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  • 251.
    Toots, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Walking aids moderate exercise effects on gait speed in people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial2017In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of exercise on gait speed, when tested using walking aids and without, and whether effects differed according to amount of support in the test.

    DESIGN: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    SETTING: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study was set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty-one women and 45 men (mean age 85 years) with dementia, of whom 145 (78%) habitually used walking aids.

    INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to the high-intensity functional exercise program or a seated attention control activity.

    MEASUREMENTS: Blinded assessors measured 4-m usual gait speed with walking aids if any gait speed (GS), and without walking aids and with minimum amount of support, at baseline, 4 months (on intervention completion), and 7 months.

    RESULTS: Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect in either gait speed test at 4 or 7 months. In interaction analyses exercise effects differed significantly between participants who walked unsupported compared with when walking aids or minimum support was used. Positive between-group exercise effects on gait speed (m/s) were found in subgroups that walked unsupported at 4 and 7 months (GS: 0.07, P = .009 and 0.13, P < .001; and GS test without walking aids: 0.05, P = .011 and 0.07, P = .029, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: In people with dementia living in nursing homes exercise had positive effects on gait when tested unsupported compared with when walking aids or minimum support was used. The study suggests that the use of walking aids in gait speed tests may conceal exercise effects.

  • 252.
    Toots, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Usual gait speed independently predicts mortality in very old people: a population-based study2013In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 529.e1-529.e6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In older people, usual gait speed has been shown to independently predict mortality; however, less is known about whether usual gait speed is as informative in very old populations, in which prevalence of multimorbidity and disability is high. The aim of this study was to investigate if usual gait speed can independently predict all-cause mortality in very old people, and whether the prediction is influenced by dementia disorder, dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), or use of walking aids in the gait speed test.

    Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Population-based study in northern Sweden and Finland (the Umea 85+/GERDA Study).

    Participants: A total of 772 participants with a mean age of 89.6 years, 70% women, 33% with dementia disorders, 54% with ADL dependency, and 39% living in residential care facilities.

    Measurements: Usual gait speed assessed over 2.4 meters and mortality followed-up for 5 years. Results: The mean +/- SD gait speed was 0.52 +/- 0.21 m/s for the 620 (80%) participants able to complete the gait speed test. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders were performed. Compared with the fastest gait speed group (>= 0.64 m/s), the hazard ratio for mortality was for the following groups: unable = 2.27 (P < .001), <= 0.36 m/s = 1.97 (P = .001), 0.37 to 0.49 m/s = 1.99 (P < .001), 0.50 to 0.63 m/s = 1.11 (P = .604). No interaction effects were found between gait speed and age, sex, dementia disorder, dependency in ADLs, or use of walking aids.

    Conclusion: Among people aged 85 or older, including people dependent in ADLs and with dementia disorders, usual gait speed was an independent predictor of 5-year all-cause mortality. Inability to complete the gait test or gait speeds slower than 0.5 m/s appears to be associated with higher mortality risk. Gait speed might be a useful clinical indicator of health status among very old people.

  • 253.
    Toots, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Taylor, M.
    Lord, S.
    Close, J.
    The relationship between cognitive domain function and gait speed in community-dwelling older people with cognitive impairment2019In: Australasian Journal on Ageing, ISSN 1440-6381, E-ISSN 1741-6612, Vol. 38, p. 29-29Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Toots, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Wiklund, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Nordin, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    The Effects of Exercise on Falls in Older People With Dementia Living in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Controlled Trial2019In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 835-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate exercise effects on falls in people with dementia living in nursing homes, and whether effects were dependent on sex, dementia type, or improvement in balance. A further aim was to describe the occurrence of fall-related injuries.

    DESIGN: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise study was set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden and included 141 women and 45 men, a mean age of 85 years, and with a mean Mini-Mental State Examination score of 15.

    INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to the high-intensity functional exercise program or a seated attention control activity; each conducted 2-3 times per week for 4 months.

    MEASURES: Falls and fall-related injuries were followed for 12 months (after intervention completion) by blinded review of medical records. Injuries were classified according to severity.

    RESULTS: During follow-up, 118(67%) of the participants fell 473 times in total. At the interim 6-month follow-up, the incidence rate was 2.7 and 2.8 falls per person-year in exercise and control group, respectively, and at 12-month follow-up 3.0 and 3.2 falls per person-year, respectively. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated no difference in fall rate between groups at 6 or 12 months (incidence rate ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.7, P = .838 and incidence rate ratio 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.6, P = .782, respectively). No differences in exercise effects were found according to sex, dementia type, or improvement in balance. Participants in the exercise group were less likely to sustain moderate/serious fall-related injuries at 12-month follow-up (odds ratio 0.31, 95% CI 0.10-0.94, P = .039).

    CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: In older people with dementia living in nursing homes, a high-intensity functional exercise program alone did not prevent falls when compared with an attention control group. In high-risk populations, in which multimorbidity and polypharmacy are common, a multifactorial fall-prevention approach may be required. Encouraging effects on fall-related injuries were observed, which merits future investigations.

  • 255.
    Toss, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Wiklund, Peder
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Body composition and mortality risk in later life2012In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 677-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: body mass index is used widely to define overweight and obesity. Both high and low body mass indices are associated with increased mortality risk during middle age, but the relationship is less clear in later life. Thus, studies on the relationships between other aspects of body composition and mortality among older subjects are needed.

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different aspects of body composition and mortality in older people.

    METHODS: the study population comprised 921 participants aged ≥65 years who underwent dual-energy X-ray (DXA) absorptiometric examination at the Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University. The main reason for admission was clinical suspicion of osteoporosis. Total, abdominal and gynoid fat masses and lean body mass were measured by DXA absorptiometry at baseline, and the cohort was followed (mean duration, 9.2 years) for mortality events.

    RESULTS: during follow-up, 397 participants died. Lean mass was associated negatively with mortality in men and women (P < 0.001). Total fat mass showed a U-shaped association with mortality in men (P < 0.01) and a negative association in women (P < 0.01). A higher ratio of abdominal to gynoid fat mass increased mortality risk in women (P = 0.04), but not in men (P = 0.91).

    CONCLUSIONS: lean mass is associated strongly with survival in older subjects. Greater fat mass is protective in older women, whereas very low or very high fat mass increases the risk of death in men. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying these associations.

  • 256. Van Minh, Hoang
    et al.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Patterns of subjective quality of life among older adults in rural Vietnam and Indonesia.2012In: Geriatrics & Gerontology International, ISSN 1444-1586, E-ISSN 1447-0594, Vol. 12, p. 397-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  This paper aims to assess the subjective quality of life (SQOL) and its correlates among older adults in rural communities of Vietnam and Indonesia.

    Methods:  The paper uses the data from the INDEPTH/WHO Study on global aging and adult health (SAGE). The study was carried out in the FilaBavi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in Vietnam and in Purworejo HDSS in Indonesia. All people aged 50 years and over who lived in these two HDSS areas were surveyed. Face-to-face household interviews were carried out by trained surveyors using the standardized summary version of the INDEPTH/WHO SAGE questionnaire. The SQOL was assessed by asking the respondents “How would you rate your overall quality of life?” The response set was a five-point scale where 1 = Very good, 2 = Good, 3 = Moderate, 4 = Bad, 5 = Very bad.

    Results:  In both countries, the SQOL was reported to be higher among (i) men; (ii) people with higher education; (iii) people who were in a marital partnership; (iv) people who lived with other family members; and (v) those with higher economic status, compared with that in those of other category(ies) of the same characteristic. In Vietnam, people who belonged to the second to fifth economic quintiles and had more than 6 years of education were sevenfold more likely to report very good/good quality of life compared with those who belonged to the first economic quintile (poorest) and had no formal education. The corresponding figure was 2.7 for Indonesia.

    Conclusions:  The patterns of sociodemographic determinants of SQOL show that inequality in quality of life exists among older adults in the two study settings.

  • 257. van Rheenen, Wouter
    et al.
    Diekstra, Frank P
    van Doormaal, Perry TC
    Seelen, Meinie
    Kenna, Kevin
    McLaughlin, Russell
    Shatunov, Aleksey
    Czell, David
    van Es, Michael A
    van Vught, Paul WJ
    van Damme, Philip
    Smith, Bradley N
    Waibel, Stefan
    Schelhaas, H Jurgen
    van der Kooi, Anneke J
    de Visser, Marianne
    Weber, Markus
    Robberecht, Wim
    Hardiman, Orla
    Shawi, Pamela J
    Shaw, Christopher E
    Morrison, Karen E
    Al-Chalabi, Ammar
    Andersen, Peter M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Ludolph, Albert C
    Veldink, Jan H
    van den Berg, Leonard H
    H63D polymorphism in HFE is not associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis2013In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1517.e5-1517.e7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The H63D polymorphism in HFE has frequently been associated with susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Regarding the role of HFE in iron homeostasis, iron accumulation is considered an important process in ALS. Furthermore, novel therapeutic strategies are being developed targeting this process. Evidence for this genetic association is, however, limited to several small studies. For this reason we studied the H63D polymorphism in a large European cohort including 3962 ALS patients and 5072 control subjects from 7 countries. After meta-analysis of previous studies and current findings we conclude that the H63D polymorphism in HFE is not associated with susceptibility to ALS, age at disease onset, or survival. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 258.
    Viglund, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jonsén, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Strandberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nygren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Inner strength in relation to age, gender and culture among old people: a cross-sectional population study in two Nordic countries.2013In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1016-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The theoretical framework for the study was the Model of Inner Strength, and the Inner Strength Scale (ISS)developed based on the Model was used. The aim was to examine inner strength in relation to age, gender and culture among old people in Sweden and Finland.

    Method: This study forms part of the GErontological Regional DAtabase (GERDA)-Botnia project that investigates healthy ageing with focus on the dignity, social participation and health of old people. The participants (N = 6119) were 65-, 70-, 75- and 80-year old and living in two counties in Sweden or Finland. The ISS consists of 20 items relating to four interrelated dimensions of inner strength, according to the Model of Inner Strength. The range of possible ISS scores is 20-120, a higher score denoting higher inner strength.

    Result: The result showed that the 65-year-old participants had the highest mean ISS score, with a decrease in score for every subsequent age. The lowest score was achieved by the 80-year-old participants. Women had slightly but significantly higher mean ISS scores than men. Only small differences were found between the counties.

    Conclusion: The study population came from Sweden and Finland; still, despite the different backgrounds, patterns in the distribution of inner strength were largely similar. The present study provides basic and essential information about inner strength in a population of old people.

  • 259.
    Vikberg, Sanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sörlén, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Brandén, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. School of Sports Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway..
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Effects of Resistance Training on Functional Strength and Muscle Mass in 70-Year-Old Individuals With Pre-sarcopenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial2019In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia has been defined as age-related loss of muscle mass and function. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a 10-week instructor-led resistance training program on functional strength and body composition in men and women aged 70 years with pre-sarcopenia.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were randomized to either 10 weeks of a physical training regimen including optional nutritional supplementation (n = 36) or to a control group (n = 34) (ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT03297632). The main outcome was changes in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score. Secondary outcomes included the Timed Up and Go test, chair sit-stand time, lean body mass, and fat mass.

    RESULTS: The intervention had no significant effect on SPPB in the total cohort (P = .18), when comparing changes in the intervention group with the control group. However, those given the intervention in the male subcohort increased 0.5 ± 0.4 (mean ± standard error for the difference) points in SPPB during follow-up (P = .02) compared to male controls. With respect to secondary outcomes, the intervention group decreased 0.9 ± 0.6 seconds in chair sit-stand time compared to controls (P = .01). Furthermore, the intervention resulted in significantly greater improvements for the training group than control group in all measures of body composition (P ≤ .01 for all). For example, lean body mass increased by a mean of 1147 ± 282 g (P < .001), and total fat mass decreased by a mean of 553 ± 225 g (P = .003), favoring the intervention group.

    CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS: The main finding of this intervention study is that an easy-to-use, functional resistance training program was effective in maintaining functional strength and increasing muscle mass in older adults with pre-sarcopenia.

  • 260.
    Vikdahl, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Carlsson, Maine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Weight gain and increased central obesity in the early phase of Parkinson's disease2014In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1132-1139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Weight loss is strongly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and impacts symptoms and disease progression. The aim of this study was to describe changes in body composition and to explore how body weight (BW), relates to disease progression and medication in the early phase of PD.

    METHODS: Participants in a prospective community-based case-control study of PD were followed-up three years after initial diagnosis. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements were used together with Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), a 24-h recall (24-HR) and a 3-day food registration (3-DFR) to complete the evaluation of nutritional status. Disease severity was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (UPDRS III), and the Hoehn and Yahr rating.

    RESULTS: The PD patients' BW gained 1.62 kg (±4.60, P = 0.009), an increase that significantly correlated with fat mass (FM) (r = 0.74), waist size (r = 0.65), waist/height ratio (r = 0.64), and total skin fold (r = 0.77). Linear regression showed an association between change in BW and physical activity level (PAL) (B = -8.554; P = 0.025) confirmed by the multiple linear regression. Linear regression also revealed an association between change in FM and MMSE (B = 0.654; P = 0.027).

    CONCLUSION: In early PD, weight gain was revealed over three years accompanied by an increase in FM and waist circumference. An inverse relation was revealed between change in BW and PAL. The MMSE, UPDRS III, and Hoehn and Yahr rating were unchanged. Medication and swallowing difficulties were not associated with change in BW.

  • 261.
    Vikdahl, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Domellöf, Magdalena E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Olfactory function, eating ability, and visceral obesity associated with MMSE three years after Parkinson's disease diagnosis2015In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 894-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether risk factors for poor nutrition are associated with global cognitive function three years after confirmed Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis. The follow-up investigations for this prospective community-based study were conducted three years after PD diagnosis. The study participants lived in Vasterbotten County, a region in northern Sweden with 142,000 inhabitants. This study population consisted of 118 PD outpatients from the study of Newly Diagnosed PD in UmeAyen (NYPUM). Global cognition was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and at follow-up. Anthropometry, nutrition (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA, 3-day food registration, 3-FDR), olfactory function (Brief Smell Identification Test, B-SIT), and swallowing, cutting food, and salivation (single questions from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, UPDRS) were used as markers for nutritional status. The MMSE score decreased over three years (-1.06 +/- 3.38, p=0.001). Olfactory function at baseline was associated to MMSE at three years (B=0.365, p=0.004). Changes in waist/hip ratio (B=113.29, p=0.017), swallowing (B=1.18, P=0.033), and cutting food (B=-1.80, p=0.000) were associated with MMSE at follow-up. This study indicates that olfactory function, cutting food, swallowing, and visceral obesity are associated with MMSE three years after PD diagnosis.

  • 262. Vikström, Sofia
    et al.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Caring Sci & Soc, Div Nursing, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Stenwall, Ewa
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Saarnio, Lotta
    Kindblom, Kristina
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. La Trobe Univ, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Bundoora, Vic 3086, Australia.
    Borell, Lena
    A model for implementing guidelines for person-centered care in a nursing home setting2015In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systematic evaluations of knowledge translation interventions in nursing homes to improve practice are scarce. There is also a lack of studies focusing on creating sustainable evidence-based practice in the setting of residential dementia care. Methods: The aim of this paper is to describe a model for implementing national evidence-based guidelines for care of persons with dementia in nursing homes. The secondary aim is to outline the nursing home staff experiences during the first year of the implementation process. The intervention had a participatory action research approach. This included educational activities such as: (i) thematic seminars introducing national guidelines for dementia care, (ii) regular unit-based seminars; and (iii) later dissemination of information in reflective seminars and several days of poster-exhibitions. Areas of practice development were selected on each of the 24 units, based on unit-specific needs, and a quality improvement strategy was applied and evaluated. Each unit met ten times during a period of eight months. Data for this study were extracted from the reflective seminars and poster presentations, analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. Results: Findings showed that implementation of guidelines were perceived by staff as beneficial for both staff and the residents. However, barriers to identification of relevant sources of evidence and barriers to sustainable implementation were experienced. Conclusions: One of our assumptions was that dementia nursing homes can benefit from becoming knowledge driven, with care practices founded in evidence-based sources. Our findings show that to be partly true, even though most staff units found their efforts to pursue and utilize knowledge adversely impacted by time-logistics and practical workload challenges.

  • 263.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Kallin, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Jensen, Jane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Falls in very old people: the population-based Umeå 85+ Study2009In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 49, p. 390-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe incidences of falls and fall-related injuries, and to identify predisposing factors for falls in very old people in a prospective population-based follow-up study for falls. The study is part of the Umeå 85+ Study which includes half of the population aged 85, and the total population aged 90 and ≥95 (−103), in Umeå, Sweden. Of the 253 people interviewed, 220 (87%) were followed up for falls for 6 months, of whom 109 lived in ordinary and 111 in institutional housing. A comprehensive geriatric baseline assessment was made through interviews and testing during home visits. Forty percent of the participants did fall a total 304 times, corresponding to 2.17 falls per Person Year (PY). It occurred 0.83 injuries per PY, including 0.14 fractures per PY. In a Cox regression analysis, the independent explanatory risk factors for time to first fall were dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), thyroid disorders, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and occurrence of falls in the preceding year. It could be predicted that every seventh participant and every third of the people who did fall would suffer a fracture within 1 year. ADL, thyroid disorders and treatment with SSRIs should be considered in fall prevention programmes.

  • 264.
    Wallin, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Boström, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Risk factors for incident dementia in the very old2013In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1135-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several risk factors for dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and cognitive impairment have been established; however, knowledge about risk factors in the very old population (>= 85 years) is limited. This study describes the association of several baseline factors with dementia in participants aged >= 85 years, and investigates factors associated with a higher risk of incident dementia over five years.

    Methods: The participants in this population-based cohort study were aged 85, 90, and >= 95 years at baseline (2000-2002). Data were collected during home visits for interviews and testing, from a review of medical records, and/or interviewing the caregiver or next of kin. After five years 212 participants could be followed up concerning incident dementia. Multivariate logistic regression was used.

    Results: At baseline, 100/353 (28%) of participants had a dementia diagnosis. Over five years, 71/212 (33.5%) participants developed dementia. Few participants with dementia at baseline remained alive after five years (12%). Depression at the baseline and follow-up time were associated with a higher risk of dementia, odds ratio (OR) (95% CI, p-value) 2.91 (1.37-6.16, 0.005) and 1.61 (1.26-2.05, <0.001) respectively. More social contact and a higher Mini-Mental State Examination score at baseline were associated with lower risk of incident dementia, OR (95% CI, p-value) 0.87 (0.78-0.97, 0.009) and 0.83 (0.74-0.93, 0.001) respectively.

    Conclusions: Prevalence and incidence of dementia are high in very old people and dementia appears to be a fatal disorder. Depression is associated with higher risk of incident dementia over five years whereas more frequent social contacts and a higher MMSE score are associated with lower risk.

  • 265. Wallin, Åsa K
    et al.
    Andreasen, Niels
    Eriksson, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Båtsman, Stellan
    Näsman, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Ekdahl, Anne
    Kilander, Lena
    Grut, Mikaela
    Rydén, Marie
    Wallin, Anders
    Jonsson, Mikael
    Olofsson, Hasse
    Londos, Elisabeth
    Wattmo, Carina
    Eriksdotter Jönhagen, Maria
    Minthon, Lennart
    Donepezil in Alzheimer's disease: what to expect after 3 years of treatment in a routine clinical setting2007In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Clinical short- term trails have shownpositive effects of donepezil treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The outcome of continuous long-term treatment in the routine clinical settings remains to be investigated.

    Methods: The Swedish Alzheimer Treatment Study (SATS) is a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, multicentre study. Four hundred and thirty-five outpatients with the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, received treatment with donepezil. Patients were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), global rating (CIBIC) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) at baseline and every 6 months for a total period of 3 years.

    Results: The mean MMSE change from baseline was positive for more than 6 months and in subgroups of patients for 12 months. After 3 years of treatment the mean change from baseline in MMSE-score was 3.8 points (95% Cl, 3.0-4.7) and the ADAS-cog rise was 8.2 points ( 95% Cl, 6.4-10.1). This is better than expected in untreated historical cohorts, and better than the ADAS-cog rise calculated by the Stern equation (15.6 points; 95% CI, 14.5-16.6). After 3 years with 38% of the patients remaining, 30% of the them were unchanged or improved in the global assessment.

    Conclusion: Three-year donepezil treatment showed a positive global and cognitive outcome in the routine clinical setting.

  • 266. Wehling, Eike
    et al.
    Naess, Halvor
    Wollschlaeger, Daniel
    Hofstad, Hakon
    Bramerson, Annika
    Bende, Mats
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olfactory dysfunction in chronic stroke patients2015In: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 15, article id 199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate odor identification performance in patients one year after hospital admittance due to stroke. Predictors for olfactory dysfunction were investigated as well as self-reported olfactory function and pleasantness of olfactory items.

    Methods: A 1-year prospective study was performed. Stroke location, classification and comorbidities were registered at hospital admission. One year after admission, olfactory function was assessed using standardized olfactory methods (screening for loss of detection sensitivity and an odor identification test). A group of matched controls was derived from a population-based study to compare odor identification performance between groups. Patients were asked for their personal judgment regarding their olfactory function and pleasantness of odorous items. In addition, global cognitive function and symptoms of depression were assessed.

    Results: A total of 78 patients were enrolled (46 males, 32 females; mean age 68 years) of which 28.2 % exhibited reduced olfactory function (hyposmia) and 15.4 % exhibited loss of olfactory function (10.3 % functional anosmia, 5.1 % complete anosmia). Patients showed significantly lower olfactory performance compared to age- and sex-mated matched controls. Predictors of impaired olfactory function were age and NIHSS score. Self-reports indicated no significant differences between patients with normal olfactory function and those with reduced function. Yet, patients having an olfactory dysfunction rated odorous items as significantly less pleasant compared to patients without dysfunction.

    Conclusions: Olfactory dysfunction seems to occur frequently after stoke even one year after initial admission. The deficits seem to relate to hyposmia and functional anosmia, and less to a complete loss of smell sensitivity.

  • 267.
    Weidung, Bodil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Blood pressure in very old age: determinants, adverse outcomes, and heterogeneity2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High blood pressure (BP) is the leading risk factor for disease and mortality worldwide. However, risks associated with high BP in very old age (≥ 80 or ≥ 85 years) are not entirely understood, as the majority of scientific studies have been performed with younger populations and existing scientific knowledge about very old individuals is sometimes contradictory. Results of previous studies of very old individuals suggest that the associations of BP with mortality and stroke differ with levels of physical and cognitive function. More studies that are representative of very old individuals, including individuals with multimorbidity, that are of adequate size, involve proper adjustment, and investigate non-linear associations, are needed to investigate these issues.

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) decline is common among very old individuals and has been shown to precede adverse events. Previous studies have shown that SBP change is associated with baseline SBP, age, and health-related factors, but determinants of SBP change have not been investigated using comprehensive, multivariate models.

    The three main aims of this thesis were to investigate, in a sample of individuals aged ≥ 85 years, 1) determinants of SBP change, 2) the association of BP with mortality risk and whether this association differs with respect to gait speed and/or Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, and 3) the association of BP with stroke risk and whether this association differs with respect to the Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) index and/or MMSE score.

    Methods: The studies conducted for this thesis were based on data from the population-based Umeå 85+/Gerontological regional database study, which provided cross-sectional and longitudinal data on socioeconomic factors, medical conditions, drug prescriptions, and health-related assessments from 2000 to 2015. Participants were aged 85, 90, and ≥ 95 years, and lived in Västerbotten, Sweden, and Österbotten/Pohjanmaa, Finland. Follow-up assessments were conducted after 5 years. Mortality data were collected after 2 and 5 years, and stroke data were collected after 5 years, from death certificates, medical records, population registers, and the inpatient diagnosis register. Comprehensive multivariate models were developed to investigate determinants of SBP change using multiple linear regression, and to investigate associations of mortality and stroke risks with BP using Cox proportional-hazard regression models.

    Results: Average (± standard deviation) baseline SBP was 146 ± 23 mm Hg, and average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 74 ± 11 mm Hg. Within 5 years, 61% of participants had died and 10% had had incident strokes. Among participants followed for 5 years, the average annual SBP decline was 2.6 ± 5.4 mm Hg.

    In a multivariate model, SBP decline was associated with later investigation year (p = .009), higher baseline SBP (p < .001), baseline antidepressant drug use (p = .011), incident acute myocardial infarction during follow-up (p = .003), use of a new diuretic drug during follow-up (p = .044), and declining Barthel ADL index scores during follow-up (p < .001).

    In an age- and sex-adjusted analysis of the total sample, mortality risk was decreased in higher (vs. lower) BP categories (SBP ≥ 165 vs. ≤ 125 mm Hg: hazard ratio [HR] .50, p < .001; DBP 70–74 vs. 75–80 mm Hg: HR 1.32, p = .031). In a comprehensively adjusted analysis of the total sample, SBP was not associated significantly with mortality risk. The associations of SBP with mortality in the gait speed < .5 m/s subcohort corresponded with those found in the total sample. In comprehensively adjusted analyses in the gait speed ≥ .5 m/s subcohort, mortality risk increased independently with higher (vs. lower) BP (SBP ≥ 165 vs. 126–139 mm Hg: HR 2.13, p = .048; DBP > 80 vs. 75–80 mm Hg: HR 1.76, p = .026). In comprehensively adjusted analyses in the MMSE score subcohorts, SBP was associated significantly with mortality risk only in the 0–10 MMSE score subcohort; high and low SBP categories were associated independently with increased mortality risk, compared with an intermediary SBP category (SBP ≥ 165 vs. 126–139 mm Hg; HR 4.54, p = .007; SBP ≤ 125 vs. 126–139 mm Hg: HR 2.23, p = .023). Higher BP was associated significantly with increased stroke risk in multivariate models (SBP per 10 mm Hg increment: HR 1.19, p < .001; DBP per 10 mm Hg increment: HR 1.26, p = .013). SBP was not associated with stroke risk in participants with SBP < 140 mm Hg.

    Interaction effects on the association with mortality were significant between SBP and gait speed (age- and sex-adjusted model: p = .031) but not between SBP and MMSE score. No interaction in the association with stroke was found between any BP measure and Barthel ADL index or MMSE score.

    Conclusion: The decline in BP in very old age may be explained by health-related factors. Low BP may be a risk marker for short life expectancy, due to morbidity, in the general very old population and among very old individuals with low gait speeds. High BP seems to be an independent risk factor for mortality only in certain groups, which may be distinguished by high gait speed or very severe cognitive impairment. High SBP and DBP seem to increase stroke risk in very old age. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the risks of adverse outcomes in very old individuals with different BP levels, the importance of comorbidity for these risks, and the etiology of SBP change. 

  • 268.
    Weidung, Bodil
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Boström, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Toots, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Blood Pressure, Gait Speed, and Mortality in Very Old Individuals: A Population-Based Cohort Study2015In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 208-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Clinical trials and observational studies have produced contradictory results regarding the association of blood pressure (BP) and mortality in people aged 80 years or older. Gait speed at usual pace has been shown to moderate this association in a population of noninstitutionalized people aged 65 years or older. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of BP with all-cause mortality in a representative sample of people aged 85 years or older and to assess whether gait speed moderates this association.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 806 participants in the population-based prospective Umeå 85+/GERDA study aged 85, 90, and 95 years or older.

    Measurements: Gait speed at usual pace was measured over 2.4 m. The main outcome was hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality according to systolic and diastolic BP categories in the total sample and in faster-walking (≥0.5 m/s, n = 312) and slower-walking (<0.5 m/s, n = 433) subcohorts; the latter also included habitually nonwalking participants. Comprehensive adjustments were made for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with death.

    Results: Mean age and baseline systolic and diastolic BP were 89.6 ± 4.6 years, 146.8 ± 23.9 mm Hg, and 74.8 ± 11.1 mm Hg, respectively. Most (n = 561 [69%]) participants were women, 315 (39%) were care facility residents, and 566 (70%) were prescribed BP-lowering drugs. Within 5 years, 490 (61%) participants died. In the total sample and slower-walking subcohort, systolic BP appeared to be inversely associated with mortality, although not independent of adjustments. Among faster-walking participants, mortality risk after adjustment was more than 2 times higher in those with systolic BP of 140 to 149 mm Hg (HR = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–4.94) and 165 mm Hg or higher (HR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.01–4.49), compared with systolic BP of 126 to 139 mm Hg. Mortality risk was also independently higher in faster-walking participants with diastolic BP higher than 80 mm Hg, compared with diastolic BP of 75 to 80 mm Hg (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.07–2.90).

    Conclusion: The gait speed threshold of 0.5 m/s may be clinically useful for the distinction of very old people with and without increased all-cause mortality risk due to elevated systolic and diastolic BP.

  • 269.
    Weidung, Bodil
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    The association between SBP and mortality risk differs with level of cognitive function in very old individuals2016In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 745-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:Cognitive impairment and dementia are highly prevalent in very old populations. Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death in people with dementia.This study investigated whether the association of blood pressure (BP) with mortality differed with respect to mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score in a representative sample of very old individuals.Methods:The sample consisted of 1115 participants aged 85, 90, and at least 95 years from the Umea85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase cohort study. The main outcome was all-cause mortality within 2 years according to BP and MMSE score, using Cox proportional-hazard regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with death.Results:Mean age, MMSE score, and SBP and DBP were 89.44.6 years, 21.1 +/- 7.6, 146.1 +/- 23.4mmHg, and 74.1 +/- 11.7mmHg, respectively. Within 2 years, 293 (26%) participants died. BP was not associated independently with mortality risk, except among participants with MMSE scores of 0-10 among whom mortality risk was increased in association with SBP at least 165mmHg and 125mmHg or less, compared with 126-139mmHg (adjusted hazard ratio 4.54, 95% confidence interval=1.52-13.60 and hazard ratio 2.23, 95% confidence interval=1.12-4.45, respectively). In age and sex-adjusted analyses, SBP 125mmHg or less was associated with increased mortality risk in participants with MMSE scores at least 18.Conclusion:In people aged at least 85 years, the association of SBP with mortality appears to differ with respect to MMSE score. Very old individuals with very severe cognitive impairment and low or high BP may have increased mortality risk.

  • 270.
    Weidung, Bodil
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Toots, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Systolic blood pressure decline in very old individuals is explained by deteriorating health: Longitudinal changes from Umeå85+/GERDAManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 271. Weishaupt, Jochen H
    et al.
    Waibel, Stefan
    Birve, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Volk, Alexander E
    Mayer, Benjamin
    Meyer, Thomas
    Ludolph, Albert C
    Andersen, Peter M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    A novel optineurin truncating mutation and three glaucoma-associated missense variants in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Germany2013In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1516.e9-1516.e15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutations in the optineurin (OPTN) gene have been associated with normal tension glaucoma and with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we screened German familial ALS cases for OPTN mutations to gain additional insight into the spectrum and pathogenic relevance of this gene for ALS. One hundred familial German ALS cases and 148 control subjects were screened for OPTN mutations by sequence analysis of the complete OPTN coding sequence, and phenotypes of OPTN mutant patients were described. We identified a novel heterozygous truncating OPTN mutation p.Lys440Asnfs*8 in 1 ALS family with an aggressive ALS disease phenotype. This mutation abolishes protein domains crucial for nuclear factor kappa B signaling. Moreover, we detected 3 different nonsynonymous sequence variants, which have been described previously as risk factors for primary retinal ganglion cell degeneration in normal tension glaucoma. Two of them were detected on the same allele in a family that also carries a p.Asn352Ser disease mutation in the ALS gene TARDBP. All OPTN mutant patients presented with typical spinal onset ALS. Taken together, we detected a novel truncating OPTN mutation associated with an aggressive form of ALS and confirmed that OPTN mutations are a rare cause of ALS. In addition our data suggest that in some cases plausibly more than 1 mutation in OPTN or another ALS gene might be needed to cause ALS. Finally, our findings show that motoneurons and retinal ganglion cells, which are both projecting central nervous system neurons, might share common susceptibility factors. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 272.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utveckling av kompetens och lärande i äldreomsorgen: Ett år med kompetensstegen i Umeå2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 273.
    Wikgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning.
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Uppsala University, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Roos, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Shorter telomere length is linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities2014In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 212-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: leukocyte telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging. Several studies have investigated the link between leukocyte TL and aging-associated functional attributes of the brain, but no prior study has investigated whether TL can be linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs); two prominent structural manifestations of brain aging. Methods: we investigated whether leukocyte TL was related to brain atrophy and WMHs in a sample of 102 non-demented individuals aged 64-75 years. Results: shorter TL was related to greater degree of subcortical atrophy (beta = -0.217, P = 0.034), but not to cortical atrophy. Furthermore, TL was 371 bp shorter (P = 0.041) in participants exhibiting subcortical WMHs, and 552 bp shorter (P = 0.009) in older participants exhibiting periventricular WMHs. Conclusion: this study provides the first evidence of leukocyte TL being associated with cerebral subcortical atrophy and WMHs, lending further support to the concept of TL as a marker of biological aging, and in particular that of the aging brain.

  • 274.
    Åkerlund, Britt Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Dementia care in an ethical perspective: an exploratory study of caregivers' experiences of ethical conflicts when feeding severely demented patients1990Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore how caregivers caring for severely demented patients experience ethical conflict situations. Feeding patients in a late state of dementia was chosen as focus. Special attention was paid to analyses of the caregivers' experiences with regard to their feelings, use of force, interpretations of the patients' behaviour and their ethical reasoning.

    The study was carried out in five separate parts, presented as five papers. A phenomenological - hermeneutic approach was consistent. Personal interviews, a projective defence mechanism test, the Meta Contrast Technique and an analysis of patient/caregiver behaviour as shown in video taped feeding sessions were the methods used.

    Study participants were forty-one caregivers in psychogeriatric care, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and nurses' assistants.

    The result indicated that, when facing ethical decisions the caregivers were caught in a double bind conflict due to the contradicting ethical demands "Keep the patient alive!" and "Don't cause the patient suffering!". The difficulty to interpret what the patients experienced and the impossibility to know for sure what actions would be right or wrong were sources of anxiety. They defined force feeding individually, yet a pattern was found. Some caregivers defined force feeding according to the amount of persuasiveness or violence they had to perform. Some regarded force feeding from a patient wish perspective. A majority combined the two dimensions.

    The caregivers' ethical reasoning showed that their decision making was to be regarded as a process grounded on ethical rules. Interdependence in the relation caregiver/patient made them develop their reasoning in a direction of existential reasoning.

  • 275.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Attitudes, empathy and burnout among staff in geriatric and psychogeriatric care1990Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerned assessments of attitudes towards demented patients among students and nursing staff as well as attitudes towards active euthanasia, wish to transfer to other jobs, ability of empathy and experience of burnout among nursing staff. The study aimed also to relate experience of burnout to attitudes towards demented patients, ability of empathy and experience of work with demented patients. The study was performed by use of questionnaires, scales measuring attitudes towards demented patients, experience of burnout and ability of empathy. Tape-recorded interviews were also included aiming to explore the staffs experience at work.

    The results showed that a majority of the students and staff held positive attitudes towards demented patients. A small proportion intended to work solely with demented patients. Staff working in psychogeriatric care and somatic long-term care held more positive attitudes than staff working in acute medical care. Proportions of staff with positive attitudes varied depending on age, duration of employment, education and place of work. A larger proportion of staff in geriatric care than in acute care reported a wish to transfer to another job. LPN’s in nursing homes to the largest proportion stated this wish to transfer.

    A majority of both students and staff expressed negative attitudes towards active euthanasia to severely demented patients in the finale stage of life. However, most favourable attitudes towards active euthanasia were found among students with shorter health care education and among nurse's aides and LPN’s.

    The staffs empathy was judged as moderately high and there were no differences found in relation to sex, staff category or place of work.

    Experience of burnout /tedium varied with the place of work and category of staff. Largest proportions at risk to develop burnout were found among those working in somatic long-term care and psychogeriatric care. RN’s showed lower burnout scores than nurse's aides and LPN’s.

    Experience of burnout was correlated to attitudes towards demented patients, indicating that the lower burnout score the staff have the more positive are the attitudes. Burnout was also related to the staffs ability of empathy i.e. the lower degree of burnout the higher is the empathie ability. Regression analysis showed that "Experience of feed-back at work” and "Time spent at present place of work" were the most important factors for the staffs experience of burnout.

  • 276.
    Österlind, Per Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Medical and social conditions in the elderly gender and age differences: the Umeå longitudinal study1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1981, no representative study of the medical and social conditions among elderly persons in northern Scandinavia was performed. Nor was there such a study in a smaller Swedish town than Gothenburg. This study was initiated to fill that knowledge gap. The aim of the study was to evaluate gender and age differences in medical and social conditions among elderly people, including the reference intervals of clinical chemistry parameters and characteristic features of the 24-hour electrocardiogram (ECG) in healthy elderly. By way of longitudinal design with birth cohorts stratified by gender, it was assumed that the effects could be demonstrated. Also, the death risk of various social and medical variables was to be assessed.

    During the study period 1981 to 1990, the subjects were between 70 and 88 years of age. The proportion of persons living in private housing decreased from almost all at the age of 70 to slightly more than half at 88 years of age. The number of socially active persons decreased considerably during the period. The need of help increased from almost none to 60 % of the persons.

    The proportions of persons with normal sight and hearing decreased from two thirds to around one tenth The most frequent symptoms were general tiredness, pains, dyspnoea, constipation and dryness of the mouth. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequent. Hypertensive disease became less, and congestive heart failure more frequent with age. The frequency of dementia increased steeply among the oldest persons; at 88 years of age, 40 % were demented.

    Drug consumption increased; the oldest persons in both age cohorts used 5 different drugs or more per person regularly. The consumption increase was mainly due to the increasing morbidity accompanying age. The most common drugs taken were cardiovascular preparations, psychoactive agents, drugs to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms, and analgesics. Drug intake and symptom prevalence were generally higher in women, despite the fact that there was no gender difference in the number of diseases.

    The reference intervals of many blood components in healthy elderly were shown to be broader than those of younger persons. The intervals of P(lasma)-folate and P- potassium were on a lower and those of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, P-creati- nine and, in women, S(erum)-cholesterol, were on a higher level than among younger persons.

    Several features of the 24-hour ECG, e.g. the number of episodes of supraventricular tachycardia as well as supraventricular and ventricular premature beats in healthy elderly were more frequent than among younger persons.

    Between 80 and 88 years of age, many functions crucial to the chances of living a rich and vital life were found deteriorating in the elderly persons. High age, male sex, dementia, congestive heart failure, and low values of S-creatinine were shown to be independent factors connected with an increased death risk.

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