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  • 251.
    Engström, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    A study of the Marshall-Lerner condition in the least complex economies2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the aftermath of the financial crisis where global aggregate demand is struggling, countries occasionally get accused of weakening their currency to gain competitiveness. The method of weakening the currency to gain competitiveness is explained by the Marshall-Lerner condition, which states that a devaluation in the long-term will strengthen the balance of trade. But is this policy always rational? And if not, which economies should avoid it? This study investigates whether the structure of the export industry can explain the varying response in the balance of trade from a devaluation.

    The Johansen Procedure with a Vector Error Correction Model is used to estimate long-run price elasticities of demand for exports and imports. The countries chosen are among the 30 countries with the lowest rank of economic complexity based on its output, listed by the Observatory of Economic Complexity. The exports of these countries are consisting of a single or a few goods, which enables for investigating how individual industries respond to a devaluation. The hypothesis is that there are differences between labour- and capital-intensive economies and that the former should respond more positive to a devaluation than the latter.

    The results indicate that there is a pattern, to the opposite of the hypothesis, where the capital-intensive economies respond more positive to a devaluation than the labour-intensive economies. This could be misleading due to underlying factors that should be controlled for to be able to produce reliable estimates. The Marshall-Lerner condition is fulfilled for two countries, Gabon and Niger, out of nine in the final sample.

  • 252.
    Eriksson, Kristofer
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    On Return Innovation Distribution in GARCH Volatility Modelling: Empirical evidence from the Stockholm Stock Exchange2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 253.
    Eriksson, Mathilda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Mitigating climate change with forest climate tools2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops the FRICE, a framework that determines optimal levels of forest climate tools in the context of global climate policy. The paper integrates afforestation and avoided deforestation into the well-known global multi-regional integrated assessment model, RICE-2010. The paper finds that climate forest tools can play an essential role in global climate policy and that this role is increasingly important under stringent temperature targets. Under a 2_C temperature target, the model reveals that emission reductions from avoided deforestation are quickly exhausted whereas afforestation is capable of substantially reducing emission reductions in both the medium and long run. The model also indicates that the most significant reductions in emissions from avoided deforestation and afforestation can be achieved by focusing policy efforts on tropical forests.

  • 254.
    Eriksson, Mathilda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The role of the forest in an integrated assessment model of the climate and the economy2015Ingår i: Climate Change Economics, ISSN 2010-0078, E-ISSN 2010-0086, Vol. 6, nr 3, artikel-id 1550011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops the FOR-DICE model to explore the potential role of the global forest in reducing climate change. It presents a basic framework for assessing the boreal, tropical, and temperate forests as both a source of renewable energy and a resource to sequester and store carbon. The focus of the paper is to explore whether climate policies should focus on increasing the forest biomass, to sequester and store carbon, or on increasing the use of the forest biomass as a source of energy, to substitute fossil fuels. The paper shows that the global forest can play an important role in reducing atmospheric carbon. The main finding at the global level is that it is better to increase the forest biomass rather than increase the use of forest bioenergy. The reason for this is that the decrease in forest carbon stock created by increased bioenergy harvests is not offset by avoided fossil fuel emissions. This finding suggests that setting high bioenergy targets, without considering the dynamics of the forest stock and the efficiency of bioenergy, will be detrimental to climate change mitigation.

  • 255.
    Eriksson, Mathilda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The Role of the Forest in Climate Policy2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In Paper [I], I develop the FOR-DICE model to analyze optimal global forest carbon management. The FOR-DICE is a simple framework for assessing the role of the boreal, tropical, and temperate forests as both a source of renewable energy and a resource to sequester and store carbon. I find that forests play an important role in reducing global emissions, especially under ambitious climate targets. At the global level, efforts should focus on increasing the stock of forest biomass rather than increasing the use of the forest for bioenergy production. The results also highlight the important role of reducing tropical deforestation to reduce climate change.

    In Paper [II], I develop the FRICE to investigate the role of two key efforts to increase the stock of forest biomass, namely, afforestation and avoided deforestation. FRICE is a multi-regional integrated assessment model that captures the dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in a transparent way and allows me to investigate the allocation of these actions across space and time. I find that global climate policy can benefit considerably from afforestation and avoided deforestation in tropical regions, and in particular in Africa. Avoided deforestation is particularly effective in the short run while afforestation provides the largest emissions reductions in the medium run. This paper also highlights the importance of not solely relying on avoided deforestation as its capacity to reduce emissions is more limited than afforestation, especially under more stringent temperature targets.

    In Paper [III], we investigate how uncertainties linked to the forest affect the optimal climate policy. We incorporate parameter uncertainty on the intrinsic growth rate and climate effects on the forest by using the state-contingent approach. Our results show that forest uncertainty matters. We find that the importance of including forest in climate policy increases when the forest is subject to uncertainty. This occurs because optimal forest response allows us to reduce the costs associated with uncertainty.

    In Paper [IV], we explore the implications of asymmetries in climate policy arising from not recognizing forest carbon emissions and sequestration in the decision-making process. We show that not fully including carbon values associated with the forest will have large effects on different forest controls and lead to an increase in emissions, higher carbon prices, and lower welfare.  We further find, by investigating the relative importance of forest emissions compared to sequestration, that recognizing forest emissions from bioenergy and deforestation is especially important for climate policy.

  • 256.
    Eriksson, Mathilda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Pricing forest carbon: implications of asymmetry in climate policy2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use an integrated assessment model to examine the implications of not recognizing, and partially recognizing forest carbon in climate policy. Specifically, we investigate the impact of an asymmetric carbon policy that recognizes emissions from fossil fuels while ignoring emissions from forests. We additionally investigate the relative importance of not recognizing positive emissions from a reduction in the stock of forest biomass, or of not recognizing negative emissions from the growth of forest biomass. We show that asymmetric carbon policies lead to lower levels of welfare, as well as higher emissions and carbon prices. This occurs because the forest resource will be allocated inefficiently under these carbon policies. Broadly, we find that when the social planner does not account for neither positive or negative forest emissions, the planner will set bioenergy levels that are too high and afforestation and avoided deforestation levels that are too low. Our results further reveal that not recognizing forest emissions leads to larger welfare losses than not recognizing sequestration.

  • 257. Eriksson, Mathilda
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Pricing forest carbon: implications of asymmetry in climate policy2018Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 32, s. 84-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an integrated assessment model, we examine the implications of climate policies that do not fully recognize forest carbon. Specifically, we first investigate the impact of an asymmetric policy that recognizes carbon emissions from fossil fuels while fully ignoring forest carbon. Next, we investigate the relative importance of not recognizing emissions from a reduction in the stock of forest biomass compared to not recognizing sequestration from the growth of forest biomass. We show that asymmetric carbon policies lead to lower levels of welfare, as well as higher emissions and carbon prices. This occurs because the forest resource will be allocated inefficiently under these carbon policies. Broadly, we find that when the social planner does not account for emissions or sequestration from the forest, the planner will set bioenergy levels that are too high and afforestation and avoided deforestation levels that are too low. Our results further reveal that not recognizing forest emissions leads to larger welfare losses than not recognizing sequestration.

  • 258.
    Eriksson, Mathilda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    When not in the best of worlds: uncertainty and forest carbon sequestration2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that the forest can provide low-cost options to reduce the atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, many dimensions of the future dynamics of the forest, and its interactions with climate change are still not well understood. This paper provides new insights into how these types of uncertainties affect the optimal climate policy. We model uncertainty over several key forest parameters by using the novel state-contingent approach. Our main results show that the importance of including optimal forest controls in climate policy increases when the dynamics of the forest are uncertain. Ignoring uncertainties concerning the forest will lead to biased estimates of the social costs of carbon and be misleading when evaluating climate policies. Conversely, recognizing forest uncertainties and its potential to mitigate climate change will lead to a robust policy where the cost of uncertainty to a large extent can be avoided.

  • 259.
    Ettlinger, Verena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Determinants of Wind Power Energy in the United Kingdom2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s energy revolution proposes a pathway from conventional energy sources to more alternative and renewable energy sources in order to sustain energy supply, slow down climate change and promote political independence. As a result of this revolution most countries have to implement new technologies and ways to generate green energy and therefore ensure future energy supply. Since the late 20th century, the United Kingdom focuses on the energy source wind due to its perfect wind conditions on the Island. My study provides statistical tests to examine significant determinants that might influence the permission process for new windmill construction sites. I use the probit model to calculate the effects caused by changes in the installed capacities, employment rates, energy consumption levels, income levels and population density on the probability of attaining construction permission for new wind farms. My analysis shows that only capacity levels might play a significant role regarding the permission for new wind farm projects. The other variables play minor roles, meaning that employment rates, energy consumption levels, income levels and population density do affect the permission process of windmills but their impacts are not great enough to cause substantial changes.

  • 260.
    Fei, Ao
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Optimal Commodity Taxation under International Positional and Environmental Externalities2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The facts that relative consumption concerns may give rise both to positional and environmental externalities, and that these two externalities are increasingly transboundary require us to derive an optimal commodity tax in an international framework. The corrective tax policy decided at a national level is found to fail to internalize all positional and environmental externalities. The optimal tax policy under an international cooperative framework reflects correction for both global positional and environmental externalities. In this broader framework, we also characterize the provision of pollution abatement as an additional policy instrument. The results show that relative concerns for one of the private goods do not lead to any modification of the policy rule for public abatement.

  • 261.
    Fei, Ao
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Optimal Mixed Taxation and Multiple Externalities2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the optimal policy rules for mixed taxation in a static economy with multiple externalities, where there is asymmetric information between the government and individuals. Our main contribution is to characterize the optimal commodity and marginal income tax structure under different assumptions about externalities and the available tax instruments. The exploration starts with our benchmark model with atmospheric positional and environmental externalities, accessible linear commodity and non-linear income taxes as well as two ability-type consumers. The outcome shows that the marginal value of externalities enters additively into the commodity tax formula without altering the policy rule for marginal income taxation. The analysis surveys two scenarios (the failure of implementing a tax on the positional commodity and upward comparisons) of how other taxes become indirect instruments to correct for the positional externality when the tax on the positional commodity does not fully internalize the positional externality. The results also imply that cross-price effect between two externality-generating commodities matters in the whole tax system.

  • 262.
    Folkesson, Hannah
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    How much are you willing to sacrifice to reduce inequality?: An experimental analysis of individuals’ preferences for inequality in income and health.2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with individuals’ preferences for social outcomes in the context of income and health. Individual’s preferences are measured through experimental choices between imagined societies in a risk-free setting. Inequality literature often assumes inequality aversion and risk aversion to go hand in hand. Using a setting that is free from risk enables an examination of preferences for inequality without also reflecting preferences for risk. The results show that most people do have inequality averse preferences, and hence have a willingness to pay for living in a more equal society. A political opinion to the left appears to be positively correlated with individual inequality aversion in the context of both income and health. Additionally, an educational background in sociology seems to be associated with a higher degree of income inequality aversion. 

  • 263.
    Folkesson, Hannah
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Jämfrande hälsa - positionella preferenser för fysisk status: En studie om individers värdering av relativ fysisk status samt den effekt sociala medier har för denna värdering2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 264.
    Folkesson, Hannah
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The Hazard of Tanning: Intertemporal Choices, Social Status, and Corrective Policy2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin cancer is the most rapidly increasing cancer form today, our changed tanning behavior is often argued to be the main source of this development. Today a tanned skin is often associated with good health and status. If tanning is a status good and individuals have positional preferences for a suntan our own tanning-decision will create negative positional externalities on others, causing us to over-consume artificial tanning sessions. But why is it that we keep exposing ourselves to UV-light even though we know how dangerous it can be to us? The similarities between tanning and smoking are rather straightforward. Not only do studies indicate that frequent tanners show addictive-like behavior, the predominant similarity is the postponed health costs, in this case risk of skin cancer. An individual’s tanning choice is hence based on current benefits and discounted future health costs. Individuals that have present-biased preferences for immediate gratification will consume tanning sessions in a way that the future self will disagree with. Giving too little weight to future health cost will thus create internalities on the future self.

     

    This study analyses optimal taxation on artificial tanning, correcting for behavioral failures generated from time-inconsistent preferences as well as the externalities caused by positional preferences for a suntan. The results indicate that sizing the tan tax equal to the health costs overlooked and the marginal externalities created generates over all improvement of welfare.

  • 265.
    Forchini, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Jiang, Bin
    Fragility of identification in panel binary response models2019Ingår i: Econometrics Journal, ISSN 1368-4221, E-ISSN 1368-423X, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 282-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper considers a linear binary response model for panel data with random effects that differ across individuals but are constant over time, and it investigates the roles of the various assumptions that are used to establish conditions for identification. The paper also shows that even for this simple model, it is always possible-including in the logistic case-to find a distribution of the random effects given the exogenous variables, such that the slopes' parameters are arbitrarily different, but the joint distributions of the binary response variables are arbitrarily close.

  • 266.
    Forchini, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Jiang, Bin
    The unconditional distributions of the OLS, TSLS and LIML estimators in a simple structural equations model2019Ingår i: Econometric Reviews, ISSN 0747-4938, E-ISSN 1532-4168, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 208-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The exact distributions of the standard estimators of the structural coefficients in a linear structural equations model conditional on the exogenous variables have been shown to have some unexpected and quirky features. Since the argument for conditioning on exogenous (ancillary) variables has been weakened over the past 20 years by the discovery of an “ancillarity paradox,” it is natural to wonder whether such finite sample properties are in fact due to conditioning on the exogenous variables. This article studies the exact distributions of the ordinary least squares (OLS), two-stage least squares (TSLS), and limited information maximum likelihood (LIML) estimators of the structural coefficients in a linear structural equation without conditioning on the exogenous variables.

  • 267.
    Forchini, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Jiang, Bin
    Peng, Bin
    TSLS and LIML Estimators in Panels with Unobserved Shocks2018Ingår i: Econometrics, ISSN 2225-1146, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of the two stage least squares (TSLS) and limited information maximum likelihood (LIML) estimators in panel data models where the observables are affected by common shocks, modelled through unobservable factors, are studied for the case where the time series dimension is fixed. We show that the key assumption in determining the consistency of the panel TSLS and LIML estimators, as the cross section dimension tends to infinity, is the lack of correlation between the factor loadings in the errors and in the exogenous variables-including the instruments-conditional on the common shocks. If this condition fails, both estimators have degenerate distributions. When the panel TSLS and LIML estimators are consistent, they have covariance-matrix mixed-normal distributions asymptotically. Tests on the coefficients can be constructed in the usual way and have standard distributions under the null hypothesis.

  • 268.
    Forchini, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Peng, Bin
    A modified first difference estimator for panel data models with a multifactor error structure when the time dimension is small2017Ingår i: Communications in Statistics, Vol. forthcomingArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 269.
    Forchini, Giovanni
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Peng, Bin
    Modified first-difference estimator in a panel data model with unobservable factors both in the errors and the regressors when the time dimension is small2017Ingår i: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, E-ISSN 1532-415X, Vol. 46, nr 24, s. 12226-12239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Panel data models with factor structures in both the errors and the regressors have received considerable attention recently. In these models, the errors and the regressors are correlated and the standard estimators are inconsistent. This paper shows that, for such models, a modified first-difference estimator (in which the time and the cross-sectional dimensions are interchanged) is consistent as the cross-sectional dimension grows but the time dimension is small. Although the estimator has a non standard asymptotic distribution, t and F tests have standard asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis.

  • 270.
    Forman, Max
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    From the Technical and Tactical to the Legislative and Political: The Effects of Military Expenditure on Economic Growth2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 271.
    Forsgren, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Konkurrensens påverkan på betygsinflation: En studie av Sveriges grundskolor på kommunnivå mellan 2005-20122014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 272.
    Fransson, Caroline
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Produktionens samvariation med arbetslösheten: En studie av fyra EU-länder som syftar till att undersöka i vilken utsträckning produktionen kommer påverka arbetslöshetsgraden2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 273.
    Frisk, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Environmental Valuation of the Menai Bay Conservation Area.: A Minor Field Study.2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 274.
    Frisk, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lön efter kön?: En analys av löneskillnader i Umeå kommun2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 275.
    Frisk, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Löneskillnader mellan kvinnor och män i Stockholms stad år 2013: En kvantilanalys av lönedistributionen2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 276.
    Gandal, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    A Disequilibrium Analysis of the Swedish Mortgage Market2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 277.
    Gandal, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Classical Investment Theory and Policy Implications: A case study of LKAB regarding the effects of the introduction of environmental permits2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 278.
    Gandal, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Miljöbilar=miljövänligt?: En empirisk pilotstudie beträffande den ökande andelen miljöbilar och dess koppling till återfallseffekten.2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 279.
    Geijer, Erik
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, Jon
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Safeguarding species richness vs. increasing the use of renewable energy: the effect of stump harvesting on two environmental goals2014Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 111-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deadwood is recognized as one of the most important resources affecting forest biodiversity.Its absence from the forest landscape is, therefore, of concern, such that one official Swedishenvironmental objective is to increase the volume of deadwood. However, increasing the useof renewable energy sources, another environmental goal, is likely to work against thisbiodiversity objective. In this study we utilize a regional economic forest sector model,focusing on northern Sweden, in order to estimate the effect of a large scale introduction ofstump harvest on the future use of forest fuel. In addition, an ecological model, describing therelationship between the availability of dead wood and the abundance of saproxylic beetles, islinked to the economic model.The parameters used in the economic model are derived from a data set spanning 28 yearswhile the ecological model is derived from a survey of ten clear cuts, undertaken seven yearsafter the clear cutting, in order to investigate the abundance of saproxylic beetles in stumps.We simulate the effects of an increased demand for wood fuels in northern Sweden, with orwithout stump harvest. The two scenarios have different effects on all major round woodmarkets in the region, as well as on the abundance of saproxylic beetles. More specifically,the harvest of stumps is associated with a 5% reduction in the mean abundance of saproxylicbeetles living in deadwood on future clear cuts and a 3% increase in the use of renewableenergy recourses in heating plants.

  • 280.
    Gejard, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Bör vi bry oss om oljepriset?: En ekonometrisk studie som mäter sambandet mellan oljepriset och Sveriges ekonomi2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Oljepriset har varit mycket volatilt senaste åren. Studien motiveras då olja är en viktig råvara för flertalet av Sveriges industrier varför studien ämnar studera vilket samband som finns mellan priset på olja och Sveriges ekonomi. Utvecklingen på Sveriges ekonomi mäts genom två variabler, utvecklingen på Affärsvärldens genaralindex (AFGX) som mäter den genomsnittliga avkastningen på Stockholmsbörsen samt utvecklingen på Sveriges industriproduktionsindex. Då Sverige är en liten öppen ekonomi kommer en komparativ studie att genomföras för att studera om effekten även kan komma från utlandet (via Sveriges största handelspartners). Månatlig data för perioden januari 2000 – januari 2016 analyseras med hjälp av en vector autoregressiv modell (VAR) som använder tidigare observationer av variablerna för att studera samband sinsemellan. Studiens resultat visar att det finns ett positivt samband mellan oljepriset och Sveriges industriproduktionsindex. Ett högre oljepris talar för ett stigande industriproduktionsindex. Vidare visar resultatet från studien att oljepriset har ett negativt samband med Stockholmsbörsen.

  • 281.
    Ghalwash, Tarek
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Demand for environmental quality: an empirical analysis of consumer behavior in Sweden2006Ingår i: Umeå economic studies, nr 676Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 282.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Economic assessment of harvesting and removing macro algae and reed as an eutrophication mitigation method: A cost-benefit analysis using an ecosystem service approach applied on Burgsviken Gotland2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 283.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The Value of the Flood Mitigation Services of Wetlands: Evidence from GIS-based Hedonic Price Analysis2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 284.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Kjellberg, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Vad är öringen värd?: En värderingsstudie av havsöringsfiske i Dalkarlsån.2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 285. Gong, Peichen
    et al.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Could the Faustmann model have an interior minimum solution?2016Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 24, s. 123-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of an even-aged stand usually follows a S-shaped pattern, implying that the growth function is convex when stand age is low and concave when stand age is high. Given such a growth function, the Faustmann model could in theory have multiple optima and hence an interior local minimum solution. To ensure that the rotation age at which the first derivative of the land expectation value equals zero is a maximum, it is often assumed that the growth function is concave in stand age. Yet there is no convincing argument for excluding the possibility of conducting the final harvest before the growth function changes to concave. We argue that under normal circumstances the Faustmann model does not have any interior minimum. It is neither necessary nor proper to assume that the growth function is concave in the vicinity of the optimal rotation age. When the interest rate is high, the optimal rotation may lie in the interval on which the growth function is convex, i.e. before volume or value growth culminates.

  • 286.
    Gong, Peichen
    et al.
    SLU.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Forest taxation2013Ingår i: Encyclopedia of energy, natural resource, and environmental economics: Volume 2 / [ed] Jason Shogren, Elsevier, 2013, s. 176-182Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an overview of the application of taxation as a policy instrument in forestry. Forests cover about 30% of the total land area and constitute one of the most important natural resources on the planet. Forests worldwide produce a great amount of timber and various non-wood products, and they provide a wide range of ecological services. Following a brief review of the major forms of inefficiency of forest management in free markets, we discuss the behavioral effects of the general types of taxes targeted at forest assets and forestry income. This is followed by a review of the forest taxation systems in four selected countries (China, Finland, Sweden, and the United States). It is concluded that forest taxation has been used mainly for the purpose of collecting public revenues. Two common forms of inefficiency with respect to forest management are overharvesting (especially in developing countries) of existing forests and underinvestment in reforestation. Forest taxes and subsidies that are effective in correcting one type of inefficiency usually intensify the type of inefficiency. The effectiveness of taxes as a policy instrument to promote sustainable management of forest resources, remain to be evaluated.

  • 287. Gong, Peichen
    et al.
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Impact of risk aversion on the optimal rotation with stochastic price2008Ingår i: Natural Resource Modeling, ISSN 0890-8575, E-ISSN 1939-7445, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 385-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of risk aversion on the optimal rotation when the stumpage price is stochastic. Assuming that the stumpage price is normally distributed, we show that the optimal rotation under risk aversion may be shorter than, equal to, or longer than the corresponding optimal rotation under risk neutrality. Which of these cases holds true depends on the interest rate and the real regeneration cost, and can be determined based on the marginal variance (i.e., the derivative of the variance function with respect to rotation age) evaluated at the optimal rotation under risk neutrality. Furthermore, we show that there exists a monotone continuous curve, which divides the interest rate-regeneration cost space into two regions where risk aversion affects the optimal rotation differently. For a given interest rate, risk aversion shortens (prolongs) the optimal rotation if the regeneration cost lies below (above) the curve. Along the separating curve the optimal rotation under risk aversion coincides with the optimal rotation under risk neutrality. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the separating curve and the impacts of risk aversion on the optimal rotation.

  • 288.
    Gradin, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hedgren, Max
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Finanskrisens skuldspår: Ekonomiska faktorer som ökar länders risk för skuldkris2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 289.
    Granberg, Hampus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Are implied volatility levels suitable for forecasting?: A study comparing the performance of volatility implied by options and covered warrants with the performance of ARCH forecasts.2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines which of the implied volatilities from options and covered warrants with exactly the same terms and cash flows that deviates least from the subsequent week’s realized volatility levels. Their suitability as methods for forecasting is also examined by comparing their predictive abilities with the forecasts of ARCH models. The study was performed on options and covered warrants traded in Sweden between February and May 2016. The results indicate that volatility levels implied by covered warrants generally overestimates realized volatility and that neither instrument outperforms the forecasts of ARCH models.

  • 290.
    Granberg, Hampus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Räntemarginaler i Sverige: En analys av avgörande faktorer bakom räntemarginalens utveckling i Sverige2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 291.
    Grande, Adrian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Den relativa födelseeffekten inom det svenska skolsystemet: Vilken betydelse har födelsemånaden för en elevs betyg i årskurs nio?2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 292.
    Grande, Adrian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Gini in the bottle: Does income inequality (Gini) affect trade flows (bottle)?2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer studies are well known to assume non-homothetic preferences in their models, as the demand for a good can not be determined by assuming a single representative consumer. The question of how to include non-homothetic preferences into an empirical model for international trade is of importance as if not, the model exclude the demand side reason for trade. And does the effect look different regarding different types of goods. A significant share of countries GDP and the economic growth of a country is relying on trade; hence this question could be of great interest in order to determine trade policies. This thesis endeavoured to estimate the effect of income inequality in both exports and imports regarding one good classified as a luxury and necessity respectively. To accomplish this a Gravity model of trade that includes income distribution is conducted on the basis of an article by Mitra and Trindade(2005). Fixed effect analyses was implemented in order to analyse the data. Data on exports for the years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2008-2011 gathered from the OECD databank was used in the study together with data on GDP per capita, Gini and population size provided by The World Bank Group. The analyses is based on the estimates of 41 countries. The results of the analyses point toward a possible negative relationship between a greater inequality in the exporting country yields less exports of luxury goods.

  • 293.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Generisk förskrivning av läkemedel: våga ta steget fullt ut2012Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 3-4Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 294.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Medicin kostar mindre efter apoteksreformerna2017Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 295.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The Effect of Pharmacies' Right to Negotiate Discounts on the Market Share of Parallel Imported Pharmaceuticals2015Ingår i: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 1197-1235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how allowing pharmacies to negotiate discounts with parallel traders and producers affects the market share for parallel imports. Economic theory predicts that discount negotiations will promote products bought directly from the producers because producers have cost advantages, due to which they always underbid the marginal prices of parallel traders. A reform that allowed discount negotiations is found to reduce the market share for parallel imports by about 11 percentage points to reach 31%. The results clearly indicate that pharmacies have an important role in the choice between medically equivalent pharmaceuticals.

  • 296.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The effect of pharmacies’ right to negotiate discounts on the market share of parallel imported pharmaceuticalsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 297.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Bergman, Mats
    Price competition in pharmaceuticals – evidence from 1303 Swedish markets2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the short- and long-term price effects of number of competing firms using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months. This is done using actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little room for non-price competition and where simultaneity problem can be addressed effectively. In the long-term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics is increased from 1 to 10. Half of this reduction takes place immediately and 70% within three months. Also, prices of originals are found to react to competition, but far less and much slower; going from 1 to 10 firms reduces their price by 29% in the long term but by only 2% in the short term.

  • 298.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Bergman, Mats
    Price competition in pharmaceuticals – evidence from 1303 Swedish markets2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the short- and long-term price effects of the number of competing firms, using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months. We use actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little room for non-price competition and where simultaneity problem can be addressed effectively. In the long term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics with the same strength, form and similar package sizes is increased from 1 to 10. It is nearly only competition on this fine-grained level that matters. For example, the price effect of firms selling other products with the same active substance, but with different package size, form, or strength, is only a tenth as large. Half of the price reductions take place immediately and 70% within three months. Also, prices of originals are found to react to competition, but far less and much slower; going from 1 to 10 firms selling nearly identical generics reduces prices by 29% in the long term but by only 2% in the short term.

  • 299.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Bergman, Mats
    Price competition in pharmaceuticals: evidence from 1303 Swedish markets2018Ingår i: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 61, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the short- and long-term price effects of the number of competing firms, using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months within a reference-price system. We use actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little scope for non-price competition and where simultaneity problems can be addressed effectively. In the long term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics with the same strength, form and similar package size is increased from 1 to 10. Nearly only competition at this fine-grained level matters; the effect of firms selling other products with the same active substance, but with different package size, form, or strength, is only a tenths as large. Half of the price reductions take place immediately and 70% within three months. Also, prices of originals are found to react to competition, but far less and much slower.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-08-03 09:23
  • 300.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Indén, Tobias
    Lundberg, Johan
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Wikström, Magnus
    Det offentliga som konkurrent på kommersiella marknader - En samhällsekonomisk analys med exemplet konferensmarknaden2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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