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  • 251.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Kvinnan, staden och rätten under 1600-talet1995In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 536-559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 252.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Poor girls' schooling and transitions of gender and class2018In: Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-1800 / [ed] Elise M. Dermineur, Åsa Karlsson Sjögren, Virginia Langum, New York and Oxon: Routledge, 2018, p. 78-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The only girls who attended schools in late eighteenth-century Sweden were poor, and they went to the same schools as poor boys. From being included in the mixed-sex schools, a shift occurred in early 1800 that saw the establishment of schools specifically for poor girls. This development is investigated in the chapter. The chapter analyzes a process of integration and segregation of the sexes in schools for poor children in order to understand how shifts in conceptions of gender intersected with changing social and economic societal relations of poverty and class. During a formative period when class society developed at the cost of older hierarchies, and when gender was undergoing reconstruction, poor girls played a role. During a few years, when poor girls attended established boys' schools, they challenged the schools in many ways. Poor girls had to be segregated from boys, but not for the same reasons as the middle and upper classes. They should not learn too much, in terms of either practical or theoretical skills. Gender, age and class intersected, to the disadvantage of the poor school girls. The segregation of the sexes led in just a few years to the foundation of specific girls' schools for poor girls. The division of the sexes was never fully established however, and mixed-sex schools were still organized and later on institutionalized in the elementary schools.

  • 253.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Riksdagsdebatten om lika arvsrätt 18342001In: Genusperspektiv i historia: metodövningar / [ed] Magnus Perlestam, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2001, p. 113-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sunt förnuft och skattebetalarens kön: Skattebetalarnas förening i 1960-talets sambeskattningsdebatt2016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 70-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the Swedish Taxpayers' Association acted and reacted with regard to the political question of joint or individual taxation in Sweden during the 1960s, addressing how expressions of the taxpayer transformed, how the taxpayer was gendered and how the relationship between state, households and individuals changed. The theoretical and methodological approach is based on Carol Lee Bacchi's use of discourse theory on political issues, focusing on perceptions of gender and taxpaying. Individual taxation was introduced in Sweden in 1971. Through other reforms, such as social security and child care, the Nordic countries laid the foundation for changing the relationships between state and individuals, as well as between the sexes. Previous research has studied different actors who worked for and against the tax reform; however, right-wing organizations are not studied to the same extent as liberal or social democratic organizations. The Swedish Taxpayers' Association is characterized as non-socialist, whose goal was to cut taxes and scrutinize how taxpayers' money was used by state and local governments. In the early 1960s, there was an obvious norm of the taxpayer as male. If married, he was the breadwinner and his wife was not seen an economic subject. If she worked, both the joint taxation and other costs, such as for maids, were put on top of her income. Despite the male norm, the family or the mother were connected to children. When the issue appeared on the political agenda, the information changed and women were now conceivable as both taxpayers and wage earners. However, the male breadwinner norm was still dominant. From now on, the critique focused on the progressive elements in the tax system. The information material had to be revised in 1965, as a reform of voluntary individual taxation was introduced. Especially for families with high double incomes, it now became beneficial to use individual taxation, and thereby the idea of the woman as an individual economic unit developed further. The association accepted the reform of 1970, also due to the needs of the business sector. Conservative arguments concerning family faded away during these years, whereas the norm of the taxpayer was still male.

  • 255.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Synen på brott och kön genom historien2000In: Brott och straff: en antologi / [ed] Föreningen skyddsvärnet i Stockholm, Stockholm: Fören. Skyddsvärnet i samarbete med ABF Stockholm , 2000, p. 92-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Taxpaying, poor relief and citizenship: democratization from a gender perspective2013In: Tracing the women-friendly welfare state: gendered politics of everyday life in Sweden / [ed] Åsa Gunnarsson, Göteborg Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2013, p. 17-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lindström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Från väljare till valbara: kvinnor och lokalpolitik ur ett långt tidsperspektiv2018In: Rösträttens århundrade: kampen, utvecklingen och framtiden för demokratin i Sverige / [ed] Ulrika Holgersson och Lena Wängnerud, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2018, p. 129-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Kautto, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Högberg, L
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden and Department of Pediatrics in Norrköping, County Council of Östergötland, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Carlsson, A
    Department of Pediatrics, SUS University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Nutrient intake in adolescent girls and boys diagnosed with coeliac disease at an early age is mostly comparable to their non-coeliac contemporaries2014In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Food habits, nutrient needs and intakes differ between males and females, although few nutritional studies on patients with coeliac disease (CD) have reported results stratified by gender.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare energy and nutrient intakes among 13-year olds diagnosed with CD in early childhood with those of a non-coeliac (NC) age- and gender-matched control group, and also with estimated average requirements (EAR).

    METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Sweden 2006-2007 within the coeliac screening study ETICS (Exploring The Iceberg of Coeliacs in Sweden). Dietary intake was assessed among 37 adolescents (23 girls) diagnosed with CD at median age 1.7 years (CD group) and 805 (430 girls) NC controls (NC group) using a food-frequency questionnaire covering 4 weeks. Reported energy intake was validated by comparison with the calculated physical activity level (PAL).

    RESULTS: Regardless of CD status, most adolescents reported an intake above EAR for most nutrients. However, both groups had a low intake of vitamin C, with 13% in the CD-group and 25% in the NC-group below EAR, and 21% of boys in the CD-group below EAR for thiamine. The intake of fatty acids was unbalanced, with a high intake of saturated and a low intake of unsaturated fats. Girls and boys in the CD-group had an overall lower nutrient density in reported food intake compared to girls and boys in the NC-group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient intake of adolescent girls and boys with CD was mostly comparable to intakes of NC controls. Dietitians should take the opportunity to reinforce a generally healthy diet when providing information about the gluten-free diet.

  • 259.
    Kautto, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lyon, Phil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Alex, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Living with celiac disease: norms of femininity and the complications of everyday life2017In: International Journal of Celiac Disease, ISSN 2334-3427, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women with celiac disease are often described as being exposed to negative emotions and experiences related to the treatment of celiac disease, the gluten-free diet. To explore the daily consequences of diagnosis and their daily experiences of living with celiac disease, interviews were conducted with seven Swedish young women who had been diagnosed with celiac disease by screening in early adolescence. The semi-structured interview transcripts were content analysed using a gender perspective. The analysis showed that these young women`s daily experiences were coloured by the conjunction of their dietary treatment, their social relationships, and social norms. This means that recurrent food situations often clash with the normative constructions of femininity and social norms of eating with an adverse effect on dietary compliance.

  • 260.
    Kautto, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lyon, Phil
    School of Arts, Social Sciences and Management, Queen Margaret University, UK.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Alex, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Seeking a new normality: masculinity, interaction and a gluten free diet2016In: International Journal of Celiac Disease, ISSN 2334-3486, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 138-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From earlier studies, men diagnosed with celiac disease are known to be less troubled by their experiences of living with the disease than are diagnosed women. Previous studies, concentrating on men with celiac disease have been mostly quantitative, and have a bio-medical emphasis. The aim of this study was to explore the social experience of young men with screening-detected celiac disease and to highlight daily life situations five years after diagnosis. Seven young men, diagnosed with celiac disease when they were 13 years-olds through a large Swedish school-based celiac screening-study, were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were analyzed from a gender perspective which resulted in three themes; being subjected to changes, striving for normality and emphasizing commitment. These were underpinned by several sub-themes. The young men dissociated themselves from being seen as a person with a life-long chronic disease. The analysis also showed that the young men’s daily experiences of living with celiac disease largely depended on their use of characteristics known to be associated with masculinity: such as being self-assured, demanding, and behaving authoritatively. In food situations, where the young men had the ability to make use of such characteristics in their informal group, they experienced fewer negative aspects of the disease. If the young men did not hold a strong position in their informal group, their situation was insecure and vulnerable and this could lead to avoidance of contacts and social meal situations.

  • 261.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kraftfulla bett eller tandlösa råd?: Om två svenska lärosätens arbete med jämställdhet samt etnisk och social mångfald.2012In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, ISSN 1654-5443, no 1-2, p. 95-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academia is demanded to design and undertake equality work within the organization. A common way of organizing this work is through committees with consultative assignment in relation to university principal and management board. The purpose of this article is to scrutinize meeting protocols from gender equality committees as well as from social and ethnic equality committees. Further more to analyze how these committeemembers, from a gender and organizational theory perspective, perceive the changing interventions. The main research questions are: are there differences between gender equality and social and ethnic committees or among the committee members´ experiences of the committee work? On what feministic assumptions do the intervention of change rely and do they create prerequisites for change of power relations and what the limitations are?

    The data consists of interviews with 22 members within these committees and 80 meeting protocols during a period of four years, at two Swedish universities. The result show that the gender equality committees are more established compared to the committees of social and ethnic equality. Another result is that the activity within the committees to high degree consists of internal activities, such as information and discussions concerning their way of organizing their work. The external interventions of change are foremost of strategical or educational character. The committee members express uncertainty about the achievement of their work with changing interventions. These interventions are presumably of great importance but not designed in a comprehensive way. Hence these interventions probably do not challenge the power relations in an essential way, since they do not change the conditions and determining factors that are constructing and maintaining them in the first place.

  • 262.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sammanvävda praktiker?: En studie av likabehandlingsarbete och vetenskapligt förhållningssätt i grundskolan2018In: Att leda skolor med stöd i forskning: exempel, analyser och utmaningar / [ed] Niclas Rönnström & Olof Johansson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, 1, p. 417-447Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Carbin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Administrators or Critical Cynics?: A Study of Gender Equality Workers in Swedish Higher Education2014In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 204-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality workers have to perform a balancing act between feminist ideals for change and neo-liberal management trends. So-called audit discourses have gradually been introduced into Swedish universities, in line with an enterprise model. In this new context, the aim of our article is to investigate how gender equality workers at universities articulate gender equality and possibilities for change. What are their visions and strategies for achieving gender equality? This article is based on interviews with gender equality workers at three Swedish universities and explores how the legitimate gender equality worker is constructed. We found that there is a lack of visionary thinking among gender equality workers, which manifests itself in a sense that the distinction between visions and strategies has collapsed and technologies like auditing have become the vision. It seems that, whilst navigating between liberal feminist discourses and an increasingly neo-liberal setting, two positions are available for gender equality workers. The first is the "administrator", who asks for more tools and monitoring of gender equality, in order for the work to become more efficient and legitimate. The second position, the "critical cynic", makes scepticism and resistance to the increasing bureaucratization of gender equality work possible, but lacks alternative visions and strategies. Gender equality initiatives have thus become increasingly embedded in auditing technologies, and the possibilities for articulating alternatives or visionary ideals, beyond liberal values of anti-discrimination, seem limited.

  • 264.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Enberg, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    What is a good workplace?: Tracing the logics of NPM among managers and professionals in Swedish elderly care2016In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 6, p. 27-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoliberal policies such as new public management (NPM) have been pivotal to the Swedish elderly care system for two decades. This article explores the discourses of NPM and work by focusing on how a good workplace is represented by professionals and managers in Swedish elderly care. Using qualitative interviews with 31 managers, nurses, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists at nine workplaces, we identified four competing meanings (“storylines”) of how a good workplace is constructed among the interviewees within an ongoing struggle between two discourses. Three storylines, i.e., striving to achieve the mission, a desire to work in elderly care, and striving for good working relationships, are linked to the neoliberal discourse of organizational effectiveness. In contrast, the fourth storyline, support and better working conditions, is related to a welfare-state discourse of traditional labor relations with strong historical roots. Four subject positions available to the managers and professionals were identified: the bureaucrat, the passionate, the professional, and the critic. We conclude that NPM is translated on top of existing discourses, such as those of traditional labor relations, care ideals, and practices, that are already established in elderly care workplaces and that counteract the new policy.

  • 265.
    Keiu, Lan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Whiteness and the promise of mixed-race love2016In: Gränser, mobilitet och mobilisering: Boundaries, mobility and mobilisation : Nationell konferens för genusforskning = Swedish conference for gender research / [ed] Silje Lundgren, Maja Lundqvist, Björn Pernrud, Göteborg: Nationella sekretariatet för genusforskning , 2016, p. 121-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 266.
    Kirst, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Flyktingkatastrofen i massmedia: En diskursanalys av medias rapportering kring flyktingkatastrofen 2015/20162016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2015 till 2016 inträffade en stor flyktingkatastrof där miljontalsmänniskor flydde för sina liv runt om i världen. En del av dessa människor ansökte under dessa år om asyl i Sverige, närmare bestämt 162 877 år 2015. Denna stora ökning av asylsökande i Sverige och övriga Europa fick stor uppmärksamhet i media och det rapporterades dagligen om flyktingkatastrofen. Mitt syfte med den här studien är därför att undersöka de centrala diskurserna i medias framställning av flyktingkatastrofen från dess början 2015 till 2016 då den nya asyllagen trädde i kraft. Samt undersöka om och i så fall hur diskurserna förändrats över denna tidsperiod. För att besvara mitt syfte har jag genomfört en diskursanalys av totalt nio tidningsartiklar från tre olika dagstidningar och från olika delar av denna tidsperiod. Resultaten visar att de centrala diskurserna handlade om dels flyktingkatastrofen i sig som händelse och dels effekterna av flyktingkatastrofen, det vill säga det stora antalet asylsökande inom framförallt EU samt hur dessa skulle hanteras. Vidare visade också resultaten att det skett en förändring inom medias rapportering om flyktingkatastrofen. Denna förändring gestaltades genom en strängare migrationspolitik som kom att spela en central del i medias rapportering om flyktingkatastrofen.

  • 267.
    Kjellson, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Hushåll, arbete och genus vid Wifstavarf under den tidiga industrialiseringen2004In: Historiens mångfald: presentation av pågående forskning vid Institutionen för historiska studier, Umeå universitet / [ed] Ann-Katrin Hatje, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2004, Vol. 1, p. 123-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Kolam, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jämställdhet - en utmaning för rektor och förskolechef2014In: Ledarskap i centrum: Om rektor och förskolechef / [ed] Monika Törnsén & Helene Ärlestig, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, p. 113-130Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Kristoffersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Diderichsen, Saima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Lagro-Janssen, Toine
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    To select or be selected - gendered experiences in clinical training affect medical students' specialty preferences2018In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 18, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The literature investigating female and male medical students' differing career intentions is extensive. However, medical school experiences and their implications for professional identity formation and specialty choice have attracted less attention. In this study we explore the impact of medical school experiences on students' specialty preferences, investigate gender similarities and differences, and discuss how both might be related to gender segregation in specialty preference.

    Methods: In a questionnaire, 250 Swedish final-year medical students described experiences that made them interested and uninterested in a specialty. Utilizing a sequential mixed methods design, their responses were analyzed qualitatively to create categories that were compared quantitatively.

    Results: Similar proportions of women and men became interested in a specialty based on its knowledge area, patient characteristics, and potential for work-life balance. These aspects, however, often became secondary to whether they felt included or excluded in clinical settings. More women than men had been deterred by specialties with excluding, hostile, or sexist workplace climates (W = 44%, M = 16%). In contrast, more men had been discouraged by specialties' knowledge areas (W = 27%, M = 47%).

    Conclusions: Male and female undergraduates have similar incentives and concerns regarding their career. However, the prevalence of hostility and sexism in the learning environment discourages especially women from some specialties. To reduce gender segregation in specialty choice, energy should be directed towards counteracting hostile workplace climates that explain apparent stereotypical assumptions about career preferences of men and women.

  • 270.
    Kriva, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The recognition of the nonbinary gender: A socio-legal analysis of the third gender legislation in Malta and Germany2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The binary conception of gender as solely male or female has had a great impact to nonbinary and intersex people in the societal and legal field. Their ability to enjoy human rights is impacted by the current normative confines of sex and gender. The aim of the following paper is to investigate how Malta and Germany have included intersex people and/or nonbinary identities in their legislation and through a socio-legal analysis examine whether their legislations achieved to provide non-discrimination policies. The paper concludes that the third legal recognition in Malta and Germany is based on different perspectives in order to include populations that do not conform to the binary dichotomy and that seek legal recognition.

  • 271.
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A booming market of precarious work: selling domestic services in women-friendly Sweden2013In: Tracing the women-friendly welfare state: gendered politics of everyday life in Sweden / [ed] Åsa Gunnarsson, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2013, p. 214-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Changing social organizations of care: a comparison of European policy reforms encouraging paid domestic work2012In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many European countries different types of policy reforms intending to encourage growth in the domestic service sector have been introduced. The methods and reforms differ but mainly the reforms intend to stimulate growth of a ‘new’ legal labour market sector within private households. This potential growth sector in combination with insufficient or declining welfare states, inclining female labour market participation and ageing populations could be viewed as explanatory factors to the increased demand for domestic services. A growing amount of those performing paid domestic work in European homes are migrant women with or without papers. The aim of this article is to create a model that enables comparisons of these reforms, with a special focus on changing social organizations of care for elders, children and other dependent persons. Included in the analysis are Euro- pean countries that have introduced wide domestic service policy reforms as measurement to encourage growth in the domestic service sector, i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany and Sweden. 

  • 273.
    Kvist, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Overud, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    From Emancipation through Employment to Emancipation through Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of the Special Labor Market Initiatives (BRYT) and Tax Deduction for Domestic Services (RUT) in Sweden2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates on gender equality policy in Sweden assume that women’s labor market participation is central to gender equality and should be promoted via special initiatives and programs. This paper examines how gender equality discourses have changed over time, analyzing Swedish state labor market policy in the 1980s and 1990s, special labor market initiatives to eliminate gender segregation and encourage nontraditional gendered work choices, and contemporary state subsidies for paid domestic work (i.e., tax deduction for domestic services). Critically interpreting these reforms reveals consistencies and continuities in how labor market participation is viewed as the key promoter of gender equality, revealing transformations in how gender equality is understood and constructed. A transition is discernible from state-funded programs and reforms to governmental agencies/authorities and state subsidies to promote enterprise and the growth of specific labor market sectors.

  • 274.
    Kärnebro, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Plugga stenhårt eller vara rolig?: Normer om språk, kön och skolarbete i identitetsskapande språkpraktiker på fordonsprogrammet2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between language, identity construction and learning in the context of the Vehicle programme, a vocational program in Swedish upper secondary schools. The study focuses on language practices and the norms of language, gender and school work that are negotiated in conversations between pupils and between pupils and teachers. The language practices are considered as talk-in-interaction, and identity construction and learning are understood as processes in socially situated activities. The Vehicle programme has its basis in mechanics with links to the vehicle and transport trades, and can be identified as a male-coded program in several respects. The pupils participating in this study were both boys and girls attending a school situated in the North of Sweden. The study was conducted through an ethnographic approach, employing plural methods including observation, field notes, audio-recordings of conversations, and interviews with pupils in focus groups and individually. Recorded conversations were analysed using tools from conversation analysis. The analysis is based on Judith Butler’s theory of gender as performance, Raewyn Connell’s theory of hegemonic masculinity, and Penelope Eckert’s theory of the heterosexual market. A socio-cultural theory of learning describing communities of practice, by Lave and Wenger, which has also been applied to linguistics by Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, forms the basis of the theoretical framework.

    The analyses of conversations show that the language practices were confrontational, direct and humorous; characteristics that have strong connections to notions of a masculine conversational style. The pupils were not as aware of interactional patterns as they were of the words they used. Thereby the norms in the community of practice, which were based on notions of masculinity and heterosexuality, were not noticed, and worked as undercurrents in the interaction. The girls participated in the language practices in the same ways as the boys, but contrary to the boys, the girls interpreted the language practices as effects of other things than gender, for example as signs of being independent or daring. They also experienced that adjusting to the expectations of normative middle-class femininity was more oppressive than adjusting to the norms that were negotiated within the community of practice. The conversation analyses also show some of the complexity in teachers’ work and their role as mediators of norms and values. Peer reactions to individual pupil turns in the classroom conversations were of more importance for the development of the conversations than teacher responses. Thus there was usually a homogenization of the expressed perspectives. Norms of heterosexuality were constantly reconstructed in interaction within the community of practice and they controlled the pupils’ understanding of what was perceived as normal or deviant behaviour. Thereby the pupils constrained each other’s school performances in the core subjects and reconstructed a difference between being theoretical and practical, a process that was partly supported by the school as an institution. Generally, the pupils in the community of practice had to balance their identity constructions in relation to the peer group, teacher expectations, and their own ambitions, for which reason learning turned out to be more than just a process of acquiring knowledge.

  • 275.
    Laisser, Rose M
    et al.
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Midwifery School, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lugina, Helen I
    Bugando University College of Health Sciences, Archbishop Antony Mayalla School of Nursing, Mwanza Tanzania.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Community perceptions of intimate partner violence: a qualitative study from urban Tanzania2011In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 11, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence.

    METHODS: A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence.

    RESULTS: The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights perspective of violence, as well as actively engaging men. At the macro level, preventive efforts must be prioritized through re-enforcement of legal rights, and provision of adequate medical and social welfare services for both survivors and perpetrators.

  • 276.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Changing housework, changing health?: A longitudinal analysis of how changes in housework are associated with functional somatic symptoms2016In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, article id 31781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse how changes in housework over the course of adulthood are related to somatic health in Swedish men and women.

    Methods: Data were drawn from 2 waves of the Northern Swedish Cohort Study, response rate 94.3%, N1,001. A subsample of cohabiting individuals was selected (n328 women, 300 men). Outcome variable was functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at age 42. Associations were assessed in multivariate general linear models with adjustment for confounders and somatic health at age 30.

    Results: Housework is primarily performed by women, and women’s responsibility for and performance of housework increased from ages 30 to 42. These changes were associated with elevated levels of FSS at age 42 in women. Men reported considerably lower responsibility for and performed less housework compared with women, the load of housework for men does not change substantially from ages 30 to 42 and no associations with FSS were identified.

    Conclusions: The gendered division of housework means that women are particularly exposed to a heavy workload. Women’s responsibility for and performance of housework increase between ages 30 and 42 and this threatens to be embodied in the form FSS. We conclude that housework should be considered an important source of stress in addition to that from waged work and that a deeper understanding of the links between housework and health requires a gender theoretical analysis.

  • 277.
    Langum, Virginia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Medicine, female mystics and illness experience2018In: Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-1800 / [ed] Elise M. Dermineur, Åsa Karlsson Sjögren and Virginia Langum, Routledge, 2018, p. 100-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship of the physical, gendered body to mental health is a common theme in literary studies, which have sought to understand historical and contemporary narratives by female authors. Medieval mystics, in particular, have invited psychological and medical intrigue, both in their own period and much later. While both male and female mystics often write in highly embodied imagery, female mystics often write in immediate relation to their own bodies. Mystics sought personal experience, or what is called mystical union with the divine, through certain practices, which ranged from contemplation to extreme fleshly mortification. In the later Middle Ages, between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, women took a particular role in shaping mystical practices and texts through their works in various languages. Not only their own contemporaries but also far more recent readers have offered various biomedical and psychosomatic diagnoses for these medieval female mystics. This chapter outlines these attempts, while arguing for a new interpretation of the texts using the women's own use and understanding of medicine. From the outset, the range of diagnoses from various readers from the fifteenth century to the twenty-first century seems vast and incompatible—from medieval accounts of demonic possession and humoral balance, to late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century notions of hysteria, to more current diagnoses of temporal lobe epilepsy and botulism. However, I argue that they have a common clinical core. They assume that these women are bodies and minds to be diagnosed by various authoritative standards, whether religious or biomedical. This chapter considers contemporary and anachronistic diagnostic tools for mystical experience through the works of two mystical women of late medieval England: Margery Kempe (ca. 1373–ca. 1438) and Julian of Norwich (ca. 1342–ca. 1416). Despite the wealth of criticism on these women, which refers to their contemporary and later authoritative discourses of religion and medicine, the women's own medical knowledge and the way they negotiate it in terms of their own experience has not yet been considered. I argue that these texts stand witness to two women attuned to medical knowledge and capable of diagnosing themselves. Rather than clinical narratives, these texts represent illness experiences, and as such the interplay of their own contemporary biomedical knowledge and their own lived embodied experience. They are at once doctors and patients.

  • 278.
    Larsson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Genusperspektivet behöver stärkas i case-undervisningen: Analys av fallbeskrivningarna på läkarutbildningen i Umeå2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 415-418Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Lauri, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Social movements, squatting and communality: ethical practices and re‐subjecti cation processes2019In: Subjectivity, ISSN 1755-6341, E-ISSN 1755-635X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 154-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores openings for re-subjectification in a case of a house squat for free culture. Combining Lacanian discourse theory and the ‘ontology of political possibilities’, I explore how political subjectivities might (trans)form during such a process. Through interviews with participating squatters, the analysis suggests that this theoretical and methodological framing can capture moments of re-subjectification that are often overlooked. Via the performance of democratic values, a community knowledge became embodied in the subjects, which arguably carries the possibility of a redirection of desire, away from individualism and towards cultivating their political subjects towards communality. The squat can be read as a process of cultivating a shared identification with, and desire for, commonality, democracy and the possibility of a different relationship with the participants’ political lives. This analysis thus contribute to acknowledging openings for re-subjectification in cases that at first glance are dismissed as failures.

  • 280.
    Lauri, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Bäckström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Coffee by women: the 'duty of ethical enjoyment'2019In: Cultural Studies, ISSN 0950-2386, E-ISSN 1466-4348, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 866-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the contemporary trend of deploying feminist values in the case of ethical branding. Using the psychoanalytical concepts logics of fantasy and enjoyment, we analyse the campaign by Swedish coffee brand Zoégas, Coffee by Women, to understand how a combination of development discourse, ‘women’s empowerment’ and the opportunity to ‘do good’ is employed to sell coffee. The analysis shows that the campaign depicts the threat of a future lack of coffee, creating anxiety in the consumer, supposedly motivating her to purchase Zoégas, as Coffee by Women is claimed to secure and educate new generations of coffee farmers. Simultaneously, this is presented as ‘empowering women’ in the global South. We argue that this narrative builds on a colonial fantasy of global sisterhood and shared interests that works to conceal the political conflicts connected to global trade and climate change. Through a commodification of feminist values and aesthetics, this fantasy works to redirect the desire for social change towards consumption, offering an enjoyable solution that disregards any wider responsibility. It has been argued that the structure of the social bond before the era of mass consumption was characterized by a prohibition on individual enjoyment for the benefit of the common good. After the arrival of mass consumption, the social bond instead became marked by a duty to enjoy. In the contemporary context of ethical capitalism, we suggest that the social bond is rather structured by a ‘duty of ethical enjoyment’, containing elements of both prohibition and pleasure.

  • 281.
    Liliequist, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Olovsdotter Lööv, Anna
    Guest editorial2019In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Berättelsen om drottning Margaretas märke: Känsla, kön och politik i den svenska propagandan mot Danmark under 1500- och 1600-talen2018In: TEMP-tidsskrift for historie, ISSN 1904-5565, E-ISSN 1904-9587, no 16, p. 100-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the tale about the Danish queen Margareta who, during her regency of Sweden (1389-1412), was thought to have struck a coin with a mark of her female genitals to the eternal shame and ignominy of the Swedes. This tale was first told in Chronica regni Gothorum, a chronicle written by Ericus Olai in the 1470s, and was later repeated and commented on in the 16th and especially 17th centuries when the Danes were described as the hereditary foes of Sweden. The aim is to analyse the offensive meanings of the story from the analytical perspective of the history of emotions, and more precisely to examine how negative emotions like contempt, scorn and disgust were mobilized and communicated in connection with the tale. The analysis begins from a close reading of the chronicles and commentaries to uncover emotional reactions and terms to be further analysed in the broader contexts of propaganda and early modern Swedish society. A further aim is to make a critical contribution to the discussion about the role of genitals, emotions and biological sex in premodern notions of gender.

  • 283.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    From honour to virtue: the shifting social logics of masculinityand honour in early modern Sweden2014In: Honour, violence and emotions in history / [ed] Carolyn Strange, Robert Cripp and Christopher E. Forth, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, p. 45-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 284.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Introduction: Part II : Humor, laughter and the rhetoric of manhood2015In: Laughter, humor, and the (un)making of gender: historical and cultural perspectives / [ed] Anna Foka and Jonas Liliequist, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 123-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Laughing at the Unmanly Man in Early Modern Sweden2015In: Laughter, humor, and the (un)making of gender: historical and cultural perspectives / [ed] Anna Foka and Jonas Liliequist, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 229-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Manlighet och socialitet: från duellernas hedersretorik till 1700- och 1800-talens vänskapskult2004In: Historiens mångfald: presentation av pågående forskning vid Institutionen för historiska studier, Umeå universitet / [ed] Ann-Katrin Hatje, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2004, Vol. 1, p. 79-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Women's Studies.
    Masculinity and Virility: representations of Male Sexuality in Eighteenth-Century Sweden2007In: Collegium : Studies across disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, ISSN 1796-2986, E-ISSN 1796-2986, Vol. 2, p. 57-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What should historians do with contrasting and contradictory accounts of male sexual practices and how should these be connected to notions of masculinity? Although the analysis of masculinity has developed sophisticated models of hierarchic and multiple masculinities, the history of sexuality has long been dominated by a phallocentric model. In this model, before the emergence of modern concepts of sexual identity in the nineteenth century, male sexual behaviour and desire were really about domination and the demonstration of social power, primarily symbolized by the active performance of penetration and the passive submission of the penetrated partner whether in hetero- or same-sex relations. The first sections of this essay deal with the relevance of this model for eighteenth-century Sweden, with reference to male self-apprehension and descriptions of male sexual practices in two secret diaries and autobiographies which, taken together, provide very different images of male sexuality. It will be argued here that the concept of virility in the sense of culturally constructed notions of bodily and sexual comportment as ultimate symbols of masculine strength and vigour could play a crucial role in connecting male sexual practices and meanings of masculinity. The essay closes with a brief suggestion of where the basis for hegemonic ideas of masculinity may be found.

  • 288.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Peasants against Nature.: Crossing the Boundaries between Man and Animal in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Sweden1991In: Journal of the history of sexuality, ISSN 1535-3605, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 393-423Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 289.
    Liliequist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    State policy, popular discourse, and the silence on homosexual acts in early modern Sweden1998In: Scandinavian homosexualities: essays on gay and lesbian studies / [ed] Jan Löfström, New York & London: Haworth Press, 1998, p. 15-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, homosexual acts between men were mentioned in secular law for the first time in 1608. Despite the explicit criminalization, very few trials are known from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the new National Law Code of 1734 contained no sanction at all. The central issue of this essay is how the insignificant number of court cases and the seemingly very limited judicial interest in the issue of sodomy in Early Modern Sweden should be interpreted. The silence of the new law is explained by a shift in the official policy from deterrence to a policy of silence, but the low number of court cases was foremost dependent on a lacking actualization and problematization of homosexual acts in the Swedish popular discourse on sexuality, gender and prestige. Finally, it is argued that this underdeveloped popular discourse probably also corresponded to a meagre and rather restricted sexual practice.

  • 290.
    Liliequist, Marianne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Strategies of decolonisation: portraits of elderly female pioneers in the Sami ethno-political movement2015In: Ageing: culture and identity / [ed] Lena Karlsson, Marianne Liliequist, Anna Sofia Lundgren, Karin Lövgren & Angelika Sjöstedt Landén, Umeå: Umeå University , 2015, p. 39-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is about elderly Sami women who are front figures in the ethno-political mobilisation movement, acting from artistic platforms or in traditional political arenas. The Sami culture has been described as male-dominated and Sami women as dually oppressed, belonging to a minority people while also being women, but there are many Sami women, especially the elderly, who in recent decades have emerged as prominent figures in the fight for the survival of Sami culture. How do these prominent figures describe their own position and status? What strategies do they use, as elderly Sami women, to enter the Sami and non-Sami public spheres? How do they tell their story, what is it that motivates them, what obstacles have they faced and what has helped them? This chapter conducts an intersectional analysis on an individual level of the strategic approaches of three women. I have looked at the way these strategies emerge in the women's life stories. Depending on special circumstances, either currently or earlier in their life, ethnicity, gender, age and class are emphasized to various degrees in the different narratives.

  • 291.
    Liliequist, Marianne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media.
    Nordberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media.
    Genus och alternativa offentligheter2004In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, no 1, p. 2-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Linander, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    “It was like I had to fit into a category”: people with trans experiences navigating access to trans-specific healthcare and health2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trans issues have received increased attention over the last couple of years and important changes have been made in the legislation relating to gender reassignment and in trans-specific healthcare practices. At the same time, many people with trans experiences report poor mental health, bad experiences when encountering the healthcare and a tendency to postpone seeking care due to being badly treated. Previous research has also shown that gender norms guide the evaluation that precedes access to gender-confirming medical procedures. Critical studies examining practices within trans-specific healthcare in the Swedish context and health among people with trans experiences are limited, especially qualitative interview studies involving people with trans experiences.

    Aim: To analyse how constructions of trans experiences and gender can affect trans-specific healthcare practices, experiences of navigating access to gender- confirming medical procedures, inhabitancy of different spaces and, ultimately, health.

    Conceptual framework: Three areas of theory are used for the conceptual framework: trans studies, queer phenomenology and Foucauldian theories of power and governmentality.

    Methods: The thesis includes three sub-studies (generating four articles): two interview studies that build on interviews with 18 people with trans experiences, and a policy analysis of the guidelines for trans-specific healthcare published by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. For the interview studies, grounded theory and thematic analysis were used as the analytical method. The guidelines were analysed using Bacchi’s method: “What’s the problem represented to be?”.

    Results: The participants experienced trans-specific healthcare as difficult to navigate due to waiting times, lack of knowledge and/or support and relationships of dependency between healthcare users and providers. In the evaluation, gender is reconstructed as linear – stereotypical, binary and stable – and the space for action available to care-seekers is affected by discourses existing both inside and outside trans-specific healthcare. The difficulties in navigating access to care were experienced as creating ill-health. In order to negotiate access to gender-confirming medical procedures, the participants took responsibility for the care process by, for example, ordering hormones from abroad, acquiring medical knowledge and finding alternative support. The linear gendered positioning was variously resisted, negotiated and embraced by the participants.

    The analysis of the guidelines showed that gender identity is constructed as a fixed linear essence but that the guidelines also open up space for a non-linear embodiment. Gender dysphoria is closely constructed in relation to psychiatric knowledge and mental health and the gate-keeping function among mental healthcare professionals is reconstituted in the guidelines. Hence, care-seekers are constructed as not competent enough to make decisions concerning access to gender-confirming medical procedures.

    The participants experienced several different spaces, such as bars, public toilets and changing rooms, gyms and cafés, as unsafe and as contributing to ill-health. In order to overcome the barriers to comfortably inhabiting spaces, the participants performed a kind of labour; for example, preparing in order to visit public baths and to answer transphobic comments and questions. Some spaces, such as trans-separatist, feminist and queer spaces, were experienced as safer and contributed to improved health through experiences of belonging, being able to share bad experiences and being able to relax.

    Conclusions: Trans-specific healthcare practices need to become more affirming and change so that care-seekers have more space for self- determination. Trans-specific healthcare needs more resources in order to decrease waiting times, improve knowledge and support, and hence to improve access to gender-confirming medical procedures. Actions need to be initiated to make spaces safer in order to improve the health of people with trans experiences.

  • 293.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Alm, Erika
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Negotiating the (bio)medical gaze: Experiences of trans-specific healthcare in Sweden2017In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 174, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden as well as in other western countries persons with trans experiences have to go through a clinical evaluation in order to get access to gender-confirming medical procedures. The aim of this study is to analyse care-users' experiences of navigating and negotiating access to gender-confirming medical procedures in Sweden. Biomedicalisation is used as a theoretical framework in order to analyse how technoscientific and neoliberal developments are parts of constructing specific experiences within trans-specific care. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyse 14 interviews with persons having experiences of, or considering seeking, trans-specific healthcare. The participants experienced trans-specific healthcare as difficult to navigate because of waiting times, lack of support, provider ignorance and relationships of dependency between healthcare-users and providers. These barriers pushed the users to take responsibility for the care process themselves, through ordering hormones from abroad, acquiring medical knowledge and finding alternative support. Based on the participants' experiences, it can be argued that the shift of responsibility from care-providers to users is connected to a lack of resources within trans-specific care, to neoliberal developments within the Swedish healthcare system, but also to discourses that frame taking charge of the care process as an indicator that a person is in need of or ready for care. Thus, access to gender-confirming medical procedures is stratified, based on the ability and opportunity to adopt a charge-taking role and on economic and geographic conditions. Based on the results and discussion, we conclude that trans-specific care ought to focus on supporting the care-seekers throughout the medical process, instead of the current focus on verifying the need for care. There is also a need for increased knowledge and financial resources. A separation between legal and medical gender reassignment could contribute to a better relationship between care-providers and care-users and increase the quality of care.

  • 294.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Alm, Erika
    Hammarström, Anne
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    (Un)safe spaces, affective labour and perceived health among people with trans experiences living in Sweden2019In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 914-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of safe space has been connected to ill health among people with trans experiences. This study analyses trans people’s experiences of being in public, semi-public and community spaces using the analytical concept of safety/unsafety in relation to perceived health. The analytic framework draws on the concepts of cisgenderism, orientation, lines and comfort. The material analysed consisted of 18 individual interviews with people with trans experiences, which were analysed using constructivist thematic analysis. The analysis resulted in the identification of three themes: straightening devices creating limited living space, orienting oneself in (cis)gendered spaces and creating safer (?) community spaces for healing. Experiences of unsafety ranged from incidents and fear of different kinds of violence in public and semi-public spaces to the lack of a transpolitically informed agenda in, for example, feminist spaces. Safer spaces helped participants to feel a sense of belonging, to share their experiences and to heal. Experiences of unsafety and discomfort are important as they will help us to understand the health situations of people with trans experiences. It is important to facilitate the creation of safer spaces to improve the health of members of this group.

  • 295.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lauri, M
    Alm, Erika
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Representing the (un)deserving care-seeker and the competent care-provider: a policy analysis of in the Swedish guidelines for trans-specific healthcareManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Lindahl, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    De försvinner nästan. När de blir äldre, alltså2012In: Tanten, vem är hon?: en (t)antologi / [ed] Marianne Liliequist & Karin Lövgren, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2012, p. 183-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Lindholm, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    En illasittande kalaskostym2015In: Västerbottenskuriren, ISSN 1104-0246, no 10 september, p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 298.
    Lindholm, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Krönikan2016In: Historiskan, ISSN 2002-150X, no 1, p. 11-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 299.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Om män, pojkar och dans i förskola och skola2018In: Estetiska ämnen och genus / [ed] Eva Skåreus, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2018, 1, p. 127-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Factors influencing distress toward erectile dysfunction and attitude toward erectile dysfunction drugs among middle-aged and elderly chinese women and men in Hong Kong2013In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 782-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.  This study aims to explain distress toward erectile dysfunction (ED), attitude toward ED drugs, and experiences with ED drug use in terms of sexual attitudes, relationship satisfaction, and sociodemographic factors among the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Studies show that a significant number of middle-aged and elderly men in Asia suffer from ED. However, people's attitudes toward ED drugs are not positive. Few studies have sought to reveal the influencing factors of this negative attitude.

    Methods.  Nine hundred forty-six Hong Kong women and men aged 36–80 with stable partners were administered a structured questionnaire through face-to-face street-intercept survey. Self-reporting on single-item questions using a five-point Likert scale was adopted for most of the variables, including attitude toward sex, relationship satisfaction, distress toward ED, and attitude toward ED drugs. Perceived importance of sex in an intimate relationship and attitude toward sex were assessed through three items. Respondents were asked to report whether they had taken ED drugs or bought ED drugs for their partners.

    Results.  While perceived importance of sex in an intimate relationship and distress toward ED both contributed to the estimation of attitudes toward ED drugs for both genders, relationship satisfaction was only associated with men's attitude, while women's attitude was related to two other factors: relationship status and income level. Both age and attitude toward ED drugs influenced experiences with ED drug use for women and men. Men's experience with ED drug use was further related to the perceived importance of sex and to men's self-esteem and relationship status.

    Conclusion.  Results of this study could help identify people who are disturbed by ED but reluctant to seek treatment. Clinicians and public health policy makers could make use of the findings to encourage proper understanding of ED.

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