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  • 251.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sjöstedt, Gunnar
    The Swedish Institute of International Affairs (UI), Stockholm.
    Systems and Systems Theory2004In: Systems Approaches and Their Application: Examples from Sweden, Kluwer International Publishers, Dordrecht , 2004, p. 3-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sjöstedt, GunnarThe Swedish Institute of International Affairs (UI).
    Systems Approaches and Their Application: Examples from Sweden2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a conceptual framework that is developed in the two first chapters, the actual application of systems thinking is described across a broad field of cases representing research, teaching, decision support and construction. All cases are presented by experts who have actually been involved in the activities they describe. Thus, the broad selection of cases captures the great variation of systems thinking and how it is integrated into models and theories and solid knowledge pertaining to different substantive areas. At the same time all case study authors address the same set of questions that are developed in the conceptual chapters. This gives comparability across cases - chapters - and brings cohesion to the book. The focus on Sweden, an advanced country in systems thinking, reinforces the unitary context in which comparison can be made between a systems approach for better research (theory), better practice and better design and construction.

    Most recent literature on systems thinking has a general (often philosophical) perspective, concerns computer systems or focuses on one highly specific problem. A special feature of this book is that, while it concerns a single nation, it simultaneously contains a broad overview of systems analysis in a number of important issue areas, for research as well as practice, against a penetrating background description of what systems analysis is, how it functions, what problems it represents and what results it may produce.

    The book is intended for a broad readership and can be appreciated by experts on systems thinking and analysis as well as by students, teachers, researchers, planners and policy makers who want to learn more about this topic. The book should be useful in university teaching in several disciplines.

  • 253.
    Olsson, Mats-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Risks and Nuclear Waste: Nuclear Problems, Risk Perceptions of, and Societal Responses to, Nuclear Waste in the Barents Region: Sammanfattning av projektets resultat2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 254.
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Beräkning av historisk BRP: Beräkning av bruttoregionprodukter 1968-1992: beräkningsmetod och data2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att redovisa beräkningsmetoder och nyttjade data för historiska BRP-uppgifter som beräknats för perioden 1968-1992. Motivet för att beräkna BRP för en längre tidsperiod är att genom att att anlägga ett historiskt perspektiv möjliggörs mer omfattande analyser av den trendmässiga utvecklingen i Västerbotten,  också i jämförelse med övriga län. Att starta BRP-beräkningar från slutet av 1960-talet innebär att strukturförändringar, som 1970-tals och 1990-talskrisen, i den svenska och regionala ekonomin kan analyseras ur ett regionalt perspektiv.

    BRP beräknas här från produktionssidan för samtliga län i Sverige. Startpunkten 1968 motiveras utifrån tillgången av data och slutåret 1992 kommer sig av att SCB:s regionala räkenskaper inleds 1993. Detta betyder också att ett delsyfte med de historiska BRP-beräkningarna är att skapa en länk mellan de egna beräkningarna och de officiella regionalräkenskaperna.

     

  • 255.
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    BRP i Norr - utveckling och trender: Bruttoregionproduktens utveckling i Norrlandslänen 1968-20072010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande rapport diskuteras och analyseras Bruttoregionproduktens (BRP) historiska utveckling i Västerbotten och de övriga mest nordliga länen i Sverige (Jämtland, Västernorrland och Norrbotten). Det historiska perspektivet sträcker sig mellan åren 1968 till och med 2007. Syftet med den historiska analysen är att kunna studera de fyra nordligaste länens BRP-utveckling över tid, vilket bildar ett underlag för en mer nyanserad diskussion av den regionalekonomiska utvecklingen idag och i förhållande till andra regioner i Sverige. Studien inkluderar också perioder av ekonomiska svårigheter och omstruktureringar av produktion, där perspektivet möjliggör komparationer mellan regionernas utveckling samt trender.

    Rapporten fokuserar de fyra nordliga länens BRP-utvekling, där också övriga svenska regioner jämförs för att spegla trender och olika utvecklings- och tillväxtfaser i Västerbotten och Norrland. På detta sätt analyserar rapporten både utvecklingen sett till utvecklingen mellan de fyra nordligaste länen och Norrlandslänen sett som en enhet i jämförelse med andra regioner i Sverige. Resultaten av dessa analyser belyser skillnader mellan utvecklingen i de fyra nordligaste länen, där exempelvis Västerbotten och Norrbotten har haft en mer positiv utveckling BRP under den avslutande delen av perioden. Detta samtidigt som att rapporten visar på att Norrland 4 upplevt en relativt sämre utveckling i jämförelse med storstadsregionerna från och med 1990-talskrisen.

  • 256.
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Fram träder Bergslagen: Nytt ljus över en gammal region, Bergslagsforskning III, Mälardalens högskola, IPR, 2009, Maths Isacson, Mats Lundmark, Cecilia Mörner, Inger Orre (red.)2011In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 131, no 4, p. 805-806Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Forskningen i Norrland om Norrlands ekonomi: Några synpunkter2009In: Thule: Skytteanska samfundets årsbok, 2009 / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2009, p. 223-243Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Olsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Stadens attraktivitet och det offentliga stadlivet2000Report (Other academic)
  • 259.
    Paju, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Cultural Heritage, Entrepreneurship, and Local Development: Remarks on the Use of Cultural Heritage2008In: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas, MARG, Kyoto University , 2008, p. 149-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Paju, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Företagsarkivet i Westerbotten.
    Ett kliv upp ur det normativa diket2015In: ARKIV - Föreningen Svensk Arkivtidskrift, ISSN 1102-3597, no 2, p. 26-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Gemensamt för historiska och samtida kvinnliga företagare är att de lämnar få avtryck i företagshistorien. För att råda bot på det startade Företagsarkivet i Westerbotten ett projekt för att bland annat synliggöra berättelser om kvinnors företagande. För att lyckas var man tvungna att tänka i nya banor.

  • 261.
    Paju, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Kulturmiljön och den regionala tillväxten: Länsantikvariernas syn på de regionala tillväxtavtalen2002Report (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Paju, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Marknadsföringen av utbildningsprogram vid Teknisk- och Naturvetenskaplig fakultet: En studie av studenternas uppfattning2005Report (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Paju, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Utvärdering av EU-projektet E12 Alliansens verksamhet under perioden 2000-05-01-2002-07-312003Report (Other academic)
  • 264.
    Paju, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Utveckla stabila incitament som ger kulturmiljön och dess brukare ömsesidiga värden!2004In: Kulturmiljövård, ISSN 1100-4800, no 1, p. 47-51Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 265. Panchuk, A.
    et al.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Dynamics of a durable commodity market involving trade at disequilibrium2018In: Communications in nonlinear science & numerical simulation, ISSN 1007-5704, E-ISSN 1878-7274, Vol. 58, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work considers a simple model of a durable commodity market involving two agents who trade stocks of two different types. Stock commodities, in contrast to flow commodities, remain on the market from period to period and, consequently, there is neither unique demand function nor unique supply function exists. We also set up exact conditions for trade at disequilibrium, the issue being usually neglected, though a fact of reality. The induced iterative system has infinite number of fixed points and path dependent dynamics. We show that a typical orbit is either attracted to one of the fixed points or eventually sticks at a no-trade point. For the latter the stock distribution always remains the same while the price displays periodic or chaotic oscillations. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 266. Panchuk, A.
    et al.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Oligopoly model with recurrent renewal of capital revisited2015In: Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, ISSN 0378-4754, E-ISSN 1872-7166, Vol. 108, p. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate an oligopoly market, modelled by using CES production function in combination with the isoelastic demand function. It is supposed that the competitors act not under constant, but eventually decaying returns, and thus, from time to time they need to renew their capital equipment, choosing its optimal amount according to the current market situation. It is shown that the asymptotic trajectories depend essentially on the value of the global capital durability, and are also sensitive to the initial choice of individual inactivity times. In particular, the firms may merge into different groups renewing their capitals simultaneously, which lead to distinct dynamical patterns. It is also studied how the capital wearing out rate influences the system behaviour.

  • 267. Panchuk, Anastasiia
    et al.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Cournot equilibrium stability in a non-autonomous system modeling the oligopoly market2009In: Iteration Theory (ECIT 08): proceedings of the European Conference on Iteration Theory, Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine, September 7 - 13, 2008 / [ed] Alexandr Sharkovsky, Irina Sushko, Graz: Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz , 2009, in printChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Panchuk, Anastasiia
    et al.
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Stability in a non-autonomous iterative system: an application to oligopoly2009In: Computers and Mathematics with Applications, ISSN 0898-1221, E-ISSN 1873-7668, Vol. 58, no 10, p. 2022-2034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reconsiders the relation between oligopoly and perfect competition, more specifically the problem of emergent instability when the number of competitors increases, as pointed out by several authors. A process of mixed short and long run dynamics is set up. In the short run the competitors are subject to capacity limits due to fixed capital stocks, in the long run they may renew these stocks and so in the moments of reinvestment have access to a constant returns technology. The evolution of the system depends on the number of competitors, the interval between their entry on the market, and the durability of capital. The main result is a theorem showing that if capital has a durability of more periods than the spacing of reinvestment times among the firms, multiplied with their total number, then the system always contracts to the Cournot equilibrium state.

  • 269.
    Pelli, Aurora
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Coping with Innovative On-Farm Diversification: A qualitative analysis of farm household case histories from Västerbotten, Sweden2002Report (Other academic)
  • 270.
    Pettersson, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Foreign second home purchases: The case of Northern Sweden, 1990-19961999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral areas in European countries have recently experienced an influx of foreign second home owners. Here, the case of northern Sweden is presented, where Germans and Norwegians have purchased about 100 second homes between 1990 and 1996. It is argued that these second home owners have different motivations for buying a cottage depending on their country of origin, and that this has an impact on the locational pattern as well as the use of the second homes. Moreover, it is suggested that the distance between permanent and second homes should have more significance on location and use than the fact that they are located in different countries. The results of this survey reinforce these thoughts but, nevertheless, underline the importance of the concept of foreign tourism. Both Norwegians and Germans experience certain attractions in Sweden which are not available in their home countries.

  • 271.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sörensson, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Hur kan forskningsmiljön och den akademiska profilen stärkas i Örnsköldsvik?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med förstudien har varit att undersöka förutsättningarna för att stärka den akademiska profilen i Örnsköldsvik. Uppdraget kommer från Örnsköldsviks kommun, Världsklass 2015. Uppdraget har genomförts av Thomas Pettersson och Robert Sörensson vid Umeå universitet. Det har genomförts ett open space med temat forskningsmiljöer i Örnsköldsvik och en hearing med berörda intressenter. Det pågår även ett arbete med att utveckla innovationscentra. Resultaten av dessa aktiviteter bildar en utgångspunkt för denna förstudie.

                                                                            

    Förstudien visar på följande slutsatser:

    1. Det finns en bred samsyn hos olika intressen om behovet att både stärka den akademiska profileringen utåt, samt att bygga upp mötesplatser för akademiker i Örnsköldsvik.
    2. Studien visar tydligt att det finns en god grund för en stärkt akademisk profilering i Örnsköldsvik, eftersom det i kommunen finns flera olika forskningsintensiva verksamheter och totalt 95 disputerade personer verksamma. Örnsköldsvik har också en relativt hög andel akademiker av arbetskraften jämfört med 19 andra kommuner / regioner med liknande socioekonomiska förutsättningar.
    3. Studien visar på olika sätt att nå dessa målsättningar.
      1. Mötesplatser som både skapar samverkan och stärker profileringen utåt kan vara virtuella, fysiska eller en kombination av båda.
      2. Fyra olika strategier identifieras utifrån exempel i omvärlden, med fokus på virtuella, fysiska, externa eller interna mötesplatser.
      3. Förslag på studiebesök lämnas: Akademi Båstad, Strömstad akademi, Akademi norr, Innovationskontor Norr, samt exempel på en fysisk mötesplats för en specifik grupp av doktorander med placering i Örnsköldsvik.

      Nyckelord: demografi, utbildning, humankapital, sysselsättning, Örnsköldsvik, kluster, triple helix, innovation, forskningsmiljö.

  • 272.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Microregional fragmentation in a Swedish county2001In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 389-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden reveals significant differences in socio-economic conditions between populations living in different residential environments. A cluster analysis was performed in order to classify the nearly 500 microregions into a manageable number of groups with distinctive profiles. A seven-cluster solution contains groups ranging from remote and sparsely populated areas with poor socio- economic conditions and a large proportion of elderly to the most prosperous residential environments within the major centers. Besides high disposable incomes, the relatively wealthy areas also show high educational levels and better-than-average health status. In this way the county could be broken down into a mosaic of local housing environments with very different prerequisites for consumption and economic development. Increasingly, we find socio-economic marginality problems even within densely populated regions. The complex and dispersed pattern of disadvantaged and underprivileged residential areas all over Västerbotten indicates the difficulty in treating counties and municipalities as homogeneous regions. Our findings may have major implications for regional planning and regional policy.

  • 273.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Population Changes in Rural Areas in Northern Sweden 1985-19951999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s most municipalities and rural areas in northern Sweden have experienced renewed depopulation. At the same time, many regional centres (mainly university towns), but also some rural areas, have shown significant population growth. This paper focuses on the latter rural areas and describes their geographical location and the socio-demographic characteristics of their populations. Three types of rural areas with population growth have been identified. Firstly, there are the rural areas within daily communing distance from a few regional centres. Secondly, there is a group of rural areas that has benefited from the tourist industry. Most of these tourist resorts are mountain villages close to the border with Norway. Finally, there are also a few rural areas characterised by attractive residential environments and leisure housing.

  • 274.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Socio-economic dynamics in sparse regional structures2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse socio-economic changes in northern Sweden. Focus is on the period 1985-2000. Population development, restructuring of economic activities, political and cultural changes are related to a theoretical discussion on the transformation of sparsely populated areas as an outcome of multi-dimensional and interrelated processes. Besides an introductory and concluding section, the thesis contains four papers.

    The first paper deals with forestry's changed role in the local economy of four municipalities located in the inland areas of upper Norrland. The changes within forestry have been driven by adaptation to global competition and rapid technical development. Even though timber production has increased in some of the municipalities, job losses have greatly reduced the importance of forestry in the local economies. Many employees have left forestry for work in other branches, unemployment or retirement However, relatively few have moved from the area. A multiplier model was employed in order to analyse the impact on the local economy.

    The second paper deals with population changes in the six northernmost counties. During the 1990s, most municipalities and rural areas in northern Sweden have experienced renewed depopulation. At the same time, some rural areas have shown significant population growth. Three types of rural areas with population growth have been identified. Firstly, there are rural areas within daily commuting distance from regional centres. Secondly, there is a group of rural areas, mainly a number of mountain villages close to the border with Norway, which has benefited from the tourist industry. Finally, there are a few rural areas characterised by attractive residential environments and leisure housing.

    The third paper is based on a classification of 500 residential areas and villages in the county of Västerbotten into seven types of housing environments. In this way, the county is broken down into a mosaic of housing environments characterised by very different prerequisites for consumption and economic development A complex and dispersed pattern of disadvantaged residential areas all over the county indicates the difficulty in treating counties and municipalities as homogeneous regions.

    In the fourth paper, focus is on young peoples' attitudes towards staying in or moving to small communities within a local labour market region in northern Sweden. The study is based on telephone interviews with 400 young men and women in the Umeå region. Half the interviewees lived in the university city of Umeå while the others were residents in five rural municipalities surrounding Umeå. In general, the males and females aged 19-25 had a much more positive attitude towards living in rural communities than did those aged 15-18. Nevertheless, only half of the young people already living in the rural municipalities wanted to stay there. Among the young people living in the city, slightly less than 50% showed an interest in moving to the surrounding rural areas, mainly the countryside within commuting distance from the city. The connection between higher education and out-migration of young people from rural areas is also highlighted.

  • 275.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Rislund, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Utvärdering av LEADER II Stad och Land - Hand i Hand2000Report (Other academic)
  • 276.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westerberg, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Vägar för samverkan: Storumanföretagares inställning till planeringssamarbete över kommungränsen2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten belyser hur företagare i inlandskommunen Storuman ser på samarbetssträvanden över kommungränser längs väg E12, vilken bildar ett dominerande transportstråk i Västerbottens län som sammanbinder kustens största stad Umeå med den västerbottniska fjällvärldens mest utvecklade turistmiljö Tärnaby/Hemavan. E12:an som även benämns den Blå vägen fortsätter både i Norge mot Mo i Rana och i Finland närmast mot Vasa. Detta kommunövergripande samarbetssammanhang som kan bygga på många olikheter ställs mot den traditionella samarbetsriktningen i inlandet, d v s med de närliggande kommunerna som har många likheter i sin struktur och problembilder.

  • 277.
    Pilvesmaa, Marja-Leena
    et al.
    Riksantikvarieämbetet.
    Westerlind, Ann MariRiksantikvarieämbetet.Paju, MartinUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Plats, drivkraft, samhällsprocess: Vad gör kulturarvet till en resurs för hållbar regional utveckling2003Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Proost, Stef
    et al.
    KU Leuven.
    Westin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Race to the top in traffic calming2017In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 401-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the competition of two suburbs facing transit traffic flows. The suburbs are substitutes for transit traffic. In the absence of toll measures, the symmetric Nash equilibrium with two local governments leads to a race to the top in traffic calming measures that increases the cost of travel. The Nash equilibrium is compared to two types of centralized decisions: the symmetric solution and the asymmetric solution. The asymmetric solution that concentrates all transit traffic in one suburb is better but can only be realized if the authority over the local roads is transferred to the central authority.

  • 279.
    Proost, Stef
    et al.
    KTH, KU Leuven.
    Westin, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Race to the Top in Traffic Calming2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the competition of two suburbs that are facing transit traffic flows. We show that in the absence of toll measures, the Nash equilibrium leads to a race to the top in traffic calming, except for the measures that do not affect the generalized cost of traffic. The Nash equilibrium is compared to two types of centralized decisions: the symmetric solution and the asymmetric solution. It is shown how the asymmetric solution that concentrates all transit traffic in one suburb is better but can only be realized if the authority over the local roads is transferred to the central authority.

  • 280.
    Puu, Tonu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Good Old Economic Geography2016In: COMPLEX NETWORKS AND DYNAMICS: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INTERACTIONS / [ed] Commendatore, P.; MatillaGarcia, M.; Varela, L.M.; Canovas, J.S., Springer, 2016, p. 329-359Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses classical economic modelling in continuous two-dimensional geographical space, focusing some ingenious models due to Harold Hotelling and Martin Beckmann concerning population growth and migration, and spatial market equilibrium, respectively. It also adds some modelling of business cycles, and discusses the issue the shape of market areas. Focus is on transversality and stability of structure.

  • 281.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    A century of oligopoly theory 1838-19412002In: OLIGOPOLY DYNAMICS: MODELS AND TOOLS, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2002, p. 1-14Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    A mathematics refresher for students of economics2004Book (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    A New Approach to Modeling Bertrand Duopoly2017In: Review of Behavioral Economics, ISSN 2326-6198, E-ISSN 2326-6201, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 51-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bertrand oligopoly needs global demand functions which apply to close substitutes. This is a problem, because economic theory never supplied anything but local definitions for substitutes. Lancaster's "new theory of demand" is therefore invoked to supply one. In its format one can also quantify closeness of substitutes and incorporate optimisation of design. The present study focuses the pure price dynamics for Bertrand oligopoly when the design of the competing products is given, though quantified through Lancaster's approach. Resulting is some complex dynamics, including high periodicity and chaos.

  • 284.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    A Short History of the Multiplier-Accelerator Model2006In: Business Cycle Dynamics: Models and Tools, Springer-Verlag , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 285.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Arts, Sciences, and Economics: A Historical Safari2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book deals with the economic aspects of changing attitudes in arts and sciences. The effects of the public good character of culture, along with the very long production period and lifetime for its products, are emphasized, since both contribute to the failure of normal market solutions. Embodiment of ideas, and the consequences of modern reproduction technology for protection of property rights are closely examined. The evolution within arts and sciences, which often seems to return to previously scrapped ideals, is illustrated by detailed case studies, in which the importance of changing tastes, rather than progress proper, is emphasized. The author attempts an understanding for this using Darwinian evolution in combination with modern mathematical complexity theory, expressed in terms accessible to the general reader.

  • 286.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Attractors, Bifurcations, & Chaos: Nonlinear Phenomena in Economics2003 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 287.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Capacity Limits2011In: Oligopol: Old Ends - New Mean / [ed] Tönu Puu, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 101-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chap. 2 the Cournot–Theocharis stability issue, which will be called so, though it was raised 20 years earlier by Palander, was discussed. The problem was that in certain model families increasing competition through adding new competitors destabilised Cournot equilibrium. Accordingly, the idea of a straight path leading from monopoly, over oligopoly, to perfect competition, where profits were eliminated and marginal cost pricing was used, became subject to doubt. What interest do the properties of an equilibrium have, after all, if it becomes unstable?

  • 288.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Catastrophic structural change in a continuous regional model2004In: Complexity in Economics, Edward Elgar Publishing , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Chaos in duopoly pricing2004In: Complexity in Economics, Edward Elgar Publishing , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 290.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Complex oligopoly dynamics2005In: Nonlinear Dynamical Systems in Economics, Springer , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 291.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Continuous economic space modelling: Draft of a survey2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 5-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts a survey of continuous modelling in spatial economics. The classics of spatial economics, from von Thünen on, like geographers always did, considered phenomena in the two dimensional plane, though later development was in favour of modelling discrete location point sets connected by communication arcs. The models discussed here are strongly focused around Beckmann’s continuous space market model from the early 1950s.

  • 292.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Cournot Oligopoly2011In: Oligopoly: Old Ends - New Means / [ed] Tönu Puu, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 17-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As mentioned in Chap. 1, Cournot’s oligopoly model was one of the first mathematical models proposed in the field of economics. It addresses the functioning of a market with numerous atomistic demanders versus few relatively large suppliers. This implies that all the suppliers influence market price appreciably, and hence, like monopolists, take account of the demand function of the consumers on the market in order to calculate their best moves. As a rule, demand is a decreasing function of price. In equilibrium demand equals supply, and one can also speak of the inverse demand function which states how market price depends on supply.

  • 293.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Disequilibrium trade and the dynamics of stock markets2014In: Complexity in economics: cutting edge research / [ed] Marisa Faggini, Anna Parziale, Springer-Verlag New York, 2014, p. 225-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work considers pricing and trade dynamics for stock commodity markets, which, unlike flow commodity markets have been little studied, if at all. Concepts and tools in economics are shaped to deal with flow markets, where commodities disappear in each period and then reemerge. This allows one to define unique demand and supply functions and their equilibria. A durable commodity, a stock, in contrast, remains on the market to the next period and may just change owner through exchange. This, however, changes demand and supply functions, and hence the equilibrium state to which a dynamic process may be heading. Dynamic processes are provided with memory of the actual exchange history. We also need to state how disequilibrium trade in stock markets takes place. This is another neglected issue, though a fact of reality. Using a case with only two traders of two stock commodities, and focusing pure trade, it is possible to specify the exact conditions for disequilibrium trade in each step of the dynamic process. In the end any of an infinity of equilibria can be reached, or trade can stick in some disequilibrium point while complex, even chaotic, price dynamics goes on.

  • 294.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Duopoly and Complex Dynamics2011In: Oligopoly: Old Ends - New Means / [ed] Tönu Puu, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 43-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As mentioned in Chap. 1, Rand (1978) conjectured that with suitable shapes of the reaction functions the outcome of dynamic duopoly would be chaotic. His purely mathematical treatment does not, however, include any substantial economic assumptions under which this becomes true. In what follows a very simple duopoly model, already encountered in Chap. 2, based on traditional microeconomis, will be discussed.

  • 295.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Growth Cycles in a Modified Hicksian Business Cycle Model2006In: Business Cycle Dynamics: Models and Tools, Springer-Verlag , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Introduction2011In: Oligopoly: Old Ends - New Means / [ed] Tönu Puu, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Joseph Schumpeter’s “History of Economic Analysis” from 1954 - the still unsurpassed source book for economics, mathematical modelling in the field had two roots. The first was Johann Heinrich von Thünen’s theory of land use dating from 1827, implicitly containing the most general theory of the emergence of specialization and trade ever presented up to now, as it was based on the mathematical principle of transversality alone; much more general than the Ricardian comparative advantages or the later Heckscher–Ohlin theory which also was based on immobile resources. As a historical irony the theory has not to this day been recognized as anything more than a theory in agricultural economics.

  • 297.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Introduction to Mathematical Economics2007In: Mathematical Models in Economics: UNESCO Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, Oxford: EOLSS Publishers , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Layout of a New Industry: From Oligopoly to Competition2005In: Pure Mathematics and Applications, ISSN 1218-4586, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 475-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oligopoly models with constant marginal costs for the competitors tend to produce destabilization of the Cournot equilibrium point when the number of competitors increases. It therefore becomes difficult to explain how an oligopoly can evolve into perfect competition through an increase in the number of competitors. In the present study it is explored how cost functions with built in capacity limits can eliminate this problem. It is also shown how such cost functions can be derived from CES functions when the input of capital is fixed through an act of investment. It turns out that the durability of capital equipment is what is needed to stabilize the system, and so make it possible for an oligopoly to seamlessly transform into a competitive equilibrium.

  • 299.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Mathematical Location and Land Use Theory: An Introduction2003 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 300.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Multistability2011In: Oligopoly: Old Ends - New Means / [ed] Tönu Puu, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 127-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a short printed abstract of contributions to a Cowles Commission conference at Colorado Springs in 1936, and an extensive follow up, in Swedish, dating from 1939, Tord Palander focused some interesting dynamics problems in Cournot duopoly when the demand curve was kinked linear, of the type suggested by Joan Robinson in 1933, where the marginal revenue curve jumped up, producing two different local profit maximising intersections with the curve of marginal cost. Palander took it constant or even zero.

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