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  • 251.
    Hof, Anouschka R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Future of biodiversity in the Barents Region2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change may affect biodiversity to a large extent. Its effects have already caused shifts in species distributions and even species extinctions. Since especially high latitude regions are expected to be affected, this publication assesses the impact of future climate change on the biodiversity in the Barents Region (northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, and Northwest Russia). It reports on the impact of climate change on a large range of species, including amphibians, butterflies, birds, mammals, moths, plants, slugs, snails, and reptiles, of which a few were studied more in depth. It further identifies future hotspots of species diversity and gives recommendations on species that should be prioritized for conservation and on areas that should be included in the network of protected areas in future. Lastly, it provides guidance on which aspects require further study.

  • 252.
    Hofverberg, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Entangled threads and crafted meanings: students' learning for sustainability in remake activities2019In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the significance of students' encounters with materiality in general and with crafting materials in particular when learning for sustainability. The aim of the explorative study is to illustrate a research approach that can show what students and the material do in correspondence and what stories emerge from this activity. An explorative analysis is conducted via video recordings of a remake project in a Grade 8 handicrafts class in Sweden. The stories that the students recognise are the material's texture, shape and construction, which emerge from the materiality intrinsic to the crafting process and the intentions of the students, as these are visible in action. These stories provide possibilities, as well as set limits for, what is possible to remake. The stories are elaborated on by threading back to materiality concerns found in historical remake practice to recognise the educational possibilities for remaking pedagogy.

  • 253.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Contested Landscapes: social-ecological interactions between forestry and reindeer husbandry2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout northern Fennoscandia, reindeer husbandry is a central part in the cultural heritage of the Sámi people. In its history, Sámi culture and reindeer husbandry have undergone significant adaptations to environmental, social and political challenges. Landscape changes on the winter grazing grounds were mainly driven by resource exploitation, especially by industrialized forestry. Important grazing resources were lost, i.e. terrestrial and arboreal lichens that constitute essential key elements in the herding year.

    In my thesis, I explore the consequences of these transformations in Swedish boreal forests for reindeer husbandry. The multi-disciplinary approach integrates interview studies, ecological fieldwork and theoretical modeling of forest development.

    I emphasize the understanding of landscapes as multi-dimensional concepts with ecological, social and economic components. They interact in determining the amount of landscape fragmentation in physical or administrative ways, or in enabling reindeer herders to move between different landscape elements. These elements, e.g. forest stands of different ages, can react differently to winter weather. Thus, they enable reindeer herders to adjust their grazing grounds according to the availability of forage, mediated by snow conditions. However, forestry practices have reduced the abundance of old-growth forests, and therewith the functionality of the landscape. By comparing snow conditions in different forest types, I show that multi-layered canopies can offer a more diverse pattern of snow hardness. However, the interaction between forest characteristics with snow is strongly dependent on weather conditions, e.g. the timing and intensity of warm spells. The prevalence of single-layered forest stands therefore can lead to a reduction in snow variability and potentially restricts the availability of suitable grazing grounds for reindeer. If snow conditions hinder reindeer in foraging on terrestrial lichens, old forests formerly supplied reindeer with arboreal lichens. I show how industrial forestry has reduced the availability of this emergency forage by the reduction of old forests and increased landscape fragmentation and analyze the consequences of different management strategies on future habitat availability for arboreal lichens. By integrating these results into a model of forest management, I offer insights into consequences arising from different priorities that either favor timber production or the development of lichen-rich grazing grounds.

    In conclusion, I emphasize the importance of landscape diversity, as well as the ability to make use of this diversity, as a source of adaptability of reindeer husbandry to changes in grazing conditions by e.g. winter weather dynamics. A shared future of reindeer husbandry and forestry could be fostered by encouraging the social-ecological co-evolution of multiple use landscapes and the enhancement of the cultural and biological significance of the Swedish boreal forests.

     

  • 254.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Roturier, Samuel
    AgroParisTech, Univ. Paris Sud, Orsay, France.
    Does forest stand structure impact the dynamics of snow on winter grazing grounds of reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus)?2013In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 291, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The landscape in boreal Sweden is dominated by even-aged, single-layered forest monocultures and clearcuts. Few forest stands with a more complex, multi-layered structure remain as landscape elements. Westudied the impact that different forest management regimes have on snow conditions and the metamorphosisof snow, and discuss how these factors may affect suitability for reindeer grazing.Over two winters, we recorded the development of snow depth and hardness in clear cuts and two differentforest types, and their changes with weather events. In the forests, the dynamics of snow characteristicswere analyzed in relation to stand structure and at the level of individual trees.There were no clear differences in snow characteristics between single-layered and multi-layeredstands, although snow hardness was more variable in the latter. In single-layered stands, snow depthand hardness were spatially uniformly distributed in relation to stand characteristics. Contrastingly,the complex structure of multi-layered stands did influence snow depth significantly. However, hardnesswas highly heterogeneous in these stands. Due to the absence of tree effects, clear cuts had deeper butsofter snow than forested stands, although hardness increased towards spring.Weather affected the metamorphosis of the snow blanket. The magnitude of the effects depended onboth timing and severity of discrete weather events and forest structure, but generally weather had agreater influence on snow cover characteristics than forest structure per se. In their interaction withweather, different forest structures affect the snow and thus suitability as winter grazing area for reindeer.Reindeer herders, therefore, require diversity in the landscape in order to respond to such weathervariations and their impact on grazing conditions.

  • 255.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Exploring the multiple use of boreal landscapes: the importance of social-ecological diversity for mobility and flexibility2014In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 671-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable multiple use of landscapes can be a challenging task for the stakeholders involved, especially when they have competing interests with respect to natural resource management. In this paper we analyze the consequences associated with “landscape diversity”, including the interactions between environmental, administrative and societal factors. As a case study, we describe winter land use for reindeer husbandry in the boreal forest in Northern Sweden, a resource that is also used for commercial timber production. We show how and why the interactions between the three factors associated with landscape diversity affect reindeer herding and the options for responding to change. Multi-dimensional landscape diversity can either (i) promote flexibility in the face of change in the form of mobility or (ii) create fragmentation that restricts adaption to changes. This is a result of the dynamic patterns of diverse landscape structures, created by administrative and societal choices. Because such landscape patterns react differently to environmental variability within a season and between years, landscape functions adjusted to the dynamics of environmental variables could help to provide continuity of grazing resources in both space and time and ensure that reindeer husbandry remains resilient to changes. Because of the unequal distribution of power and capacity for decision making, social learning between the two stakeholders can help to balance trade-offs between both types of land user, allowing them to coexist in a landscape shaped by diverse values, priorities and management practices.

  • 256.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Pohjoisranta 4, FI-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland; Univ Turku, Dept Geog & Geol, FI-20500 Turku, Finland.
    Utsi, T. Aa.
    Larsson-Blind, A.
    Burgess, P.
    Johansen, B.
    Kayhko, J.
    Oksanen, L.
    Forbes, B. C.
    Human-animal agency in reindeer management: Sami herders' perspectives on vegetation dynamics under climate change2017In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e01931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many primary livelihoods in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions experience accelerating effects of environmental change. The often close connection between indigenous peoples and their respective territories allows them to make detailed observations of how these changes transform the landscapes where they practice their daily activities. Here, we report Sami reindeer herders' observations based on their long-term inhabitance and use of contrasting pastoral landscapes in northern Fennoscandia. In particular, we focus on the capacity for various herd management regimes to prevent a potential transformation of open tundra vegetation to shrubland or woodland. Sami herders did not confirm a substantial, rapid, or large-scale transformation of treeless tundra areas into shrub-and/or woodlands. However, where they observe encroachment of open tundra landscapes, a range of factors was deemed responsible. These included abiotic conditions, anthropogenic influences, and the direct and indirect effects of reindeer. The advance of the mountain birch tree line was in some cases associated with reduced or discontinued grazing and firewood cutting, depending on the seasonal significance of these particular areas. Where the tree line has risen in elevation and/or latitude, herding practices have by necessity adapted to these changes. Exploiting the capacity of reindeer impacts on vegetation as a conservation tool offers time-tested adaptive strategies of ecosystem management to counteract a potential encroachment of the tundra by woody plants. However, novel solutions in environmental governance involve difficult trade-offs for ecologically sustainable, economically viable, and socially desirable management strategies.

  • 257. Hou, Song
    et al.
    Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.
    Mackie, John C.
    Kennedy, Eric M.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor
    Oxidation of 4-bromo-4'-chlorobiphenyl, model species for forming mixed halogenated aromatic compounds2017In: International Journal of Environment and Pollution, ISSN 0957-4352, E-ISSN 1741-5101, Vol. 61, no 3-4, p. 243-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution reports results from the gas-phase oxidation of 4-bromo-4'-chlorobiphenyl (4,4'-BCB) in order to fathom the formation of toxic species produced during the combustion of mixed halogenated aromatics. In their own right, mixed polybrominated/polychlorinated biphenyls (PXBs) represent a new class of environmental contaminants, recently detected in food and human tissues. Gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QMS), gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOFMS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ion chromatography (IC) served to analyse the volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (V/SVOCs), including mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs), and gaseous products including HBr/HCl. The selection of non-ortho substituted PXB as a model species yields a large number of halogenated compounds, including monochloro- and monobromobenzene and higher halogenated benzenes and naphthalenes and derivatives of halogenated benzenes (such as 1-chloro-4-ethynylbenzene). We also detect small amounts of chlorinated and mixed halogenated dibenzofurans. The present study provides insights into the formation of several classes of halogenated and mixed-halogenated pollutants in combustion processes involving both bromine and chlorine sources, such as those of brominated flame retardants and PVC plastics.

  • 258. Hruba, Frantiska
    et al.
    Stromberg, Ulf
    Cerna, Milena
    Chen, Chunying
    Harari, Florencia
    Harari, Raul
    Horvat, Milena
    Koppova, Kvetoslava
    Kos, Andreja
    Krskova, Andrea
    Krsnik, Mladen
    Laamech, Jawhar
    Li, Yu-Feng
    Lofmark, Lina
    Lundh, Thomas
    Lundström, Nils-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lyoussi, Badiaa
    Mazej, Darja
    Osredkar, Josko
    Pawlas, Krystyna
    Pawlas, Natalia
    Prokopowicz, Adam
    Rentschler, Gerda
    Spevackova, Vera
    Spiric, Zdravko
    Tratnik, Janja
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 41, p. 29-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but larger for B-Hg (0.12-0.94 mu g/L). Corresponding means for the non-European countries were 0.21-0.26, 32-71, and 0.3-3.2 mu g/L, respectively. For B-Cd in European samples, traffic intensity close to home was a statistically significant determinant, for B-Hg fish consumption and amalgam fillings, and for B-Pb sex (boys higher). This study shows that European city children's B-Cd and B-Pb vary only little between countries; B-Hg differs considerably, due to varying tooth restoration practices and fish intake. Traffic intensity seemed to be a determinant for B-Cd. The metal concentrations were low from a risk perspective but the chosen non-European cities showed higher concentrations than the cities in Europe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 259.
    Hudson, Alan G.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Division of Aquatic Ecology & Macroevolution, Institute of Ecology & Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland and Department of Fish Ecology & Evolution, EAWAG Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Vonlanthen, Pascal
    Division of Aquatic Ecology & Macroevolution, Institute of Ecology & Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland and Department of Fish Ecology & Evolution, EAWAG Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Bezault, Etienne
    Department of Biology, Reed College, Portland, USA, Division of Aquatic Ecology & Macroevolution, Institute of Ecology & Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland and Department of Fish Ecology & Evolution, EAWAG Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Seehausen, Ole
    Division of Aquatic Ecology & Macroevolution, Institute of Ecology & Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland and Department of Fish Ecology & Evolution, EAWAG Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Genomic signatures of relaxed disruptive selection associated with speciation reversal in whitefish2013In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 13, p. 108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Speciation reversal: the erosion of species differentiation via an increase in introgressive hybridization due to the weakening of previously divergent selection regimes, is thought to be an important, yet poorly understood, driver of biodiversity loss. Our study system, the Alpine whitefish (Coregonus spp.) species complex is a classic example of a recent postglacial adaptive radiation: forming an array of endemic lake flocks, with the independent origination of similar ecotypes among flocks. However, many of the lakes of the Alpine radiation have been seriously impacted by anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, resulting in a collapse in neutral genetic and phenotypic differentiation within the most polluted lakes. Here we investigate the effects of eutrophication on the selective forces that have shaped this radiation, using population genomics. We studied eight sympatric species assemblages belonging to five independent parallel adaptive radiations, and one species pair in secondary contact. We used AFLP markers, and applied F-ST outlier (BAYESCAN, DFDIST) and logistic regression analyses (MATSAM), to identify candidate regions for disruptive selection in the genome and their associations with adaptive traits within each lake flock. The number of outlier and adaptive trait associated loci identified per lake were then regressed against two variables (historical phosphorus concentration and contemporary oxygen concentration) representing the strength of eutrophication. Results: Whilst we identify disruptive selection candidate regions in all lake flocks, we find similar trends, across analysis methods, towards fewer disruptive selection candidate regions and fewer adaptive trait/candidate loci associations in the more polluted lakes. Conclusions: Weakened disruptive selection and a concomitant breakdown in reproductive isolating mechanisms in more polluted lakes has lead to increased gene flow between coexisting Alpine whitefish species. We hypothesize that the resulting higher rates of interspecific recombination reduce either the number or extent of genomic islands of divergence surrounding loci evolving under disruptive natural selection. This produces the negative trend seen in the number of selection candidate loci recovered during genome scans of whitefish species flocks, with increasing levels of anthropogenic eutrophication: as the likelihood decreases that AFLP restriction sites will fall within regions of heightened genomic divergence and therefore be classified as F-ST outlier loci. This study explores for the first time the potential effects of human-mediated relaxation of disruptive selection on heterogeneous genomic divergence between coexisting species.

  • 260. Humborg, Christoph
    et al.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Sundblom, Marcus
    Borg, Hans
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ittekot, Venugopalan
    CO2 supersaturation along the aquatic conduit in Swedish watersheds as constrained by terrestrial respiration, aquatic respiration and weathering2010In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 1966-1978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that CO2 supersaturation along the aquatic conduit over Sweden can be explained by processes other than aquatic respiration. A first generalized-additive model (GAM) analysis evaluating the relationships between single water chemistry variables and pCO2 in lakes and streams revealed that water chemistry variables typical for groundwater input, e.g., dissolved silicate (DSi) and Mg2+ had explanatory power similar to total organic carbon (TOC). Further GAM analyses on various lake size classes and stream orders corroborated the slightly higher explanatory power for DSi in lakes and Mg2+ for streams compared with TOC. Both DSi and TOC explained 22–46% of the pCO2 variability in various lake classes (0.01–>100 km2) and Mg2+ and TOC explained 11–41% of the pCO2 variability in the various stream orders. This suggests that aquatic pCO2 has a strong groundwater signature. Terrestrial respiration is a significant source of the observed supersaturation and we may assume that both terrestrial respiration and aquatic respiration contributed equally to pCO2 efflux. pCO2 and TOC concentrations decreased with lake size suggesting that the longer water residence time allow greater equilibration of CO2 with the atmosphere and in-lake mineralization of TOC. For streams, we observed a decreasing trend in pCO2 with stream orders between 3 and 6. We calculated the total CO2 efflux from all Swedish lakes and streams to be 2.58 Tg C yr−1. Our analyses also demonstrated that 0.70 Tg C yr−1 are exported to the ocean by Swedish watersheds as HCO3 and CO32− of which about 0.56 Tg C yr−1 is also a residual from terrestrial respiration and constitute a long-term sink for atmospheric CO2. Taking all dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fluxes along the aquatic conduit into account will lower the estimated net ecosystem C exchange (NEE) by 2.02 Tg C yr−1, which corresponds to 10% of the NEE in Sweden.

  • 261. Hunsicker, Mary E.
    et al.
    Ciannelli, Lorenzo
    Bailey, Kevin M.
    Buckel, Jeffrey A.
    White, J. Wilson
    Link, Jason S.
    Essington, Timothy E.
    Gaichas, Sarah
    Anderson, Todd W.
    Brodeur, Richard D.
    Chan, Kung-Sik
    Chen, Kun
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Frank, Kenneth T.
    Freitas, Vania
    Hixon, Mark A.
    Hurst, Thomas
    Johnson, Darren W.
    Kitchell, James F.
    Reese, Doug
    Rose, George A.
    Sjödin, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Sydeman, William J.
    van der Veer, Henk W.
    Vollset, Knut
    Zador, Stephani
    Functional responses and scaling in predator-prey interactions of marine fishes: contemporary issues and emerging concepts2011In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 1288-1299Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predatorprey interactions are a primary structuring force vital to the resilience of marine communities and sustainability of the worlds oceans. Human influences on marine ecosystems mediate changes in species interactions. This generality is evinced by the cascading effects of overharvesting top predators on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. It follows that ecological forecasting, ecosystem management, and marine spatial planning require a better understanding of food web relationships. Characterising and scaling predatorprey interactions for use in tactical and strategic tools (i.e. multi-species management and ecosystem models) are paramount in this effort. Here, we explore what issues are involved and must be considered to advance the use of predatorprey theory in the context of marine fisheries science. We address pertinent contemporary ecological issues including (1) the approaches and complexities of evaluating predator responses in marine systems; (2) the scaling up of predatorprey interactions to the population, community, and ecosystem level; (3) the role of predatorprey theory in contemporary fisheries and ecosystem modelling approaches; and (4) directions for the future. Our intent is to point out needed research directions that will improve our understanding of predatorprey interactions in the context of the sustainable marine fisheries and ecosystem management.

  • 262.
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Pelagial biologi/bakterieplankton2016In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden. 2015/2016, Naturvårdsverket, Havsmiljöinstitutet och Havs- och vattenmyndigheten , 2016, p. 62-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Aspect modifies the magnitude of edge effects on bryophyte growth in boreal forests2005In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 518-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The increased length of forest clear-cut edges is considered to be one of the main ecological consequences of silviculture. The effects vary over the landscape, and studies have shown that aspect is one important factor determining the extent of microclimatic edge effects across forest clear-cut boundaries. However, little is known about the relationship between contrasts in microclimate at edges and responses of ecological processes and biodiversity, such as growth, decomposition and species distributions.

    2. A field experiment was conducted in the boreal forest of northern Sweden to assess the effect of aspect at north- and south-facing edges using mosses as bioindicators. The growth of two species (Hylocomium splendens and Hylocomiastrum umbratum) was evaluated during one growing season. Samples of each species were planted in pots at eight north- and eight south-facing forest clear-cut edges.

    3. Growth increased exponentially with distance from the edge to the interior, and there was a significant effect both in north- and south-facing edges. The percentage decline in growth at the edge was larger in the south- than in the north-facing edges.

    4. The spatial extent of the edge effect, when measured at the point of 90% of interior growth, was similar between north- and south-facing edges, although it differed between the two species evaluated.

    5. Synthesis and applications. The difference in exposure to sunlight between north- and south-facing edges was shown to modify the magnitude of the growth of a poikilohydric organism at the very edge, but not the depth of the edge influence. Aspect should be taken into account in management plans for conservation of boreal forests. In the northern hemisphere, wider buffers of uncut forest should be left at the south side than at the north side of retained forest patches. Those forest interior species that are most sensitive to alterations in microclimate will, however, need equal protection from edge effects at all aspects.

  • 264.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Evaluating buffer strips along boreal streams using bryophtes as indicators2002In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 797-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buffer strips have recently become the main management practice for reducing logging impact on stream habitats in boreal and temperate regions. The habitat value of buffer strips, however, has not received much attention, although riparian forests belong to the systems with the highest biodiversity in these regions. We used plants as indicators of the ability of buffer strips to maintain an environment similar to intact riparian forests in a boreal forest landscape in northern Sweden. We measured the growth of three common bryophyte species (Hylocomiastrum umbratum, Calypogeia integristipula, and Tritomaria quinquedentata) transplanted to riparian habitat close to a stream in clear-cut logged sites 10-15 m wide buffer strips on each side of the stream, and intact (reference) sites. Each of the three site categories included six wet and six tnoist-mesic sites and the experiment was followed over three months in 1999. The species remained vital in the reference sites and grew substantially during the 3-mo-long experiment, but in the logged sites almost no growth was registered, and many shoots died (except for T. qninquedentata). The pattern was consistent irrespective of the ground moisture class. The performance of bryophytes in the moist-mesic buffer strips was almost as bad as in the logged sites, whereas in the wet buffer strips it was either intermediate between that in logged and reference sites (H. umbratum) or very similar to that in reference sites (C. integristipula and T. quinquedentata). The edge effect has previously been shown to vary depending on edge orientation, edge physiognomy, and weather conditions. We found that ground moisture can be of major importance as well. Although many buffer strips function better than no strips, 20-30 m wide strips (with a stream in the middle) through a logged area consist entirely of edge habitat. Increasing the buffer width and avoiding clear-cut logging on both sides of a watercourse would be the first steps to take for improving biodiversity conservation in riparian habitats. Our results also show that bryophytes are good indicators of habitat quality and efficient tools for assessing the ecological function of buffer strips.

  • 265.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH.
    Östberg, Katarina
    SLU.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Estimating Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy in Swedish Coastal Environments: A Walk along different Socio-economic Dimensions2016In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 49-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies distributional effects of environmental policies in Swedish coastal environments, in monetary and environmental quality terms, for different dimensions: income, gender, age, non-users vs. users, distance, familiarity, and origin (if people have a Swedish background or not). The study area is widely used for different recreational activities and has a mix of different visitors. The data come from a choice experiment study. The results indicate that latent class modelling can be used to identify how monetary preferences vary between different groups of respondents, and largely confirm the limited existing knowledge from the previous research on distributional effects of environmental policies. However, the previous literature on distributional effects related to background is very limited, making it hard to draw comparisons. The results in our paper also show that the distributional effects differ depending on the environmental amenity. These results are of policy relevance since coastal environments are important for people's well-being and associated with positive health effects.

  • 266. Höglander, Helena
    et al.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Pelagial biologi /växtplankton2011In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden. 2011 / [ed] Maria Lewander (huvudredaktör), Malin Karlsson, Karin Lundberg, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket, 2011, p. 32-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 267. Höglander, Helena
    et al.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Pelagial biologi/växtplankton2012In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden. 2012, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket, 2012, p. 48-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Höglander, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm Universitet.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI.
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Pelagial biologi/växtplankton2016In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden. 2015/2016, Naturvårdsverket; Havsmiljöinstitutet; Havs- och vattenmyndigheten , 2016, p. 56-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansen, Jes la Cour
    Water and Environmental Engineering at Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersen, Henrik R
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 15, p. 4470-4482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentrations to water containing 1 g of sludge. The range of APIs concentrations was between ng L-1 to μg L-1 which are found in the wastewater effluents. Isotherms were obtained for approximately 45 of the APIs, providing distribution coefficients for linear (Kd), Freundlich (Kf) and Langmuir (KL) isotherms. Kd, Kf and KL ranging between 7.1×104-3.8×107, 1.1×10-2- 6.1×104 and 9.2×10-3- 1.1L kg-1, respectively. The obtained coefficients were applied to estimate the fraction of APIs in the water phase (see Abstract Graphic). For 37 of the 75 APIs the predicted presence in the liquid phase was estimated to > 80%. 24 APIs were estimated to be present in the liquid phase between 20 - 80 %, and 14 APIs were found to have < 20% presence in the liquid phase, i.e. high affinity towards sludge. Furthermore, the effect of pH at values 6, 7 and 8 was evaluated using one way ANOVA-test. A significant difference in Kds due to pH changes were found for 6 of the APIs (variation 10-20%).

    Graphical abstractHiglights

    ► Sorption isotherms were experimentally obtained for roughly 45 of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). ► By sorption to sludge the removal of 31 APIs were estimated to be < 20%.in the WWTP. ► By sorption to sludge the removal of 15 APIs were estimated to be >80% in the WWTP. ► For 13of the API the sorption to sludge was stronger than 1.2 ×106 L kg-1. ► For 10 of the API the sorption to sludge was less than 100 L kg-1

  • 270. Jacquet, S.
    et al.
    Garros, C.
    Lombaert, E.
    Walton, C.
    Restrepo, J.
    Allene, X.
    Baldet, T.
    Cetre-Sossah, C.
    Chaskopoulou, A.
    Delecolle, J. -C
    Desvars, Amélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Djerbal, M.
    Fall, M.
    Gardes, L.
    De Garine-Wichatitsky, M.
    Goffredo, M.
    Gottlieb, Y.
    Fall, A. Gueye
    Kasina, M.
    Labuschagne, K.
    Lhor, Y.
    Lucientes, J.
    Martin, T.
    Mathieu, B.
    Miranda, M.
    Pages, N.
    Pereira Da Fonseca, I.
    Ramilo, D. W.
    Segard, A.
    Setier-Rio, M. -L
    Stachurski, F.
    Tabbabi, A.
    Seck, M. Talla
    Venter, G.
    Zimba, M.
    Balenghien, T.
    Guis, H.
    Chevillon, C.
    Bouyer, J.
    Huber, K.
    Colonization of the Mediterranean basin by the vector biting midge species Culicoides imicola: an old story2015In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 24, no 22, p. 5707-5725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the demographic history and genetic make-up of colonizing species is critical for inferring population sources and colonization routes. This is of main interest for designing accurate control measures in areas newly colonized by vector species of economically important pathogens. The biting midge Culicoides imicola is a major vector of orbiviruses to livestock. Historically, the distribution of this species was limited to the Afrotropical region. Entomological surveys first revealed the presence of C. imicola in the south of the Mediterranean basin by the 1970s. Following recurrent reports of massive bluetongue outbreaks since the 1990s, the presence of the species was confirmed in northern areas. In this study, we addressed the chronology and processes of C. imicola colonization in the Mediterranean basin. We characterized the genetic structure of its populations across Mediterranean and African regions using both mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and combined phylogeographical analyses with population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation. We found a west/east genetic differentiation between populations, occurring both within Africa and within the Mediterranean basin. We demonstrated that three of these groups had experienced demographic expansions in the Pleistocene, probably because of climate changes during this period. Finally, we showed that C. imicola could have colonized the Mediterranean basin in the Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene through a single event of introduction; however, we cannot exclude the hypothesis involving two routes of colonization. Thus, the recent bluetongue outbreaks are not linked to C. imicola colonization event, but rather to biological changes in the vector or the virus.

  • 271.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Applied Science, Mittuniversitetet Härnösand.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of river regulation on river-margin vegetation: a comparison of eight boreal rivers2000In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 203-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation and fragmentation by dams belong to the most widespread deliberate impacts of humans on the world's rivers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. We evaluated the effects of hydroelectric development by comparing the flora of vascular plants in 200-m-long reaches of river margin distributed along eight entire rivers in northern Sweden. Four of these rivers were free-flowing, and four were strongly regulated for hydroelectric purposes. First, we compared species diversity per site between entire free-flowing and regulated rivers. To reduce the effects of natural, between-river variation, we compared adjacent rivers. One regulated river had lower plant species richness and cover than two adjacent free-flowing ones, whereas two other parallel rivers, one regulated and another free-flowing, did not differ significantly. Second, river-margin vegetation responded differently to different types of regulated water-level regimes. Both along run-of-river impoundments, with small but daily water-level fluctuations, and along storage reservoirs, with large fluctuations between low water levels in spring and high levels in late summer and fall, the number of species and their cover per site were lower than along the free-flowing rivers. Regulated but unimpounded reaches were most similar to free-flowing rivers, having lower plant cover per site, but similar numbers of species. For reaches with reduced discharge, evidence was mixed; some variables were lower compared to free-flowing rivers whereas others were not. However, for the last two types of regulation, statistical power was low due to small sample sizes. Third, we classified all plant species according to their dispersal mechanisms and tested whether they respond differently to different types of regulated water-level regimes. Three out of four types of regulation had higher proportions of wind-dispersed species, and two out of four had lower proportions of species without specific mechanisms for dispersal, compared to free-flowing rivers, suggesting that dispersal ability is critical for persistence following regulation. Run-of-river impoundments had higher proportions of long-floating species and species with mechanisms for vegetative dispersal, suggesting that water dispersal may still be important despite fragmentation by dams. Fourth, plant species richness and cover varied with both local factors, such as water-level regime, and regional factors, such as length of the growing season. Presence of clay and silt in the river-margin soil, preregulation position of the contemporary river margin, non-reservoir sites, low altitudes, and long growing seasons were associated with high plant species richness and cover.

  • 272.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Vlasova, Tatiana
    Sutinen, Marja-Liisa
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Chapin, F Stuart, III
    Bråthen, Kari Anne
    Cabeza, Mar
    Callaghan, Terry V
    van Oort, Bob
    Dannevig, Halvor
    Bay-larsen, Ingrid A
    Ims, Rolf A
    Aspholm, Paul Eric
    Future changes in the supply of goods and services from natural ecosystems: prospects for the European north2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans depend on services provided by ecosystems, and how services are affected by climate change is increasingly studied. Few studies, however, address changes likely to affect services from seminatural ecosystems. We analyzed ecosystem goods and services in natural and seminatural systems, specifically how they are expected to change as a result of projected climate change during the 21st century. We selected terrestrial and freshwater systems in northernmost Europe, where climate is anticipated to change more than the global average, and identified likely changes in ecosystem services and their societal consequences. We did this by assembling experts from ecology, social science, and cultural geography in workshops, and we also performed a literature review. Results show that most ecosystem services are affected by multiple factors, often acting in opposite directions. Out of 14 services considered, 8 are expected to increase or remain relatively unchanged in supply, and 6 are expected to decrease. Although we do not predict collapse or disappearance of any of the investigated services, the effects of climate change in conjunction with potential economical and societal changes may exceed the adaptive capacity of societies. This may result in societal reorganization and changes in ways that ecosystems are used. Significant uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the forecast make specific conclusions about societal responses to safeguard human well-being questionable. Adapting to changes in ecosystem services will therefore require consideration of uncertainties and complexities in both social and ecological responses. The scenarios presented here provide a framework for future studies exploring such issues.

  • 273.
    Jansson, Roland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Smaller future floods imply less habitat for riparian plants along a boreal river2019In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 29, no 8, article id e01977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-change projections suggest large changes in riverine flow regime, which will likely alter riparian communities. In northern Europe, forecasts propose lower annual spring flood peaks and higher winter flows, resulting in narrower riparian zones. To estimate the impact of climate change on habitat extent of riparian plants, we developed a framework estimating the sensitivity and exposure of individual species to streamflow change, and surveyed five reaches along the free-flowing Vindel River in northern Sweden. We modeled the hydrologic niche of riparian plant species based on the probability of occurrence along gradients of flood frequency and duration and used predicted future water-level fluctuations (based on climate models and IPCC emission scenarios) to calculate changes in flow-related habitat availability of individual species. Despite projected increases in runoff, we predict most species to decrease in riparian elevational extent by on average 12-29% until the end of the century, depending on scenario. Species growing in the upper, spring-flood-controlled part of the riparian zone will likely lose most habitat, with the largest reductions in species with narrow ranges of inundation duration tolerance (decreases of up to 54%). In contrast, the elevational extent of most amphibious species is predicted to increase, but conditions creating isoetid vegetation will become rarer or disappear: isoetid vegetation is presently found in areas where ice formed in the fall settles on the riverbank during the winter as water levels subside. Higher winter flows will make these conditions rare. We argue that our framework is useful to project the effects of hydrologic change caused by climate change as well as other stressors such as flow regulation also in other regions. With few rivers remaining unaffected by dams and other human stressors, these results call for monitoring to detect species declines. Management to alleviate species losses might include mitigation of habitat degradation from land-use activities, more environmentally friendly flow schemes, and more intensive management options such as mowing riparian meadows no longer regularly maintained by recurrent floods.

  • 274.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Thermal formation and chlorination of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to an increased understanding of the formation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in combustion processes. Although emissions to air from waste incineration facilities have been greatly reduced by the use of efficient air pollution control measures, the resulting residues (ashes and filters) are highly toxic and are classified as hazardous waste. The main objective of the work underlying this thesis was to elucidate the formation and chlorination pathways of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in waste combustion flue gases in the temperature range 640-200°C in a representative, well-controlled laboratory-scale reactor using artificial municipal solid waste. This could contribute to the reduction of harmful emissions to air and also reduce the toxicity of waste incineration residues, thus reducing or even eliminating the need for costly and potentially hazardous after-treatment.

    A comparison of four different quenching profiles showed that the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) was rapid and mainly occurred in the 640-400°C temperature region, with high dependency on sufficient residence time within a specific temperature region. Prolonged residence time at high temperatures (450/460°C) reduced the PCDD yields, even at lower temperatures along the post-combustion zone. PCDD, PCDF and PCN (polychlorinated naphthalene) isomer distribution patterns indicated contributions from chlorophenol condensation as well as chlorination reactions for all three classes of compounds. The formation of PCDDs was largely influenced by chlorophenol condensation and to some extent by chlorination reactions. For the PCDFs, chlorine substitution adjacent to the oxygen bridges was unfavoured, as demonstrated by the notably lower abundance of 1,9-substituted congeners. This was supported by bidirectional orthogonal partial least squares (O2PLS) modelling. The variable with the greatest influence on the distribution of PCDD congeners was the relative free energy (RΔGf). The O2PLS models displayed distinct clusters, dividing most of the homologues into two or three sub-groups of congeners which seemed to correspond to the probability of origination from chlorophenol condensation.

    The effects of injection of aromatic structures into the flue gas differed for each class of compounds. Injection of naphthalene increased the formation of monochlorinated naphthalene but the remaining homologues appeared to be unaffected. This was probably due to insufficient residence time at temperatures necessary for further chlorination. Injected dibenzo-p-dioxin was decomposed, chlorinated and re-condensated into PCDDs and PCDFs, whereas injection of dibenzofuran and fluorene reduced the PCDD levels in the flue gas.

  • 275.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Formation and chlorination of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the post-combustion zone during MSW combustion2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1138-1144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non- to octa-chlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were analyzed in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at three different temperatures (450 °C, 300 °C and 200 °C, respectively) in the post-combustion zone during waste combustion experiments using a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor. PCN homologue profiles in all samples were dominated by the lower chlorinated homologues (mono- to triCN), with successive reductions in abundance with each additional degree of chlorination. The isomer distribution patterns reflected ortho-directionality behavior of the first chlorine substituent, and the β-positions, i.e. the 2,3,6,7-substitution sites, seemed to be favored for chlorination. Injection of naphthalene into the post-combustion zone resulted in increased PCN levels at 200 °C, demonstrating the occurrence of chlorination reactions in the post-combustion zone. However, the increases were restricted to the least-chlorinated homologue (monoCN), probably because there was insufficient residence time for further chlorination. In addition, an episode of poor combustion (manifested by high CO levels) was accompanied by extensive formation of 1,8-diCN, 1,2,3- and 1,2,8-triCN; congeners with substitution patterns that are not thermodynamically favorable. These are believed to be products of PAH breakdown reactions and/or chlorophenol condensation. Overall, PCN formation is likely to occur via more than one pathway, including chlorination of naphthalene that is already present, de novo synthesis from PAHs and, possibly, chlorophenol condensation.

  • 276. Jantunen, Liisa M
    et al.
    Wong, Fiona
    Gawor, Anya
    Kylin, Henrik
    Helm, Paul A
    Stern, Gary A
    Strachan, William M J
    Burniston, Deborah A
    Bidleman, Terry F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment Canada, Egbert Ontario, Canada.
    20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 23, p. 13844-13852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air–water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water–air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air–surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  • 277.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Policy-induced expansion of solar and wind power capacity: economic growth and employment in EU countries2017In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 197-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the intensifying debates on whether governments should promote particular renewable energy technologies, the main objective of this study is to investigate the long-and short-run effects of policy-induced expansion of renewable solar and wind technologies on economic growth and employment in 15 European Union (EU) member states during 1990-2013 by using panel-data time-series econometric techniques. Instead of relying on renewable energy consumption or generation as commonly done in the literature, we focus on the capacity for solar and wind power generation, which is largely a consequence of the EU's renewable energy policies. In summary, we find that, to date, renewable energy policy-induced wind and solar power capacity promotes growth and/or employment in the short run, but these capacity increases do not stimulate economic growth in the long run in the EU-15 region. In fact, our results tend to support the opposite relationship: increases in wind and solar power capacity are associated with negative economic growth, at least at the total economy level.

  • 278. Jaspers, Veerle L. B.
    et al.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Deleu, Pieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Eens, Marcel
    Concentrations in bird feathers reflect regional contamination with organic pollutants2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 4, p. 1447-1451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feathers have recently been shown to be potentially useful non-destructive biomonitoring tools for organic pollutants. However, the suitability of feathers to monitor regional variations in contamination has not been investigated until now. Here concentrations of organic pollutants were compared in feathers of common magpies (/Pica pica/) between urban and rural areas in Flanders, Belgium. The results showed that concentrations of /p,p/'/-/dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were significantly higher in the rural areas (rural: 12-140 ng/g feather, urban: 1.1-7.2 ng/g feather), while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were significantly more available in an urban environment (sum PCBs - rural: 2.9-22 ng/g feather, urban: 41-240 ng/g feather). This pattern agrees with previous studies using other tissues than feathers as a biomonitoring tool. In addition, differences in PCBs and PBDEs profiles were found with lower halogenated congeners being more prominent in the urban areas in comparison to the rural areas. In summary, feathers seem to reflect regional variations in contamination, which strengthens their usefulness as a non-destructive biomonitor for organic pollutants.

  • 279. Jiang, Tao
    et al.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wang, Dingyong
    Yan, Haiyu
    Green, Nelson W.
    Influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics on dissolved mercury (Hg) species composition in sediment porewater of lakes from southwest China2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 146, p. 146-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in porewater of lake sediments is intricate and decisive for fate of pollutants including mercury (Hg). While there are many reports on the relationship between dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in aquatic systems, there are few in which DOM compositional properties, that may better explain the fate of Hg, have been the focus. In this study, porewaters from sediments of three lakes, Caihai Lake (CH), Hongfeng Lake (HF) and Wujiangdu Lake (WJD), all located in southwest China, were selected to test the hypothesis that DOM optical properties control the fate of Hg in aquatic ecosystems. Porewater DOM was extracted and characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. A two end-member (autochthonous and allochthonous DOM) mixing model was used to unveil the origin of DOM in porewaters of the three lakes. Our results show a higher input of terrestrial DOM in the pristine lake CH, as compared to lakes HF and WJD lakes, which were both influenced by urban environments and enriched in autochthonous DOM. While the relationships between the concentrations of DOC and the different chemical forms of Hg forms were quite inconsistent, we found important links between specific DOM components and the fate of Hg in the three lakes. In particular, our results suggest that allochthonous, terrestrial DOM inhibits Hg(II) availability for Hg methylating micro-organisms. In contrast, autochthonous DOM seems to have been stimulated MeHg formation, likely by enhancing the activity of microbial communities. Indeed, DOM biodegradation experiments revealed that differences in the microbial activity could explain the variation in the concentration of MeHg. While relationships between concentrations of DOC and Hg vary among different sites and provide little information about Hg cycling, we conclude that the transport and transformation of Hg (e.g. the methylation process) are more strongly linked to DOM chemical composition and reactivity.

  • 280. Johansson, Christer
    et al.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Schantz, Peter
    Wahlgren, Lina
    Almström, Peter
    Markstedt, Anders
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Impacts on air pollution and health by changing commuting from car to bicycle2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 584-585, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study is based on individual data on people's home and work addresses, as well as their age, sex and physical capacity, in order to establish realistic bicycle-travel distances. A transport model is used to single out data on commuting preferences in the County Stockholm. Our analysis shows there is a very large potential for reducing emissions and exposure if all car drivers living within a distance corresponding to a maximum of a 30 min bicycle ride to work would change to commuting by bicycle. It would result in > 111,000 new cyclists, corresponding to an increase of 209% compared to the current situation.

    Mean population exposure would be reduced by about 7% for both NOx and black carbon (BC) in the most densely populated area of the inner city of Stockholm. Applying a relative risk for NOx of 8% decrease in all-cause mortality associated with a 10 μg m− 3decrease in NOx, this corresponds to > 449 (95% CI: 340–558) years of life saved annually for the Stockholm county area with 2.1 million inhabitants. This is more than double the effect of the reduced mortality estimated for the introduction of congestion charge in Stockholm in 2006. Using NO2 or BC as indicator of health impacts, we obtain 395 (95% CI: 172–617) and 185 (95% CI: 158–209) years of life saved for the population, respectively. The calculated exposure of BC and its corresponding impacts on mortality are likely underestimated. With this in mind the estimates using NOx, NO2 and BC show quite similar health impacts considering the 95% confidence intervals.

  • 281.
    Johansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Finngruvan - Uppföljning av vattenkvalitet, analys avavrinning och recipienter i området efter gruvdrift2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis raises the problem with acid mine drainage around the closed mine Finngruvan.The purpose of the investigation was to compare metal content in surface water in the areaand its catchments between year 2010 and 2003, also to make calculation of specific runoffand metal load, furthermore determine the recipients in the area. Surface water samplingwhere preformed at the same place as 2003 and also at a few other places of interest. Adigital elevation file were used in GIS to calculate the area of the watersheds in the region,observations in the field where also made. The collected data were used to make comparisons,calculations and conclusions. The result showed that the surface water 2010 had somewhatlower metal concentrations. The metal load calculation shows that most metals leak in thesouthern basin, but significant leakage also occurs in the western basin. The receptors in theregion are Hånsjön, Abbortjärn and Garphytteån. Conclusion to confirm the results in thisinvestigation, continuous surface water sampling is needed.

  • 282.
    Johansson Jänkänpää, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Mishra, Yogesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Schröder, Wolfgang P
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Metabolic profiling reveals metabolic shifts in Arabidopsis plants grown under different light conditions2012In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 1824-1836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants have tremendous capacity to adjust their morphology, physiology and metabolism in response to changes in growing conditions. Thus, analysis solely of plants grown under constant conditions may give partial or misleading indications of their responses to the fluctuating natural conditions in which they evolved. To obtain data on growth-condition dependent differences in metabolite levels we compared leaf metabolite profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana growing under three constant laboratory light conditions: 30 (LL), 300 (NL) and 600 (HL) µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) . We also shifted plants to the field and followed their metabolite composition for three days. Numerous compounds showed light-intensity dependent accumulation, including: many sugars and sugar derivatives (fructose, sucrose, glucose, galactose and raffinose); tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and amino acids (ca. 30% of which were more abundant under HL and 60% under LL). However, the patterns differed after shifting NL plants to field conditions. Levels of most identified metabolites (mainly amino acids, sugars and TCA cycle intermediates) rose after 2 h and peaked after 73 h, indicative of a "biphasic response" and "circadian" effects. The results provide new insight into metabolomic level mechanisms of plant acclimation, and highlight the role of known protectants under natural conditions.

  • 283. Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Ericsson, Göran
    Factors governing human fear of wolves: moderating effects of geographical location and standpoint on protected nature2016In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 749-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses psychological antecedents of feelings of fear of wolves in a proportional sample of the Swedish population (national sample, n = 545) and in a sample of people in counties with wolf presence (regional sample, n = 1,892). Structural equation modelling of survey data suggests a dual pathway to self-reported fear. One path encompasses the appraisal of the environmental context operationalised as a potential wolf encounter. The second path concerns the appraisal of the social context assessed as social trust in managing authorities. The relative importance of the paths differs between the national and the regional sample, and between people in the administrative centre of the region and the regional periphery. We show that the public's fear of wolves should be addressed both at an individual level, focusing on situations with potential encounters, and at a collective level, by strengthening the trust between the public and authorities, and regional variation should be considered.

  • 284.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Deleu, Pieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persisting effects of river regulation on emergent aquatic insects and terrestrial invertebrates in upland forests2013In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 537-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River regulation can alter the structural complexity and natural dynamics of river ecosystems substantially with negative consequences for aquatic insects. However, there have been few studies of regulation effects on the export of emergent insects into terrestrial ecosystems. In northern Scandinavia, we compared emerged aquatic insect and terrestrial invertebrate biomass between four strongly regulated and four free-flowing rivers using fortnightly measurements at three upland-forest blocks in each over one summer. The biomass of emerged aquatic insects was significantly lower along regulated rivers than free-flowing rivers. Biomass in Linyphiidae, Opiliones, Staphylinidae, total Coleoptera, Formicidae and total terrestrial invertebrates was also lower along regulated rivers. Aquatic insect biomass did not explain the entire regulation effect on terrestrial invertebrates but did explain significant variations among Linyphiidae, total Coleoptera, Formicidae and total terrestrial biomass. Variations in Formicidae also explained significant variance among several terrestrial taxa, suggesting some keystone role in this group. Overall, our results suggest that river regulation affects upland-forest invertebrate communities, with at least some of these effects arising from links between aquatic emergence and terrestrial predators. The data highlight the need to consider areas beyond the riparian zone when assessing the effects of river regulation. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 285.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Strasevicius, Darius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Influences of river regulation and environmental variables on upland bird assemblages in northern Sweden2012In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 945-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most large rivers in Sweden are regulated to produce hydropower. This transformation from free-flowing rivers to chains of elongate run-of-river impoundments has been shown to have consequences for aquatic, riparian and adjacent upland environments, and for the emergence patterns of aquatic insects that are important for terrestrial consumers. In this study, we investigated bird assemblages in upland-forest environments along seven large rivers (three heavily impounded and four free flowing) in northern Sweden. Bird densities were assessed by point counts in the breeding and post-breeding seasons. While we observed no significant differences in bird species richness between regulated and free-flowing rivers, cumulative densities of two feeding groups of birds (those feeding on seeds and/or large insects and those feeding on small insects) were higher along free-flowing rivers than along regulated rivers in the breeding season, consistent with known differences in aquatic-insect emergence. Further, ordination analyses showed seasonal shifts in bird assemblage structure, and that these shifts differed between regulated and free-flowing rivers and between the two feeding groups. However, the variables explaining the most variance (11-28 %) in bird assemblage structure were related to a gradient of agricultural-to-forest land use. River regulation contributed to the model in the post-breeding season, but was of relatively low importance. Nevertheless, the observed contrasting seasonal shifts in upland-forest bird assemblage structure between regulated and free-flowing rivers suggest that regulation-induced modifications of aquatic-insect emergence and subsequent changes in prey availability to the birds are also important considerations.

  • 286.
    Jonsson, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    The influence of soil and contaminant properties on the efficiency of physical and chemical soil remediation methods2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     A vast number of sites that have been contaminated by industrial activities have been identified worldwide. Many such sites now pose serious risks to humans and the environment. Given the large number of contaminated sites there is a great need for efficient, cost-effective  remediation methods. Extensive research has therefore been focused on the development of such methods. However, the remediation of old industrial sites is challenging, for several reasons.

    One major  problem is that organic contaminants become increasingly strongly sequestered as they persist in the soil matrix for a long period of time. This process is often referred to as ‘aging’, and leads to decreasing availability of the contaminants, which also affects the remediation efficiency. In the work underlying this thesis, the influence of soil and contaminant properties on the efficiency of various physical and chemical soil remediation methods was investigated. The investigated contaminants were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

    Briefly, the results show that as the size of soil particles decreases the contaminants become more strongly sorbed to the soil’s matrix, probably due to the accompanying increases in specific surface area. This affected the efficiency of the removal of organic pollutants by both a process based on solvent washing and processes based on chemical oxidation. The sorption strength is also affected by the hydrophobicity of the contaminants. However, for a number of the investigated PAHs their chemical reactivity was found to be of greater importance for the degradation efficiency. Further, the organic content of a soil is often regarded as the most important soil parameter for adsorption of hydrophobic compounds. In these studies the effect of this parameter was found to be particularly pronounced for the oxidation of low molecular weight PAHs, but larger PAHs were strongly adsorbed even at low levels of organic matter. However, for these PAHs the degradation efficiency was positively correlated to the amount of degraded organic matter, probably due to the organic matter being oxidized to smaller and less hydrophobic forms. The amount of organic matter in the soil had little effect on the removal efficiency obtained by the solvent-washing process. However, it had strong influence on the performance of a subsequent, granular activated carbon-based post-treatment of the washing liquid.

    In conclusion, the results in this thesis show that remediation of contaminated soils is a complex process, the efficiency of which will be affected by the soil matrix as well as the properties of the contaminants present at the site. However, by acquiring thorough knowledge of the parameters affecting the treatability of a soil it is possible to select appropriate remediation methods, and optimize them in terms of both remediation efficiency and costs for site- and contaminant-specific applications.

  • 287. Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Lundin, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Persistent Organic Pollutants in Streamwater: Influence of Hydrological Conditions and Landscape Type2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 14, p. 7416-7424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in streamwater were measured in a remote catchment in northern Sweden and downstream to the Baltic Sea. Sampling took place at seven sites during two years and under different hydrological conditions: during the snow-free, snow-covered, and spring-flood seasons. Concentrations varied substantially between seasons and were up to 20 times higher during the spring flood compared to the preceding snow-covered period. The increase in concentrations with runoff was due to higher levels of particle-associated contaminants, while the dissolved concentrations remained stable. Particulate-contaminant concentrations were positively correlated primarily to suspended particulate matter (SPM) at sites in areas with a high land-cover fraction of sorted sediment. When upstream sampling locations were compared, a mire-dominated stream had higher concentrations and a lower retention of atmospherically deposited contaminants than a forest stream of the same catchment size. Contaminant concentrations (normalized to volume) did not increase consistently downstream despite the presence of several point sources. However, when normalized to the amount of SPM, concentrations were on average >20 times higher at the outlet in the Baltic Sea compared to the outlet from the remote catchment without point sources.

  • 288.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Schaanning, Morten
    NIVA, Norway.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Olofsson, Ida
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eek, Espen
    NGI, Norway.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Capping efficiency of various carbonaceous and mineral materials for in situ remediation of marine sediments contaminated with PCDD/Fs, OCS and HCBManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of various thin-layer capping materials in reducing the sediment-to-water flux and benthic organism bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap layer thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials were tested using a three-factor experimental design. The capping materials consisted of a passive carrier (coarse or fine limestone material, or a marine clay sediment), and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants and decrease their bioavailability. Macrofauna was added to the boxes to get a semi-natural bioturbation. The sediment-to-water flux was measured using passive (SPMD) samplers, and the bioaccumulation by the surface-dwelling gastropod Hinia reticulata and the deep-burrowing polychaetes Nereis spp. was determined. Results showed substantial decreases in both flux and bioaccumulation as a result of thin-layer capping. The thickness of the capping layer and the choice of active material were important factors, while the use of different types of passive materials was not statistically significant for any of the observed endpoints. Flux and bioaccumulation decreased with increased cap thickness, and could be further decreased with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a ~90% reduction of the flux and bioaccumulation, compared to uncapped control sediment, could be achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC (g C/g ww clay). The reduction was generally larger in the surface-dwelling H. reticulata than in Nereis spp., and the magnitude of the reduction was frequently similar between Nereis spp. and sediment-to-water fluxes. The latter was interpreted to indicate a link between Nereis spp. bioirrigation and sediment-to-water fluxes. Furthermore, the reduction in sediment-to-water flux was dependent on the hydrophobicity of the congeners, with less hydrophobic congeners achieving a larger reduction than more hydrophobic congeners.      

  • 289. Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Hörnberg, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Östlund, Lars
    Long-term human impact and vegetation changes in a boreal forest reserve: implications for the use of protected areas as ecological references2009In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1017-1036Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern boreal forest reserves that display no signs of modern forest exploitation are often regarded as pristine and are frequently used as ecological reference areas for conservation and restoration. However, the long-term effects of human utilization of such forests are rarely investigated. Therefore, using both paleoecological and archaeological methods, we analyzed temporal and spatial gradients of long-term human impact in a large old-growth forest reserve in the far north of Sweden, comparing vegetational changes during the last millennium at three sites with different land use histories. Large parts of the forest displayed no visible signs of past human land use, and in an area with no recognized history of human land use the vegetation composition appears to have been relatively stable throughout the studied period. However, at two locations effects of previous land use could be distinguished extending at least four centuries back in time. Long-term, but low-intensity, human land use, including cultivation, reindeer herding and tree cutting, has clearly generated an open forest structure with altered species composition in the field layer at settlement sites and in the surrounding forest. Our analysis shows that past human land use created a persistent legacy that is still visible in the present forest ecosystem. This study highlights the necessity for ecologists to incorporate a historical approach to discern underlying factors that have caused vegetational changes, including past human activity. It also indicates that the intensity and spatial distribution of human land use within the landscape matrices of any forests should be assessed before using them as ecological references. The nomenclature of vascular plants follows Krok and Almquist (Svensk flora. Fanerogamer och ormbunksvaxter, 2001).

  • 290.
    Joshi, Santosh R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vielle, Marc
    Babonneau, Frédéric
    Edwards, Neil R.
    Holden, Philip B.
    Physical and Economic Consequences of Sea-Level Rise: A Coupled GIS and CGE Analysis Under Uncertainties2016In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 813-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a modelling framework that links GEMINI-E3, a multi-regional, multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model with a cost-benefit analysis approach at local level using geographical information system tools to assess the physical and economic consequences of sea-level rise (SLR) in the twenty first century. A set of future scenarios is developed spanning the uncertainties related to global warming, the parameters of semi-empirical SLR estimates, and coastal developments (cropland, urban areas and population). The importance of incorporating uncertainties regarding coastal development is highlighted. The simulation results suggest that the potential development of future coastal areas is a greater source of uncertainty than the parameters of SLR itself in terms of the economic consequences of SLR. At global level, the economic impact of SLR could be significant when loss of productive land along with loss of capital and forced displacement of populations are considered. Furthermore, highly urbanised and densely populated coastal areas of South East Asia, Australia and New Zealand are likely to suffer significantly if no protective measures are taken. Hence, it is suggested that coastal areas needs to be protected to ameliorate the overall welfare cost across various regions.

  • 291.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westerhoff, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Understanding the framings of climate change adaptation across multiple scales of governance in Europe2011In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 445-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change adaptation strategies are emerging across Europe as societies attempt to adapt to the challenges of a changing environment. Social constructivist analyses of environmental policy-especially those emphasising 'framing' - can be very useful in teasing out the framings of policy problems such as adaptation. They can also shed light on the underlying assumptions that steer and guide public and environmental policy. Using the theoretical concept of framing to analyse adaptation policies across different scales of governance in four European countries - Sweden, Finland, the United Kingdom and Italy-and drawing on policy documents from those countries, as well as semi-structured interviews with practitioners, the development of adaptation policy processes and especially how adaptation has been defined within these processes are examined. Four major framings of adaptation are identified: 'planning', 'economic risk', 'vulnerability' and 'existing measures'. These frames affect how adaptation is conceptualised, policy problems defined and, ultimately how policy develops.

  • 292.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westerhoff, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Challenges of adaptation to climate change across multiple scales: a case study of network governance in two European countries2011In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As adaptation is increasingly recognised as an important component in responding to climate change, adaptation measures are slowly emerging at different scales of governance across Europe and elsewhere in the industrialised North. The relative novelty of adaptation measures in this context opens up an opportunity to examine the ways in which more well-established systems of governance are able to address concerns of a changing climate and its expected effects.

    This paper examines the modes of climate change adaptation governance systems, by presenting two empirical multi-scale case studies in Finland and Italy. The two countries represent different stages of planned adaptation measures: while Finland began work on adaptation relatively early and elected for a mainstreaming approach, Italy has yet to form concrete national adaptation actions. In both cases, however, adaptation actions have autonomously emerged at lower scales of governance, railing questions as to the role and importance of vertical integration.

    This study concludes that the governance of adaptation is mainly taking place through both formal institutions and networks across actors at various scales. Though such networks present actors at sub-national scales the resources and opportunity to engage in planned adaptation, the ability of a wider set of actors to plan adaptation remains somewhat limited by a lack of coordination at the national scale. As a result, there exists an opportunity for increased interaction and participation of actors across scales.

  • 293.
    Jönsson, Annie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hur upplever kunder informationom miljöteknisk markundersökning?: En undersökning kring befintlig information samt en ny informationsfilm2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to investigate how people who order a soil analysis perceive the information about that process. According to the law the customers need to have information about the soil analysis if they order it. A new informational film about soil analysis was compared to the existing data to see how the customer perceives different types of information. Two groups took part in the survey, one group watched the informational film, and the second group only had access to the existing data. The results of the investigation show that the majority of the respondents in the second group think that there is too little information about soil analysis and that it is hard to find. The first group think that after watching the movie, they got all the necessary information about the soil analysis in an accessible way. However, most survey respondents want the information in text form. Those who saw the informational movie think they have a better understanding of how and why the soil analysis is done, compared to those who only had access to the existing information. Most survey respondents want to get information from the municipality / county government, but receive the most of it from consultant agencies.

  • 294.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Conservation implications of parasite co-reintroduction2015In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 602-604Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ecological restoration in the Convention on Biological Diversity targets2013In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 2977-2982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological restoration has been incorporated into several Multilateral Environmental Agreements, including the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Target 15 of the Aichi Targets for 2020 sets a numerical goal of restoration of 15 percent of degraded ecosystems; however, the CBD has not established a clear statement defining restoration within this context. Without such a definition, the CBD will be unable to measure progress against the goal. The adopted definition of ecological restoration would have to allow for measurement against the numerical target, or the target should be modified to match the chosen definition.

  • 296.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rethinking rewilding2015In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 65, p. 482-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term 'rewilding' sounds as if it should have a straightforward meaning 'to make wild again'. But in truth the term has a complex history and a host of meanings have been ascribed to it. Rewilding as a specific scientific term has its beginnings as a reference to the Wildlands Project, which was founded in 1991 and aimed to create North American core wilderness areas without human activity that would be connected by corridors. Words, however, do not stand still they change over time and take on new meanings, while sometimes simultaneously retaining the older sense. Employing Foucault's idea of historical genealogy, this article examines how the term rewilding was historically adopted and modified in ecological scientific discourse over the last two decades. This investigation probes what and, by extension, when and where, rewilding refers to as it has moved into various geographies across the globe. It then examines how the term has moved outside of science and been adopted by environmental activists as a plastic word. Taken as a whole, rewilding discourse seeks to erase human history and involvement with the land and flora and fauna. Such an attempted split between nature and culture may prove unproductive and even harmful. A more inclusive rewilding is a preferable strategy.

  • 297.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rigs-to-reefs is more than rigs and reefs2012In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 178-179Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    What's History Got to Do with It? A Response to Seddon's Definition of Reintroduction2011In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 705-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent article in Restoration Ecology by Philip Seddon aims at unraveling the definitions of various types of species translocations—from reintroductions to assisted colonization—and points out the slippery slope of misused words. I argue here that defining reintroduction is not as straightforward as Seddon presents it. Commonly used definitions of what constitutes a reintroduction all include some reference to “historical” conditions, but what exactly that encompasses is left open. I examine two parts of the reintroduction confusion: first, how the guidance documents and laws define reintroduction and second, how these definitions might be interpreted when reintroductions are presented in public forums. Rather than moving away from reintroductions toward interventions of other names, I encourage scientists to use a broad definition of reintroduction presented by the IUCN to open up reintroduction as a viable label for bringing a species back to an area regardless of when it was previously there or why it became extinct.

  • 299.
    Jørgensen, Finn Arne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Jørgensen, DollyUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.Pritchard, Sara BCornell University.
    New Natures: Joining Environmental History with Science and Technology Studies2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New Natures broadens the dialogue between the disciplines of science and technology studies (STS) and environmental history in hopes of deepening and even transforming understandings of human-nature interactions. The volume presents historical studies that engage with key STS theories, offering models for how these theories can help crystallize central lessons from empirical histories, facilitate comparative analysis, and provide a language for complicated historical phenomena. Overall, the collection exemplifies the fruitfulness of cross-disciplinary thinking.

  • 300.
    Kaarlejärvi, Elina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Concurrent biotic interactions influence plant performance at their altitudinal distribution margins2014In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 123, no 8, p. 943-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that biotic interactions can shape species’ distributions, but empirical data on multiple biotic interactions are scarce. Therefore, we examined effects of plant-plant and plant-herbivore interactions on plant survival, growth and reproduction at different altitudes. For these purposes we conducted a factorial neighbor removal and large herbivore exclusion experiment with six transplant species (three tall forbs with their main distribution at low altitudes and three small forbs with their main distribution at high altitudes) on Låktačohkka Mountain, northern Sweden, replicated at two altitudes (ca. 600 and 900 m a.s.l.) and consequently a 2.1 °C difference in summer air temperatures. Overall transplant survival was 93%. Two out of three tall forbs grew better at low than at high altitudes, while no significant differences in growth between altitudes were found for any of the three small forbs. Since the main difference in abiotic conditions between the altitudes was most likely in temperature (as the sites were topographically and edaphically matched as closely as possible), this result indicates that climatic warming could induce upward migration of tall low-altitude forbs. Negative plant-plant interactions prevailed at both altitudes, and we found indications that competition may set the lower altitudinal limits of some small tundra forbs. Thus, increased competition in response to climate warming may potentially shift the lower margins of high-altitude forbs’ distributions upward. Large mammalian grazers reduced the growth of tall forbs and enhanced the flowering of small forbs, and grazers could thus at least partly counteract the anticipated warming-induced distribution shifts.

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