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  • 251.
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Gold of Lapland: Turismutveckling - det goda exemplet i Västerbotten2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 252.
    Åkesson, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Variation som röd tråd: en överblick2009Inngår i: Tradisjonell sang som levende prosess: nordiske studier i stabilitet og forandring, gjentagelse og variasjon / [ed] Halskov Hansen, Lene, Ressem, Astrid Nora, Åkesson, Ingrid, Oslo: Novus , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article gives the reader a sketch of what we usually conceive of as Nordic or Scandinavian traditional music and also a short introductionary discussion of the concepts of oral/aural and literary, stable and variable in traditional or vernacular music-making. These are issues that recur throughout the book. Furthermore, the article provides an outline of the different texts presented in this anthology, aiming to interweave the themes and lines of thought that reappear in the different articles regardless of the authors’ material and discipline. Variation of text and music show many common traits, and in the same way different vocal genres share several common characteristics.

    The Nordic countries have much of their history in common, which implicates that many of the same cultural expressions exist in several countries and linguistic areas. Ever since the Middle Ages people have brought musical genres, dances, instruments and individual melodies to the Nordic region from the continent, the Slavic areas and the British Isles. This European cultural heritage has been reinterpreted in different ways and given diverse and local expressions across the Nordic region.

    Singing and other music-making will often take place within several tension fields or continua, for example between literacy/mediation – oral/aural (Ong 1990). Is a song, or a piece of music, regarded as mainly a work of art or mainly as an ongoing process? Within the fields of both art music and popular music the predominant creative ideal is that of innovation, connected to some form of literacy and to the notion of music as the product of a specific composer. In the case of orally/aurally dominated genres – and most clearly evidenced during epochs of the past – the ideals and practices are significantly closer to the oral/aural end of the continuum. When the creative process is based on formulas, models and melodic types, higher value is placed on variation, repetition and recognition than on innovation: what matters is the momentary and unique manifestation of something that is already more or less familiar.

    As a field of research, verbal culture/oral tradition – or perhaps we should call it "traditional" or "vernacular" creativity – has primarily been studied by scholars of folklore and by specialists from the academic fields of linguistics and literature. Emphasis has been laid on fairy-tales and other kinds of storytelling as well as on the epic singing traditions of different cultural regions. Along with Olav Solberg’s and Velle Espeland’s texts, this article presents an outline of Nordic research on orality/aurality and variation within the different sub-categories of traditional music, in particular over the last twenty years.

    Also, taking my point of departure in the concepts of memorizing and formulaic composition respectively, as well as variation and combination – applied to both words and melody – I present a model of "traditional creativity" which operates in a continuum between memorizing and improvisation, between oral/aural and literary, and between stability and variation. Lastly I comment on the probable connection between some of the distinctive features of traditional variation described in this anthology and a horizontal, modal tonality, non-hierarchical and characterized by reference tones rather than by a functional harmonic structure.

    The fact that several problematizations and notions recur in the different articles, notwithstanding the dissimilar background of the authors, points to the importance of transcending boundaries when studying traditional and vernacular music-making. It has proven very fruitful to keep a wider perspective in mind when studying different sub-genres, further, to study both textual and musical elements and problems simultaneously as they might prove mutually enlightening, and in general to combine different perspectives and points of departure. A lot of the subject matter and possible problematization of vocal traditional music will also be relevant for the study of instrumental traditional music, and vice versa.

  • 253.
    Åström, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    "Because My Mother was a Liar and a Whore": Adulterous Mothers and Paternity Uncertainty in Jo Nesbø’s The Snowman2015Inngår i: The Mother-Blame Game / [ed] Vanessa Reimer, Sarah Sahagian, Toronto: Demeter Press, 2015, s. 204-218Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 254.
    Åström, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Dying to create a hero: changing meanings of death in childbirth?2017Inngår i: Absent mothers / [ed] Frances Greenslade, Bradford: Demeter Press, 2017, s. 7-16Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The greatest gift a mother can bestow on her son is to die in childbirth, Pliny the Elder argued as early as AD 77, using Julius Caesar as one example. The link between maternal death and military prowess has persisted through the centuries. Knights and warriors such as Tristram, the Arthurian Knight of Sorrows, and Macduff, are shown to be great men, because they have freed themselves from the taint of the maternal body, as Janet Adelman has discussed in Suffocating Mothers, effectively giving birth to themselves. In this chapter I chart the changing use of the trope of the warrior emerging from his mother's dead or dying body. Older iterations are read against the 2011 film Conan, in which the mother's death is reinterpreted into an act of heroism on her part, which confers glory on both mother and son. However, she still dies, and in my analysis I ask the question why it is still the case that a mother must die for her son to become successful.

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  • 255.
    Åström, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Döda mammor och ensamstående pappor: föräldraskap i tecknad film2016Inngår i: Att konstruera en kvinna: berättelser om normer, flickor och tanter / [ed] Karin Lövgren, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2016, s. 79-98Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 256.
    Åström, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    From Understanding Mother to Hero Father: The Story of Ferdinand the Bull2019Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 257.
    Åström, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Negotiating motherhood in The hunger games2018Inngår i: Handmaids, tributes, and carers: dystopian females' roles and goals / [ed] Myrna Santos, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018, s. 2-17Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates and problematizes representations of motherhood in Suzanne Collins' The Hunger Games-trilogy. The novels depict a range of maternal models, some traditional and conservative, some transgressive. If, as has been argued, young adult literature affects how readers "on the cusp of adulthood" consider society and their place in it, the way mothers and mothering are represented in the novels may have a substantial impact on the readers' identity formation.

    Characterised by scholars as weak, despondent and overly feminine, Katniss' mother has been criticised as a failure, abdicating from her maternal role. Conversely, Katniss' marriage and maternity have been read as a heteronormative cop-out, undoing the character's gender-transcending work. Drawing on literary and sociological research, I suggest a different reading of both characters, in which the narrative allows Katniss' mother to explore a way of mothering that allows for maternal subjectivity, complexity of character and reconciliation of personal growth with motherhood. I further interrogate the epilogue, but not, as other scholars have done, from the point of view of the supposed domestication of Katniss, but from the character's lack of agency and choice. It is suggested throughout the novels that Katniss does not want to have children, and the final decision is framed in terms of (ultimately futile) resistance on her part and coercion on Peeta's. Analysing the text within the framework of voluntary childlessness as female liberation as well as the difference between "will" and "consent" in relation to reproduction, I suggest that Katniss' submission and subsequent emotional distress articulate an ambivalent attitude towards motherhood. Ultimately, it could be argued that Katniss' mother achieves a maternal role that is more transgressive and liberating than that of her daughter. The novels thus offer up a variety of maternal models, which make it possible for readers to negotiate their own understanding of mothering.

  • 258.
    Åström, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Post-feminist fatherhood and the marginalization of the mother in Cormac McCarthy's the road2018Inngår i: Women - A Cultural Review, ISSN 0957-4042, E-ISSN 1470-1367, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 112-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Critics have tended to dismiss feminist analyses of Cormac McCarthy's works as misguided, labelling investigations of potential narrative misogyny in his novels as irrelevant. In this article, the author argues that such investigations are, on the contrary, highly relevant in the current climate of mother-blaming. The author specifically explains how McCarthy’s 2006 dystopian novel The Road uses post-feminist fatherhood to valorize the father and vilify the mother, thus participating in a continuing cultural trend of privileging fathers over mothers. The Road invokes traditional cultural expectations of motherhood and fatherhood, presenting the mother as unable and unwilling to care for the boy, in stark contrast to the very competent and able father. Many literary analyses of this highly acclaimed novel have unquestioningly accepted the post-feminist marginalization of the mother, and critics have elaborated on and developed the mother-blaming in the novel in a move that the author terms ‘critical co-writing’. Critical co-writing occurs when critics ally themselves with an author, rather than retaining a critical distance, and represent the author's ideas without problematizing them. In the case of The Road, many critics build on post-feminist cues in the novel, adding their own, unreflected, understandings of motherhood and fatherhood. In so doing, they reinterpret and rewrite the novel into an even more forceful presentation of flawed mothering. In a critical discussion of these readings, the author demonstrates how these critics transform the novel's implicit criticism of the mother character into explicit condemnation.

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  • 259.
    Åström, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Postfeminist Fatherhood in the Animated Feature Films Chicken Little and Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs2015Inngår i: Journal of Children and Media, ISSN 1748-2798, E-ISSN 1748-2801, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 294-307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on Hannah Hamad's concept of postfeminist masculinity, this article analyzes how the animated films Chicken Little (Disney, 2005) and Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs (Sony, 2009) construct postfeminist fatherhood in opposition to two traditional stereotypes: the emotionally distant authoritarian and the bumbling pal. In contrast to films from the 1980s and 1990s, in which sons struggle to live up to their fathers’ expectations, these films demand a change in paternal attitudes, requiring fathers to adapt to their sons’ needs instead. The article argues that the films offer a didactic message to fathers as well as sons, which suggests that in postfeminist fatherhood older parenting models are no longer viable, and a new culture of fatherhood is needed, which may offer a way of challenging hegemonic masculinity.

  • 260.
    Åström, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    The Symbolic Annihilation of Mothers in Popular Culture: Single Father and the death of the mother2015Inngår i: Feminist Media Studies, ISSN 1468-0777, E-ISSN 1471-5902, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 593-607Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes as its starting point the paradoxical representation of mothers in popular culture. On the one hand the mother is constructed as central to the physical and emotional development of the child; on the other, she is routinely rejected or elided, questioned, and vilified. One expression of this ambivalent attitude is the re-circulation of the trope of the dead mother. The trope, which ostensibly is employed to create sympathy for a character, or simply to drive the plot, often also privileges fathers, suggesting that children are better off without mothers. After a brief genre overview of the use of the trope of the dead mother on film and television, the article analyses how the BBC serial Single Father, with its repeated depictions of the mother's violent death, develops the trope, by not only privileging the father and vilifying the dead mother, but also reducing her death to a plot point, a backdrop for romance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 261.
    Öhman, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Kulturen, konsten och det jag vet2015Inngår i: Provins, ISSN 0280-9974, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 55-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
3456 251 - 261 of 261
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