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  • 251.
    Sporre, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Teacher Education in Swedish and Social Sciences.
    En introduktion till Iris Marion Young2000In: Att kasta tjejkast: Texter om feminism och rättvisa av Iris M Young i urval, Atlas, Stockholm , 2000Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Steinwall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    To do or not to do: dealing with the dilemma of intervention in Swedish nature conservation2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature conservation is often seen as being primarily about shielding parts of nature from human intervention, e.g. by protecting areas. Over the last decades, however, intervention is increasingly being seen as necessary for nature to regain or retain its values, through ecological restoration and active management. This complicates simple assumptions that ‘nature knows best’ and raises dilemmas which are hotly debated in the scholarly literature around ecological restoration, protected area management, environmental ethics and green political theory. However, how these dilemmas are dealt with in actual policy struggles among the conservation professionals who make management decisions is less studied.

    This thesis explores how issues regarding active intervention in nature are represented, debated and institutionalized within Swedish nature conservation, and to what effect. The empirical focus lies on policy struggles around the designation and management of protected forests and around efforts to save a nationally threatened bird species, the white-backed woodpecker. My analytical framework is informed by Argumentative Discourse Analysis and Political Discourse Theory, to which I contribute a further elaboration of the notion of discourse institutionalization. Based on documents and interviews with conservation professionals, I identify competing articulations of the ends and means of conservation and relate these to scholarly debates around ecological restoration and interventionist conservation management. The analysis further focuses on how elements of the different policy discourses are institutionalized in rules, routines or official policy documents.

    Two main competing policy discourses are found: one focused on leaving pristine nature to develop freely, and one focused on active, adaptive management for biodiversity. While the former has previously been said to characterize the Swedish conservation bureaucracy, my analysis shows it is now widely seen as outdated. Arguments which in the scholarly literature are associated with an ethically informed defense of nature’s autonomy are here dismissed as emotional, aesthetic and thus unscientific concerns, delegitimizing them within the rational, science-based public administration for nature conservation. In contrast, biodiversity is broadly forwarded as a self-evident goal for active intervention, in line with both science and policy requirements. Adaptive management for biodiversity is in that sense the dominant discourse. Still, the older discourse is institutionalized in the purposes and management plans of existing nature reserves, and its defenders have also succeeded in strengthening that institutionalization through new and more restrictive guidelines. The findings suggest that this has been possible not only because of the gate-keeping role of a few centrally placed actors, but also because their restrictive stance resonates with the outside threat of exploitation which organizes the common order of discourse. Naturalness, a term described as irrelevant by some proponents of adaptive management for biodiversity, is also shown to remain a shared concern in several ways. The results thus highlight the importance of both entrenched common sense and institutionalization of certain logics or arguments in authoritative documents. The main theoretical contribution of the thesis consists in clarifying the effects of such discourse institutionalization — using the terms durability, legibility and leverage — and showing how the processes of negotiation, re-interpretation and modification of institutions are more dynamic than some accounts of discourse institutionalization suggest.

    Rather than trying to resolve (and thus remove) the dilemma of intervention, the thesis points to the importance of keeping open discussion of the ultimately unanswerable questions about intervention in nature alive in both theory and practice.

  • 253.
    Straarup, Jørgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Religious Studies.
    Policy-implementering2004In: »För männen är mer jämställda än kvinnor«: Utvärdering av Anamma Jäm-projektet inom AMV Norrbotten / [ed] Jørgen Straarup, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, Centrum för utbildning och forskning inom samhällsvetenskap , 2004, p. 15-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Crisis Volunteerism is the New Black?: Exploring the Diversity of Voluntary Engagement in Crisis Management2019In: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both crisis research and crisis management policy suggest that crisis management experiences a “participatory turn” and it seems to be a renewed interest in the topic of crisis volunteerism. However, the voice of volunteer organizations, paradoxically, appears to be missing in research. This article builds on an interview study (26 interviews) with different types of voluntary organizations in Sweden. It explores two aspects of crisis volunteerism (i) the diversity of crisis volunteerism and (ii) the changing landscape of crisis volunteerism. The Disaster Research Center (DRC) typology is used to understand different types of volunteering and how different organizational types relate to each other. The empirical material shows that a significant amount of voluntary engagement with relevance to crisis management takes place outside the realm of core crisis management actors. An important finding is that the number of avenues where voluntary engagement is needed has expanded, and as a result, we need to engage new volunteer groups in society. Hence, the study suggests a more adaptive and inclusive understanding of the phenomenon of crisis volunteerism.

  • 255. Strøm, Kaare
    et al.
    Bergman, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Müller, Wolfgang C
    Nyblade, Benjamin
    Conclusion: cabinet governance in parliamentary democracies2008In: Cabinets and coalition bargaining: the democratic life cycle in Western Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 256. Sturk Steinwall, Anders
    What should we do with the threatened species?: Discourses, institutions and the Swedish action plan to save the white-backed woodpeckerManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines a drawn-out conflict surrounding an update of the Action Plan for the threatened white-backed woodpecker (dendrocopos leucotos) in Sweden and, more broadly, around intervention in nature and the ends and means of conservation. The case illustrates the importance of struggles around discourse institutionalization in understanding stability, contestation and change within a policy subsystem. The article also makes a theoretical argument concerning both the effects of discourse institutionalization — using the terms durability, legibility and leverage to capture the structuring effect of institutions — and the processes of negotiation, re-interpretation and modification of institutions which, it is argued, tend to be underplayed in accounts of discourse institutionalization. The case highlights how discursive dominance (in this case: of an interventionist discourse focused on adaptive management for biodiversity) does not necessarily translate into discourse institutionalization; instead, a preservationist discourse generally seen as outdated seems to have become more institutionalized as a result of the struggles over the last years.

  • 257.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 87-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  • 258.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Divergent interests and ideas around property rights: the case of berry harvesting in Sweden2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, p. 56-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the clash between interests and ideas concerning property rights and regulation by analyzing the ongoing debate on the right of public access in Sweden, which has recently intensified due to an influx of foreign professional berry harvesters. The conflicts in Sweden are found to stem from contradictory concepts concerning property (notably, ownership and the right of public access) and ideological differences in terms of whether forest resources should be regulated by government or governance. While the precise circumstances of this case are somewhat unique to Sweden, differences of opinion concerning property rights and regulations are common and so our findings will be broadly applicable when defining and analyzing forest-related conflicts, especially those involving multiple-use situations.

  • 259.
    Svahn, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism och terrorism: En komparativ fallstudie mellan  Islamiska Staten och Al-Qaida2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa, komparativa fallstudie, översatt till Violent Islamist Extremism and Terrorism – A Comparative Case Study between the Islamic State and Al-Qaeda, jämför de två terrororganisationerna Al-Qaida och Islamiska Staten med hjälp av en idealtypsanalys. Islamiska Staten har på senare år övertagit platsen från Al-Qaida, som varit den mest aktiva islamistiska terrororganisationen som utövat attentat i västvärlden i många år. Således har de båda organisationernas egenskaper i form av struktur, avsikt, metod och kommunikation undersökts för att belysa organisationernas likheter och skillnader, samt vad dessa har betytt för den utveckling som inträffat. De slutsatser som kunnat dras är att de båda organisationerna är komplexa fenomen att studera men att de är relativt lika varandra. Dock finns det skillnader som gör att Islamiska Staten, trots att de en gång i tiden tillhört Al-Qaida, formats till en unik enhet. Således har även det faktum att IS framfart blev så stor som den blev, diskuterats ihop med terrorismbekämpning för att försöka förstå vad det var som inte gick som det eventuellt borde ha gjort för att begränsa det ovan.  

  • 260.
    Symons, Jonathan
    et al.
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Green political theory in a climate-changed world: between innovation and restraint2015In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 173-192, article id 230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implications for Green political theory of the international community’s failure to avert dangerous warming are evaluated. An emerging conflict is identified between the Green-romantic value of restraint and the Green-rationalistvalue of protection, between a desire to preserve biotic systemsand a distrust of scientific solutions to problems that are intrinsically social. In response, approaches are outlined that can help to navigate the current period of overshoot beyond safe planetary boundaries by informing choices among bundles of environmental harms. An ethic of restraint, encompassing non-domination and post-materialist values, can validly be justified without reference to ecological catastrophe. Meanwhile, in respect of preservationfrom climate-linked harms, the need for cooperation in support of scalable abatement measures suggests the necessity of accelerated research into ‘breakthrough’, low-emissions energy technologies. However, since technophilic preservationism is incompatible with existing environmental ‘logics ofpractice’, this strategy must mobilise political support outside the traditional environmental movement.

  • 261.
    Szögi, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Striden om jobben och väljarna i riksdagsvalet 2006: En kritisk diskursanalys av hur sysselsättningsfrågan bytte ägare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the Swedish 2006 parliamentary election a liberal-conservative coalition consisting of four parties took office after twelve years of Social Democratic governance.

    One contributing factor was that the voters had high expectations on the centre-right party - Moderata samlingspartiet policies on creating new jobs. What made this election so interesting is that the Swedish voters traditionally have had a greater support for the incumbent Socialdemokratiska arbetarepartiets policies on unemployment. Swedish voting and party preference researchers have found that the shift of party support in the unemployment issue among Swedish voters in the election was historical. The case is a good example of an issue changing owners relatively quickly. This contradicts several explanatory models within traditional issue ownership research.

    This study goes beyond traditional issue ownership research by using a qualitative method – Norman Faircloughs three-dimensional model for critical discourse analysis.

    The model consists of three layers of analyses – first the results of an integrated model were macroeconomic evaluations, unemployment rating, party preferences and issue salience has been measured. Then the results of a study of how issue ownership is created by parties own external communication and by the mass media. After that a short description of a study were the two election campaigns by Moderata samlingspartiet and Socialdemokratiska arbetarepartiet had been evaluated based on their level of professionalization. Finally this study's own contribution to the analysis a qualitative text analysis of the two parties' representations of the issue of unemployment during the election campaign. The text analysis uses Carol Bacchis approach What's the problem represented to be? to depict how each problematisation was constructed.

    The results show how Moderata samlingspartiet constructed their representation of the issue with the purpose of mobilizing broad groups of voters who are gainfully employed to lower payroll taxes and taxes on income to create new jobs. Also how Socialdemokratiska arbetarepartiet constructed their representation of the issue with the purpose of mobilizing broad groups of voters to use state resources to fund public education, research projects in technology and strengthen social safety nets. The study shows that Norman Faircloughs three-dimensional model for critical discourse analysis is a useful way to get deeper into cases were there have been a clear shift of issue ownership. Also how Carol Bacchis WPR approach can be a useful tool to examine what is said and constructed in public discourse.

    Key words: Issue ownership, issue of unemployment, critical discourse analysis

  • 262.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Environmental policy integration in bioenergy: policy learning across sectors and levels?2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A central principle within UN and EU policy is environmental policyintegration (EPI), aiming at integrating environmental aspirations, targetsand requirements into sector policy in order to promote sustainabledevelopment. The focus of this study is EPI in bioenergy policy. Bioenergy isa renewable energy source of increasing importance in the EU and Swedishenergy mix. At the same time, it is debated how environmentally friendlybioenergy really is. Furthermore, bioenergy can be considered both a multisectorand a multi-level case, since bioenergy is produced in many differentsectors and bioenergy policy is formulated and implemented on differentlevels. Therefore, EPI in bioenergy policy is here analysed over time in twosectors (energy and agriculture) and on three levels (EU, national, subnational).A cognitive, policy learning perspective on EPI is adopted, tracingEPI through looking for reframing of policy towards incorporatingenvironmental objectives in policy rhetoric and practice. Furthermore,institutional and political explanations for the development are discussed.Paper I analyses EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy within energy andagriculture. Paper II analyses institutional conditions for multi-sector EPI inSwedish bioenergy policy. Paper III analyses EPI in EU bioenergy policywithin energy and agriculture. Paper IV analyses sub-national EPI in thecase of the Biofuel Region in north Sweden. The material examined consistsof policy documents complemented by semi-structured interviews.

    Together, the four papers provide a more complex and holistic picture ofthe EPI process than in previous research, which mainly has focused onstudying EPI in single sectors and on single levels. The study shows thatpriorities are different on different levels; that EPI has varied over time; butthat EPI today is detectable within bioenergy policy in both studied sectorsand on all levels. Policy learning in bioenergy is found to be mainly a topdownprocess. Furthermore, policy coherence between sectors and levels;long-term goals; and concrete policy instruments are found to be importantboth for the EPI process as such and for the outcomes from this process.However, when attempting to marry different goals, such as growth, securityand sustainability, in line with the three-tiered (economic, social, ecologic)sustainable development concept, environmental aspects risks not to beprioritised when goal conflicts arise. The study proposes that future researchboth continues the analysis of multi-sector and multi-level EPI, and furtherexplores to what extent ecological sustainability is improved by EPI.

  • 263.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Institutional conditions for multi-sector environmental policyintegration in Swedish bioenergy policy2011In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 528-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What institutional conditions seem relevant for multi-sector EPI, and itsoutcomes? Analysing the Swedish bioenergy policy process, which represents apositive case of multi-sector EPI, this article argues that open actor access, useof environmental knowledge, monitoring mechanisms, and both environmentsectoraland inter-sectoral policy coordination are conducive for multi-sectorEPI, which is also affected by external events. For achieving outcomes frommulti-sector EPI, monitoring mechanisms as well as inter-sectoral policycoordination are important.

  • 264.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Integrating Environment in European Bioenergy: Policy Learning in Multiple Sectors2009In: Working Group 7: (Contested) knowledges and learning in environmental policy processes, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Integrating environment into European bioenergy policy: comparing the energy and agricultural sectorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy integration (EPI) has long been a key part of EU environmental work. Recognising that some policy fields involve a multi-sector perspective, this article focuses on EPI in EU bioenergy policy, more specifically how bioenergy has been framed within EU energy policy and agricultural policy from 1995 to 2009. Three questions are posed. First, is there EPI in EU bioenergy policy? Second, is EU bioenergy policy coherent across sectors? Third, to what extent has EPI occurred? The analysis shows that EPI in EU bioenergy policy has increased over time, and that this has stimulated policy coherency between sectors. Climate change is the focal environmental issue in bioenergy policy, although the focus has broadened recently, and the environment is placed on a par with other issues, rather than prioritised. Future research needs to analyse post-Lisbon Treaty EPI, multi-sector EPI, and explore which environmental aspects are integrated (and which are not?).

  • 266.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    'Much ado about nothing?' - energy forest cultivation in Sweden: how intersectoral policy coordination affects outcomes from EPI in multisectoral issues2008In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 381-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of environmental issues into sectoral policies is also known asenvironmental policy integration (EPI), a concept that can be described as a process oflearning across frames. The article examines the role of intersectoral policy coordinationfor the outcomes from EPI in multisectoral issues. Through the application of thematicidea analysis, it explores the development of EPI in Swedish policies regarding agriculturalbioenergy production—energy and agricultural policy—with specific focus on energyforest cultivation. Policies in both the sectors are then compared in a discussion of whatrole intersectoral policy coordination plays for the outcomes from EPI in multisectoralissues, exemplified by Swedish energy forest cultivation.

  • 267.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sub-national environmental policy integration: learning across levels?In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy integration, EPI, refers to the integration of environmental aspects and policy objectivesinto non‐environmental sector policies. EPI can be viewed as an environmental learning process, but whathappens when EPI is to travel across political levels? This article explores EPI in a previously neglected policyarena; the sub‐national level, where Biofuel Region (BFR) in the north Swedish counties Västerbotten andVästernorrland is studied in depth. According to previous studies, an environmental perspective is integratedinto bioenergy policy on the EU level and Swedish level, but is an environmental perspective present also onthe sub‐national level, within BFR? Furthermore, can the development in BFR be explained by cross‐levellearning? In a discussion of the impact of EU and Swedish bioenergy policy on the sub‐national bioenergydevelopment, the concluding discussion revolves around the overarching question of this study: what are thesub‐national implications of higher‐level EPI in a policy area?

  • 268.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Politics of Affection: Ex-Combatants, Political Engagement and Reintegration Programs in Liberia2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ex-combatants' relationship with post-war politics is crucial for the continued democratization and peace processes, irrespective of what has shaped it: the war or their post-war experiences. In this thesis, the relationship with politics, after the end of the Liberian civil war (1989-2003) is explored among ex-combatants, following the research question: How do ex-combatants in Liberia think about politics and how do they engage in politics? Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration (DDR) programs are a large component of contemporary peacebuilding efforts that target ex-combatant populations. However, current research has failed to seriously examine the political consequences of these programs. Therefore, this thesis is also driven by an interest to explore whether the reintegration programs can shape the ex-combatants’ relationship with politics. Using focus group interviews with 101 ex-combatants in 18 different groups, with six different program experiences, as well as survey data from the Afrobarometer, these questions are examined using nested analyses, at both the group and individual level.

    Expanding on the concept of political reintegration, using the literature on democratic citizenship, this examination addresses the implicit democratic ideals that surround current DDR practices. In the case of ex-combatants in Liberia, their relationship with politics can be described using four dimensions: political involvement; tolerance of dissent; inclusion; and expressed antagonism. As a whole, the ex-combatants express a relation with politics indicative of a politics of affection, as their understanding of politics is often driven by a logic of emotion. Politics is filtered and understood through an emotive lens. Using a policy feedback framework, this thesis also shows how some reintegration programs can accentuate democratic ideals (e.g. participation and inclusion), while others emphasize more conflictual and antagonistic political practices, through their program design. Program procedures thereby provide cognitive cues, and provide an opportunity for political learning through an interpretive mechanism.

  • 269.
    Söderström, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Friends, Fellows and Foes: A new framework for studying relational peace2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest that taking a relational view of peace serious is a fruitful avenue for expanding current theoretical frameworks surrounding peace as a concept. Paving the way for such an approach, this paper conducts a review of the literature which takes on peace as a relational concept. We then return to how a relationship is conceptualized, before turning to how such components would be further defined in order to specify relational peace. Based on this framework, we argue that a peaceful relation entails non-domination, deliberation and cooperation between the actors in the dyad, the actors involved recognize and trust each other and believe that the relationship is one between legitimate actors and ultimately an expression of friendship. It clarifies the methodological implications of studying peace in this manner. It also demonstrates some of the advantages of this approach, as it shows how peace and war can co-exist in webs of multiple interactions, and the importance of studying relations, and how actors understand these relationships, as a way of studying varieties of peace.

  • 270.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Peteris
    Södertörn university.
    The europeanisation of Latvia's public policy: the case of foreign aid policy, 2004-20102017In: Latvia - a work in progress?: 100 years of state- and nation-building / [ed] David J Smith, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2017, p. 205-223Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Peteris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    "You Cannot Sell It": Initiation and Implementation of Latvian Development Co-operation Policy (2000-2010)2013In: Konowledge and Policy Change / [ed] Henriks Lindberg, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013, p. 201-2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Tjäder, Zacharias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Preparing for Disasters -Experiences of collaborative governance & coordination in Dhaka City, Bangladesh2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dhaka city and Bangladesh is unique in many ways. The country profile is most definitely an interesting case to study through the lenses of disaster management. In this thesis a framework or theories encompassing collaborative governance and coordination crisis- management networks is applied to the challenging context of Bangladesh. The study looks at themes such as ‘history of conflicts’, ‘trust building’, ‘power imbalances’, ‘comprehensive overview’ and crisis network variables like ‘complexity’ and ‘familiarity‘. The theory block is foremost gathered from Michael Hillyard, Naim Kapucu and Alison Gash and Chris Ansell. The study is based on interviews from individuals representing different types of organizations that have connections to coordination avenues. A thematic analysis approach is used to apply the theories on the empirics. Three research questions encapsulates the core of the study; what components stimulate collaborative governance theoretically and how does part- takers of disaster management in Dhaka perceive collaborative governance and coordination under disaster preparedness? Finally, how does the presented theories conform to the practises focused on coordination and collaborative governance when preparing for disasters in Dhaka, Bangladesh? 

     

    The study finds that the establishment of coordination avenues are evident in Dhaka and that the development of various parts of coordination activities is moving rather strong. The study show that many organizations are project- based in Dhaka and that competition over intellectual property and funding can work in both directions for coordination and collaborative governance. Either lowering the ambition for collaborations or increasing it. The study also confirms findings of previous coordination studies in Bangladesh that suggest that the institutional approach is very much individualistic which can, to some degree, hamper coordination activities.

    The study suggest that the system for coordination and its reach appears to be more established horizontally on a strategic level than on the vertical level. Coordination activities and collaborative governance also operates simultaneously in Dhaka, both vertically and horizontally. In closure the experiences of DM- employees in Dhaka suggest that earthquakes and droughts, or combinations of quakes and flooding may pose a serious challenge to the disaster management relief resources of Dhaka city. 

  • 273.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Gebel, Michael
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Täht, Kadri
    Institute of International Social Studies, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Unt, Marge
    Institute of International Social Studies, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The effects of unemployment and insecure jobs on well-being and health: the moderating role of labor market policies2018In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 1229-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor market insecurities have been growing in Europe and previous research has illustrated that unemployment and insecure jobs negatively affect individuals’ well-being and health. Although empirical evidence suggests that these effects vary substantially across different welfare states, we still know little about the moderating role of specific labor market policies. Taking a cross-national comparative perspective, this article investigates how passive and active labor market policies (PLMP, ALMP) as well as employment protection legislation (EPL) shape the experience of unemployment and insecure jobs. We complement micro data of round 1–6 (2002–2012) of the European Social Survey with time-varying macro indicators of PLMP, ALMP, and EPL. The data include about 89,000 individuals nested in 112 country-rounds and 26 countries respectively. We apply three-level random intercept models as well as pooled linear regression models including country fixed effects. The results show that labor market policies are important in shaping the experience of unemployment, but are less relevant for workers in insecure jobs. Specifically, higher unemployment benefit generosity buffers the negative effects of unemployment on well-being but not health. Moreover, we discuss different interpretations for the finding that higher ALMP expenditures are associated with more negative effects of unemployment on well-being and health. With respect to EPL it is found that in countries with high insider protection, deregulating the restrictions on the use of temporary employment increases the negative effects of unemployment on well-being and health.

  • 274.
    Wahlbäck, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fred och säkerhet i tider av förändring: essäer om utrikes- och säkerhetspolitik2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 275.
    Walther, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Picking the winner(s): Forecasting elections in multiparty systems2015In: Electoral Studies, ISSN 0261-3794, E-ISSN 1873-6890, Vol. 40, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the 1970s onwards, a wide range of forecasting techniques have been developed in the literature on electoral forecasting. However, these models have primarily been applied in two-party, presidential democracies, with the US being by far the most popular country to investigate. The question thus arises whether the same techniques that have proved successful in this context can also be applied to the more complex, multiparty democracies in northern Europe. This paper seeks to answer this question and in the process makes two main contributions. Firstly, the popular dynamic linear model (Jackman, 2005) is tried and tested in Germany and Sweden where it is shown that reasonable forecasts can be made despite the complexity of the systems and the emergence of new parties. A novelty is then introduced when cyclical changes in party support are modelled through a seasonal component. This extension of the dynamic linear model helps to significantly lower the error in early forecasts and is thus something that could be useful in future applications of the model.

  • 276.
    Walther, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Till death do us part: a comparative study of government instability in 28 European democracies2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is rooted in the research tradition known as coalition politics, where governments, political parties and political institutions are the central focus. The main emphasis here is on government instability and the question of why governments in modern parliamentary democracies often come to an end before the next regular election. In five distinct but interrelated papers, the thesis explores the issue of early government termination and how it is affected by public support, economic developments and the functioning of the state apparatus. The studies included in this thesis generally take a quantitative approach and make use of a dataset that contains 640 governments in 29 European democracies. Their joint goal is to improve our understanding of when early termination happens by introducing and testing new explanatory factors as well as by improving how previously identified factors are modelled.

    The first paper focuses on Central and Eastern Europe. It shows that the stability of governments in that region is affected by slightly different factors than those that impact on governments in Western Europe. In particular, ideological factors and political institutions are found to be less important in Central and Eastern Europe while the formal power basis of the government and the country’s economic performance matter more. In the second paper, co-authored with Professor Torbjörn Bergman, the state is brought into government stability research. The paper shows that countries with a lower quality of governance and a less efficient public sector have less stable governments. This is mainly because government parties struggle to achieve their policy goals when the state apparatus is inefficient and corrupt.

    Paper 3, co-written with Associate Professor Johan Hellström, looks at how different types of governments respond to economic challenges. In particular, this paper demonstrates that the same changes in economic circumstances (e.g. increases in unemployment or inflation) have different effects on cabinet stability depending on which type of government is in charge. Single party governments are better equipped to deal with economic changes, because they are better positioned to devise new policy responses without having to compromise with other parties. Coalition governments, in contrast, become significantly more likely to terminate early when the economy takes a turn for the worse.

    Finally, over the course of two papers I first explore new techniques for analysing polling data and then use them to empirically test whether governments sometimes choose termination as a way to cope with bad poll numbers. Most of the existing techniques for pooling polls and forecasting elections were explicitly designed with two party systems in mind. In Paper 4, I test some of these techniques to determine their usefulness in complex, multiparty systems, and I develop some improvements that enable us to take advantage of more of the information in the data. In the final paper, I combine the two themes of polling and government stability by looking at how changes in government popularity affect the likelihood of premature dissolution. I find that governments, particularly single party governments, do, in fact, use terminations as a strategic response to changes in their popularity among the public. When support is high, governments tend to opportunistically call an early election, whereas they tend to abandon or reshuffle the government when support is low.

  • 277.
    Walther, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hellström, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The verdict in the polls: how government stability is affected by popular support2019In: West European Politics, ISSN 0140-2382, E-ISSN 1743-9655, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 593-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that the stability of governments is affected by how they are performing in the polls is both intuitive and popular in the literature. When support is low the government might be inclined to replace parties or the prime minister in order to regain support, thus forming a replacement government. Alternatively, a government doing well in the polls might opportunistically try to schedule an early election to capitalise on its favourable prospects. But despite the popularity of the idea, it has thus far not been tested empirically whether government stability is in fact influenced by popular support. This article aims to address this lacuna. Using a relatively new dataset with more than 12,000 unique polls, and recently developed Bayesian models for pooling the polls, it is here shown that government stability is in fact impacted by popular support. Governments display clear signs of electoral opportunism when they are polling well and, conversely, dissolve the government, without calling an election, when polling is bad. The results are strongest when there are few parties in the government, since agreement on the timing for a discretionary termination is easier when fewer players need to agree.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-25 14:22
  • 278.
    Westin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    How We Tr(eat) Animals: A political analysis of the problems faced with implementing the capabilities approach2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to display and analyse the barriers of problems that makes it hard to implement the capabilities approach created by Amartya Sen and further developed by Martha C. Nussbaum. The latter is used in this essay. With the help from normative analysis the three barriers and the solutions will be discussed. The barriers are: Human resistance against equality, meat-masculinity and the paradox of eating meat. The solutions put forward to these barriers are: Animal citizenship and animal rights, in vitro meat production and categorization of meat. The barriers and solutions are discussed with the fact that violence and wars are declining in the world and reason and intelligence is increasing, but there are still problems for implementing the capabilities approach. The conclusions of the essay are that there are problems in our society which makes it harder for the capabilities approach to be implemented. There are also solutions to these problems, which are all long term consequences and changes. The conclusions highlights some of the problems in our society and tries to give a guide to how we can solve them.

  • 279.
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Livsvillkor och framtidsperspektiv2009In: Kan norra Sverige regionaliseras?: beslutsprocesser och medborgarperspektiv / [ed] I Lidström Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen, Umeå, 2009, 2, p. 115-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jämställdhet och politiskt deltagande i svenska stadsregioner2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 281.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinnor i riksdagen: vilken betydelse har förstaplatsen på partilistorna?2018In: Snabbtänkt: reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Lars Nord, Marie Grusell, Niklas Bolin, Kajsa Falasca, Sundsvall: DEMICOM, Mittuniversitetet , 2018, p. 62-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politiskt deltagande i stadsregioner. Är kontexten könsneutral?2017In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 521-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the citizens’ political participation at local level in two Swedish city-regions. Theories of political participation claim that citizens’ resources, motivation and networks are crucial for political activism. Other theories state that the territorial context and political institutions matter as well. This indirect effect by the context is expected to be gendered, i.e. the effect is assumed to be different for women and men. The analysis is based on survey data for 3,200 citizens in two Swedish city-regions. The effect of the territorial context is investigated on several different forms of political participation, while controlling for individual factors and political institutions. The gendered effect is investigated by interaction variables. The result is that the territorial context do have a significant effect on most form of political participation and this effect is gendered. Individual factors have significant effects as expected while political institutions are unimportant.

  • 283.
    Wide, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Women’s Political Representation around the Globe 1950-20052012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Widman, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring the Role of Public–Private Partnerships in Forest Protection2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the Swedish government established the Komet program—a pilot forest protection project that was initially implemented in five land areas. The Komet program was intended to complement existing formal protection measures by establishing partnerships with forest owners and industries to encourage these actors to take a greater interest in contributing to forest conservation efforts and Nature Conservation Agreements. Despite mixed results, the government subsequently chose to implement these partnerships nationwide, thereby institutionalizing the Komet program and making it into a regular component of forest management policy. This study examines how the program developed and became institutionalized. The theoretical role of public–private partnerships and their capacity to deliver collective goods are discussed. The empirical material primarily consists of interviews with key stakeholders from the pilot period and the present reference group. The results highlight the need to carefully consider past collaborative experiences together with existing motives relating to the role of partnerships in forest protection in order to achieve successful institutionalization. This will increase the government’s capacity to create the conditions for institutionalization and may facilitate the development of external interactions in partnerships, leading to the incorporation of various protection arrangements.

  • 285.
    Widman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Protecting forests’ social values through partnerships2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 633-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential of public–private partnerships to contribute to the resolution of decision-making dilemmas concerning private goods that also provide public services. We focus on forests that deliver many ecosystem services and are important for biodiversity, which pose problems regarding the values that should be considered in their protection and exploitation. Conflicts between the interests and values concerned (or at least prioritization difficulties) will arise and their satisfactory resolution will require some kind of collaboration between governmental authorities and private forest owners. Thus, the Swedish Forest Agency has initiated a pilot project on a new form of such partnerships, Nature Conservation Agreements for social values, which are considered as a case study here. We use an adapted version of the Ladder of Partnership Activity, which includes theoretical constructs such as context, perceptions and motives, creation of collaborative advantages and the constitution of rules, to see if and how these partnerships can enhance an embedded governance system, by enabling the actors to address collective problems in a mutually satisfactory manner. Our results contribute knowledge on how the governance of forests can be designed, and the kinds of values that could be included to spur the implementation of partnerships.

  • 286.
    Wimelius, Malin E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Islamska stater2005In: Religion och politik / [ed] Magnus Hagevi, Malmö: Liber , 2005, 1, p. 187-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Wimelius, Malin E
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eklund, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Elfving, Jörgen
    Peacekeeping à la Russe2018In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 3, p. 187-199Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Woxlin, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Aktörsanalys av svensk skogspolitik2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 289.
    Wörlund, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kampen om det ideologiska rummet: en studie av variationer i SAP:s regionala väljarstöd 1921-1940 mot bakgrund av partiorganisatorisk aktivitet och lokal organisationsmiljö1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish political parties are characterized by their markedly different support across geographical space. In most cases, the sources of these regional variations date back to the time of the founding of the parties. Moreover, the regional strongholds and the areas of weak support for the parties have survived major societal changes such as the transition from the agrarian to the industrial society, emigration, and urbanization. Why is it that a certain area evolves a political tradition that sets it apart from neighboring areas? This study addresses itself to this and similar topics with empirical emphasis on the Swedish Social Democratic Party (the SAP).The study is based on the conviction that the regional imbalance in the SAP vote originates in the interaction/competition between various social and political movements in the local environment. The initial model used to explain these imbalances comprises three different factors that influence the party's vote: the socio-economic structure, the local organizational environment and the effect of local party organizational efforts.In order to test the importance of these factors three different areas were selected; one strong, one weak, and one unstable in terms of the Social Democratic vote.The findings show that no single factor alone accounts for the variance in the regional support of the SAP. Rather, what is decisive are the interactions within the structural and social properties of a context.By way of conclusion, this study lends support to the following conclusions of the prospects for the SAP to mobilize the electorate: to establish itself in the local setting the party needs an organizational culture, a local party organization and the absence of strong local opinion against the party's activities and organizational efforts. The party also seems to be favored by a high level of political mobilization (participation), whereas there is nothing to suggest that the SAP's prospects of becoming successful are hampered by competition from the left-wing parties.

  • 290.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Commons protected for or from the people?: Co-management in the Swedish mountain region?2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protected areas have so far been the primary means to conserve biodiversity, an increasingly important environmental issue, but proposals to establish protected areas are often met by local resistance due to fears that user rights will be severely restrained. Nature conservation traditionally aims to preserve an ideal state of nature, in which interference by people is minimized through a number of regulations, and where central authorities are in charge. Increasingly, however, conservation policy emphasizes participation. Protected area designations are about institutional change where customary and legal rights to use and manage certain resources are renegotiated. Protected areas can be considered as multi-use and multi-level commons that may benefit from co-management where the state cooperates with user groups, municipalities, research institutions and others.

    This thesis analyzes the establishment phase of the co-management of multi-level, multi-use commons in order to characterize design principles common to the emergence of co-management processes which improve institutional robustness.

    The thesis is based on a quantitative survey study and a small-n comparative case study. Paper I compares national, regional and local public opinions about protected areas through a multi-level survey. Papers II to IV each presents a case study of a designation process within the Swedish mountain region. The qualitative case studies are based on the structured, focused comparison method and employ within-case analysis and process-tracing. The material examined consisted of written documenta­tion and 41 semi-structured interviews.

    The two studies contribute to commons theory; the focus on the establishment phase provides opportunities to acquire abundant information about how contextual and process factors influence the functioning of a co-management arrangement. Paper I suggests that national public opinion is an important contextual variable for natural resources of national interest, and shows that 65% of the Swedish population support local or co-management of protected areas. Papers II to IV reveal that the rigidity of the existing institutional framework is another important contextual variable that influences the degree of learning taking place. Further, the comparative analysis proposes that certain characteristics of a process (the co-management process principles) are essential for the realization of co-management arrangements of multi-level and multi-use commons. The principles are representation, reason(ableness), powers, accountability and learning.

  • 291.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Conflict resolution mechanisms in co-management: the Laponia world heritage siteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To accommodate changes in the environment and society, a diverse range of institutional tools is needed. One such tool is co-management, which is particularly relevant for management of the commons, but little is known about the socio-political processes (ideal and actual) involved in the emergence of co-management arrangements. Conflicts have been proposed as catalysts for the development of co-management and conflict resolution mechanisms have recognized importance, but they have not been intensively examined in the literature regarding commons. The aim of this paper is to analyze the processes that occur in the shift from policymaking to implementation during the emergence of co-management arrangements, in order to further understand institutional and policy change. The study was prompted partly by a perceived need to clarify concepts related to conflict resolution mechanisms. Hence, concepts in alternative dispute resolution theory and in the literature on com­mons and policy change are compared. A theoretical framework is then developed in which process models of collaboration are discussed in relation to learning orders. Finally, the process involved in the establishment of the Laponia World Heritage Site is examined, as both an illustration and an initial test of the relevance of the theoretical framework.

  • 292.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Deliberative democracy and co-management of natural resources: snowmobile regulation in western Sweden2010In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 273-292Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberation is an understudied aspect of co-management institutions and common pool theory that can be improved by a closer connection to deliberative democratic theory. Analyses of co-management arrangements provide needed empirical insights to deliberative democratic theory, although such arrangements are group-based and not readily accepted as examples of deliberative democracy. A framework is developed to analyze to what degree co-management arrangements incorporate deliberative elements and how they contribute to improved decision-making. To test its usefulness, a case study of a co-management process in Sweden is analyzed. In Funäsdalsfjällen, a mountainous area of western Sweden, a conflict-ridden situation caused by expanded use of snowmobiles eventually led to the establishment of a municipal regulation area. Central and regional authorities initially failed to resolve the conflict, but when they started working directly with the municipality and relevant interest groups, agreement was reached. Deliberative elements are shown to have been central to the success of the co-management process, and it is concluded that co-management and deliberative democratic approaches cross-fertilize one another.

  • 293.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The designation of Fulufjället National Park: efficient co-management through downward accountability?2009In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International obligations in nature conservation policy demand for decentralisation and co-management. Co-management arrangements are increasingly seen as forms of governance, which opens up for the critique that accountability becomes blurred when public–private relations are characterised by informality and negotiations. The purpose of this article is to examine the issue of accountability by comparing comanagement theory and the decentralisation framework of Agrawal and Ribot, and by empirically analysing the designation of Fulufja¨llet National Park. This case constitutes a blueprint for Swedish efforts to adhere to the international obligations for decentralisation and is thus an example of their implementation.

  • 294.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    “Coexistence Ceasefire” in Mindanao2019In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the peace and conflict literature, a ceasefire is often conceived as an event or an outcome of an armed conflict. In this paper, I argue that we can gain a better understanding of ceasefires by approaching them as dynamic processes of change and by exploring patterns of interactions and changing relationships in the context of ceasefire. I use this approach in a case study of the ceasefire between the government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in Mindanao. I suggest that the Mindanao ceasefire can be conceptualized as a form of “coexistence ceasefire,” and I trace the development of the particular ceasefire structure and interactions to features of the armed conflict, including its territorial dimension and the presence of multiple sources of violence. The paper contributes a new and more nuanced way of studying ceasefires that provides a better understanding of their characteristics and dynamics and of how they shape and in turn are shaped by the broader conflict landscape.

  • 295.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The role of external actors in managing peace processes in Asia: an overview of attempts in Aceh, Mindanao and Sri Lanka2011In: Conflict Management and Dispute Settlement in East Asia / [ed] Ramses Amer and Keyuan Zou, Farnham and Burlington: Ashgate Publishing , 2011, 1, p. 83-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Role of the Media in Times of War-Making and Peace-Making in Aceh2015In: Asian Politics & Policy, ISSN 1943-0779, E-ISSN 1943-0787, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 327-332Article in journal (Refereed)
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