, Geta
    McDonald, Rosie
    Cross, Kate
    Rees, Clare M.
    Van Duren, Bernard
    Upchurch, Emma
    Karandikar, Sharad
    Bowley, Doug
    Karim, Ahmed
    Chachulski, Witold
    Richardson, Liam
    Dawnay, Giles
    Thompson, Ben
    Mistry, Ajayesh
    Ghetia, Millika
    Roy, Sudipta
    Al-Obaedi, Ossama
    Das, Kaustuv
    Prabhudesai, Ash
    Cocker, D. M.
    Tan, Jessica Juliana
    Vivekanantham, Sayinthen
    Gillespie, Michael
    Gudlaugsdottir, Katrin
    Pezas, Theodore
    Currow, Chelise
    Kim, Matthew Young-Han
    Salama, Yahya
    Shah, Rohi
    Ibrahem, Ahmad Aboelkassem
    Ebdewi, Hamdi
    Gravante, Gianpiero
    El-Rabaa, Saleem
    Chan, Zoe
    Hassan, Zaffar
    Makinde, Misty
    Hemingway, David
    Dean, Ramzana
    Boddy, Alexander
    Aber, Ahmed
    Patel, Vijay
    Kotecha, Deevia
    Ubhi, Harmony Kaur
    Hosein, Simon-Peter
    Ward, Simon
    Malik, Kamran
    Jennings, Leifa
    Newton, Tom
    Alkhouri, Mirna
    Kang, Min Kyu
    Houlden, Christopher
    Barry, Jonathan
    Wilson, Michael S. J.
    Neo, Yan Ning
    Ibrahim, Ibrahim
    Chan, Emily
    Peck, Fraser S.
    Lim, Pei J.
    North, Alexander S.
    Blundell, Rebecca
    Williamson, Adam
    Fouad, Dina
    Minocha, Ashish
    Mccarthy, Kathryn
    Court, Emma
    Chambers, Alice
    Yee, Jenna
    Tham, Ji Chung
    Beaton, Ceri
    Walsh, Una
    Lockey, Joseph
    Bokhari, Salman
    Howells, Lara
    Griffiths, Megan
    Yallop, Laura
    Singh, Shailinder
    Nasher, Omar
    Jackson, Paul
    Ramzi, Saed
    Zeidan, Shady
    Doughty, Jennifer
    Sinha, Sidhartha
    Davenport, Ross
    Lewis, Jason
    Duffy, Leo
    Mcaleer, Elizabeth
    Williams, Eleanor
    Obute, Rhalumi Daniel
    Glover, Thomas E.
    Clark, David J.
    Boshnaq, Mohamed
    Akhtar, Mansoor
    Capleton, Pascale
    Doughan, Samer
    Rabie, Mohamed
    Mohamed, Ismail
    Samuel, Duncan
    Dickson, Lauren
    Kennedy, Matthew
    Dempster, Eleanor
    Brown, Emma
    Maple, Natalie
    Monaghan, Eimear
    Wolf, Bernhard
    Garland, Alicia
    Lund, Jonathan
    Boereboom, Catherine
    Murphy, Jennifer
    Tierney, Gillian
    Tou, Samson
    Zimmermann, Eleanor Franziska
    Smart, Neil James
    Warwick, Andrea Marie
    Stasinou, Theodora
    Daniels, Ian
    Findlay-Cooper, Kim
    Mitrasinovic, Stefan
    Ray, Swayamjyoti
    Varcada, Massimo
    D'souza, Rovan
    Omara, Sharif
    Boyce, Tamsin
    Whewell, Harriet
    Jones, Elin
    Ma, Jennifer
    Abington, Emily
    Ramcharn, Meera
    Williams, Gethin
    Winstanley, Joseph
    Kennedy, Ewan D.
    Yeung, Emily N. W.
    Fergusson, Stuart J.
    Jones, Catrin
    O'neill, Stephen
    Lim, Shujing Jane
    Liew, Ignatius
    Nair, Hari
    Fairfield, Cameron
    Oh, Julia
    Koh, Samantha
    Wilson, Andrew
    Fairfield, Catherine
    Th'ng, Francesca
    Robertson, Nichola
    Anandkumar, Delran
    Kirupagaran, Ashok
    Jones, Timothy F.
    Torrance, Hew D.
    Fowler, Alexander J.
    Chandrakumar, Charmilie
    Patel, Priyank
    Ashraf, Syed Faaz
    Lakhani, Sonam M.
    Mclean, Aaron Lawson
    Basson, Sonia
    Batt, Jeremy
    Bowman, Catriona
    Stoddart, Michael
    Benons, Natasha
    Barker, Tom
    Summerour, Virginia
    Harper, Edward
    Smith, Caroline
    Hampton, Matthew
    Mckechnie, Doug
    Farah, Ayaan
    Chun, Anita
    Pereira, Bernadette
    Nemeth, Kristof
    Decker, Emily
    Giuliani, Stefano
    Shalaby, Aly
    Szczap, Aleksandra
    Chidambaram, Swathikan
    Chen, Chee Yang
    Kulasabanathan, Kavian
    Chhabra, Srishti
    Kostov, Elisabeth
    Harbord, Philippe
    Barnacle, James
    Palliyil, Madan Mohan
    Zikry, Mina
    Porter, Johnathan
    Raslan, Charef
    Hafiz, Shazia
    Soltani, Niksa
    Baillie, Katie
    Mirza, Ahmad
    Saeed, Haroon
    Galloway, Simon
    Elena, Gia
    Afzal, Mohammad
    Zakir, Mohamed
    Sodde, Peter
    Hand, Charles
    Sriram, Aiesha
    Clark, Tamsyn
    Holton, Patrick
    Livesey, Amy
    Sinha, Yashashwi
    Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba
    Bharj, Indervir Singh
    Rotundo, Adriana
    Jenvey, Cara
    Slade, Robert
    Golding, David
    Haines, Samuel
    Abdullah, Ali Adel Ne'ma
    Tilston, Thomas W.
    Loughran, Dafydd
    Donoghue, Danielle
    Giacci, Lorenzo
    Sherif, Mohamed Ashur
    Harrison, Peter
    Tang, Alethea
    Elshaer, Mohamed
    Urbonas, Tomas
    Riaz, Amjid
    Chapman, Annie
    Acharya, Parisha
    Shalhoub, Joseph
    Grossart, Cathleen
    McMorran, David
    Mlotshwa, Makhosini
    Hawkins, William
    Loizides, Sofronis
    Thomson, Peter
    Khan, Shahab
    Taylor, Fiona
    Shukla, Jalak
    Howie, Emma Elizabeth
    Macdonald, Linda
    Komolafe, Olusegun
    Mcintyre, Neil
    Cragg, James
    Parker, Jody
    Stewart, Duncan
    Lintin, Luke
    Tracy, Julia
    Farooq, Tahir
    Sion, Melanie
    Weinstein, Michael S.
    Punja, Viren
    Bugaev, Nikolay
    Goodstein, Monica
    Razmdjou, Shadi
    Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries2016In: BMJ Global Health, ISSN 2059-7908, Vol. 1, no 4, article id e000091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.

    Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.

    Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.

    Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.

  • 292. Aden, A S
    et al.
    Brännström, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Mohamud, K A
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    The growth chart - a road to health chart?: Maternal comprehension of the growth chart in two Somali villages1990In: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth monitoring is so far not implemented on a large scale in the Somali health services. Available reports indicate that growth faltering is common. However, the use of growth charts as a tool for health education has been questioned. This study examines the ability of 199, predominantly illiterate, rural Somali mothers to understand the growth chart message after an intensive period of growth chart use and education. During a home-based interview the mothers were asked to combine a set of four growth curves with a set of four pictures, showing the corresponding developments of four children. The mothers managed significantly better to interpret the charts than could be expected by chance alone. Maternal age, number of children and literacy did not differ much between those who correctly and incorrectly combined pictures and charts. Almost all mothers recognised the value of the growth chart as being good for the control and promotion of their children's health and/or growth. We conclude that the growth chart may be an applicable and appropriate tool even with illiterate mothers, provided that other prerequisites for successful growth monitoring, e.g. appropriate health services, are available.

  • 293.
    Aden, Hassan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Apotekssystem i Kanada och Storbritannienrelaterat till Sveriges utveckling i enomreglerad apoteksmarknad2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 294.
    Adenling, Elinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att bli miljömedveten: Perspektiv på miljöhandbokens textvärld2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is the study of environmental consciousness as a discursive educational project. The empirical material consist of 18 environmental handbooks that have been published in Sweden during the years 1976-2007 of which 13 appeared between 1988 and 1995. The research work uses the basic assumptions of discourse analysis, namely that language is an important factor in the construction and development of social norms and values. Three areas recieve close attention: questions relating to the form and content of the handbooks, questions relating to the social circumstances in which the handbooks were produced and questions relating to the overall educational significance of the handbooks. In the first instance, the handbooks are examined in the light of three different contextual stories. They can be read as part of wider discussions of environmentally-concsious life-styles, as a development of earlier Swedish discussions about domesticity, health, thrift and consumption, and, finally they can be read as an expression of a narrative about a dominant aspect of modernity – science. The second part of the research work comprises an examination of the handbooks in terms of their audience and educational purpose. What kind of individual is to be shaped by these handbooks? What is anticipated as the desired or ideal environmentalist? Discourse analysis suggests that, collectively, the handbooks project an image of somone who displays qualities of motivation, investigation and judgement. They should be motivated to begin a process of change in their lives, to encourage others to do the same, and to adopt the environmental problems as their own personal problems. The second quality pursued in the handbooks is of someone who should take an active stance towards the environment as a pervasive element in their way of life. They should, therefore, adopt an investigative attitude to the surrounding world, cultivate certain cognitive properties such as watchfulness, thoughtfulness and being suspicious, and constantly ask questions about their surroundings with a view to understanding how actions in their private world has an effect on the wider world. And thirdly, the ideal environmentalist citizen should be someone who demonstrates judgement in balancing polarities and resolving the claims of different standpoints. They should give attention to separating right from wrong, wisdom from madness and, above all, to finding a way of linking their own efforts to what is worth striving for and what is worth avoiding or neglecting. In summary, the subjects identified in the handbooks are expected to avoid extreme positions, to place their own expectations about sustainability on a suitable level, and to be prepared for failure and feelings of guilt. The final part of the investigation – interpreting the wider significance of the handbooks – uses a pluralistic model of analysis which takes its departure from three concepts – ecological modernisation, governmentality and the risk society. Using these orientations, the extent of the discursive educational project of the environmental handbooks is highlighted. If the handbooks are regarded as modernist prescriptions, they are texts which highlights slow and careful change taking place within the present power structure of society. If they are regarded as texts that offer a governmentality prescription, they can be read as texts which promote the transformation of everyday micropractices. And if they are regarded as prescriptions for a risk society, they are texts which enable readers to come to terms with confusion and powerlessness in a complex and risky social context. One main result is that the environmental handbooks display interesting similarities, worthy of futher exploration, supported by a broadened empirical base.

  • 295.
    Adenling, Elinor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Liljeström, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Studentpresentationer i pedagogik2018In: Digitalisering av högre utbildning / [ed] Stefan Hrastinski, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 95-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Adenling, Elinor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olsson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att mötas utan att mötas: Portfolios som pedagogiskt verktyg i nätbaserad utbildning2010In: Undervisning på tvären, Student- och lärarerfarenheter / [ed] Universitetspedagogiskt Centrum, Umeå universitet, Umeå: Universitetspedagogiskt Centrum, Umeå universitet , 2010, p. 11-28Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 297.
    Adenling, Elinor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olsson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Erfarenheter av portfoliometodiken inom nätutbildning: Kritiska reflektioner och ”halleluja moments”2011In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Pedagogiska institutionen vid Umeå universitet har nätutbildningen expanderat kraftigt under de senaste två och ett halvt åren, då institutionen började ge fristående helfartskurser i pedagogik via Internet. Vårterminen 2008 läste cirka 60 studenter och inför varje termin har sedan studenttillströmningen ökat, för att under våren 2010 uppgå till 240 studenter. Hösten 2008 infördes, med stöd av interna utvecklingsmedel, examinerande portfoliouppgifter på samtliga nätbaserade kurser med målsättningen att möta de utmaningar som både formen (nätundervisning) och den utökade och heterogena studentgruppen innebar. Syftet var att stärka studenternas förmåga att synliggöra sitt eget lärande, samt att minska anonymiteten mellan lärare och student. Uppgifterna var av självreflekterande karaktär där studenterna uppmanades att relatera det egna lärandet till kursinnehållet och att exempelvis identifiera framtida tillämpningsområden inom studier och arbetsliv. Studenterna fick under terminen individuell återkoppling av en och samma lärare. Intentionen med återkopplingen var bland annat att guida och uppmuntra studenterna till att inta ett personligt förhållningssätt till kursinnehållet. I artikeln argumenteras det för att portfoliometodik i flera avseenden kan sägas harmoniera väl med ett rådande synsätt på examination där ett sociokulturellt synsätt på lärande dominerar och livslångt lärande och självständighet framhålls som eftersträvansvärt. Detta medför att, det både utifrån ett student- och ett lärarperspektiv, kan kännas naturlig och relevant att använda portfolio som examinationsform inom nätutbildning. Samtidigt är det viktigt att problematisera och kritiskt reflektera över portfoliometodik som examinationsform och de förhållningssätt och ideal som skapas, vilket görs i artikeln med hjälp av en Foucaultinspirerad tolkningsram. I artikeln presenteras alltså både ett kritiskt perspektiv, men även de många ”halleluja moments” som arbetet med portfoliouppgifter inneburit för medverkande lärare och institutionen i stort. Erfarenheterna visar att arbetet med portfolio som examinationsform är dubbelbottnat: Å ena sidan kan det exempelvis bidra till en stärkt språklig kompetens och personlig utveckling hos studenterna. Å andra sidan kan portfoliometodik sägas leda till en ökad kontroll och självdisciplinering som sträcker sig bortom själva examinationstillfället.

  • 298.
    Ader, Ulla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Lundblad Danielsson, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Att lyssna till tonårsröster: Psykisk hälsa hos ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med fördjupningsarbetet har varit att via en pilotstudie öka kunskapen om ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning i Umeå, med avseende på psykisk hälsa, och på hur de upplever sin vardag i skolan, med kamrater och i familjen. Psykisk hälsa undersöktes genom att ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning som går i specialklasser (grundsärskolans högstadium, högstadium för ungdomar med Asperger, högstadium för ungdomar med rörelsenedsättningar), fick besvara en enkät under skoltid. För att kunna relatera till den undersökning som Statens Folkhälsoinstitut genomförde hos ungdomar i Sverige 2009 har samma enkät använts.

     

    Resultatet visar att de flesta ungdomar har angett att de mår bra, trivs i skolan, har bra kontakt med sina lärare och med sina föräldrar. Majoriteten mår lika bra som de flesta ungdomar i landet och t.om bättre än de ungdomar i Folkhälsoinstitutets undersökning, som angett att de hade någon funktionsnedsättning.

     

    Inom några områden visades dock lägre resultat. Ungdomarna i vår undersökning uppgav att deras svårigheter påverkade deras vardag i familjen och vid fritidsaktiviteter. De umgås mer sällan med kamrater, motionerar mindre och har färre fritidsaktiviteter. Ungdomar med Asperger skiljer ut sig mest i vår undersökning, de är mindre nöjda med livet och med sig själva, känner sig mer ensamma,  umgås mer sällan med kamrater och har mindre kul, jämfört med ungdomar i grundsärskolan.

     

    Det finns områden där stödet ifrån Barn- och ungdomshabiliteringen kan förbättras, som att utveckla metoder för socialt samspel och stärka ungdomarnas identitet och i samarbete med andra aktörer öka delaktigheten till en mer aktiv fritid.

  • 299.
    Adere, Endale
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Accounting for Oil and Gas: The effect of the gap between US GAAP and IFRS on Norwegian companies2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background

    Oil and gas is a main source of revenue for many countries. Norway is one of them. Several companies operate in these countries. The companies demand accounting to communicate to their stakeholders. The two biggest accounting regimes, IASB and USA have their own standards for the upstream activities of those companies. The standard setting bodies mandatorily require companies to comply. Norwegian listed companies, as they are in the IASB regime, must comply with the IASB standard, IFRS 6.

    Problem 

    The IASB standard has a problem of addressing the entire upstream activities of the companies Moreover, the standard has conceptual flaw. However, these oil and gas firms are required to follow it. As a remedy, the entities fill the gap by using the US GAAP, if they are listed, as the regulation requires them to follow IFRS. Thus, using these two standards coupled with the defect of the IASB standard is affecting them.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to explain the effects of IFRS 6 on companies by comparing it with the US GAAP standard. In doing so, theories relevant to the issue are described and the technical gaps between the two standards are elaborated.

    Method 

    This thesis uses mixed method. The research design followed is concurrently mixing quantitative and qualitative methods. However, qualitative method dominates in the mixing. As a data collection mechanism, interview, questionnaire and documentation i.e. the annual reports of the companies are used. In the study both deductive and inductive reasoning are used.

    Conclusion

    Subsequent to making the study, the author concludes that the surveyed companies have used the US GAAP to fill the gap that IFRS possess. However, retaining two sets of accounts has economic effect and the companies are paying for that. Moreover, they expend costs for adopting the IFRS when they change their standard from US GAAP to IFRS. Moreover, it is difficult to make conclusion about diffusion of accounting method due to contagion effect. Similarly, although previous studies show that size of a firm is a determinant factor, it is tricky to make conclusion on the studied companies.

  • 300. Aderud, Johan
    Användbarhetsstudie av Nätuniversitetets webbportal: en uppföljning 20052006Report (Other academic)
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