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  • 251.
    Khachatryan, Ermine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Personalomsättning inom Statens Institutionsstyrelse: En utredning om hur personalomsättningen ser ut på SiS-institution Eknäs samt vilka potentiella faktorer påverkas den av2017Student paper other, 12 hpOppgave
  • 252.
    Kilander, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Inhyrd arbetskarft i hälso- och sjukvården: En fallstudie om verksamhets- och personalpåverkan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 253.
    Kjellberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Hur ser man på effektivitetsmått i hälso- och sjukvården idag?: Mäter sjukvården effektivt? Vad mäts i QALY?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 254.
    Kjällander, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Vårdadministratörers upplevelse av att landsting använder sig av olika journalsystem: Vilka möjligheter finns för att övergå till ett enhetligt system?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 255. Klapwijk, M. J.
    et al.
    Boberg, J.
    Bergh, J.
    Bishop, K.
    Björkman, C.
    Ellison, D.
    Felton, A.
    Lidskog, R.
    Lundmark, T.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sonesson, J.
    Nordin, A.
    Nordström, E.-M.
    Stenlid, J.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action2018Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 52, s. 238-247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managed forests can play an important role in climate change mitigation due to their capacity to sequester carbon. However, it has proven difficult to harness their full potential for climate change mitigation. Managed forests are often referred to as socio-ecological systems as the human dimension is an integral part of the system. When attempting to change systems that are influenced by factors such as collective knowledge, social organization, understanding of the situation and values represented in society, initial intentions often shift due to the complexity of political, social and scientific interactions. Currently, the scientific literature is dispersed over the differentfactorsrelated tothe socio-ecological system. Toexamine thelevelofdispersion andtoobtainaholistic view, we review climate change mitigation in the context of Swedish forest research. We introduce a heuristic framework to understand decision-making connected to climate change mitigation. We apply our framework to two themes which span different dimensions in the socio-ecological system: carbon accounting and bioenergy. A key finding in the literature was the perception that current uncertainties regarding the reliability of different methods of carbon accounting inhibits international agreement on the use of forests for climate change mitigation. This feeds into a strategic obstacle affecting the willingness of individual countries to implement forestrelated carbon emission reduction policies. Decisions on the utilization of forests for bioenergy are impeded by a lack of knowledge regarding the resultant biophysical and social consequences. This interacts negatively with the development of institutional incentives regarding the production of bioenergy using forest products. Normative disagreement about acceptable forest use further affects these scientific discussions and therefore is an over-arching influence on decision-making. With our framework, we capture this complexity and make obstacles to decision-making more transparent to enable their more effective resolution. We have identified the main research areas concerned with the use of managed forest in climate change mitigation and the obstacles that are connected to decision making.

  • 256.
    Klint, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Primärvårdens Förändring: Från offentlig förvaltning till privata bolag2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 257.
    Knutsson, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Privata vårdcentraler och marknadsföring: Vilka faktorer på vårdcentralerna anser verksamhetscheferna viktigast för att locka patienterna till sig2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 258.
    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
    et al.
    Graduate School of Management, Kyoto University, Japan.
    Westin, LarsUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).Westlund, HansRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH); CISEG, Jönköping International Business School.
    Social capital and development trends in rural areas: volume 32008Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 259.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    An Estimate of Swedish GDP in 15712004Inngår i: Exploring economic growth : essays in measurement and analysis: a festschrift for Riitta Hjerppe on her 60th birthday, Amsterdam : Aksant , 2004Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 260.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Den småländska glasregionens uppgång och fall: en ekonomisk historia2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 261.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Economic Growth and Economic Policy in Sweden in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Perspective2008Inngår i: Pathbreakers: Small European Countries Responding to Globalisation and Deglobalisation, Peter Lang Pub Inc, Bern , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 262.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Small European Countries in Economic Internationalisation: An Economic Historical Perspective2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses small state theories and characteristics. In economic theories foreign trade is of great interest since small states are more dependent than large ones on this trade. A special approach, formulated by Katzenstein, is shown to be time-bound. In the period from the 1930s to the 1980s small states’ adaptation to the outside world to a great extent took the shape that Katzenstein discussed which among other things meant democratic corporatism. This conclusion is arrived at when a long-time perspective is applied. Small state characteristics are mostly of interest from the 19th century. Up to World War I inter-nationalisation was growing but after that it did not increase until the 1970s when a new internationalisation wave came. Especially in the second wave, which could also be called the globalisation wave, thoroughgoing adaptations of the small states were conspicuous and international organisations became essential.

  • 263.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    The Nordic Countries in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Economic Growth in a Comparative Perspective2006Inngår i: Living Standards and the Wealth of Nations: Successes and Failures in Real Convergence, , Massachusetts: The MIT Press , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 264.
    Krantz, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Tillväxt och konvergens. En jämförelse av den ekonomiska utvecklingen i Finland och Sverige under 1800- och 1900-talen: (Growth and Convergence. A Comparison between the Economic Performance in Finland and Sweden in the 19th and 20th Centuries)2006Inngår i: Från olika till jämlika : Finlands och Sveriges ekonomier på 1900-talet, Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland, Helsingfors , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 265.
    Krantz, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Schön, Lennart
    Swedish Historical National Accounts 1800-20002007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 266. Kunnas, J.
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Pettersson, M.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The institutionalization of forestry as a primary land use in Sweden2019Inngår i: The Politics of Arctic Resources: Change and Continuity in the ’Old North’ of Northern Europe / [ed] Keskitalo, E. C. H., London: Routledge, 2019, s. 62-77Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry constitutes the basis for some 10% of export value in Sweden (2018), making it an economically significant contributor to the country’s economy. Related to this, over the centuries wood has come to be institutionalized as a primary land use, not least related to export as well as the forest industry, so significant today. This role is visible in legislation, with wood production given preference as the “ongoing land use” – making it the use to which other sectors, to some extent, must relate – and also remaining enthroned in special legislation rather than integrated in environmental or planning legislation. The production logic that forms the basis for the sector means that issues relating to future use can also be seen as related to this logic, with climate change adaptation- and mitigation-related strategies targeting those in line with industrial forestry, such as shortening rotation times rather than investing in mixed forest. This chapter thus shows that even that which can be defined as a climate change adaptation is crucially dependent on the national context in which it is defined.

  • 267.
    Kvarforth, Anna Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Vårdadministratörers position och genuskodning: En studie av vårdadministratörers hierarkiska position vid Visby lasarett2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 268.
    Kärn, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Likvärdig vård för alla.: En studie om långa avstånd och befolkningsunderlag har en påverkan på sjukvårdens väntetider. Samt om hemtjänsten upplevs som likvärdig av alla eller påverkas den av bostadsort?2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 269.
    Laestander, Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Teknisk utveckling inom akuttriagering.: Skillnader i användning av och attityd mot dataprogrammet Awaria i Skellefteå2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 270.
    Lantz, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    An indirect route to equality: taxing consumers to build the Swedish welfare state2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of who paid for the welfare state in postwar Sweden has been subject to extensive debate. Many have focused on the comparatively high, and steeply progressive, taxes on income. Others have claimed that low and middle earners paid disproportionately more, pointing to the comparatively high revenue share of value added tax (VAT) for instance. No convincing assessment has been made of the extent to which consumption taxes counteracted the progressivity of income taxes. The thesis presents new estimates based on tax assessments and household surveys, which show that consumption taxes did offset tax progressivity considerably. Moreover, they were important even before the VAT. There was not a sharp break, but a gradual transition from excise and customs duties to general sales tax to VAT. The VAT meant a shifting of the weight more towards the lower end of the income distribution.

    This insight begs the question of what caused such a fiscal arrangement. What made postwar Sweden’s labour governments favour a tax that fell disproportionately on low earners, a core part of their constituency? Through an analysis of policy documents, the author shows that the governing Social Democrats were well aware of the dilemma. The party leaders used general consumption taxes explicitly as a ‘lesser evil’ component in a strategy for expanding the public sector and welfare systems. That aspect has previously been neglected when telling the story of this formative era. The thesis demonstrates that it deserves to be brought into a central place in that story.

    Corporatism remains a valid explanatory factor. The business community had an influence on determining the details of the general sales tax, albeit not the overall level. Tax reliefs on certain important inputs such as building materials and were granted after a series of appeals. The author argues that the transition from sales tax to VAT can be seen as a final solution to these protests about business inputs being unfairly taxed. The will of the domestic business community was of a more immediate importance for the switch to VAT than any potential tendency of compliance towards supranational organisations such as the EEC pushing the government to follow their edicts concerning VAT, as has otherwise been suggested.

    The political left in Sweden was initially against the general sales tax because of its burden on low earners. The political right opposed the general sales tax because it would increase the overall tax take, and risked becoming an all too convenient revenue machine for the government. The left changed position and began framing it as a tool for realising welfare state expansion. The right reframed it as a tool for keeping the progressivity of taxation down.

  • 271.
    Lantz, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    How They All Came to Love the VAT: Consumption Taxes, Big Business, and the Welfare State in Sweden2018Inngår i: Worlds of Taxation: The Political Economy of Taxing, Spending, and Redistribution Since 1945 / [ed] Huerlimann, Gisela; Brownlee, W. Elliot; Ide, Eisaku, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, s. 49-72Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies emphasize the importance of value-added tax (VAT) for financing extensive Scandinavian-type welfare states. This questions common perceptions of labor parties’ preference for taxing the rich. This chapter examines how Sweden came to adopt VAT, and its precursor the sales tax, in the 1950s and 1960s. The conclusion is that labor governments intentionally used this fiscal measure to achieve a comprehensive welfare state. Resistance was answered with promises of compensation for low-income households. The influence of international organizations for choosing VAT is not supported. Concerns voiced by the domestic business community about keeping up with international competition are given more weight as an explanation. Repeated appeals for reliefs from taxation of business inputs were another decisive factor in the transition from sales tax to VAT.

  • 272.
    Lantz, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Kommunal kraft: hamnar, elektricitet och systembyggare i Umeå 1920-19602013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen undersöker den lokala politiken kring utbyggnaden av hamn- och elkraftssystem i Umeå under perioden 1920-1960. Utgångspunkten är att problematisera den tidigare forskningens bild av staden Umeå som enbart förvaltningsinriktad, med obetydlig aktivitet inom industri och näringsliv. Målet är att med det fördjupa förståelsen av den långsiktiga utvecklingen av ekonomin och samhället. I enlighet med LTS-teorin visar resultaten hur systembyggare inom politik, teknik och näringsliv drev fram utvecklingen av de undersökta tekniska systemen. Ett utmärkande drag är samspelet mellan näringsliv och politik på det lokala planet. Ett annat är samspelet mellan nationell och lokal politik och förvaltning. Ett tredje är att tekniskt sakkunniga i vissa kritiska skeden lyckats styra om inriktningen på utvecklingen. Sammantaget synliggör LTS-analysen aktiviteter av betydelse för stadens utveckling som tidigare forskning har bortsett från. En andra slutsats drar uppsatsen utifrån en teoriansats om städers funktion som noder för olika nätverk i samhället. Slutsatsen är att Umeås jämförelsevis stora utvidgning under 1900-talet inte enbart kan förklaras med tillkomsten av universitetet. Forskning och utbildning ska istället ses som en av flera nätverksfunktioner som har bidragit till den befolkningsmässiga och ekonomiska expansionen. Infrastruktur av typen hamnar och energiförsörjning, med tydlig koppling till industri och handel, är nätverksfunktioner som också har haft en del i utvecklingen.

  • 273.
    Lantz, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Presstöd under press: institutionell förändring inom svenska tidningsmarknadens stödsystem 1963-20112012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 274.
    Larneryd, Marita
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    eHälsotjänster i glesbygd: En fallstudie gällande RemoAge - implementering ur ett personalperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 275.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Den ökade administrationen inom hälso- och sjukvården: med fokus på personalens arbetsmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 276. Lee, Robert
    Infant, Child and Maternal Mortality in Western Europe: A Critique1988Inngår i: Society, Health and Population during the Demographic Transition / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell International , 1988, s. 9-21Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 277.
    Lestander, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Påverkar geografiska avstånd vårdvalsbesluten?: En studie av vårdvalsreformen i Älvsbyns kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 278.
    Levin, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Att elda för kråkorna?: hushållens energianvändning inom bostadssektorn i Sverige 1913-20082014Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the development of the long-term energy consumption in the Swedish households by estimating the sector’s total energy use and moreover, by examining how structural, institutional and economic factors have affected the demand for energy in the residential sector during the period 1913-2008. The investigated period covers a transition from traditional fuels, such as firewood, to fossil fuels and finally renewable energy. Previous quantitative research in the field of energy history has mainly focused on estimates of the primary energy supply, and further, this research has primarily been supply-oriented and has therefore focused the production of energy and the supporting infrastructure.

     

    Overall, there is currently a lack of knowledge covering the long-term patterns in Swedish household’s energy consumption, including changes of the household energy mix. Identifying the central mechanisms behind these changes is the central research question in this thesis. Improved understanding of the energy transformation in Swedish households constitutes important knowledge for all actors who address energy and climate policy, not the least are knowledge about the complex factors that have affected the household consumption of fossil fuels, and thereby the household’s carbon dioxide emissions, important.- The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better under-standing of the households' role in the energy system and how this role has changed during the 1900s until 2008.

     

    The thesis uses a structural analytical approach, based on the concepts suggested by foremost Olle Krantz and Lennart Schön, to understand how the household’s energy consumption is linked to structural changes and techno-logical development. Although the structural analytical chronology, as suggested by Schön, primary builds on the industrial sector, the households can be expected to follow a similar pattern of transformation. This since general-purpose energy technologies is central for the pattern of transformation. However, since different sectors face different conditions and different abilities to utilize the energy, it is equally plausible to assume that the households follow a different pattern than other sectors. The response could either have been faster or slower.

     

    The thesis concludes that the period covering the years 1913 to 1973 was a catching-up phase. The households lagged behind the industrial sector with respect to the transition to coal, electricity and oil. But in 1973 the households had however a similar energy mix to other sectors. The second conclusion is therefore that the households made a faster transition from oil to electricity and district heating. After 1985 the household’s energy mix took a different path compared to other sectors, which is the third conclusion. After 1985 the household’s oil consumption continued to decline as the consumption of district heating was increasing. The households were also more prone to increase their consumption of bio-fuels during the 1990s. 

  • 279.
    Levin, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Dataserier för avhandlingen “Att elda för kråkorna? Hushållens energianvändning inom bostadssektorn i Sverige 1913-20082015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna text innefattar de dataserier som ligger till grund för avhandlingen ”Att elda för kråkorna? – Hushållens energianvändning inom bostadssektorn 1913-2008”. Texten innehåller en kort beskrivning av källäget samt presenterar de två huvudserier som avhandlingen bygger på. Resultatet av serierna redovisas i fem diagram. En mer detaljerad analys av serierna finns i kapitel tre, fem, sex, sju och åtta i avhandlingen. Källorna presenteras mer utförligt i kapitel två där källornas innehåll och principer för datafångst, definitioner och urval redovisas och diskuteras.

  • 280.
    Levin, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Energipolitiska styrmedel: Massa- och pappersindustrins minskade användning av olja, från 1970-talet till nutid.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 281.
    Levin, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Energy consumption transition: final household energy consumption in the case of Sweden 1920-20102012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis examines households’ final energy consumption over the long run by measuring their final energy use and examining how structural, institutional and economic factors affected the demand for energy in the residential sector during the period 1920-2010, a period covering the transition from traditional to fossil to renewable energy carriers. I believe that wider understanding of the historical energy transition and energy consumption within the residential sector might help us gain important insights into the long-run development and the factors affecting energy consumption among the households. By providing a new historical record and analysis of final energy consumption, this licentiate thesis extends the mainly supply-driven and aggregated literature on energy in the field of economic history.The empirical account of energy use shows that the households’ final energy use in the residential sector has undergone two large energy transitions during the twentieth century. The first occurred during the period 1930-1950, when households shifted from firewood and coal as their main energy carrier towards oil and electricity. The electric grid, in conjunction with new electrical appliances, changed patterns of consumption, standards of living and domestic work. It also provided a foundation for the later shift from oil to electricity in heating in the 1970s. The transition occurred simultaneously with large investments in residential buildings and with a growing variety of electrical appliances. The energy consumption in the increased rapidly during the period 1950-1973, until the OPEC 1 crisis initiated decreased consumption and the second energy transition.The second transition was characterized by the shift from oil to electricity and district heating. The process was driven by high oil prices and relatively low electricity/district heating prices due to the expansion of nuclear power and new usages of biofuel and wind power. With a higher reliance on electricity, the households received an energy source of higher quality. Since 1979 the residential sector’s energy consumption has declined, and the sector has seen a substantial decline in carbon dioxide emissions. The reduction of energy consumption and the transition to non-fossil fuels contributed to substantial reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. For energy at large, household tended to reduce consumption when real energy prices increases more than real income. For the energy mix, household has tended to shift when relative price changes has affected the utility of consuming different energy carriers. Households shifted from oil when the price on energy services derived from electricity and district heating became relatively lower than oil

  • 282.
    Levin, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Determinants of energy consumption: the Swedish residential sector 1920-2010Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Household energy consumption is an important aspect of mitigating climate change and the overall use of energy on a global scale. Energy consumed by households, excluding transportation uses, accounted for about 14% of delivered world energy consumption in 2008. In this paper, we examine the development of energy consumption in the Swedish residential sector during the period 1920 to 2010. We show that the growing residential building stock has contributed to higher energy consumption per household over time. Since the 1970s, however, higher real energy prices have put pressure on households to reduce their energy consumption. We find that a combination of higher market prices and taxes on energy contributed to the reduction of energy per household, causing a 10% reduction in aggregated final energy consumption.

  • 283.
    Levin, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Household carbon dioxide reduction and energy transition: the case of Sweden 1920-2008Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 284.
    Lilja, Theresa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Vårdadministratörers yrkesstatus: Vad gör arbetsgivare?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 285.
    Liljenäs, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Allmänningsskogarna i Norrbottens län: deras betydelse för det enskilda jord- och skogsbruket1977Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 286.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Mindre utsläpp för pengarna: Om energiprisernas betydelse för BNPs koldioxidintensitet i Sverige och Frankrike 1950-2008.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 287.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Networks that organised competition: corporate resource sharing between Swedish property underwriters 1875-19502019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the corporate networks of Swedish property underwriters 1875-1950. During this period, networks of increasing intensity was an essential part in the organisation of the Swedish property insurance market. Corporate resource sharing allowed underwriters to accommodate the ever-changing industrialised demand for property insurance. Interlocking directorates, ownership ties and membership in collaborative organisations were the vessels of this corporate resource sharing.

    This study proposes a network perspective on the organisation of competition and collaboration. It finds that networks lowered firms’ cost-threshold for underwriting diversification, causing wellconnected firms to expand into new markets more easily. An essential resource to underwriters was information, and information exchange motivated several interfirm rapprochements. The driving forces for the organisational shift towards increased networking were, however, complex, and included both socioeconomic and strategic factors.

    Through networks of mutual resource sharing, the consolidation that appears in the industry after 1950 was preceded by a long historical process in which firms who would later merge developed measurably clustered network structures as early as in the 1910s. In the 1920s the networks already contributed to a high market concentration. Networks thereby conditioned the underwriting operation of individual firms as well as the structural evolution of the Swedish insurance market as a whole.

  • 288.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Variation in organizational form across lines of property insurance: Sweden, 1913-19392014Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 77-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of organizational structure on risk taking across different lines of property insurance (fire, marine, vehicle and specialized property insurance) in Sweden from 1913 to 1939. Based on the theoretical arguments whereby the mutual organizational form has a competitive advantage in underwriting homogeneous but unknown risk distribution, while the stock organizational form is more likely to underwrite more volatile and heterogeneous risk categories, we conclude that organizational form has a significant impact on risk taking. Our empirical analysis shows that the risk taking, measured as incurred claims to anticipated losses, was on average lower among mutual insurers. When comparing across lines of insurance, the analysis shows that the mutual form was more successful in keeping down risks in fire and marine, while less so in vehicle and specialized property insurance. Stock companies mitigated the higher risk by ceding more premiums to reinsurers and by diversifying more across different lines of insurance.

  • 289.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Johansson, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Gruvnäringens förutsättningar i norra Sverige: Utredning om hållbara samhällen, mineralpolitik och innovation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 290.
    Lind, Pia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Hur upplevs förändringarna av de nya administrativa rutinerna för sjuksköterskorna respektive medicinska sekreterare på ögonmottagningen på Helsingborgs lasarett?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 291.
    Lind, Pia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Svensk sjukvård i skamvrån?: Synpunkter på ökande anmälningsstatistik i svensk sjukvård 1980-20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har det varit en hel del förändringar inom sjukvården. Hela sjukvården har påverkats av reformer och de förändrade ekonomiska förutsättningarna som har blivit sedan 1980-talet. Personalen inom sjukvården har fått mycket ändrade arbetsvillkor där det bland annat har försvunnit en hel yrkesgrupp och administrationsbördan har ökat.

    Under denna tid har man dessutom kunnat se ökningar av anmälningar inom sjukvården. Denna uppsats försöker se på om det finns ett samband mellan förändrad sjukvårdsstruktur och arbetsmetoder och det ökade antal med anmälningar.

    Forskningen och artiklarna handlar dels om den omorganisation som gjorts och vad de olika reformerna har inneburit för sjukvården. Det finns även med en del om personalens arbetsuppgifter och de förändringar som personalen har fått erfara samt om bemötande inom vården.

    I studien har det också gjorts några intervjuer för att försöka få reda på hur personal och politiker ser på de förändringar som gjorts.

    Resultatet visar att det absolut kan kopplas ihop samband mellan omorganisation, arbetsdelning, vårdutförande och anmälningar. Mindre tid till patienterna innebär mer stress för personalen samtidigt som stressen gör att risken för misstag ökar.

    Sverige har ändrats mycket med tanke på att vi har blivit mer mångkulturella än vi varit tidigare vilket också ställer högre krav på personal som arbetar inom serviceorganisationer. Förändringar med nya kulturer, nya människor som kommer hit med nya förväntningar eller andra förväntningar.

  • 292.
    Lindberg, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Teamarbetets påverkan på Tegs hälsocentral: Ur ett arbetsorganisatoriskt perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 293.
    Lindberg, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Förändringskrafter inom hälso- och sjukvården: En studie om en ny regionindelning och Västerbottens läns landsting2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 294.
    Lindblom, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Sammanhållen journalföring: En balansgång mellan patientsäkerhet, patientintegritet och vårdkvalité2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 295.
    Linde, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Hur hanteras bemötandefrågor för en mer jämlik hälso- och sjukvård?: En studie av riktlinjer inom primärvården i Västerbottens läns landsting2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 296.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    A dark side of car ownership: perspectives on the rebound effect i Sweden 1950-2007Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 297.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Bilism för regional utjämning?: Studier av privatbilismens geografiska och socioekonomiska spridningsmönster 1950-20002008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis, with the English title Automobility towards Regional Equality? Studies of the geographical and socioeconomic diffusion of the private automobility in Sweden 1950-2000, has the overall aim to investigate the interaction between the private automobility and the Swedish socio-economical development in general. Firstly, the diffusion of private car ownership in Sweden is mapped both geographically and economically at the national level covering all citizens above the age of 18. Secondly, a comparison with the Norwegian diffusion pattern shows how automobility has interacted with two partly different national contexts. This aim will be dealt with in two articles.

    Since the diffusion of private cars in Sweden has not yet been examined in a long run and national perspective covering all individuals, the first article, Driving from the Centre to the Periphery? The Diffusion of Private Cars in Sweden 1950-2000 with focus on 1960-1975, investigates how the diffusion of private cars followed the over all socio-economic and geographical changes from 1960 to 1975; did changes in car ownership per capita primarily follow changes in incomes or changes in population density (urbanisation)? Swedish traffic and regional policies in the 1960s aimed at making the car an instrument for national integration and regional equality, and make it available throughout the country. In the article the effect of that policy is tested. The analysis is based on Swedish census material that includes all car owners for the years 1960, 1970 and 1975. Our conclusion is that income levels were more important than other explanations to the diffusion of private cars in Sweden between 1960 and 1975.

    Since Norwegian private car density has lagged behind the Swedish and did not reach the same national levels until the late 1980s, despite the same GDP per capita levels, the second article, Two Sides of the same Coin? Private Car Ownership in Sweden and Norway since 1950, compares car diffusion in Norway and Sweden in both historical time and model time in order to find specific explanations for the national and regional patterns of car diffusion. Can both the time lag and the diffusion process be explained with national differences in income, institutions, infrastructure, and population settlements? Or have regional differences in income and population density affected the outcome? Our conclusion is that car diffusion in Norway and Sweden displays two sides of same coin; the national levels converged, but the process did not follow the same regional pattern. Regional differences in income and population density have in general been a significant explanation for car density in Sweden but not in Norway.

    Thus, the licentiate thesis shows how private car ownership in Sweden from the 1950s has interacted with increasing regional equality, especially concerning geographical diffusion.

  • 298.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    "En ledande och samordnande funktion": om trafiksäkerhetens reglering och organisering i Sverige 1950-20072011Inngår i: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 77, nr 1, s. 82-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the organization of Swedish national road safety. The Swedish government has shown an interest in road safety since the beginning of the twentieth century, so the question is not if, but how road safety has been organized over time. Today, the ‘Vision Zero’ policy is used as the framework for road safety management within road policy as a whole. One reason for the adoption of Vision Zero was that road traffic deaths and injuries are considered a (global) public health problem and should be combated. The article presents a fresh approach to the Swedish government’s organization of road safety since the 1950s. The focus is the establishment and subsequent closure of the National Road Safety Office (TSV), and how the various and changing forms of organizations before, during, and after the TSV have been reflected in the national road plans of 1958, 1970, and 1998. Government bills and official reports reflect the national decision-making processes and the reasoning behind the founding and closure of the TSV. Before the TSV was set up in 1968, road safety had been the responsibility of the National Road Administration, which resumed responsibility when the TSV was closed down in 1993. The present study shows that the motives for the TSV’s creation and demise were the same, despite a time-frame that ran to fully twenty-five years: on each occasion road safety management was felt to be too haphazard, when it needed to be more coherent and efficient. These organizational changes were reflected in road planning, where control of the infrastructure increased, especially in recent decades. This conclusion sits well with previous research, which has shown the need for a more closely managed road network in order to implement Vision Zero.

  • 299.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Samhällsförändring på väg: Perspektiv på den svenska bilismens utveckling mellan 1950 och 20072010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to give a perspective on the development of the Swedish automobility between 1950 and 2007. New knowledge on automobility’s role for economic historical development will be achieved by studying the interaction between the diffusion of the private car on the national and the regional level, and the households’ preferences and the government’s regulations of car ownership.

    The first paper, Two Sides of the Same Coin?, compares car diffusion in Norway and Sweden to find explanations for the national and regional patterns. We ask whether the slower diffusion in Norway can be explained with national differences in income, institutions, infrastructure and population settlements; or if regional differences in income and population density have affected the outcome? Our conclusion is that car diffusion in Norway and Sweden displays two sides of the same coin; the national levels converged, but the process did not follow the same regional pattern. Regional differences in income and population density have in general been a significant explanation for car density in Sweden, but not in Norway.  

    The second paper, Driving from the Centre to the Periphery?, examines whether the diffusion of private cars followed the over-all socio-economic and geographical changes in Sweden from 1960 to 1975. In particular, it studies if ownership per capita followed changes in income or changes in population density (urbanisation). The analysis is based on unique Swedish parish-scale census material that includes all private car owners for the years 1960, 1970 and 1975. Our conclusion is that income levels were more important than other explanations for the diffusion of private cars in Sweden between 1960 and 1975.

    The third paper, ‘En ledande och samordnande funktion’, contributes with new knowledge on how the Swedish government has organised traffic safety in certain ways since the 1950s. The emphasis is on the establishment and closing down of the National Road Safety Office (TSV) and how the changing forms of organisations before, during and after TSV have been reflected in the road plans from 1958, 1970 and 1990. Our conclusion is that the motives for both establishment and closing down of the TSV were the same; to create a more efficient organisation regarding traffic safety. These changes have been reflected in the road plans where an increased control over the infrastructure can be recognised, especially during the last two decades.

    The fourth paper, A Dark Side of Car Ownership, examines whether improved technical performance with respect to fuel consumption have been counterbalanced through increasing engine power and weight, how such properties are valued by the consumers, and in what way political instruments have affected this development. The analysis is based on historical data covering all car models within the 50 percentiles of new registrations. Our conclusion is that a vehicle purchase rebound effect can be identified since the fuel consumption has decreased over time, while the engine effect has increased. Also, the Swedish car fleet has developed in a setting of political instruments and regulations working in favour of larger and more fuel consuming cars.

  • 300.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Driving from the center to the periphery?: The diffusion of private cars in Sweden, 1960-19752010Inngår i: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 164-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of private cars in Sweden has not yet been examined in a national long-run perspective covering all individuals. This article enquires whether the diffusion of private cars followed the overall socioeconomic and geographical changes in Sweden from 1960 to 1975. In particular, it asks if ownership per capita followed changes in incomes or changes in population density (urbanisation). In the 1960s Swedish traffic and regional policy aimed at making the car an instrument of national integration and regional equality, and making it available throughout the country. This article tracks the effects of that policy. The analysis is based on Swedish parish-scale census material that includes all car owners for the years 1960, 1970 and 1975. The conclusion is that income levels were more important than other explanations for the diffusion of private cars in Sweden between 1960 and 1975. National policy goals regarding cars as means of regional integration and equalisation were not fulfilled up to 1975.

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