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  • 251.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Slutförvarets lokala effekter på befolkning och sysselsättning i Östhammar och Oskarshamn2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie ställs frågan om vilka lokala spridningseffekter investeringen i ett slutförvar för använt kärnbränsle kan komma att få. För närvarande pågår platsundersökningar i Östhammar och Oskarshamn och slutförvaret kommer med stor sannolikhet att byggas i någon av dessa kommuner. Genomförandet av slutförvarsprojektet består av ett flertal olika investeringar vars lokaliseringsförutsättningar skiljer sig åt. Förutom slutförvaret för använt kärnbränsle ingår även utbyggnad av SFR (Slutförvar för radioaktivt driftavfall) och byggandet av en inkapslingsanläggning och en "kapselfabrik", för montering av kapslar. Utbyggnaden av SFR måste ske i Östhammar då SFR redan finns där och inkapslingsanläggningen bör enligt SKB byggas i anslutning till Clab (Centralt mellanlager för använt kärnbränsle) som är förlagt till Oskarshamn. Dessa omständigheter betyder att delar av den totala investeringssumman för slutförvaret (cirka 15 miljarder kronor) redan nu går att knyta till specifika platser.

    Resultaten från en enkätundersökning visar att näringslivet i de två kommunerna skiljer sig åt med avseende på möjligheter att leverera varor och tjänster till slutförvarsinvesteringen. Vid en jämförelse mellan leverantörskapacitet och upphandlingsbehov förefaller det som om att det lokala näringslivet i Oskarshamn har en sammansättning som bättre matchar slutförvarsinvesteringens behov.

    De lokala spridningseffekterna av slutförvarsinvesteringen begränsas emellertid inte till de aktiviteter som härrör till byggnation av anläggningar. Drift och efterarbeten vid anläggningarna ger också inkomster och arbetstillfällen. Slutförvaret med sidoinvesteringar kommer att generera spridningseffekter i både Östhammar och Oskarshamn oavsett i vilken kommun slutförvaret lokaliseras. Däremot blir de ekonomiska spridningseffekterna olika på grund av skillnader i det lokala näringslivets leverantörskapacitet och förutbestämda lokaliseringar av vissa sidoinvesteringar. Analyserna antyder bland annat att de lokala spridningseffekterna blir tämligen stora i Oskarshamn om Östhammar får slutförvaret, medan effekterna i Östhammar blir ytterst begränsade om slutförvaret placeras i Oskarshamn.

  • 252.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Analyzing Socio-Economic Impacts of Large Investments by Spatial Microsimulation2007In: 1st General Conference of the International Microsimulation Association: Celebrating 50 Years of Microsimulation, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, a nuclear waste repository will be located in either Östhammar or Oskarshamn, two Swedish municipalities. This is a major investment that is likely to have socio-economic implications at the local level for several decades. In order to analyze the indirect local effects of such large investments, a spatial and dynamic microsimulation model (SVERIGE 3) has been constructed. The model simulates demographic events (e.g., fertility and migration) as well as education and the labor market. In this study, the simulation model is utilized to evaluate a number of scenarios comprising various potential investments in Östhammar, one of which is the nuclear waste repository. As part of the study, the direct local effect of the investments was estimated. When running the model, the estimated direct local effects function as exogenous economic input to concerned labor market sectors. The results of the simulations indicate that investments such as the nuclear waste repository will have some economic and demographic effects. However, infrastructure projects that increase accessibility seem to generate more profound and long-lasting effects at the local level. A municipality such as Östhammar, located close the Stockholm metropolitan area, may be especially likely to benefit by such infrastructure investments.

  • 253.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mineur, Eva
    The Swedish Research Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Keskitalo, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Attitudes on intensive forestry: an investigation into perceptions of increased production requirements in Swedish forestry2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 438-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, the Swedish government launched an inquiry into the possibilities, benefits and requirements for conducting intensive forestry in part of the Swedish countryside, including fertilization, genetically improved plant material and fastgrowing species beyond what is currently allowed in Swedish legislation. Drawing upon part of that governmental investigation, this paper analyzes attitudes toward intensive forestry over time. The study draws upon studies of points of conflict written in the 1970s and 1980s, attitudes among different stakeholder groups, and interviews with forest owners and stakeholder groups potentially affected by intensive forestry. The study concludes that the diverging opinions as to what constitutes acceptable forest use have remained largely the same over the years. Radical landscape change is generally not seen as desirable, but views diverge over the use of novel tree species and the use of fertilization.

  • 254.
    Lindkvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Olsson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mineur, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Konflikt och konsensus i skogen: intensivodling av skog ur ett humanistiskt och samhällsvetenskapligt perspektiv. Faktaunderlag till utredning om Möjligheter till intensivodling av skog2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första delstudien, ”Skogslandskapet som arena”, syftar till att ge en bakgrund till dagens skogsbruk i Sverige och att sätta in skogspolitiken i ett idé- och miljöhistoriskt sammanhang. Sammantaget handlar undersökningen om hur skogen har brukats och hur detta brukande har motiverats, institutionaliserats, reglerats och ifrågasatts under de senaste århundradena. Den består av två delar. Den första delen inleds med en historik som tar upp maktförhållandena i skogen och hur skogen har nyttjats genom tiderna. Därefter följer en redogörelse över skogsbrukets och skogsvårdslagens förändring över tid fram till att miljörörelsen, rennäringen, kulturminnesvården och andra ”allmänna intressen” som värnar om skogen tar plats i skogsvårdslagen. I den andra delen diskuteras ett urval konflikter som uppkommit i anslutning till skogen och skogsbruket, främst med tyngdpunkt på 1970- och 1980-talen: debatten om plantering av skog i öppna landskap, kalhyggesdebatten, reaktionerna vid inplantering av främmande trädslag, debatten om bruket av bekämpningsmedel samt visionen om att utveckla och nyttja genmodifierade träd. Flera av dessa konflikter kan rimligen åter aktualiseras vid ett intensifierat skogsbruk av det slag som utredningen behandlar.Den andra delstudien, ”Attityder och värderingar”, undersöker privatpersoners och skogsägares inställningar till den svenska skogen i allmänhet och till intensivodling av skog i synnerhet. Privatpersoner betraktar vanligen skogen som en rekreationsresurs, medan skogsägare håller skogens traditionella, ekonomiska värden närmare hjärtat. När attityder mot skogen väl förändras beror det ofta på generationsväxlingar, ökat miljömedvetande och urbaniseringstrender. Sveriges stora demografiska och kulturella skillnader har även bidragit till att skogen idag uppfattas olika i olika delar av landet. Samtidigt som vi bor längre bort från skogen än tidigare ökar vår efterfrågan på dess sociala värden, vilket innebär att ungefär hälften av våra skogsbesök numera sker i tätortsnära skog, som främst är förknippad med rekreation och vila. Skogens ekonomiska värden är emellertid fortfarande viktiga, inte minst när det gäller skogens roll som framtida energikälla. Intervjuade skogsägare har visat sig vara förhållandevis positiva till intensivodling av skog, samtidigt som det av miljömässiga och ekonomiska skäl finns ett starkt motstånd mot att öka användningen av gödsel. Privatpersoner som intervjuats anser i regel att intensivodlade områden begränsar naturupplevelsen, skadar miljön och missgynnar mångfalden. Fördelar som ökad möjlighet att utvinna alternativa energibränslen och ökade exportmöjligheter för svensk industri har emellertid också nämnts.Den tredje delstudien, ”Potentiella synergier och målkonflikter”, relaterar intensivodling av skog dels till de av riksdagen fastställda miljömålen dels till eventuella intressemotsättningar som kan uppstå till följd av ett förändrat nyttjande av jordbruksmark. De målkonflikter som identifieras, främst mellan miljömålen ’Begränsad klimatpåverkan’ och ’Ett rikt växt- och djurliv’, kan inte enbart lösas på teknisk väg utan kräver någon form av politisk avvägning. För att ansvariga myndigheter ska kunna göra en sådan avvägning krävs dock att det utarbetas någon form av politisk prioriteringsordning som kan vägleda myndigheterna i det arbetet. När det gäller eventuella intressemotsättningar som kan uppstå till följd av intensivodling framgår det av intervjuer med olika intresseorganisationer att många konflikter sannolikt kan undvikas om synpunkter från olika intressen beaktas i samband med planering av förändrat marknyttjande.

  • 255.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Utvärdering av forskargrupperna "Gruppen för Regionalvetenskaplig Forskning samt "Turism och Fritid" vid Karlstads Universitet.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Lundgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Microsimulation and tourism forecasts2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Lundgren, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Micro-Simulation Modeling of Domestic Tourism Travel Patterns in Sweden2004In: The Second International Conference on: Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 258.
    Lundgren, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Modeling Domestic Tourism in Sweden2007In: Tourism Analysis, Vol. 11, pp 349-366., ISSN 1083-5423, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 349-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a microsimulation model based on TDB-data (Swedish Tourist Database provided by Marknadsfakta, Åre, Swe¬den) can be used to estimate the number of trips, choice of activity and choice of destination for domestic overnight trips in Sweden using individual micro data from Statistics Sweden. It is argued that this modeling on the micro-level accounts for changes in population structure and geography to a far greater extent than conventional models because of its focus on individual behavior in relation to individual socio-economic characteristics. Thus, changes in the supply of tourism results in changing travel patterns. Also changes in the population and its spatial distribution are mirrored directly in the resulting travel pattern.

  • 259.
    Lundgren, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Redin, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Laxfisketurism och kustfiske vid Kalix älv: intervjuer med företagare i två branscher2004Report (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Är det möjligt att bryta stagnationen?2009In: Kan norra Sverige regionaliseras?: beslutsprocesser och medborgarperspektiv / [ed] Anders Lidström, Umeå: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2009, p. 185-193Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 261.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Are movers still the same?: Characteristics of interregional migrants in Sweden 1970 - 20012007In: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 336-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate interregional migration in Sweden during the last three decades and to discuss the effects that changes on the labour market and in household structures have had on migration patterns. The empirical data consists of all interregional migrants in Sweden from 1970 to 2001. The results indicate that the pattern of labour market-related migration has changed as more migrants today migrate at an age prior to having become established on the labour market. The increase in interregional migration is to a large extent an effect of increased student migration. The study further shows that changed household structures have also had an impact on migration patterns during the studied period. Interregional migration among families has become rarer as dual income households have become the norm.

  • 262.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Den sociala ekonomin i glesa miljöer: en teoretisk diskussion2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social economy is a concept that nowadays is often used in discussions about local development. This essay is a theoretical discussion dealing with the definition of the concept of social economy linked to the processes of local mobilisation in sparsely populated areas. The initiative of this essay came from Nätverket för kooperativt och socialt företagande and it is a part of a project to scientifically document the signification of social economy in a region in northern Sweden which is considered as Objective 5b region according to the EU regional policy. Social economy is a part of what is sometimes called the “third sector”, activities that are neither strictly classified as public sector nor private sector. Activities in this sector are always a result of individuals seeking by united effort to supply a common need. This process takes place in a certain location and is dependent on the conditions and people in that place. Therefore it is interesting to evaluate the characteristics of the people and places where the process of local mobilisation has been successful. From the basis of a number of case studies found in literature, my own case study (1999), the experience of people working at Nätverket and scientific theories of various kinds a model has been constructed to describe the variety of processes vital to the process of local mobilisation. A comparison with the product life cycle model describes the development of a local mobilisation process over time. The positive effects of a successful mobilisation is obvious while even small improvements in supply of service or activities in a sparsely populated area can make a big difference for the people who live there. The road to a successful local mobilisation is not without obstacles as it is dependent first and last on the commitment of people. Another important conclusion is that the process of local mobilisation is highly dependent on the local structural conditions and can not be forced by external volition.

  • 263.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Family ties and retirement in Sweden2008In: The Social Science History Association 33rd Annual Meeting Miami USA, October 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Interregional migration propensity and labour market size in Sweden, 1970-20012010In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 44, p. 455-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency in several European countries toward an increase in commuting has sometimes been presented as one possible explanation for why interregional migration propensity has decreased. This study is an attempt to investigate the impact of job availability on migration propensity over time. Other studies have shown that the size of the labour market has an effect on migration propensity. The same effect was found in this study. However, no evidence was found that job availability has become more influential on migration over time. The process of extended commuting has thus not made commuting opportunities more important as explanatory factor for interregional migration.

  • 265.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Migration - commuting substitution: commuting potential and interregional migration propensityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    New motives for migration?: On interregional mobility in the nordic context2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is migrants’ motives and the outcomes of interregional migration, as well as how the propensity for interregional migration has changed for different groups over the past three decades. The background consists of a discussion on the role of the labour market in long-distance migration decisions and a discussion on how social and economic change affect the context in which migration decisions are made. The thesis consists of four empirical studies presented in four separate papers. The studies derive from two sources of data. Papers I and II are based on a Nordic survey, while Papers III and IV draw from Swedish population register data. Paper I focuses on migrants’ perceptions of the migration decision, motives, voluntariness, attitudes and values, based on a survey. The conclusion of this paper is that employment is by no means a dominating motive from the migrant’s perspective. Additionally, very few migrants explicitly express a sense of being forced to migrate against their will. Paper II is also based on the survey and examines the migrants’ perceptions of the outcome of migration in economic and non-economic terms. This paper further supports the view that employment and income gain are in most cases subordinate in the migration decision from the individual migrants’ point of view. Paper III is a register study comparing the composition of interregional migrants in Sweden during the period 1970-2001. In this study, it becomes evident that the increase in migration rates in the 1990’s was an effect of increased migration among young people. Compared to 1970, increasingly more people migrated during a time in life when they were not yet established on the labour market and had no family. Paper IV is also a register study comparing the effect of commuting potential on migration propensity in Sweden during the period 1970-2001. This paper concludes that increased commuting should be interpreted as a result of, rather than an explanation for, long-distance migration reluctance.

    Migration literature suggests that long-distance migration is primarily labour-market induced. This is evident in the sense that long-distance migration requires a new job in a new locality for those who are in the labour force, but this study show that this does not necessarily mean that employment is the main motive in the migrant’s mind; the trigger is usually something else, often related to social relationships. The pattern of interregional migration has changed over time. Compared to the 1970’s, more people now migrate at a time when they are not established on the labour market, and other considerations besides employment are thus more relevant. An important explanation for the current immobility among families and employed persons is attributed to the increase in dual-career households during the period studied. This has changed the aggregated migration behaviour everywhere, regardless of commuting potential, but enhanced constraints for interregional migration in this group could be seen as an explanation for the observed increase in commuting.

  • 267.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Returning home?: Migration to birthplace among migrants after age 552012In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 74-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the large post-war cohorts reach retirement age, there is a growing potential for later-life migrants. Not only are these cohorts large in number; they are also healthier and can make plans for a substantially long period to enjoy retirement. Additionally, in Sweden this generation is largely one of urbanization, which means that many have a linkage to the rural areas where they grew up. Attracting this potential of returning retirees is one strategy to counteract population decline: in some rural areas, politicians target returning retirees as potential in-migrants. Returning to one's origin is one potential motivation for migration later in life, once employment is no longer a restraining factor to a particular place, and it becomes possible to choose a place of residence more freely. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which returning to one's roots is a factor in interregional migration in Sweden in the age group of 55–70 years. Data consist of all persons in Sweden aged 55–70 during the period 2003–2005, including their permanent residence and parish of birth. The results indicate that approximately one out of five migrants in this group who move further than 30 km are return migrants while about ten per cent return to parish. The results further confirm that migration in this age group, particularly return migration, is oriented towards rural areas. People born in the rural areas are also more prone to return at older age compared to those born in urban settings.

  • 268.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Unga flyttar allt mer: Men småbarnsfamiljer flyttar mindre än förr. Äldre föräldrar, tvåförsörjarhushåll och utbyggd högskola har skapat nya flyttmönster jämfört med 1970-talet.2009In: Forskning & Framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 4, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 269.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Forced or free movers?: The motives, voluntariness and selectivity of interregional migration in the Nordic countries2004In: Population, Space and Place, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Oskyddade trafikanters inställning till trafiksäkerhet och risk i trafiken2001Report (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Between elderly parents and grandchildren: geographic proximity and trends in four generation families2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In an ageing society, families may have an important role in the caretaking and well-being of the elderly. Demographic changes have an impact on the size and structure of families; one aspect is how intergenerational support is distributed when there is a need for support to both older and younger generations at the same time. Another vital aspect of the provision of care for the elderly is geographic proximity. This study is oriented towards the potential “both-end carers” i.e. persons who have grandchildren in potential need of care while still having living ageing parents. The incidence of having grandchildren and having living parents at age 55 and the proximity between generations is described using Swedish register data. The results show that the share of 55-year-olds who are grandparents decreased dramatically from 70 to 35 percent between 1990 and 2005. As expected, more 55-year-olds have living parents – a proportion that increased from 37 to 47 percent during this period. As a result of delayed childbearing among the children of these cohorts, the likelihood of belonging to a four-generation family among 55-year-olds has not increased, despite increased longevity. Furthermore, most individuals live within daily reach of their kin and no evidence was found of a trend of increasing geographic distances between generations.

  • 272.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Between elderly parents and grandchildren: Geographic proximity and trends in four-generation families2009In: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, ISSN 1874-7876 (Online), Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 121-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ageing society, families may have an important role in the caretaking and well-being of the elderly. Demographic changes have an impact on the size and structure of families; one aspect is how intergenerational support is distributed when there is a need for support to both older and younger generations at the same time. Another vital aspect of the provision of care for the elderly is geographic proximity. This study is oriented towards the potential “both-end carers” i.e. persons who have grandchildren in potential need of care while still having living ageing parents. The incidence of having grandchildren and having living parents at age 55 and the proximity between generations is described using Swedish register data. The results show that the share of 55-year-olds who are grandparents decreased dramatically from 70% to 35% between 1990 and 2005. As expected, more 55-year-olds have living parents—a proportion that increased from 37% to 47% during this period. As a result of delayed childbearing among the children of these cohorts, the likelihood of belonging to a four-generation family among 55-year-olds has not increased, despite increased longevity. Furthermore, most individuals live within daily reach of their kin and no evidence was found of a trend of increasing geographic distances between generations.

  • 273.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Gains and losses:  - outcomes of interregional migration in the five Nordic countries2006In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 88, no B1, p. 35-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the outcome of interregional migration in various aspects from the migrants' perspective. It is based on a survey, including 6 000 interregional migrants in the five Nordic countries. The results indicate that interregional migration leads to a positive outcome for most migrants and few people seem to be forced to make decisions including painful tradeoffs. Motives have an effect on what aspects of outcome migrants are satisfied with. The influence of individual migrants' characteristics on migration outcome revealed few significant effects. Migrants claimed to be most satisfied with living conditions and less satisfied with the livelihood after moving. To be satisfied with social conditions turned out to be crucially important for the general outcome of migration.

  • 274.
    Lundmark, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Fastighetstaxeringsvärdets spridningsmönster i centrala Umeå2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concentrates on the usage of property rateable values in an analysis of the central parts of Umeå. The purpose of the study has been to localise certain spatial patterns in the rateable values and however the dispersion of levels of value can bee linked with the distance to the central point. The hypothetical presumptions has been suggesting that the central point most likely ought to be localised in the central part of the area. Based on William Alonso´s bid-rent curve, the analyse of Umeå should not indicate on a complete linear relation between value and distance from the central point, but the nearness to this point should influence on the pattern. The pattern should demonstrate higher values in the central and east parts due to a business district in the centre and a university-hospital area in the eastern parts. The result of the analyse is partly corresponding to the hypothesis. The rateable values show their highest levels in the central part of Umeå, where also the central point is localised. The assumption that the eastern part of the area should be higher assessed than the western part corresponds with a light overstatement. The type of usage of the property has proved to be of importance for the size of the value. It is though clear that the bid-rent relationship don’t act freely in a free market situation. The Swedish planning tradition forms a strong fundament of control and leadership acting in the benefit of everyone. This results in a complex relationship where the market and the community works side by side and both influence one another.

  • 275.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A holiday on ice on hold?: nature-based tourism and climate change in the nordic north2010In: Tourism and change in polar regions: climate, environment and experiences / [ed] C. Michael Hall & Jarkko Saarinen, Routledge , 2010, p. 177-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A new age for nature-based tourism?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Economic restructuring into tourism in the Swedish mountain range2005In: Scandinavian journal of hospitality and tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Economic restructuring into tourism: the case of the Swedish mountain range2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The labour force in the Swedish mountain range has been influenced by globalisation and restructuring of the economy. The problem for the region is twofold: (1) an ageing and smaller population; and (2) changes in the structure of employment. Due to decreasing employment in forestry and manufacturing, as well as downsizing of the public sector, the economy is going through rapid change. The increase of the importance of the tourism sector has been prominent in some parts of the mountainous area. This study focuses mainly on the character of the tourism labour market in the region and the implications of the development in the tourism sector. The data used are drawn from a database containing the total population in the area 1985–1999. Data are analysed using GIS. The main conclusions are that there has been a shift in employment from the primary sector and the public sector in the region. The tourism sector has been seen as an important receiver of work force but this development is found to be uneven and uncertain in some parts of the region. Although the permanent population is decreasing, increasing seasonal labour migration due to tourism businesses has been observed.

  • 279.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Efterfrågan på naturturism: Nuläge och potential för regional utveckling2009Report (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Forest-related employment in the European North: current trends and future development2005In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 183, no 2, p. 81-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the impact of climate change on the forest-related employment is important for making relevant policy decisions in areas where forestry is economically important. This paper contrasts two different areas in Sweden and Finland in terms of population structure, employment structure and forest-based economy. The paper discusses the future possible outcomes of climate change in terms of forest-related employment. The geographical level of analysis is the county of Norrbotten in Sweden, and the county of Lappi in Finland. These are sparsely populated peripheral areas with ageing populations. There has been a decline or stagnation in the economic and social conditions and the survival of many rural communities, in particular those inland, is seriously threatened. In the context of climate change the issue of how the forest growth will change and how well the different areas will adapt to these changes are addressed.

  • 281.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Mobility, Migration and Seasonal Tourism Employment2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 54-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Mobility, migration and seasonal tourism employment:: evidence from SwedenIn: Scandinavian journal of hospitality and tourism, ISSN 1502-2250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 283.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mountain resort labour market: the case of the Swedish mountain range2009In: Nordic Tourism: issues and cases / [ed] Hall, Colin Michael, Müller, Dieter K., Saarinen, Jarkko, Buffalo / Clevedon: Channel View Publications , 2009, p. 231-235Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 284.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nature-based tourism demand: Age or habit?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Restructuring and employment change in sparsely populated areas: examples from Northern Sweden and Finland2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine ongoing restructuring and its impacts on sparsely populated areas in Sweden and Finland. In the context of sparsely populated areas, the global processes have great local impact because of their poor capacity to adapt to rapid economic changes. The focus here is on tourism and forest-related employment, however amenity motives for mobility and migration are also considered in relation to restructuring. A major part of the information used in this thesis comes from a database collected and stored by Statistics Sweden.

    Results show that employment in tourism in the Swedish mountain municipalities is largely seasonal in character. The seasonality of tourism has caused seasonal in-migration or long-distance commuting of young people, first and foremost to the southern mountain municipalities. The success of tourism as a regional development strategy is affected by the structure and characteristics of the local labour force. The importance of tourism for development also depends on other regional characteristics such as infrastructure, demographic composition, experience and education of the local labour force, as well as on attributes of the tourism industry. The assumed and almost automatic positive relationship between nature conservation and tourism is challenged. Tourism employment does not automatically follow from unemployment in forest sectors, accentuating differences in the characteristics of the labour force needed in tourism, forestry and related activities and the difficulty of enforcing restructuring and diversification towards tourism.

    In the last article, analyses of the forest-related employment are in focus. It is concluded that there is no significant effect of climate change on employment. Instead other global, national and local processes and interrelationships, such as supply and demand and productivity increase, have a greater impact on employment. Forestry and related sectors have shifted towards a more capital intensive management, which means that the productivity rate of the each worker is so high that the increasing amount of harvestable forest due to climate change does not involve the employment of more people. The relative unimportance of forestry and forest-related employment in the research area has also been highlighted.

    In conclusion, the economic restructuring processes in relation to tourism have been limited in a majority of the mountain municipalities. This is clearly demonstrated by the high level of seasonal labour mobility to some parts of the mountain area. However, there is evidence suggesting a positive relationship between seasonal tourism employment and permanent migration. To the north, there are fewer large resorts with high seasonal pressure than in the south. This means that tourism can be a way of maintaining work opportunities and sustaining local service. In the south and in the larger resorts, tourism might be a way to ensure more employment, albeit on a seasonal basis. Local diversity through place-dependent activities like tourism and resource-based recreation, as well as resource extraction, might offer opportunities for economic diversification. However, if the demographic structure is unbalanced there will be difficulties in pursuing economic restructuring and diversification. Add to this a peripheral location and there are many obstacles to increasing population, even temporarily. Thus, tourism development must be carefully considered on a local basis.

  • 286.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Supply and demand of nature-based tourism in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Säsongsberoendet inom turismen minskar dess betydelse för lokal utveckling2006In: GränsbrytningArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 288.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mituniversitet, ETOUR.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    När friluftslivet blir naturturism: en fråga om samspelet mellan det privata och det offentliga2014In: Friluftsliv i förändring: studier från svenska upplevelselandskap / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2014, p. 182-195Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet / ETOUR.
    Boman, Mattias
    SLU Alnarp.
    Mattsson, Leif
    SLU Alnarp.
    Economic values in the Swedish nature-based recreation sector: a synthesisIn: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research synthesis reports the main findings from a review of economic values associated with nature-based recreation in Sweden. The purpose of the work was to support policy and identify areas for future research. Data came from over 150 scientific publications and other public sources. The information is structured under different categories to illustrate the economic significance and range of this sector. We find inter alia a lack of systematic data for several recreation activities (including nature-based tourism), a significant growth in the outdoor equipment industry, and a rather modest economic involvement by the public sector. We conclude there is a need for more comprehensive and systematically collected data, methodological development and interdisciplinary research.

  • 290.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Sandell, Klas
    The role of national parks and protected areas for tourism, forestry and forest sector employment in Swedish mountain municipalitiesIn: Tourism geographies, ISSN 1461-6688Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Jansson, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Socioeconomic development and vulnerabilities in the Barents region2004Report (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Lundmark, Linda JT
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    ETOUR; Mittuniversitetet.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstad University; Stockholm University.
    National parks and protected areas and the role for employment in tourism and forest sectors: a Swedish case2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of national parks and other protected areas has been widely promoted because of its potential for regional development in peripheral and sparsely populated areas. The argument is that the economic and social benefits seen in national parks in the USA and UK will also occur in the Swedish context in the form of an increased tourism-related labor market. Our aim was to analyze the possibility of such a development both in light of the policy visions of positive regional and local development and from the adversary point of view that protection of land is making it more difficult for 15 sparsely populated mountain municipalities in Sweden to prosper. We used a database covering the entire population of the area for 1991 to 2001. Our results show that factors other than the protected areas are connected to the development of a tourism labor market. The most positively correlated variables for change in tourism employment are population growth and proximity to ski lifts. Positive population development is also correlated to a positive change in the number of people employed in forest sectors. Thus, one of the main outcomes is that the assumed and almost automatic positive relation between nature conservation and tourism can is questionable.

  • 293.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Second home localizations in the Swedish mountain range2005In: Tourism, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Second Home Localizations in the Swedish Mountain Range: Slutrapport2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 295.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Turismen i Sverige: branscher och aktörer2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har turismnäringen vuxit kraftigt under de senaste årtiondena, och är idag en av de sektorer av ekonomin som har störst tillväxtpotential i framtiden. Detta betyder att allt fler människor arbetar med turism och allt fler aktörer (företag och organisationer) på något sätt har en relation till denna dynamiska näring. Som en konsekvens av detta blir turismnäringen allt mer komplex och mångfacetterad. Boken Turismen i Sverige–En branschöversikt ger på ett lättbegripligt sätt läsaren en snabb inblick i turismnäringens utveckling, utbredning och omfattning i Sverige. Boken beskriver näringens olika delkomponenter utifrån ett deskriptivt och geografiskt perspektiv, vilket ger läsaren kunskaper som är nyttiga i samband med exempelvis omvärldsanalyser.

  • 296.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Besöka naturen hemma eller borta?: Delresultat från en nationell enkät om friluftsliv och naturturism i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Vad är friluftsliv?: Delresultat från en nationell enkät om friluftsliv och naturturism i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Vara i naturen - varför eller varför inte?: Delresultat från en nationell enkät om friluftsliv och naturturism i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 299.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Vilka är ute i naturen?: Delresultat från en nationell enkät om friluftsliv och naturturism i Sverige2008Report (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    An Arctic tourism innovation systems approach2013In: / [ed] Raynald Harvey Lemelin, Patrick Maher, Daniela Liggett, 2013, p. 243-251Conference paper (Refereed)
3456789 251 - 300 of 536
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