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  • 251.
    Roos, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Local policies and local government legitimacy: The Swedish case2014Ingår i: Urban Research and Practice, ISSN 1753-5069, E-ISSN 1753-5077, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 137-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Do local policies improve local government legitimacy and how do different forms of legitimacy relate to each other? These questions are analysed on the basis of an extensive survey carried out in 2010 in 111 Swedish municipalities, that generated responses from approximately 50,800 citizens, and complemented with register-based background data. Local legitimacy is construed as citizens’ assessments of whether the local political system functions in an acceptable way. Distinctions are made between input legitimacy, output legitimacy related to welfare services and output legitimacy that concerns basic collective services. Controlling for other individual and municipal-level factors, policies aimed at improving input legitimacy have an effect, but it is even more important that local government delivers welfare and other services in a way that is appreciated by the citizens. Output legitimacy related to welfare services is improved by public provision of these services, but not by additional spending. On the other hand, spending on cultural institutions, leisure, roads and streets increases citizens’ appreciation of basic collective services. In addition, the study shows that all three types of local government legitimacy are empirically related to each other. Whether they enhance each other or reflect one underlying dimension calls for further time-series-based research.

  • 252.
    Rozenberg, Olivier
    et al.
    Science Po (Paris).
    Blomgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bringing Parliamentary Roles Back In2012Ingår i: Parliamentary roles in modern legislatures / [ed] Magnus Blomgren, Olivier Rozenberg, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2012, s. 211-230Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 253.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Tid för reformering: Försöksverksamheten med slopad timplan i grundskolan2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1999, the Swedish Parliament decided to launch an experiment to test the idea of replacing, at the compulsory educational level, the national time schedule with localized control of schedules. This was in keeping with strategies of deregulation, decentralisation and increased local autonomy that had dominated Swedish education policy, particularly since the 1990s. The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse the initiation, decision, implementation and consequences of this experiment

    The analytical framework combines several different approaches and theories from the literature on public policy and policy analysis. The framework encompasses four dimensions, which cover the experiment’s origins, local application in the classroom setting and consequences. On the empirical level, findings are based on interviews with 32 municipal school directors, and head teachers, teachers and pupils in three schools participating in the experiment, as well as written sources from schools, municipalities, and the national level.

    The thesis shows that the policy problem the experiment was intended to resolve was represented in an inconsistent manner: On the one hand, the experiment was perceived as a driving force for change; on the other hand, it was seen as legitimising a change that had already taken place. Furthermore, the experiment was formulated in vague terms, which accorded far-reaching discretionary space to the schools. The program’s causal theory expressed by the policy makers was complex, containing a multifaceted chain of presumptions on a range of activities and processes through which the experiment ultimately would lead to improved opportunities for pupils to reach the educational objectives. Empirically, this prediction proved to be invalid as student achievement did not increase.

    The degree of implementation at the local level varied according to the comprehension, capability and willingness of those involved to carry out the experiment. The courses of action taken by the schools frequently could have been undertaken within the existing legislative framework, as they mostly concerned new ways of working and organising staff and pupils. An assessment of the objectives attained showed that, even if elements of developmental work corresponding to the direction stated in the policy documents were observed, the experiment did not emerge as the primary explanatory factor for this result Thus, the net impact of the experiment can be questioned. If judged against the criterion of adaptiveness, the results are more successful than if the experiment is assessed according to goal-attainment and the validity of the program theory. The experiment was found to integrate, alter and accommodate itself readily to local needs.

    The thesis illustrates the complexity of formulating and implementing policy in a decentralised context and points to important aspects in the historical background of the programme, which often tend to be overlooked when policy is analysed and discussed. At the same time, the study sheds light on the significant role played by street-level implementation actors in the educational context.

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  • 254.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    De-politicising gender?: Constructions of gender equality in Swedish regional policy2008Ingår i: Critical studies of gender equalities: Nordic dislocations, dilemmas and contradictions, Göteborg: Makadam , 2008, 1, s. 112-134Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 255.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Ett eget rum?: Kvinnors organisering möter etablerad politik2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to analyse the relationship between women’s organising and established politics in three Swedish municipalities, and by way of this analysis study the construction of gender power orders. In the analysis, special emphasis is put on women’s agency. By posing questions to activists and local politicians concerning their opinions about women’s organising, the positions of women in established politics, and the concept of gender-equality, the ambition is to illuminate constructions of local gender power orders. The analysis is mainly based on interviews with activists, local politicians, and local administrators in the municipalities of Berg, Kiruna, and Robertsfors.

    Theoretically, the dissertation is influenced mainly by feminist theory of gender power relations and women’s agency, for example the work of Maud Eduards, and the theories about power and resistance developed by Michel Foucault. Carol Bacchi’s “What’s the problem?” approach is used when analysing the opinions of activists and politicians regarding the issue of gender-equality. In this approach, the way of constructing problems is the key, not “the problem” as such. The point is to constantly question phenomena that are defined as natural or self-evident, or, in other words, to deconstruct dominating discourses.

    When the interviews with the politicians were analysed with the ambition of discerning a dominant discourse of gender power, five limiting principles became visible; essential (in biological terms) differences between women and men, figures and complementarity, reduction, voluntariness, and co-operation. The principle of differences appears to be central, and all the principles place questions of gender-equality on the labour market. The “gap” between activists and politicians regarding the way in which gender is constructed is put forward as the main reason why women’s organising meets resistance from the sphere of local, established politics. This gap is also the central ingredient in the construction of the three local gender power orders, even if there are also other differences between the three.

    Key words: Women’s organising, women’s movement, gender-equality, rural areas, local politics, gender and politics, feminist theory

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  • 256.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Var tog politiken vägen? Regionalpolitikens organisering som exempel på statens förändrade former2008Ingår i: Tidskrift för genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, nr 1, s. 31-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 257.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Eduards, Maud
    Genusperspektiv på statsvetenskap2008Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 258.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap, Karlstads universitet.
    Sandberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Görandet av den jämställda staden: Projektpolitikens förändringspotential2017Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, nr 3, s. 413-439Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on present planning projects in the city of Umeå, Sweden, we will in this paper study how imaginaries of the gender equal city is presented, filled with meaning and used in place marketing with the overall ambition to discuss the possibilities and pitfalls of what we call the gender equality planning strategy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the possibilities for changing gendered power relations, as well as other power relations related to class, race and sexuality through an analysis of local initiatives for a good city. The material consists of a case study with a focuson planning projects aiming at creating equal cities, such as improving accessibility in public space, gender aware analyses of the city’s symbols and decorations etc., and includes analyses of interviews, policy documents and media reports. The theoretical framework draws on the discussion of politicization and de-politicisation(Mouffe 2005) in relation to neo-liberal forms of rule where place-making and place-branding are rationalities that risk moving conflicting dimensions in society outside both planning and politics overall.

  • 259.
    Rönnbäck, Ann-Sofi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    ECOWAS and West Africa's Future: Problems or possibilities?2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    West Africa is a region characterized by problems and possibilities. Protracted civil wars, coup d’etats, the majority of the population living in poverty, extensive supplies of natural resources, post-conflict reconstruction and attempts to achieve regional cooperation are all parts of West Africa’s past and current situation. The region is also of importance for global actors such as China, US and the EU in their need to secure present and future supplies of strategically important natural resources. These, and other, circumstances can be assumed to influence future developments in the region. The main purpose of the study presented in the paper is to map out historic and current developments within the ECOWAS cooperation framework in order to discuss potential longterm developments. Possible future developments in West Africa can be divided into three alternative scenarios: a catastrophe scenario, a business as usual scenario and a best case scenario. Pros and cons of each alternative are presented and evaluated in the paper.

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  • 260.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. 1982.
    Different Types of Participation in Constitution Making Processes: Towards a Conceptualization2016Ingår i: Southern African Journal of Policy and Development, ISSN 2411-5479, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 18-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Though participatory constitution making processes in post-conflict states and in states transitioning from authoritarian rule have become a new trend, scholarly research has yet to approach the notion of participation in a sharp and distinct way. In this article, I develop a novel approach for differentiating participation in constitution making, depending on the extent of influence that participants are granted, illustrating this reasoning with eight empirical cases from the African continent.

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  • 261.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. 1982.
    Negotiating the Post-Revolution Constitution for Tunisia – Members of the National Constituent Assembly Share Their Experiences2018Ingår i: International Law Research, ISSN 1927-5234, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 235-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the Tunisian transition to democracy faces challenges seven years following the 2011 revolution and four years following the enactment of the new constitution, the country still constitutes a ‘success story’, especially in comparison to neighbouring states that were also touched by the Arab Uprisings. This paper takes an interest in exploring the Tunisian constitution-making process, and especially the political elite negotiated compromises that took place in the National Constituent Assembly. How were Tunisian religious and secular political forces able to unite and compromise on a constitutional document; what motivated their actions during the constitutional talks? Ideologies, rational pragmatism, self-serving interests or something else? This is a pertinent question that has bearing for other states that are in transition from authoritarian rule, in which religious and secular political parties are struggling to draft the political rules of the game anew. This is a qualitative study, based on interviews with political representatives, from a broad range of Tunisian political parties, who were part of the constitutional negotiations. Their responses suggest that pragmatism and rationality took precedence over ideological positions during the negotiations, and that this was indispensable for a draft to be produced. Despite this, the study argues that ideologies were likely not irrelevant in the minds of the political elites who were negotiating the post-revolution constitution, and that previous agreements and discussions among these elites that were, in fact, based on ideological positions, facilitated the constitutional negotiations that took place in the aftermath of the ousting of Ben-Ali

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  • 262.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Participatory constitution-building in Nepal: a comparison of the 2008-2012 and the 2013-2015 process2017Ingår i: Journal of Politics and Law, ISSN 1913-9047, E-ISSN 1913-9055, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 29-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory constitution-building is a trend that appears to be here to stay; particularly when new constitutions are drafted in the aftermath of war or during transitions from authoritarian to democratic rule. Anticipations as to what the involvement of the public will achieve are several, and scholars are only recently starting to systematically investigate whether or not these expectations find empirical support. Previous research has shown that public participation in the making of the constitution can have certain positive effects at an individual level of analysis, but that the actions of political elites during constitutional negotiations might affect outcomes at a macro level of analysis more than what has hitherto be acknowledged in this strand of research. Nepal is one of the most recent cases of participatory constitution-building, and the country carried out not only one, but two, such processes within a time period of only seven years. The first resulted in failure as a draft constitution was never finalized; the other in success with the adoption of a constitution in 2015. This article takes an interest in exploring and comparing these two separate processes as regards the extent of public participation vis-à-vis political elite negotiations and bargaining behind closed doors. The article finds that what primarily sets the two processes apart, is how broad based public participation and secluded elite negotiations were sequenced. In light of other empirical examples, the article also discusses if elite bargains ought to be struck before the general public are invited to participate.

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  • 263.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Participatory Constitution-Making as a Transnational Legal Norm: Why Does It “Stick” in Some Contexts and Not in Others?2017Ingår i: UC Irvine Journal of International, Transnational and Comparative Law, Vol. 2, s. 113-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It could be argued that since the dawn of the peace-building era in the early 1990s, public participation in constitution-making processes has developed into a transnational legal norm. International organizations, NGOs, CSOs, scholars and think tanks around the globe repeatedly stress the value of including ordinary citizens in the making of their founding laws. As a consequence, the practice of participatory constitution-making has also increased. Though this is a seemingly established transnational legal norm, it is still a norm that has been more or less successfully adopted in different contexts. This article takes an interest in exploring why this is so. How is it that this norm is institutionalized in some contexts, internalized in others, institutionalized and internalized in yet other contexts, and simply rejected in still other contexts?

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  • 264.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Public participation in constitution building; an effective strategy for enhancing democracy?2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 265.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statsvetenskap.
    Socio-cultural viability of international intervention in war-torn societies: a case study of Bosnia Herzegovina2007Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores the ‘socio-cultural dilemma’ facing international peacebuilders in war-torn societies through a case study of the post-conflict process in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This is done with the help of a typological approach of the grid-group Cultural Theory framework, which defines four social solidarities – or ideal type cultures – of individualism, egalitarianism, fatalism and hierarchy. A central argument in the thesis is that international intervention is culturally individualistic and/or egalitarian, thus socio-culturally unviable in war-torn societies, which are usually dominated by hierarchical and fatalist social solidarities.

    This underlying socio-cultural conflict is used to trace the Bosnian post-war process, where the relationship between the managing international institution – the Office of the High Representative of the International Community – and the local nationalist elites repeatedly changed in response to the failure of international policies to produce the desired result, namely broad socio-cultural change in the local politics and society. Four different periods in the process are identified: 1) ’economic conditionality’, 2) ‘Bonn Powers’, 3) ‘the concept of ownership’ and 4) ‘Euro-Atlantic integration’. Each period is defined by different culturally biased policies, supported by corresponding social relations and strategic behaviours.

    The individualistic and egalitarian biased approaches usually resulted in failures, as they were not viable in the local socio-cultural context. After adapting to the local context, new viable approaches produced results in specific policy areas, but at the cost of unwanted side-effects in the form of reinforcement of dominant social solidarities. The result was therefore contrary to the broad goal of the process, which was to transform the local political culture.

    In other words, the defining and re-defining of the OHR’s role in the Bosnian process was a consequence of the dilemma of having to make an unsatisfactory choice: either to adapt to the way the political game is played in the Bosnian socio-cultural context in order to achieve effectiveness in the policy process, or to stay true to the peacebuilders’ own cultural biases and attempt to change the local socio-cultural accordingly. In essence, it is argued, this is the socio-cultural viability dilemma that is inherent in international peacebuilding.

    In unveiling of the socio-cultural viability dilemma, the dissertation explores central problems in the Bosnian post-conflict process. It provides a credible explanation to a number of hitherto unexplained difficulties and paradoxes experienced in Bosnia. It concludes that the international intervention in this particular case was neither a success story nor a failure per se, but one which failed to properly address the dilemma of socio-cultural viability. The key conclusions regarding peacebuilding in general are that there should be a greater under¬¬standing of socio-cultural issues in peacebuilding in order to better manage the socio-cultural viability dilemma. Practically, this means that international peacebuilders need to adapt to local context and strive towards the goal of local ownership of the process. The aim should be to make the intervention as viable as possible, as quickly as possible, to boldly implement policies that promote changes in the local socio-cultural context, and to withdraw only after the necessary conditions for local ownership are in place.

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  • 266.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Socio-cultural viability of international peacebuilding: An inquiry based on cultural theory2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A socio-anthropological theoretical framework of the so-called Grid-Group Cultural Theory provides a typological model for understanding and mapping of cultural biases (shared values and beliefs), corresponding social relations and strategic behaviours. The starting argument of this paper is that this model can be used to illuminate and investigate the socio-cultural differences in peacebuilding approaches as the four theoretical ideal-types of individualism, egalitarianism, hierarchy and fatalism, correspond to different peacebuilding approaches used by different international actors and in different post-conflict contexts. This typological understanding of approaches to peacebuilding enables also a theoretical analysis of socio-cultural viability of different approaches in different socio-cultural context. The final argument of this paper is thus that viable approaches to peacebuilding are those that are synchronized with the socio-cultural context, i.e., with the cultural bias, social relations and strategic behaviours used by the major social and political actors in the local society.

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  • 267.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Zulumovic, Dino
    Obsolete Cultural Heritage in Post-Conflict Environments: The Case of AVNOJ Museum in Jajce, Bosnia Herzegovina2012Ingår i: Journal of Balkan and near eastern studies, ISSN 1944-8953, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 245-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper asks the question what happens with places of history and material cultural heritage of central importance for people's identities when political circumstances suddenly change. The case of the AVNOJ museum in Bosnia and Herzegovina is used to show the destiny of a site that was once the main cultural heritage in Yugoslavia as it was the birthplace of the state, only to suddenly become obsolete and irrelevant in the 1990s. After a period of neglect that followed, the museum is now being rebuilt with a different main message. The study shows how such sites can survive if there is support of the state, local initiatives and changes of the meaning of the site to better fit a new political reality.

  • 268.
    Samuelsson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Stabila institutioner: En analys av robustheten i Ume- och Vindelälvens laxförvaltning2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 269.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Blomgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Europaparlamentet2005Ingår i: EU och Sverige: ett sammanlänkat statsskick / [ed] Magnus Blomgren, Torbjörn Bergman, Stockholm: Liber , 2005, s. 126-149Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 270.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Mossberg Sonnek, Karin
    Mossing, Annika
    Nordin, Annika
    Nordstrom, Eva-Maria
    Räty, Riitta
    Understanding consistencies and gaps between desired forest futures: An analysis of visions from stakeholder groups in Sweden2016Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, s. S100-S108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicting perspectives on forests has for a long time challenged forest policy development in Sweden. Disagreements about forest futures create intractable deadlocks when stakeholders talk past each other. The purpose of this study is to move beyond this situation through the application of participatory backcasting. By comparing visions of the future forest among stakeholder groups, we highlight contemporary trajectories and identify changes that were conceived as desirable. We worked with four groups: the Biomass and Bioenergy group, the Conservation group, the Sami Livelihood group and the Recreation and Rural Development group; in total representatives from 40 organizations participated in workshops articulating the groups' visions. Our results show well-known tensions such as intrinsic versus instrumental values but also new ones concerning forests' social values. Identified synergies include prioritization of rural development, new valued-added forest products and diversified forest management. The results may feed directly into forest policy processes facilitating the process and break current deadlocks.

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  • 271.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Competing land use associated with Sweden´s forests: External drivers affecting Swedish forests and forestry2009Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 272. Simoncini, Riccardo
    et al.
    Ring, Irene
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Albert, Christian
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Arlettaz, Raphael
    Constraints and opportunities for mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy: Insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia2019Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 88, artikel-id 104099Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), being one of the strongest drivers of agricultural land-use practices, has a substantial impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Member States. The initial focus of the CAP to increase and intensify agricultural production affected water and land qualities and contributed to the degradation of traditional agricultural landscapes, cultural identities, and erosion of typical farmland biodiversity. Recent CAP reforms have begun to consider biodiversity and ecosystem services, but still fall short of a thorough mainstreaming approach. The objectives of this paper are to point out main findings regarding (i) key shortcomings of the current CAP, and (ii) major opportunities to enhance the mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem services within the CAP. The paper is based on insights generated in the sub-global assessment of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) for Europe and Central Asia11A major part of this contribution is based on an earlier, pre-peer reviewed version of Ring et al. (2018): Ring, I., Sandström, C., Acar, S., Adeishvili, M., Albert, C., Allard, C., Anker, Y., Arlettaz, R., Bela, G., ten Brink, B., Fischer, A., Fürst, C., Galil, B., Hynes, S., Kasymov, U., Marta-Pedroso, C., Mendes, A., Molau, U., Olschewski, R., Pergl, J., & Simoncini, R. (2018): Chapter 6: Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors. In: IPBES (2018): The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia. Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A. (eds.). Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany, pp. 661-802.. Our results illustrate the evolution of agricultural policy objectives and instruments applied in the CAP, and their effects on selected ecosystem services and biodiversity. We shed light on key shortcomings of existing policy and provide recommendations for further CAP reforms to achieve more effective biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem services.

  • 273. Sjölander-Lindqvist, Annelie
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Shaking Hands: Balancing Tensions in the Swedish Forested Landscape2019Ingår i: Conservation and Society, ISSN 0972-4923, E-ISSN 0975-3133, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 319-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild ungulates play a key role in the management and governance of Swedish wildlife. They are primarily harvested for meat, but are also important for non-consumptive uses of wildlife such as recreation. However, due to browsing and crop raiding, ungulates also reduce the forest's economic value and make it difficult for farmers to maintain agricultural practices. While current policies and regulations clearly indicate that wildlife is to be treated as a valuable, others may disagree. This setting provided an opportunity to study the search for mutually acceptable outcomes and working relationships in parallel to the state-regulated management arrangements. The shared and disputed issues in the studied case echo the broader issues of entitlement to resources and value transformation that can stabilise but also disturb or even disrupt environmental management. The diverging interests, claims and experiences of forestry, hunting, farming, recreation, and protection, expressed in their own voices and consolidated into narratives about land, land use, and rights and obligations, can be seen as an important driver of collective action. The connections between the experiences of and the dynamics behind the decision to collaborate reveal a contested space in which the commercial wood industries, agriculture, the decentralised state, conservation, and recreational interests are all involved and must negotiate with one-another to secure their interests. The participants justify their actions symbolically, referring to an idiom of rights, the construct of forestry's importance for the public good, and the desire to be resourceful and authoritative outside the framework of state action.

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  • 274.
    Sporre, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Institutionen för svenska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen.
    En introduktion till Iris Marion Young2000Ingår i: Att kasta tjejkast: Texter om feminism och rättvisa av Iris M Young i urval, Atlas, Stockholm , 2000Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 275.
    Steinwall, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    To do or not to do: dealing with the dilemma of intervention in Swedish nature conservation2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature conservation is often seen as being primarily about shielding parts of nature from human intervention, e.g. by protecting areas. Over the last decades, however, intervention is increasingly being seen as necessary for nature to regain or retain its values, through ecological restoration and active management. This complicates simple assumptions that ‘nature knows best’ and raises dilemmas which are hotly debated in the scholarly literature around ecological restoration, protected area management, environmental ethics and green political theory. However, how these dilemmas are dealt with in actual policy struggles among the conservation professionals who make management decisions is less studied.

    This thesis explores how issues regarding active intervention in nature are represented, debated and institutionalized within Swedish nature conservation, and to what effect. The empirical focus lies on policy struggles around the designation and management of protected forests and around efforts to save a nationally threatened bird species, the white-backed woodpecker. My analytical framework is informed by Argumentative Discourse Analysis and Political Discourse Theory, to which I contribute a further elaboration of the notion of discourse institutionalization. Based on documents and interviews with conservation professionals, I identify competing articulations of the ends and means of conservation and relate these to scholarly debates around ecological restoration and interventionist conservation management. The analysis further focuses on how elements of the different policy discourses are institutionalized in rules, routines or official policy documents.

    Two main competing policy discourses are found: one focused on leaving pristine nature to develop freely, and one focused on active, adaptive management for biodiversity. While the former has previously been said to characterize the Swedish conservation bureaucracy, my analysis shows it is now widely seen as outdated. Arguments which in the scholarly literature are associated with an ethically informed defense of nature’s autonomy are here dismissed as emotional, aesthetic and thus unscientific concerns, delegitimizing them within the rational, science-based public administration for nature conservation. In contrast, biodiversity is broadly forwarded as a self-evident goal for active intervention, in line with both science and policy requirements. Adaptive management for biodiversity is in that sense the dominant discourse. Still, the older discourse is institutionalized in the purposes and management plans of existing nature reserves, and its defenders have also succeeded in strengthening that institutionalization through new and more restrictive guidelines. The findings suggest that this has been possible not only because of the gate-keeping role of a few centrally placed actors, but also because their restrictive stance resonates with the outside threat of exploitation which organizes the common order of discourse. Naturalness, a term described as irrelevant by some proponents of adaptive management for biodiversity, is also shown to remain a shared concern in several ways. The results thus highlight the importance of both entrenched common sense and institutionalization of certain logics or arguments in authoritative documents. The main theoretical contribution of the thesis consists in clarifying the effects of such discourse institutionalization — using the terms durability, legibility and leverage — and showing how the processes of negotiation, re-interpretation and modification of institutions are more dynamic than some accounts of discourse institutionalization suggest.

    Rather than trying to resolve (and thus remove) the dilemma of intervention, the thesis points to the importance of keeping open discussion of the ultimately unanswerable questions about intervention in nature alive in both theory and practice.

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  • 276.
    Straarup, Jørgen
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Religionsvetenskap.
    Policy-implementering2004Ingår i: »För männen är mer jämställda än kvinnor«: Utvärdering av Anamma Jäm-projektet inom AMV Norrbotten / [ed] Jørgen Straarup, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, Centrum för utbildning och forskning inom samhällsvetenskap , 2004, s. 15-19Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 277.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Crisis Volunteerism is the New Black?: Exploring the Diversity of Voluntary Engagement in Crisis Management2019Ingår i: Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, ISSN 1944-4079, E-ISSN 1944-4079, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 311-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both crisis research and crisis management policy suggest that crisis management experiences a “participatory turn” and it seems to be a renewed interest in the topic of crisis volunteerism. However, the voice of volunteer organizations, paradoxically, appears to be missing in research. This article builds on an interview study (26 interviews) with different types of voluntary organizations in Sweden. It explores two aspects of crisis volunteerism (i) the diversity of crisis volunteerism and (ii) the changing landscape of crisis volunteerism. The Disaster Research Center (DRC) typology is used to understand different types of volunteering and how different organizational types relate to each other. The empirical material shows that a significant amount of voluntary engagement with relevance to crisis management takes place outside the realm of core crisis management actors. An important finding is that the number of avenues where voluntary engagement is needed has expanded, and as a result, we need to engage new volunteer groups in society. Hence, the study suggests a more adaptive and inclusive understanding of the phenomenon of crisis volunteerism.

  • 278. Strøm, Kaare
    et al.
    Bergman, Torbjörn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Müller, Wolfgang C
    Nyblade, Benjamin
    Conclusion: cabinet governance in parliamentary democracies2008Ingår i: Cabinets and coalition bargaining: the democratic life cycle in Western Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2008Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 279. Sturk Steinwall, Anders
    What should we do with the threatened species?: Discourses, institutions and the Swedish action plan to save the white-backed woodpeckerManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines a drawn-out conflict surrounding an update of the Action Plan for the threatened white-backed woodpecker (dendrocopos leucotos) in Sweden and, more broadly, around intervention in nature and the ends and means of conservation. The case illustrates the importance of struggles around discourse institutionalization in understanding stability, contestation and change within a policy subsystem. The article also makes a theoretical argument concerning both the effects of discourse institutionalization — using the terms durability, legibility and leverage to capture the structuring effect of institutions — and the processes of negotiation, re-interpretation and modification of institutions which, it is argued, tend to be underplayed in accounts of discourse institutionalization. The case highlights how discursive dominance (in this case: of an interventionist discourse focused on adaptive management for biodiversity) does not necessarily translate into discourse institutionalization; instead, a preservationist discourse generally seen as outdated seems to have become more institutionalized as a result of the struggles over the last years.

  • 280.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fries, Clas
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    In the eye of the stakeholder: the challenges of governing social forest values2016Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 87-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders’ perceptions of forests’ social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

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  • 281.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Divergent interests and ideas around property rights: the case of berry harvesting in Sweden2013Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, s. 56-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the clash between interests and ideas concerning property rights and regulation by analyzing the ongoing debate on the right of public access in Sweden, which has recently intensified due to an influx of foreign professional berry harvesters. The conflicts in Sweden are found to stem from contradictory concepts concerning property (notably, ownership and the right of public access) and ideological differences in terms of whether forest resources should be regulated by government or governance. While the precise circumstances of this case are somewhat unique to Sweden, differences of opinion concerning property rights and regulations are common and so our findings will be broadly applicable when defining and analyzing forest-related conflicts, especially those involving multiple-use situations.

  • 282.
    Svahn, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism och terrorism: En komparativ fallstudie mellan  Islamiska Staten och Al-Qaida2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa, komparativa fallstudie, översatt till Violent Islamist Extremism and Terrorism – A Comparative Case Study between the Islamic State and Al-Qaeda, jämför de två terrororganisationerna Al-Qaida och Islamiska Staten med hjälp av en idealtypsanalys. Islamiska Staten har på senare år övertagit platsen från Al-Qaida, som varit den mest aktiva islamistiska terrororganisationen som utövat attentat i västvärlden i många år. Således har de båda organisationernas egenskaper i form av struktur, avsikt, metod och kommunikation undersökts för att belysa organisationernas likheter och skillnader, samt vad dessa har betytt för den utveckling som inträffat. De slutsatser som kunnat dras är att de båda organisationerna är komplexa fenomen att studera men att de är relativt lika varandra. Dock finns det skillnader som gör att Islamiska Staten, trots att de en gång i tiden tillhört Al-Qaida, formats till en unik enhet. Således har även det faktum att IS framfart blev så stor som den blev, diskuterats ihop med terrorismbekämpning för att försöka förstå vad det var som inte gick som det eventuellt borde ha gjort för att begränsa det ovan.  

  • 283.
    Symons, Jonathan
    et al.
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Green political theory in a climate-changed world: between innovation and restraint2015Ingår i: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 173-192, artikel-id 230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The implications for Green political theory of the international community’s failure to avert dangerous warming are evaluated. An emerging conflict is identified between the Green-romantic value of restraint and the Green-rationalistvalue of protection, between a desire to preserve biotic systemsand a distrust of scientific solutions to problems that are intrinsically social. In response, approaches are outlined that can help to navigate the current period of overshoot beyond safe planetary boundaries by informing choices among bundles of environmental harms. An ethic of restraint, encompassing non-domination and post-materialist values, can validly be justified without reference to ecological catastrophe. Meanwhile, in respect of preservationfrom climate-linked harms, the need for cooperation in support of scalable abatement measures suggests the necessity of accelerated research into ‘breakthrough’, low-emissions energy technologies. However, since technophilic preservationism is incompatible with existing environmental ‘logics ofpractice’, this strategy must mobilise political support outside the traditional environmental movement.

  • 284.
    Szögi, Alexander
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Striden om jobben och väljarna i riksdagsvalet 2006: En kritisk diskursanalys av hur sysselsättningsfrågan bytte ägare2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the Swedish 2006 parliamentary election a liberal-conservative coalition consisting of four parties took office after twelve years of Social Democratic governance.

    One contributing factor was that the voters had high expectations on the centre-right party - Moderata samlingspartiet policies on creating new jobs. What made this election so interesting is that the Swedish voters traditionally have had a greater support for the incumbent Socialdemokratiska arbetarepartiets policies on unemployment. Swedish voting and party preference researchers have found that the shift of party support in the unemployment issue among Swedish voters in the election was historical. The case is a good example of an issue changing owners relatively quickly. This contradicts several explanatory models within traditional issue ownership research.

    This study goes beyond traditional issue ownership research by using a qualitative method – Norman Faircloughs three-dimensional model for critical discourse analysis.

    The model consists of three layers of analyses – first the results of an integrated model were macroeconomic evaluations, unemployment rating, party preferences and issue salience has been measured. Then the results of a study of how issue ownership is created by parties own external communication and by the mass media. After that a short description of a study were the two election campaigns by Moderata samlingspartiet and Socialdemokratiska arbetarepartiet had been evaluated based on their level of professionalization. Finally this study's own contribution to the analysis a qualitative text analysis of the two parties' representations of the issue of unemployment during the election campaign. The text analysis uses Carol Bacchis approach What's the problem represented to be? to depict how each problematisation was constructed.

    The results show how Moderata samlingspartiet constructed their representation of the issue with the purpose of mobilizing broad groups of voters who are gainfully employed to lower payroll taxes and taxes on income to create new jobs. Also how Socialdemokratiska arbetarepartiet constructed their representation of the issue with the purpose of mobilizing broad groups of voters to use state resources to fund public education, research projects in technology and strengthen social safety nets. The study shows that Norman Faircloughs three-dimensional model for critical discourse analysis is a useful way to get deeper into cases were there have been a clear shift of issue ownership. Also how Carol Bacchis WPR approach can be a useful tool to examine what is said and constructed in public discourse.

    Key words: Issue ownership, issue of unemployment, critical discourse analysis

  • 285.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Environmental policy integration in bioenergy: policy learning across sectors and levels?2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A central principle within UN and EU policy is environmental policyintegration (EPI), aiming at integrating environmental aspirations, targetsand requirements into sector policy in order to promote sustainabledevelopment. The focus of this study is EPI in bioenergy policy. Bioenergy isa renewable energy source of increasing importance in the EU and Swedishenergy mix. At the same time, it is debated how environmentally friendlybioenergy really is. Furthermore, bioenergy can be considered both a multisectorand a multi-level case, since bioenergy is produced in many differentsectors and bioenergy policy is formulated and implemented on differentlevels. Therefore, EPI in bioenergy policy is here analysed over time in twosectors (energy and agriculture) and on three levels (EU, national, subnational).A cognitive, policy learning perspective on EPI is adopted, tracingEPI through looking for reframing of policy towards incorporatingenvironmental objectives in policy rhetoric and practice. Furthermore,institutional and political explanations for the development are discussed.Paper I analyses EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy within energy andagriculture. Paper II analyses institutional conditions for multi-sector EPI inSwedish bioenergy policy. Paper III analyses EPI in EU bioenergy policywithin energy and agriculture. Paper IV analyses sub-national EPI in thecase of the Biofuel Region in north Sweden. The material examined consistsof policy documents complemented by semi-structured interviews.

    Together, the four papers provide a more complex and holistic picture ofthe EPI process than in previous research, which mainly has focused onstudying EPI in single sectors and on single levels. The study shows thatpriorities are different on different levels; that EPI has varied over time; butthat EPI today is detectable within bioenergy policy in both studied sectorsand on all levels. Policy learning in bioenergy is found to be mainly a topdownprocess. Furthermore, policy coherence between sectors and levels;long-term goals; and concrete policy instruments are found to be importantboth for the EPI process as such and for the outcomes from this process.However, when attempting to marry different goals, such as growth, securityand sustainability, in line with the three-tiered (economic, social, ecologic)sustainable development concept, environmental aspects risks not to beprioritised when goal conflicts arise. The study proposes that future researchboth continues the analysis of multi-sector and multi-level EPI, and furtherexplores to what extent ecological sustainability is improved by EPI.

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  • 286.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Institutional conditions for multi-sector environmental policyintegration in Swedish bioenergy policy2011Ingår i: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 528-546Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What institutional conditions seem relevant for multi-sector EPI, and itsoutcomes? Analysing the Swedish bioenergy policy process, which represents apositive case of multi-sector EPI, this article argues that open actor access, useof environmental knowledge, monitoring mechanisms, and both environmentsectoraland inter-sectoral policy coordination are conducive for multi-sectorEPI, which is also affected by external events. For achieving outcomes frommulti-sector EPI, monitoring mechanisms as well as inter-sectoral policycoordination are important.

  • 287.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Integrating Environment in European Bioenergy: Policy Learning in Multiple Sectors2009Ingår i: Working Group 7: (Contested) knowledges and learning in environmental policy processes, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 288.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Integrating environment into European bioenergy policy: comparing the energy and agricultural sectorsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy integration (EPI) has long been a key part of EU environmental work. Recognising that some policy fields involve a multi-sector perspective, this article focuses on EPI in EU bioenergy policy, more specifically how bioenergy has been framed within EU energy policy and agricultural policy from 1995 to 2009. Three questions are posed. First, is there EPI in EU bioenergy policy? Second, is EU bioenergy policy coherent across sectors? Third, to what extent has EPI occurred? The analysis shows that EPI in EU bioenergy policy has increased over time, and that this has stimulated policy coherency between sectors. Climate change is the focal environmental issue in bioenergy policy, although the focus has broadened recently, and the environment is placed on a par with other issues, rather than prioritised. Future research needs to analyse post-Lisbon Treaty EPI, multi-sector EPI, and explore which environmental aspects are integrated (and which are not?).

  • 289.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    'Much ado about nothing?' - energy forest cultivation in Sweden: how intersectoral policy coordination affects outcomes from EPI in multisectoral issues2008Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 381-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of environmental issues into sectoral policies is also known asenvironmental policy integration (EPI), a concept that can be described as a process oflearning across frames. The article examines the role of intersectoral policy coordinationfor the outcomes from EPI in multisectoral issues. Through the application of thematicidea analysis, it explores the development of EPI in Swedish policies regarding agriculturalbioenergy production—energy and agricultural policy—with specific focus on energyforest cultivation. Policies in both the sectors are then compared in a discussion of whatrole intersectoral policy coordination plays for the outcomes from EPI in multisectoralissues, exemplified by Swedish energy forest cultivation.

  • 290.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sub-national environmental policy integration: learning across levels?Ingår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy integration, EPI, refers to the integration of environmental aspects and policy objectivesinto non‐environmental sector policies. EPI can be viewed as an environmental learning process, but whathappens when EPI is to travel across political levels? This article explores EPI in a previously neglected policyarena; the sub‐national level, where Biofuel Region (BFR) in the north Swedish counties Västerbotten andVästernorrland is studied in depth. According to previous studies, an environmental perspective is integratedinto bioenergy policy on the EU level and Swedish level, but is an environmental perspective present also onthe sub‐national level, within BFR? Furthermore, can the development in BFR be explained by cross‐levellearning? In a discussion of the impact of EU and Swedish bioenergy policy on the sub‐national bioenergydevelopment, the concluding discussion revolves around the overarching question of this study: what are thesub‐national implications of higher‐level EPI in a policy area?

  • 291.
    Söderström, Johanna
    Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Politics of Affection: Ex-Combatants, Political Engagement and Reintegration Programs in Liberia2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Ex-combatants' relationship with post-war politics is crucial for the continued democratization and peace processes, irrespective of what has shaped it: the war or their post-war experiences. In this thesis, the relationship with politics, after the end of the Liberian civil war (1989-2003) is explored among ex-combatants, following the research question: How do ex-combatants in Liberia think about politics and how do they engage in politics? Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration (DDR) programs are a large component of contemporary peacebuilding efforts that target ex-combatant populations. However, current research has failed to seriously examine the political consequences of these programs. Therefore, this thesis is also driven by an interest to explore whether the reintegration programs can shape the ex-combatants’ relationship with politics. Using focus group interviews with 101 ex-combatants in 18 different groups, with six different program experiences, as well as survey data from the Afrobarometer, these questions are examined using nested analyses, at both the group and individual level.

    Expanding on the concept of political reintegration, using the literature on democratic citizenship, this examination addresses the implicit democratic ideals that surround current DDR practices. In the case of ex-combatants in Liberia, their relationship with politics can be described using four dimensions: political involvement; tolerance of dissent; inclusion; and expressed antagonism. As a whole, the ex-combatants express a relation with politics indicative of a politics of affection, as their understanding of politics is often driven by a logic of emotion. Politics is filtered and understood through an emotive lens. Using a policy feedback framework, this thesis also shows how some reintegration programs can accentuate democratic ideals (e.g. participation and inclusion), while others emphasize more conflictual and antagonistic political practices, through their program design. Program procedures thereby provide cognitive cues, and provide an opportunity for political learning through an interpretive mechanism.

  • 292.
    Söderström, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Jarstad, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Department of Government, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Friends, Fellows and Foes: A new framework for studying relational peace2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest that taking a relational view of peace serious is a fruitful avenue for expanding current theoretical frameworks surrounding peace as a concept. Paving the way for such an approach, this paper conducts a review of the literature which takes on peace as a relational concept. We then return to how a relationship is conceptualized, before turning to how such components would be further defined in order to specify relational peace. Based on this framework, we argue that a peaceful relation entails non-domination, deliberation and cooperation between the actors in the dyad, the actors involved recognize and trust each other and believe that the relationship is one between legitimate actors and ultimately an expression of friendship. It clarifies the methodological implications of studying peace in this manner. It also demonstrates some of the advantages of this approach, as it shows how peace and war can co-exist in webs of multiple interactions, and the importance of studying relations, and how actors understand these relationships, as a way of studying varieties of peace.

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  • 293.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Peteris
    Södertörn university.
    The europeanisation of Latvia's public policy: the case of foreign aid policy, 2004-20102017Ingår i: Latvia - a work in progress?: 100 years of state- and nation-building / [ed] David J Smith, Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2017, s. 205-223Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 294.
    Timofejevs Henriksson, Peteris
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    "You Cannot Sell It": Initiation and Implementation of Latvian Development Co-operation Policy (2000-2010)2013Ingår i: Konowledge and Policy Change / [ed] Henriks Lindberg, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013, s. 201-2019Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 295.
    Tjäder, Zacharias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Preparing for Disasters -Experiences of collaborative governance & coordination in Dhaka City, Bangladesh2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Dhaka city and Bangladesh is unique in many ways. The country profile is most definitely an interesting case to study through the lenses of disaster management. In this thesis a framework or theories encompassing collaborative governance and coordination crisis- management networks is applied to the challenging context of Bangladesh. The study looks at themes such as ‘history of conflicts’, ‘trust building’, ‘power imbalances’, ‘comprehensive overview’ and crisis network variables like ‘complexity’ and ‘familiarity‘. The theory block is foremost gathered from Michael Hillyard, Naim Kapucu and Alison Gash and Chris Ansell. The study is based on interviews from individuals representing different types of organizations that have connections to coordination avenues. A thematic analysis approach is used to apply the theories on the empirics. Three research questions encapsulates the core of the study; what components stimulate collaborative governance theoretically and how does part- takers of disaster management in Dhaka perceive collaborative governance and coordination under disaster preparedness? Finally, how does the presented theories conform to the practises focused on coordination and collaborative governance when preparing for disasters in Dhaka, Bangladesh? 

     

    The study finds that the establishment of coordination avenues are evident in Dhaka and that the development of various parts of coordination activities is moving rather strong. The study show that many organizations are project- based in Dhaka and that competition over intellectual property and funding can work in both directions for coordination and collaborative governance. Either lowering the ambition for collaborations or increasing it. The study also confirms findings of previous coordination studies in Bangladesh that suggest that the institutional approach is very much individualistic which can, to some degree, hamper coordination activities.

    The study suggest that the system for coordination and its reach appears to be more established horizontally on a strategic level than on the vertical level. Coordination activities and collaborative governance also operates simultaneously in Dhaka, both vertically and horizontally. In closure the experiences of DM- employees in Dhaka suggest that earthquakes and droughts, or combinations of quakes and flooding may pose a serious challenge to the disaster management relief resources of Dhaka city. 

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    Preparing for Disasters
  • 296.
    Vossemer, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Gebel, Michael
    Department of Sociology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany.
    Täht, Kadri
    Institute of International Social Studies, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Unt, Marge
    Institute of International Social Studies, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    The effects of unemployment and insecure jobs on well-being and health: the moderating role of labor market policies2018Ingår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 138, nr 3, s. 1229-1257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Labor market insecurities have been growing in Europe and previous research has illustrated that unemployment and insecure jobs negatively affect individuals’ well-being and health. Although empirical evidence suggests that these effects vary substantially across different welfare states, we still know little about the moderating role of specific labor market policies. Taking a cross-national comparative perspective, this article investigates how passive and active labor market policies (PLMP, ALMP) as well as employment protection legislation (EPL) shape the experience of unemployment and insecure jobs. We complement micro data of round 1–6 (2002–2012) of the European Social Survey with time-varying macro indicators of PLMP, ALMP, and EPL. The data include about 89,000 individuals nested in 112 country-rounds and 26 countries respectively. We apply three-level random intercept models as well as pooled linear regression models including country fixed effects. The results show that labor market policies are important in shaping the experience of unemployment, but are less relevant for workers in insecure jobs. Specifically, higher unemployment benefit generosity buffers the negative effects of unemployment on well-being but not health. Moreover, we discuss different interpretations for the finding that higher ALMP expenditures are associated with more negative effects of unemployment on well-being and health. With respect to EPL it is found that in countries with high insider protection, deregulating the restrictions on the use of temporary employment increases the negative effects of unemployment on well-being and health.

  • 297.
    Wahlbäck, Krister
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Fred och säkerhet i tider av förändring: essäer om utrikes- och säkerhetspolitik2014Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 298.
    Walther, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Picking the winner(s): Forecasting elections in multiparty systems2015Ingår i: Electoral Studies, ISSN 0261-3794, E-ISSN 1873-6890, Vol. 40, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    From the 1970s onwards, a wide range of forecasting techniques have been developed in the literature on electoral forecasting. However, these models have primarily been applied in two-party, presidential democracies, with the US being by far the most popular country to investigate. The question thus arises whether the same techniques that have proved successful in this context can also be applied to the more complex, multiparty democracies in northern Europe. This paper seeks to answer this question and in the process makes two main contributions. Firstly, the popular dynamic linear model (Jackman, 2005) is tried and tested in Germany and Sweden where it is shown that reasonable forecasts can be made despite the complexity of the systems and the emergence of new parties. A novelty is then introduced when cyclical changes in party support are modelled through a seasonal component. This extension of the dynamic linear model helps to significantly lower the error in early forecasts and is thus something that could be useful in future applications of the model.

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    fulltext
  • 299.
    Walther, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Till death do us part: a comparative study of government instability in 28 European democracies2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is rooted in the research tradition known as coalition politics, where governments, political parties and political institutions are the central focus. The main emphasis here is on government instability and the question of why governments in modern parliamentary democracies often come to an end before the next regular election. In five distinct but interrelated papers, the thesis explores the issue of early government termination and how it is affected by public support, economic developments and the functioning of the state apparatus. The studies included in this thesis generally take a quantitative approach and make use of a dataset that contains 640 governments in 29 European democracies. Their joint goal is to improve our understanding of when early termination happens by introducing and testing new explanatory factors as well as by improving how previously identified factors are modelled.

    The first paper focuses on Central and Eastern Europe. It shows that the stability of governments in that region is affected by slightly different factors than those that impact on governments in Western Europe. In particular, ideological factors and political institutions are found to be less important in Central and Eastern Europe while the formal power basis of the government and the country’s economic performance matter more. In the second paper, co-authored with Professor Torbjörn Bergman, the state is brought into government stability research. The paper shows that countries with a lower quality of governance and a less efficient public sector have less stable governments. This is mainly because government parties struggle to achieve their policy goals when the state apparatus is inefficient and corrupt.

    Paper 3, co-written with Associate Professor Johan Hellström, looks at how different types of governments respond to economic challenges. In particular, this paper demonstrates that the same changes in economic circumstances (e.g. increases in unemployment or inflation) have different effects on cabinet stability depending on which type of government is in charge. Single party governments are better equipped to deal with economic changes, because they are better positioned to devise new policy responses without having to compromise with other parties. Coalition governments, in contrast, become significantly more likely to terminate early when the economy takes a turn for the worse.

    Finally, over the course of two papers I first explore new techniques for analysing polling data and then use them to empirically test whether governments sometimes choose termination as a way to cope with bad poll numbers. Most of the existing techniques for pooling polls and forecasting elections were explicitly designed with two party systems in mind. In Paper 4, I test some of these techniques to determine their usefulness in complex, multiparty systems, and I develop some improvements that enable us to take advantage of more of the information in the data. In the final paper, I combine the two themes of polling and government stability by looking at how changes in government popularity affect the likelihood of premature dissolution. I find that governments, particularly single party governments, do, in fact, use terminations as a strategic response to changes in their popularity among the public. When support is high, governments tend to opportunistically call an early election, whereas they tend to abandon or reshuffle the government when support is low.

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    Ladda ner (pdf)
    spikblad
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    omslag
  • 300.
    Walther, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hellström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The verdict in the polls: how government stability is affected by popular support2019Ingår i: West European Politics, ISSN 0140-2382, E-ISSN 1743-9655, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 593-617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that the stability of governments is affected by how they are performing in the polls is both intuitive and popular in the literature. When support is low the government might be inclined to replace parties or the prime minister in order to regain support, thus forming a replacement government. Alternatively, a government doing well in the polls might opportunistically try to schedule an early election to capitalise on its favourable prospects. But despite the popularity of the idea, it has thus far not been tested empirically whether government stability is in fact influenced by popular support. This article aims to address this lacuna. Using a relatively new dataset with more than 12,000 unique polls, and recently developed Bayesian models for pooling the polls, it is here shown that government stability is in fact impacted by popular support. Governments display clear signs of electoral opportunism when they are polling well and, conversely, dissolve the government, without calling an election, when polling is bad. The results are strongest when there are few parties in the government, since agreement on the timing for a discretionary termination is easier when fewer players need to agree.

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    Preprint version
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