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  • 251.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Testing alters brain activity during subsequent restudy: Evidence for test-potentiated encoding2014In: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed testing/studying lead to better memory retention compared to repeated study only. A potentiating influence of tests on encoding, particularly during restudy of non-retrieved items, may contribute to this effect. This study investigated whether and how testing affects brain activity during subsequent restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs after a cued-recall test. Item-events during fMRI were categorized according to history (tested/studied only) and recall outcome at prescan and postscan tests. Activity was higher for tested compared to studied-only items in anterior insula, orbital parts of inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus, and lower in regions implicated in the default network, such as precuneus, supramarginal gyrus and the posterior middle cingulate. Findings are discussed in terms of top-down biasing of attention to tested items with concomitant deactivation of regions in the default network. Increased/focused attention to tested items during restudy may lead to test-potentiated encoding via deeper semantic processing and increased associative binding.

  • 252.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Test-potentiated encoding of paired associates as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging2013In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 25, no Suppl., p. S113-S114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 253.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Test-potentiated encoding revealed by fMRI: Viewing an old phenomenon with new glasses2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Development of the cognitive dysfunction questionnaire (CDQ) in a population based sample2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 218-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reports on the development of a questionnaire for assessment of adult cognitive dysfunction (CDQ). Participants in a population-based sample(65 ± 15 years, N = 370) responded to a 90-item pilot version covering multiple aspects of memory/cognition. Based on exploratory principal components analyses and correlations with criterion measures of cognitive functioning (MMSE, Block Design, semantic/episodic memory), 20 items loading on 6 components were selected for the final version of the questionnaire. Cronbach’s a for the total score was 0.90. There was evidence of construct validity as judged by correlations between CDQ scores, objective cognitive measures, and a subjective memory measure (PRMQ). Discriminant validity was demonstrated by a low and non-significant correlation with depressive symptoms. Further evidence of construct validity was provided by correlations with age and educational attainment. In conclusion, the CDQ is promising as a self-rating screening tool for cognitive dysfunction, and will be the subject of further development and validation.

  • 255.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University and Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive dysfunction questionnaire: instrument refinement and measurement invariance across age and sex2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study adopted CFA to investigate the factorial structure and reduce the number of items of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire (CDQ; Vestergren, Rönnlund, Nyberg, & Nilsson, 2011). The analyses were based on data for a total of 1115 participants from population based samples (mean age: 63.0 ± 14.5 years, range: 25 - 95) randomly split into a refinement (n = 569) and a cross-validation (n = 546) sample. Equivalence of the measurement and structural portions of the refined model was demonstrated across the refinement and cross-validation samples. Among competing models the best fitting and parsimonious model had a hierarchical factor structure with five first-order and one second-order general factor. The final version of the CDQ consisted of 20 items in five domains (Procedural actions, Semantic word knowledge, Face recognition, Temporal orientation and Spatial navigation). Internal consistency reliabilities were adequate for the total scale and for the subscales. Multigroup CFAs were performed and the results indicate measurement invariance across age and sex up to the scalar level. Finally, higher levels of cognitive dysfunction as reflected by CDQ scores were observed with advancing age and with deficits in general cognitive functioning as reflected by scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, adoption of the final version of the CDQ appears to be a way of measuring cognitive dysfunction without administering formal cognitive tests. Future studies should apply it among clinical groups to further test its usefulness.

  • 256. Vidal-Pineiro, Didac
    et al.
    Sneve, Markus H.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Mowinckel, Athanasia M.
    Sederevicius, Donatas
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Maintained Frontal Activity Underlies High Memory Function Over 8 Years in Aging2019In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 3111-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging is characterized by substantial average decline in memory performance. Yet contradictory explanations have been given for how the brains of high-performing older adults work: either by engagement of compensatory processes such as recruitment of additional networks or by maintaining young adults' patterns of activity. Distinguishing these components requires large experimental samples and longitudinal follow-up. Here, we investigate which features are key to high memory in aging, directly testing these hypotheses by studying a large sample of adult participants (n > 300) with fMRI during an episodic memory experiment where item-context relationships were implicitly encoded. The analyses revealed that low levels of activity in frontal networks-known to be involved in memory encoding-were associated with low memory performance in the older adults only. Importantly, older participants with low memory performance and low frontal activity exhibited a strong longitudinal memory decline in an independent verbal episodic memory task spanning 8 years back (n = 52). These participants were also characterized by lower hippocampal volumes and steeper rates of cortical atrophy. Altogether, maintenance of frontal brain function during encoding seems to be a primary characteristic of preservation of memory function in aging, likely reflecting intact ability to integrate information.

  • 257. Walhovd, K. B.
    et al.
    Fjell, A. M.
    Westerhausen, R.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Ebmeier, K. P.
    Lindenberger, U.
    Bartrés-Faz, D.
    Baaré, W. F. C.
    Siebner, H. R.
    Henson, R.
    Drevon, C. A.
    Knudsen, G. P.
    Budin-Ljøsne, I.
    Penninx, B. W. J. H.
    Ghisletta, P.
    Rogeberg, O.
    Tyler, L.
    Betram, L.
    Healthy minds from 0-100 years: optimising the use of European brain imaging cohorts ("Lifebrain'')2018In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 50, p. 47-56Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of "Lifebrain'' is to identify the determinants of brain, cognitive and mental (BCM) health at different stages of life. By integrating, harmonising and enriching major European neuroimaging studies across the life span, we will merge fine-grained BCM health measures of more than 5,000 individuals. Longitudinal brain imaging, genetic and health data are available for a major part, as well as cognitive and mental health measures for the broader cohorts, exceeding 27,000 examinations in total. By linking these data to other databases and biobanks, including birth registries, national and regional archives, and by enriching them with a new online data collection and novel measures, we will address the risk factors and protective factors of BCM health. We will identify pathways through which risk and protective factors work and their moderators. Exploiting existing European infrastructures and initiatives, we hope to make major conceptual, methodological and analytical contributions towards large integrative cohorts and their efficient exploitation. We will thus provide novel information on BCM health maintenance, as well as the onset and course of BCM disorders. This will lay a foundation for earlier diagnosis of brain disorders, aberrant development and decline of BCM health, and translate into future preventive and therapeutic strategies. Aiming to improve clinical practice and public health we will work with stakeholders and health authorities, and thus provide the evidence base for prevention and intervention.

  • 258. Walhovd, Kristine B.
    et al.
    Krogsrud, Stine K.
    Amlien, Inge K.
    Bartsch, Hauke
    Bjornerud, Atle
    Due-Tonnessen, Paulina
    Grydeland, Hakon
    Hagler, Donald J., Jr.
    Haberg, Asta K.
    Kremen, William S.
    Ferschmann, Lia
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, Res Grp Lifespan Changes Brain & Cognit, N-0373 Oslo, Norway.
    Panizzon, Matthew S.
    Rohani, Darius A.
    Skranes, Jon
    Storsve, Andreas B.
    Solsnes, Anne Elisabeth
    Tamnes, Christian K.
    Thompson, Wesley K.
    Reuter, Chase
    Dale, Anders M.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Neurodevelopmental origins of lifespan changes in brain and cognition2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 33, p. 9357-9362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurodevelopmental origins of functional variation in older age are increasingly being acknowledged, but identification of how early factors impact human brain and cognition throughout life has remained challenging. Much focus has been on age-specific mechanisms affecting neural foundations of cognition and their change. In contrast to this approach, we tested whether cerebral correlates of general cognitive ability (GCA) in development could be extended to the rest of the lifespan, and whether early factors traceable to prenatal stages, such as birth weight and parental education, may exert continuous influences. We measured the area of the cerebral cortex in a longitudinal sample of 974 individuals aged 4-88 y (1,633 observations). An extensive cortical region was identified wherein area related positively to GCA in development. By tracking area of the cortical region identified in the child sample throughout the lifespan, we showed that the cortical change trajectories of higher and lower GCA groups were parallel through life, suggesting continued influences of early life factors. Birth weight and parental education obtained from the Norwegian Mother-Child Cohort study were identified as such early factors of possible lifelong influence. Support for a genetic component was obtained in a separate twin sample (Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging), but birth weight in the child sample had an effect on cortical area also when controlling for possible genetic differences in terms of parental height. Our results provide novel evidence for stability in brain-cognition relationships throughout life, and indicate that early life factors impact brain and cognition for the entire life course.

  • 259. Wallin, Anders
    et al.
    Kettunen, Petronella
    Johansson, Per M.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Nilsson, Michael
    Eckerström, Marie
    Nordlund, Arto
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S.
    Svensson, Johan
    Terzis, Beata
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Kuhn, H. Georg
    Cognitive medicine: a new approach in health care science2018In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 18, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The challenges of today's society call for more knowledge about how to maintain all aspects of cognitive health, such as speed/attention, memory/learning, visuospatial ability, language, executive capacity and social cognition during the life course. Main text: Medical advances have improved treatments of numerous diseases, but the cognitive implications have not been sufficiently addressed. Disability induced by cognitive dysfunction is also a major issue in groups of patients not suffering from Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. Recent studies indicate that several negative lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of cognitive impairment, but intervention and prevention strategies have not been implemented. Disability due to cognitive failure among the workforce has become a major challenge. Globally, the changing aging pyramid results in increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, and the diversity of cultures influences the expression, manifestation and consequences of cognitive dysfunction. Conclusions: Major tasks in the field of cognitive medicine are basic neuroscience research to uncover diverse disease mechanisms, determinations of the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction, health-economical evaluations, and intervention studies. Raising awareness for cognitive medicine as a clinical topic would also highlight the importance of specialized health care units for an integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive dysfunctions.

  • 260.
    Wallstén, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Häggström, I.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    The Influence of Time Sampling on Parameters in the Logan Plot2013In: 2013 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM AND MEDICAL IMAGING CONFERENCE (NSS/MIC), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Logan plot is a graphical method for reversible tracer bindings. The bias and uncertainties of this method have previously been analyzed with respect to noise, but little is known about the direct effects from varying the time sampling scheme. This study aims to investigate the effect of time sampling on the binding potential from the reference Logan plot. Image data from seven healthy subjects imaged with [11C]raclopride was reconstructed into six dynamic series of equal length time frames with frame times between 15 s and 480 s. Images were reconstructed using both filtered back projection (FBP) and a resolution enhanced ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm, SharpIR. For each sampling scheme, the nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) parameter was calculated from the reference Logan plot with cerebellum as a reference region. The variation in BPND was analyzed as percentage deviations from the BPND for the 480 s scheme. R-2 of the linear fit was also analyzed. Comparison between all sampling schemes showed that the largest deviation in BPND was 7.4% between the 15 s sampling scheme and the 480 s sampling scheme reconstructed with SharpIR. The corresponding deviation for FBP images was 1.6%. R-2 was highest for long time frames, but all R-2 values were above 0.997 in this study.

  • 261.
    Wikgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning.
    Lind, Johanna
    University of Oslo, Department of Psychology.
    Nilbrink, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Sleegers, Kristel
    VIB, Department of Molecular Genetics.
    Van Broeckhoven, Christine
    VIB, Department of Molecular Genetics.
    Roos, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Longer leukocyte telomere length is associated with smaller hippocampal volume among non-demented APOE ε3/ε3 subjects2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e34292-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telomere length shortens with cellular division, and leukocyte telomere length is used as a marker for systemic telomere length. The hippocampus hosts adult neurogenesis and is an important structure for episodic memory, and carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele exhibit higher hippocampal atrophy rates and differing telomere dynamics compared with non-carriers. The authors investigated whether leukocyte telomere length was associated with hippocampal volume in 57 cognitively intact subjects (29 ε3/ε3 carriers; 28 ε4 carriers) aged 49-79 yr. Leukocyte telomere length correlated inversely with left (r(s) = -0.465; p = 0.011), right (r(s) = -0.414; p = 0.025), and total hippocampus volume (r(s) = -0.519; p = 0.004) among APOE ε3/ε3 carriers, but not among ε4 carriers. However, the ε4 carriers fit with the general correlation pattern exhibited by the ε3/ε3 carriers, as ε4 carriers on average had longer telomeres and smaller hippocampi compared with ε3/ε3 carriers. The relationship observed can be interpreted as long telomeres representing a history of relatively low cellular proliferation, reflected in smaller hippocampal volumes. The results support the potential of leukocyte telomere length being used as a biomarker for tapping functional and structural processes of the aging brain.

  • 262.
    Wikgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning.
    Nilbrink, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nordfjäll, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Sleegers, Kristel
    VIB, Department of Molecular Genetics.
    Van Broeckhoven, Christine
    VIB, Department of Molecular Genetics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Roos, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    APOE ε4 is associated with longer telomeres, and longer telomeres among ε4 carriers predicts worse episodic memory2012In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 335-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both leukocyte telomere length and the apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele have been associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, cognition, and dementia. The authors investigated whether leukocyte telomere length was associated with APOE genotype or cognitive abilities in the context of APOE genotype. The setting for this cross-sectional study was 427 nondemented individuals aged 41-81 yr. The authors found that epsilon4 carriers overall exhibited significantly longer telomeres compared with non-carriers (difference of 268 bp, p = 0.001). This difference was greatest at the lower limit of the age span and nonsignificant at the upper limit, which translated into a significantly higher telomere attrition rate (p = 0.049) among epsilon4 carriers (37 bp/years) compared with non-carriers (21 bp/year). Further, longer telomeres among epsilon4 carriers significantly predicted worse performance on episodic memory tasks. No significant associations were found on tasks tapping semantic and visuospatial ability, or among epsilon3/epsilon3 carriers. In conclusion, APOE epsilon4 carriers had longer telomeres compared with non-carriers, but higher rate of attrition. Among them, longer telomeres predicted worse performance on episodic memory tasks. These observations suggest that the epsilon4 allele is associated with abnormal cell turnover of functional and possibly clinical significance.

  • 263.
    Wiklund-Hörnkvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    The neural mechanisms underlying test-enhanced learning: An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study2012In: Earli-SIG 22: Neuroscience and Education" 24th-26th May 2012, Institute of Education, London, 2012, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests, a phenomenon called the testing-effect. However, the neural mechanisms of test-enhanced learning are not well understood. The current study examined changes in functional brain networks in relation to repeated retrieval (i.e. test-enhanced learning).

    Participants (n=20) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while being tested on each study item three times.

    Successful repeated retrieval was characterized by decreased activity in prefrontal and premotor regions and in the right caudate, compared to items not successfully retrieved at consecutive tests. Successful repeated retrieval was also characterized by increased activity in right middle temporal cortex (BA 37 & 21).

    Tentatively, these results imply that the benefits of test-enhanced learning in part is due to decreased need for executive processing along with strengthening of semantic representations.

    The current results generate novel information on the effectiveness of testing as a learning method and thus contribute to bridge the current gap between cognitive neuroscience and educational research.

  • 264.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success2017In: npj Science of Learning, E-ISSN 2056-7936, Vol. 2, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called “the testing effect”, i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

  • 265.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    An fMRI study of the supportive role of feedback during test-enhanced learning2016In: ICOM-6 Conference Programme: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, 2016, p. 29-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests (i.e., the testing-effect).

    One key factor is the inclusion of feedback which enhances the benefits. Participants (n=21) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent fMRI while being tested on each study-item either with or without feedback.

    Contrary to no feedback, several regions were identified as a feedback-network with the strongest contribution from the bilateral MTL regions (anterior hippocampus, amygdala), insula and left IFC. Several of these responses were modulated by type of response (correct/incorrect) and repetition (1,2,3).

    These findings link the effect of feedback on learning to strengthening of semantic representations, providing novel insights about the crucial role of feedback during test-enhanced learning.

  • 266.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    How to learn? The Effects of Repeated Testing with Feedback compared to Rereading of Educational Material2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An obvious way to promote acquisition of new information is to repeat the learning/encoding phase. However, recent evidence (Roediger & Butler, 2010) indicate that repeating the test phase may be even more effective, particularly when combined with feedback on response correctness.

    The aim of this ongoing study is to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology text-book facts in an educational context. The effect was examined immediate after practice, after 18-days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students.

    Preliminary analyses revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, thus indicating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and long-term. Learning methods including elements of repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 267.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (= 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 268.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Activity in left temporal-parietal regions characterizes long-term retention after repeated testing2013In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 25, no Suppl., p. S114-S114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    At the Heart of Cognitive Functioning in Aging2019In: Trends in cognitive sciences, ISSN 1364-6613, E-ISSN 1879-307X, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 717-720Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several neural and non-neural factors contribute to individual differences in cognitive performance. Here we outline a sequence of vascular events where excessive transfer of arterial-pressure pulsatility damages hippocampal capillaries. We argue that the vascular alterations decrease the ability to sustain neural activity and thereby contribute to episodic-memory impairment in aging.

  • 270. Zetterberg, H.
    et al.
    Winblad, B.
    Bernick, C.
    Yaffe, K.
    Majdan, M.
    Johansson, G.
    Newcombe, V.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Sharp, D.
    Tenovuo, O.
    Blennow, K.
    Head trauma in sports - clinical characteristics, epidemiology and biomarkers2019In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 285, no 6, p. 624-634Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically divided into a spectrum of severities, with mild TBI being the least severe form and a frequent occurrence in contact sports, such as ice hockey, American football, rugby, horse riding and boxing. Mild TBI is caused by blunt nonpenetrating head trauma that causes movement of the brain and stretching and tearing of axons, with diffuse axonal injury being a central pathogenic mechanism. Mild TBI is in principle synonymous with concussion; both have similar criteria in which the most important elements are acute alteration or loss of consciousness and/or post-traumatic amnesia following head trauma and no apparent brain changes on standard neuroimaging. Symptoms in mild TBI are highly variable and there are no validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine whether or not a patient with a normal computerized tomography scan of the brain has neuronal damage. Mild TBI typically resolves within a few weeks but 10-15% of concussion patients develop postconcussive syndrome. Repetitive mild TBI, which is frequent in contact sports, is a risk factor for a complicated recovery process. This overview paper discusses the relationships between repetitive head impacts in contact sports, mild TBI and chronic neurological symptoms. What are these conditions, how common are they, how are they linked and can they be objectified using imaging or fluid-based biomarkers? It gives an update on the current state of research on these questions with a specific focus on clinical characteristics, epidemiology and biomarkers.

  • 271.
    Öhman, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Longitudinal analysis of the relation between moderate long-term stress and health2007In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of the present work was to longitudinally examine consequences of long-term moderately elevated levels of stress for various health outcomes. To address this issue, data covering 10 years was used from the ongoing Swedish population-based prospective Betula Study. Based on the ratings on a validated self-reported stress scale, matched subsamples between 40 and 65 years of age were divided into a high (n = 137) and low (n = 211) stress group. The reported incidence of cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric, tumour and musculoskeletal diseases was assessed 5 and 10 years after baseline (baseline = 1993–1995) without contaminating effects of past health history. The incidence of diseases 5 years after baseline assessment showed no differences between the groups. After 10 years, there was a significantly higher incidence of psychiatric diseases, mainly depression in the high-stress group as well as a significant effect for tumours, although the number of cases was low. Although moderately elevated stress level may have a possible impact on psychiatric diseases especially depression and some tumours, it seems that prolonged moderate stress does not appear to be harmful to other stress-related diseases.

3456 251 - 271 of 271
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