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  • 301.
    Kautto, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lyon, Phil
    School of Arts, Social Sciences and Management, Queen Margaret University, UK.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Alex, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Seeking a new normality: masculinity, interaction and a gluten free diet2016In: International Journal of Celiac Disease, ISSN 2334-3486, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 138-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From earlier studies, men diagnosed with celiac disease are known to be less troubled by their experiences of living with the disease than are diagnosed women. Previous studies, concentrating on men with celiac disease have been mostly quantitative, and have a bio-medical emphasis. The aim of this study was to explore the social experience of young men with screening-detected celiac disease and to highlight daily life situations five years after diagnosis. Seven young men, diagnosed with celiac disease when they were 13 years-olds through a large Swedish school-based celiac screening-study, were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were analyzed from a gender perspective which resulted in three themes; being subjected to changes, striving for normality and emphasizing commitment. These were underpinned by several sub-themes. The young men dissociated themselves from being seen as a person with a life-long chronic disease. The analysis also showed that the young men’s daily experiences of living with celiac disease largely depended on their use of characteristics known to be associated with masculinity: such as being self-assured, demanding, and behaving authoritatively. In food situations, where the young men had the ability to make use of such characteristics in their informal group, they experienced fewer negative aspects of the disease. If the young men did not hold a strong position in their informal group, their situation was insecure and vulnerable and this could lead to avoidance of contacts and social meal situations.

  • 302.
    Kautto, Ethel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Rydén, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Högberg, Lotta
    Carlsson, Annelie
    Hagfors, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    What happens to food choices when a gluten-free diet is required?: A prospective longitudinal population-based study among Swedish adolescent with coeliac disease and their peers2014In: Journal of Nutritional Science, ISSN 2048-6790, E-ISSN 2048-6790, Vol. 3, no e2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dietary survey was performed during a large screening study in Sweden among 13-year-old adolescents. The aim was to study how the intake of food groups was affected by a screening-detected diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) and its gluten-free (GF) treatment. Food intake, was reported using a food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and intake reported by the adolescents who was screened to CD was compared with the intake of two same-aged referent groups: i) adolescents diagnosed to CD prior screening and ii) adolescents without CD.. The food intake groups were measured at baseline before the screening-detected cases were aware of their CD, and 12-18 months later.

    The result showed that the food intakes are affected by a screen detected CD and its dietary treatment. Many flour-based foods were reduced such as pizza, fish fingers, and pastries. The result also indicated that the bread intake was lower before the screened diagnosis compared to the other studied groups, but increased afterwards. Specially manufactured GF-products (e.g. pasta and bread) were frequently used in the screened CDgroup after changing to a GF-diet. Our results suggest that changing to a GF-diet reduces the intake of some popular foods, and the ingredients on the plate are altered, but this do not necessarily include a change of food groups. The availability of manufactured GF-replacement products makes it possible for adolescents to keep many of their old food habits when diagnosed with CD in Sweden.

  • 303.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sammanvävda praktiker?: En studie av likabehandlingsarbete och vetenskapligt förhållningssätt i grundskolan2018In: Att leda skolor med stöd i forskning: exempel, analyser och utmaningar / [ed] Niclas Rönnström & Olof Johansson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, 1, p. 417-447Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Division of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality in Academia: a Complex Combination in Practice2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 69-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes as its starting point two current trends in academia – the promotion of academic entrepreneurship and innovation and the promotion of gender equality – and discusses how different gender equality perspectives are interwoven, or not, into academia’s transformation processes towards entrepreneurial universities. On the basis of an analysis of 26 interviews conducted with personnel at two Swedish universities, the article investigates how concepts of academic entrepreneurship and innovation on the one hand and gender equality on the other hand are constructed and filled with meaning as well as how they are entangled and what effects are produced by this way of thinking and acting. Our analysis reveals tensions between the two policy goals, together with tensions within each goal. An overall conclusion is that articulations and ways of speaking about the policy goal of academic entrepreneurship and innovation were to some extent interwoven with the policy goal of gender equality, especially in the broader perspectives on academic entrepreneurship. However, the articulations of strategies and practice of the two policy goals essentially ran parallel, and were not entangled with one another. This is because strategies or substantial initiatives for merging gender equality into the agenda of academic entrepreneurship and innovation were lacking.

  • 305.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Carbin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Administrators or Critical Cynics?: A Study of Gender Equality Workers in Swedish Higher Education2014In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 204-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality workers have to perform a balancing act between feminist ideals for change and neo-liberal management trends. So-called audit discourses have gradually been introduced into Swedish universities, in line with an enterprise model. In this new context, the aim of our article is to investigate how gender equality workers at universities articulate gender equality and possibilities for change. What are their visions and strategies for achieving gender equality? This article is based on interviews with gender equality workers at three Swedish universities and explores how the legitimate gender equality worker is constructed. We found that there is a lack of visionary thinking among gender equality workers, which manifests itself in a sense that the distinction between visions and strategies has collapsed and technologies like auditing have become the vision. It seems that, whilst navigating between liberal feminist discourses and an increasingly neo-liberal setting, two positions are available for gender equality workers. The first is the "administrator", who asks for more tools and monitoring of gender equality, in order for the work to become more efficient and legitimate. The second position, the "critical cynic", makes scepticism and resistance to the increasing bureaucratization of gender equality work possible, but lacks alternative visions and strategies. Gender equality initiatives have thus become increasingly embedded in auditing technologies, and the possibilities for articulating alternatives or visionary ideals, beyond liberal values of anti-discrimination, seem limited.

  • 306.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Enberg, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Employee effort: reward balance and first-level manager transformational leadership within elderly care2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 407-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Negative aspects, staff dissatisfaction and problems related to internal organisational factors of working in elderly care are well-known and documented. Much less is known about positive aspects of working in elderly care, and therefore, this study focuses on such positive factors in Swedish elderly care. We combined two theoretical models, the effort–reward imbalance model and the Transformational Leadership Style model. The aim was to estimate the potential associations between employee-perceived transformational leadership style of their managers, and employees' ratings of effort and reward within elderly care work.

    Methods: The article is based on questionnaires distributed at on-site visits to registered nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists (high-level education) and assistant nurses (low-level education) in nine Swedish elderly care facilities. In order to grasp the positive factors of work in elderly care, we focused on balance at work, rather than imbalance.

    Results: We found a significant association between employees' effort–reward balance at work and a transformational leadership style among managers. An association was also found between employees' level of education and their assessments of the first-level managers.

    Conclusions: We conclude that the first-level manager is an important actor for achieving a good workplace within elderly care, since she/he influences employees' psychosocial working environment. We also conclude that there are differences and inequalities, in terms of well-being, effort and reward at the work place, between those with academic training and those without, in that the former group to a higher degree evaluated their first-level manager to perform a transformational leadership style, which in turn is beneficial for their psychosocial work environment. Consequently, this (re)-produce inequalities in terms of well-being, effort and reward among the employees at the work place.

  • 307.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Enberg, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    What is a good workplace?: Tracing the logics of NPM among managers and professionals in Swedish elderly care2016In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 6, p. 27-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoliberal policies such as new public management (NPM) have been pivotal to the Swedish elderly care system for two decades. This article explores the discourses of NPM and work by focusing on how a good workplace is represented by professionals and managers in Swedish elderly care. Using qualitative interviews with 31 managers, nurses, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists at nine workplaces, we identified four competing meanings (“storylines”) of how a good workplace is constructed among the interviewees within an ongoing struggle between two discourses. Three storylines, i.e., striving to achieve the mission, a desire to work in elderly care, and striving for good working relationships, are linked to the neoliberal discourse of organizational effectiveness. In contrast, the fourth storyline, support and better working conditions, is related to a welfare-state discourse of traditional labor relations with strong historical roots. Four subject positions available to the managers and professionals were identified: the bureaucrat, the passionate, the professional, and the critic. We conclude that NPM is translated on top of existing discourses, such as those of traditional labor relations, care ideals, and practices, that are already established in elderly care workplaces and that counteract the new policy.

  • 308.
    Keiu, Lan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Whiteness and the promise of mixed-race love2016In: Gränser, mobilitet och mobilisering: Boundaries, mobility and mobilisation : Nationell konferens för genusforskning = Swedish conference for gender research / [ed] Silje Lundgren, Maja Lundqvist, Björn Pernrud, Göteborg: Nationella sekretariatet för genusforskning , 2016, p. 121-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Keophouthong, Bounyasone
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, National University of Laos .
    Dahlström, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Keosada, Ngouay
    Faculty of Education, National University of Laos .
    Silfver, Ann-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Reclaiming Action Research from Practice to Policy – the case of Lao PDR2014In: Action Researcher in Education, ISSN 1792-6041, E-ISSN 1792-6041, no 5, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action research offers promising ways of changing educational practice, policy and philosophy at its core. Despite this, action research is too often used as a technical rationality used for evaluating small scale classroom practices. In this article, we discuss a new model for thinking about and doing action research which we argue addresses the full potential of action research for educational change. The model is developed based on experiences from teacher education in the Lao PDR with inspiration from teacher education reform in post-apartheid Namibia. We propose to use action research as the starting point from which to combine cross-cultural dialogue with a critical pedagogy of place as a means to productively tie together global educational discussions and debates with local knowledge and needs. By doing this we find aways to challenge current global and local power relations and promote teachers to be critical inquirers in charge of producing knowledge for local, national and global purposes.

  • 310.
    Kirst, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Flyktingkatastrofen i massmedia: En diskursanalys av medias rapportering kring flyktingkatastrofen 2015/20162016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2015 till 2016 inträffade en stor flyktingkatastrof där miljontalsmänniskor flydde för sina liv runt om i världen. En del av dessa människor ansökte under dessa år om asyl i Sverige, närmare bestämt 162 877 år 2015. Denna stora ökning av asylsökande i Sverige och övriga Europa fick stor uppmärksamhet i media och det rapporterades dagligen om flyktingkatastrofen. Mitt syfte med den här studien är därför att undersöka de centrala diskurserna i medias framställning av flyktingkatastrofen från dess början 2015 till 2016 då den nya asyllagen trädde i kraft. Samt undersöka om och i så fall hur diskurserna förändrats över denna tidsperiod. För att besvara mitt syfte har jag genomfört en diskursanalys av totalt nio tidningsartiklar från tre olika dagstidningar och från olika delar av denna tidsperiod. Resultaten visar att de centrala diskurserna handlade om dels flyktingkatastrofen i sig som händelse och dels effekterna av flyktingkatastrofen, det vill säga det stora antalet asylsökande inom framförallt EU samt hur dessa skulle hanteras. Vidare visade också resultaten att det skett en förändring inom medias rapportering om flyktingkatastrofen. Denna förändring gestaltades genom en strängare migrationspolitik som kom att spela en central del i medias rapportering om flyktingkatastrofen.

  • 311.
    Kristoffersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Experiences of the gender climate in clinical training: a focus group study among Swedish medical students2016In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 16, article id 283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that medical education is characterized by unequal conditions for women and men, but there is a lack of qualitative studies investigating the social processes that enable and maintain gender inequalities that include both male and female students. In this focus group study, we therefore explored male aswell as female medical students’ experiences of the gender climate – i.e., how beliefs, values, and norms about gender were communicated – during clinical training and how the students dealt with these experiences.

    Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with 24 medical students (nine men) at Umeå University, Sweden. The interviews were structured around personal experiences in clinical training where the participants perceived that gender had mattered. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The students described gender-stereotyped expectations, discriminatory treatment, compliments, comments, and demeaning jargon. Female students gave more personal and varied examples than the men.The students’ ways of handling their experiences were marked by efforts to fit in, for example, by adapting their appearance and partaking in the prevailing jargon. They felt dependent on supervisors and staff, and due to fear of repercussions they kept silent and avoided unpleasant situations and people rather than challenging humiliating jargon or supervisors who were behaving badly.

    Conclusions: Everyday communication of gender beliefs combined with students’ adaptation to stereotyped expectations and discrimination came across as fundamental features through which unequal conditions for male and female students are reproduced and maintained in the clinic. Because they are in a dependent position, it is often difficult for students to challenge problematic gender attitudes. The main responsibility for improvements, therefore, lies with medical school leadership who need to provide students and supervisors with knowledge about gendered processes, discrimination, and sexism and to organize reflection groups about the gender climate in order to improve students’ opportunities to discuss their experiences, and hopefully find ways to protest and actively demand change.

  • 312.
    Kristoffersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Diderichsen, Saima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Verdonk, Petra
    Lagro-Janssen, Toine
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    To select or be selected - gendered experiences in clinical training affect medical students' specialty preferences2018In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 18, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The literature investigating female and male medical students' differing career intentions is extensive. However, medical school experiences and their implications for professional identity formation and specialty choice have attracted less attention. In this study we explore the impact of medical school experiences on students' specialty preferences, investigate gender similarities and differences, and discuss how both might be related to gender segregation in specialty preference.

    Methods: In a questionnaire, 250 Swedish final-year medical students described experiences that made them interested and uninterested in a specialty. Utilizing a sequential mixed methods design, their responses were analyzed qualitatively to create categories that were compared quantitatively.

    Results: Similar proportions of women and men became interested in a specialty based on its knowledge area, patient characteristics, and potential for work-life balance. These aspects, however, often became secondary to whether they felt included or excluded in clinical settings. More women than men had been deterred by specialties with excluding, hostile, or sexist workplace climates (W = 44%, M = 16%). In contrast, more men had been discouraged by specialties' knowledge areas (W = 27%, M = 47%).

    Conclusions: Male and female undergraduates have similar incentives and concerns regarding their career. However, the prevalence of hostility and sexism in the learning environment discourages especially women from some specialties. To reduce gender segregation in specialty choice, energy should be directed towards counteracting hostile workplace climates that explain apparent stereotypical assumptions about career preferences of men and women.

  • 313.
    Kriva, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The recognition of the nonbinary gender: A socio-legal analysis of the third gender legislation in Malta and Germany2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The binary conception of gender as solely male or female has had a great impact to nonbinary and intersex people in the societal and legal field. Their ability to enjoy human rights is impacted by the current normative confines of sex and gender. The aim of the following paper is to investigate how Malta and Germany have included intersex people and/or nonbinary identities in their legislation and through a socio-legal analysis examine whether their legislations achieved to provide non-discrimination policies. The paper concludes that the third legal recognition in Malta and Germany is based on different perspectives in order to include populations that do not conform to the binary dichotomy and that seek legal recognition.

  • 314.
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A booming market of precarious work: selling domestic services in women-friendly Sweden2013In: Tracing the women-friendly welfare state: gendered politics of everyday life in Sweden / [ed] Åsa Gunnarsson, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2013, p. 214-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 315.
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Changing social organizations of care: a comparison of European policy reforms encouraging paid domestic work2012In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many European countries different types of policy reforms intending to encourage growth in the domestic service sector have been introduced. The methods and reforms differ but mainly the reforms intend to stimulate growth of a ‘new’ legal labour market sector within private households. This potential growth sector in combination with insufficient or declining welfare states, inclining female labour market participation and ageing populations could be viewed as explanatory factors to the increased demand for domestic services. A growing amount of those performing paid domestic work in European homes are migrant women with or without papers. The aim of this article is to create a model that enables comparisons of these reforms, with a special focus on changing social organizations of care for elders, children and other dependent persons. Included in the analysis are Euro- pean countries that have introduced wide domestic service policy reforms as measurement to encourage growth in the domestic service sector, i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany and Sweden. 

  • 316.
    Kvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Inte bara rena hem: om att driva företag och organisera arbete inom den privata hushållstjänstebranschen2013In: Rena hem på smutsiga villkor?: Hushållstjänster, migration och globalisering / [ed] Anna Gavanas och Catharina Calleman, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2013, p. 27-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Kvist, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Overud, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    From Emancipation through Employment to Emancipation through Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of the Special Labor Market Initiatives (BRYT) and Tax Deduction for Domestic Services (RUT) in Sweden2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates on gender equality policy in Sweden assume that women’s labor market participation is central to gender equality and should be promoted via special initiatives and programs. This paper examines how gender equality discourses have changed over time, analyzing Swedish state labor market policy in the 1980s and 1990s, special labor market initiatives to eliminate gender segregation and encourage nontraditional gendered work choices, and contemporary state subsidies for paid domestic work (i.e., tax deduction for domestic services). Critically interpreting these reforms reveals consistencies and continuities in how labor market participation is viewed as the key promoter of gender equality, revealing transformations in how gender equality is understood and constructed. A transition is discernible from state-funded programs and reforms to governmental agencies/authorities and state subsidies to promote enterprise and the growth of specific labor market sectors.

  • 318.
    Kvist, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Peterson, Elin
    Departamento de Ciencia Poliacutetica y Administracioacuten II, Fac. CC Poliacuteticas y Sociologiacutea, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    What Has Gender Equality Got to Do with It?: An Analysis of Policy Debates Surrounding Domestic Services in the Welfare States of Spain and Sweden2010In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 185-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more political institutions stress the significance of gender equalitypolicies, it becomes important to investigate the different interpretations and meanings attached tothe concept of gender equality in diverse policy contexts. In this article we are interested inproblematizing visions of gender equality by studying the challenges that the growing amount ofpaid domestic work performed within European households poses for gender equality policies andpractices in two European countries. The aim is to reveal normative assumptions and silences inrelation to gender equality by comparing how “paid domestic work” has been framed in policydebates in Sweden and Spain. As welfare states, Sweden and Spain are generally considered to bevery different, and in policies on care for children and the elderly the differences are perhaps mostapparent. In both countries, however, paid domestic work in the home has become more and morecommon in the last two decades. The rise of paid domestic services in European households hasbeen interpreted as due to the limitations or decline of welfare states, the ageing populations, andthe increasing numbers of dual-earner families. These services are most often provided by women,predominantly of immigrant background, and involve a wide range of tasks, including care work.The phenomenon of an increasing sector of domestic (care) work poses a theoretical andmethodological challenge to gender and welfare studies. This article argues that the analysis ofdebates surrounding domestic service in private households is a useful starting-point for anintersectional analysis by means of revealing the normative assumptions and marginalizationembedded in gender equality policies. It uses a comparative frame analysis in combination withintersectional analysis to assess how interactions between gender, class, race, and sexuality havebeen articulated in the policy debates on domestic services in Spain and Sweden.

  • 319.
    Kärnebro, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Plugga stenhårt eller vara rolig?: Normer om språk, kön och skolarbete i identitetsskapande språkpraktiker på fordonsprogrammet2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between language, identity construction and learning in the context of the Vehicle programme, a vocational program in Swedish upper secondary schools. The study focuses on language practices and the norms of language, gender and school work that are negotiated in conversations between pupils and between pupils and teachers. The language practices are considered as talk-in-interaction, and identity construction and learning are understood as processes in socially situated activities. The Vehicle programme has its basis in mechanics with links to the vehicle and transport trades, and can be identified as a male-coded program in several respects. The pupils participating in this study were both boys and girls attending a school situated in the North of Sweden. The study was conducted through an ethnographic approach, employing plural methods including observation, field notes, audio-recordings of conversations, and interviews with pupils in focus groups and individually. Recorded conversations were analysed using tools from conversation analysis. The analysis is based on Judith Butler’s theory of gender as performance, Raewyn Connell’s theory of hegemonic masculinity, and Penelope Eckert’s theory of the heterosexual market. A socio-cultural theory of learning describing communities of practice, by Lave and Wenger, which has also been applied to linguistics by Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, forms the basis of the theoretical framework.

    The analyses of conversations show that the language practices were confrontational, direct and humorous; characteristics that have strong connections to notions of a masculine conversational style. The pupils were not as aware of interactional patterns as they were of the words they used. Thereby the norms in the community of practice, which were based on notions of masculinity and heterosexuality, were not noticed, and worked as undercurrents in the interaction. The girls participated in the language practices in the same ways as the boys, but contrary to the boys, the girls interpreted the language practices as effects of other things than gender, for example as signs of being independent or daring. They also experienced that adjusting to the expectations of normative middle-class femininity was more oppressive than adjusting to the norms that were negotiated within the community of practice. The conversation analyses also show some of the complexity in teachers’ work and their role as mediators of norms and values. Peer reactions to individual pupil turns in the classroom conversations were of more importance for the development of the conversations than teacher responses. Thus there was usually a homogenization of the expressed perspectives. Norms of heterosexuality were constantly reconstructed in interaction within the community of practice and they controlled the pupils’ understanding of what was perceived as normal or deviant behaviour. Thereby the pupils constrained each other’s school performances in the core subjects and reconstructed a difference between being theoretical and practical, a process that was partly supported by the school as an institution. Generally, the pupils in the community of practice had to balance their identity constructions in relation to the peer group, teacher expectations, and their own ambitions, for which reason learning turned out to be more than just a process of acquiring knowledge.

  • 320.
    Kärnebro, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The emergence of men's studies in educational research: experiences from the Swedish case2013In: Social science in context: historical, sociological, and global perspectives / [ed] Rickard Danell, Anna Larsson & Per Wisselgren, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2013, p. 145-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chapter 9, Katarina Kärnebro contextualizes and analyses the historical emergence of men's studies as a new academic field in Sweden from the 1980s onwards, with a focus on its relation to other orientations within gender studies and to educational studies. She discusses the impact of the Anglo-Saxon domination of gender studies on Swedish educational research, and reflects on present and possible future developments of the field.

  • 321.
    Laisser, Rose M
    et al.
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Midwifery School, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lugina, Helen I
    Bugando University College of Health Sciences, Archbishop Antony Mayalla School of Nursing, Mwanza Tanzania.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Community perceptions of intimate partner violence: a qualitative study from urban Tanzania2011In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 11, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence.

    METHODS: A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence.

    RESULTS: The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights perspective of violence, as well as actively engaging men. At the macro level, preventive efforts must be prioritized through re-enforcement of legal rights, and provision of adequate medical and social welfare services for both survivors and perpetrators.

  • 322.
    Lauri, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Social movements, squatting and communality: ethical practices and re‐subjecti cation processes2019In: Subjectivity, ISSN 1755-6341, E-ISSN 1755-635X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 154-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores openings for re-subjectification in a case of a house squat for free culture. Combining Lacanian discourse theory and the ‘ontology of political possibilities’, I explore how political subjectivities might (trans)form during such a process. Through interviews with participating squatters, the analysis suggests that this theoretical and methodological framing can capture moments of re-subjectification that are often overlooked. Via the performance of democratic values, a community knowledge became embodied in the subjects, which arguably carries the possibility of a redirection of desire, away from individualism and towards cultivating their political subjects towards communality. The squat can be read as a process of cultivating a shared identification with, and desire for, commonality, democracy and the possibility of a different relationship with the participants’ political lives. This analysis thus contribute to acknowledging openings for re-subjectification in cases that at first glance are dismissed as failures.

  • 323.
    Lauri, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Bäckström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Coffee by women: the 'duty of ethical enjoyment'2018In: Cultural Studies, ISSN 0950-2386, E-ISSN 1466-4348, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 866-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the contemporary trend of deploying feminist values in the case of ethical branding. Using the psychoanalytical concepts logics of fantasy and enjoyment, we analyse the campaign by Swedish coffee brand Zoégas, Coffee by Women, to understand how a combination of development discourse, ‘women’s empowerment’ and the opportunity to ‘do good’ is employed to sell coffee. The analysis shows that the campaign depicts the threat of a future lack of coffee, creating anxiety in the consumer, supposedly motivating her to purchase Zoégas, as Coffee by Women is claimed to secure and educate new generations of coffee farmers. Simultaneously, this is presented as ‘empowering women’ in the global South. We argue that this narrative builds on a colonial fantasy of global sisterhood and shared interests that works to conceal the political conflicts connected to global trade and climate change. Through a commodification of feminist values and aesthetics, this fantasy works to redirect the desire for social change towards consumption, offering an enjoyable solution that disregards any wider responsibility. It has been argued that the structure of the social bond before the era of mass consumption was characterized by a prohibition on individual enjoyment for the benefit of the common good. After the arrival of mass consumption, the social bond instead became marked by a duty to enjoy. In the contemporary context of ethical capitalism, we suggest that the social bond is rather structured by a ‘duty of ethical enjoyment’, containing elements of both prohibition and pleasure.

  • 324.
    Lauri, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Mittuniversitetet.
    Markets, managers and machines: rationalizing social work2018In: Neoliberalism, Nordic welfare states and social work: current and future challenges / [ed] Masoud Kamali and Jessica H. Jönsson, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 101-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Lauri, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Narratives of governing: rationalization, responsibility and resistance in social work2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, Sweden has had a reputation for having a comprehensive and women friendly welfare state. However, as in many other European countries during the past few decades, the organization and governing of welfare has undergone profound changes. Through interviews with social workers and the application of theories of governmentality, this thesis analyzes the expressions and consequences of such current organization and governing.

    One result is that the introduction of meticulous documentation practices of social workers contact with clients, regulate their interaction and constitute a control over both client and social worker. Another result is that the current organization fragments labor and awards more authority to managers, which functions to produce loyalty to the organization and management, rather than clients. This is expressed in demands not to voice protest, as it is said to create a bad mood. It is also expressed in demands to spend as little as possible on clients; short duration of treatment, preference for outpatient treatment and by making it difficult to receive financial support. This austerity is legitimized through the intermeshing of different ideals; budget awareness, evidence that supports short and outpatient treatment and that clients in order to change their course of life should to be allowed or coerced into taking individual responsibility.

    Another important finding is that the current governing and organization of social work produce distance and detachment, and thus discourage caring subjects. This is a complex process in which an assemblage of different techniques and rationalities undermines the cultivation of a relationship between social worker and client. 1) The ideal of evidence-based practice favors rigid methods over a flexible and holistic approach. 2) Ideals of rationality, closely connected to notions of masculinity and professionalism, value objectivity and devalue and deter the surfacing of emotions. 3) Meticulous practices of documentation reduce the amount of time available to meet clients. 4) Ideals and particular methods designed to promote individual responsibility in clients legitimize social workers distancing themselves from clients’ dependency and needs. 5) A division of labor, in either assessment or treatment, reduces time spent with clients for those who work with assessment and ultimately engage in the rationing of resources. 6) Standardized digital templates, installed to aid in assessments, regulate and proceduralize interactions with the client. 7) Austerity, heavy workloads, individualized responsibility and stress further accentuate distance, as detachment becomes a means to cope with arduous working conditions.

    The transformation of social work described above produces alienation and a fragmentation of social workers’ collective subjects. Simultaneously, an ethos of caring makes some social workers work extra hard to provide for clients, which ultimately covers for flaws in the system. Although such an ethos of caring allows for the further exploitation of social workers, it is also understood as a means of resistance, which in turn also forms the basis for organized resistance.

  • 326.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Betydelser av bröstcancer i ett livssammanhang2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse how a group of women experience that their every-day lives are affected during and after primary breast cancer treatment. The thesis is a consecutive, longitudinal study that takes an explorative qualitative approach. Seventy-one women younger than 60 years of age with primary breast cancer were consecutively included in the study. The women were interviewed four or five times over a period of 4 to 6 years from end of radiotherapy. The analyses of the interviews were inspired by grounded theory and narrative analysis. 

    The thesis encompasses four papers. Paper I focused on the women’s contact with health care. The results of this study indicate that it is crucial for patients in a vulnerable situation to be admitted into a supportive system – ‘admitted into a helping plan’ – that, more or less explicitly, displays a well-thought-out plan of care. This is a process built on individual relationships with members of the health-care staff, but it ends up in a relationship to health care as a helping system, a ‘safe haven’ to attach to. Study II explored the women’s ideas about what motivated and discouraged their return to work. The results illustrate that the meaning of work fluctuates over time and that the processes of returning to work are conditioned by the patients’ individual life situations. Returning to work was regarded as an important part of the healing process because of how it generated and structured the women’s everyday lives. Returning to work meant demonstrating well-being and normalcy after breast cancer. Study III examined how life was lived and valued during and after treatment for breast cancer compared to pre-cancer life. The analysis showed that being afflicted with breast cancer was evaluated from a context of the women’s former everyday lives and stressed that how the women experienced breast cancer was a matter of personal circumstances. Study IV focused on how the women experienced and dealt with their altered bodies. The results showed that the women followed three different body-mind trajectories that depended to a significant extent on the severity of side effects and bodily alterations that resulted from their treatments.

    Being afflicted by breast cancer implies vulnerability and losses, but it can also involve benefits and provide new perspectives on life. How the overall breast cancer experience is valued seems to be very much a matter of circumstances in everyday life. This thesis highlights circumstances that focus in particular on contacts with health care, the body, the work situation, and the family situation. 

  • 327.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Admission into a helping plan: a watershed between positive and negative experiences in breast cancer2010In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 806-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer patients are in an exposed situation that raises certain psychosocial needs in contact with health care. Previous studies have mainly investigated these needs by assessments on predefined categories.Objective: The purpose of the present study is, from the patients' perspective, to identify breast cancer patients' psychosocial needs, and to synthesise them in a model reflecting the core of these needs.Methods: Seventy-one patients treated with radition therapy were consecutively included and repeatedly interviewed about their experiences of health care. 'Critical incidents' where identified from the interviews and analysed due to the similarities-differences technique in grounded theory.Results: Four categories of needs where detected: 'access', 'information', 'treatment', and 'how approached'. These categories and their properties merged into a core category - 'admission into a helping plan'. These findings are well understood in terms of attachment theory. In times of immanent danger and stress people strive to fina a 'safe haven' to attach to. Cancer patients' 'safe haven' can be described as 'a helping plan'. It is not the result of a separate patient-caregiver relationship but is created by a pattern of individual experiences from all kind of contacts with the health-care system as a whole.Conclusions: The presented model of patients needs as converging into 'admission into a helping plan' may serve as an easily comprehendible model for caregivers, guiding them to contribute to the patient's feeling of security and trust, and thus to the patient's own 'hoope work'.

  • 328.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Critical incidents in contact with healthcare reflecting the needs of women with breast cancer2008In: Psycho-Oncology, 2008, p. S10-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 329.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Meaning of work and the returning process after breast cancer: a longitudinal study of 56 women2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An increasing number of women survive breast cancer and a majority return to work. However, findings based on mean values may conceal individual processes that need to be better understood to discuss meaningful rehabilitation.

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to describe the sick-leave pattern of a group of Swedish women with primary breast cancer but foremost to explore their ideas about what motivates and discourages their return to work.

    Method: Fifty-six women were repeatedly interviewed over a period of 18 to 24 months. Interview sections that clearly illustrated the women’s experiences and ideas about work were categorized using the comparative similarities-differences technique.

    Findings: The average length of sick leave was 410 days (range 0-942). Six months after the first day of sick leave, 29% worked at least their previous service grade. At 12 months, 55%, and at 18 months 57% did so. Those treated with chemotherapy had in average more than twice as large sick leave as those who did not. Three categories emerged. ‘Motives for not returning to work’ consists of four sub-categories: ‘I’m still too fragile to return to work’; ‘My workplace is a discouraging place’; ‘I took an opportunity to pause’ and ‘I’ve lost the taste for work’. ‘Motives for returning’ consists of two sub-categories: ‘Work generates and structures my everyday life’ and ‘I miss my workplace’. Finally, ‘Transition in work approach’ reflects a changed approach to work.

    Conclusion: The meaning of work varies over time, but first and foremost work was regarded as an important part of the healing process as it restores the disruption of everyday life. Guidelines cannot be reduced to a linear relationship with biomedical variables but the individual context of everyday life must be considered.

  • 330.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Breast Cancer Experience Through the Body: A Consecutive, Six-Year Longitudinal Study of 24 Women2013In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 22, p. 334-334Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a disruptive s bodies in body experiences in a life context are not sufficiently acknowledged in breast cancer research. Due to the increasing number of breast cancer survivors, longitudinal studies that pay attention to long-term experiences of the body are of vital importance in order to gain knowledge valuable for rehabilitation initiatives. This study is a contribution.

    four women were consecutively included in a prospective project and repeatedly interviewed during 6 years from ending hospitalised treatment. The qualitative analysis was made by means of thematic narrative analysis. Out of the interviews individual narratives were constructed s body experience over time. The narratives were repeatedly read to identify possible common thematic elements across participants of how the body appeared to the women and to discern processes of how this developed over time. Three main processes were found in the analysis.

    RESULTS: Common to all women was to initially experience the body as surviving. Survival was key target and bodily complaints were thus measured and valued in favour of that. When back to a new everyday life after treatment five women quickly experienced their bodies as comprehensible. They had undergone a minimum of treatments. 19 women reported more complaints and experienced the body as broken, fragile and as incomprehensible. With time and regained function most came to experience their bodies as comprehensible. Three women, however, met with more bodily decline than they could reconcile, they eventually disassociated from their bodies.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study makes a unique contribution by mapping out how breast cancer patients experience and value their bodies over 6 years from ending hospitalised treatment. The findings are considered from a phenomenological perspective and reflect how the women “discovered” and handled their bodies as something they had, the bodies were seen as separated from themselves while altering and changing due to side effects. The processes of establishing liveable body relations differed depending on treatment impact and ability to incorporate body changes as part of themselves. The findings are discussed in relation to theories of bodynormativity and biographical continuity.

    RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS: The study clarifies that experiences and valuations of body alterations and side effects shifts over time. It indicates the importance of further studies to carefully consider this transition over time and interpret selfassessments of body experience in relation to treatment (on-going/completed) and overall life context (on sick-leave/working).

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study highlights the impact of side effects, especially from endocrine treatment, on breast cancer patients’ everyday life. We find it reasonable to suggest that physicians take a quite humble stand when discussing the treatment options. In cases of massive side effects, it must be possible to end treatment without this causing excessive worries for disease progression.

  • 331.
    Linander, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    “It was like I had to fit into a category”: people with trans experiences navigating access to trans-specific healthcare and health2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trans issues have received increased attention over the last couple of years and important changes have been made in the legislation relating to gender reassignment and in trans-specific healthcare practices. At the same time, many people with trans experiences report poor mental health, bad experiences when encountering the healthcare and a tendency to postpone seeking care due to being badly treated. Previous research has also shown that gender norms guide the evaluation that precedes access to gender-confirming medical procedures. Critical studies examining practices within trans-specific healthcare in the Swedish context and health among people with trans experiences are limited, especially qualitative interview studies involving people with trans experiences.

    Aim: To analyse how constructions of trans experiences and gender can affect trans-specific healthcare practices, experiences of navigating access to gender- confirming medical procedures, inhabitancy of different spaces and, ultimately, health.

    Conceptual framework: Three areas of theory are used for the conceptual framework: trans studies, queer phenomenology and Foucauldian theories of power and governmentality.

    Methods: The thesis includes three sub-studies (generating four articles): two interview studies that build on interviews with 18 people with trans experiences, and a policy analysis of the guidelines for trans-specific healthcare published by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. For the interview studies, grounded theory and thematic analysis were used as the analytical method. The guidelines were analysed using Bacchi’s method: “What’s the problem represented to be?”.

    Results: The participants experienced trans-specific healthcare as difficult to navigate due to waiting times, lack of knowledge and/or support and relationships of dependency between healthcare users and providers. In the evaluation, gender is reconstructed as linear – stereotypical, binary and stable – and the space for action available to care-seekers is affected by discourses existing both inside and outside trans-specific healthcare. The difficulties in navigating access to care were experienced as creating ill-health. In order to negotiate access to gender-confirming medical procedures, the participants took responsibility for the care process by, for example, ordering hormones from abroad, acquiring medical knowledge and finding alternative support. The linear gendered positioning was variously resisted, negotiated and embraced by the participants.

    The analysis of the guidelines showed that gender identity is constructed as a fixed linear essence but that the guidelines also open up space for a non-linear embodiment. Gender dysphoria is closely constructed in relation to psychiatric knowledge and mental health and the gate-keeping function among mental healthcare professionals is reconstituted in the guidelines. Hence, care-seekers are constructed as not competent enough to make decisions concerning access to gender-confirming medical procedures.

    The participants experienced several different spaces, such as bars, public toilets and changing rooms, gyms and cafés, as unsafe and as contributing to ill-health. In order to overcome the barriers to comfortably inhabiting spaces, the participants performed a kind of labour; for example, preparing in order to visit public baths and to answer transphobic comments and questions. Some spaces, such as trans-separatist, feminist and queer spaces, were experienced as safer and contributed to improved health through experiences of belonging, being able to share bad experiences and being able to relax.

    Conclusions: Trans-specific healthcare practices need to become more affirming and change so that care-seekers have more space for self- determination. Trans-specific healthcare needs more resources in order to decrease waiting times, improve knowledge and support, and hence to improve access to gender-confirming medical procedures. Actions need to be initiated to make spaces safer in order to improve the health of people with trans experiences.

  • 332.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Alm, Erika
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Negotiating the (bio)medical gaze: Experiences of trans-specific healthcare in Sweden2017In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 174, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden as well as in other western countries persons with trans experiences have to go through a clinical evaluation in order to get access to gender-confirming medical procedures. The aim of this study is to analyse care-users' experiences of navigating and negotiating access to gender-confirming medical procedures in Sweden. Biomedicalisation is used as a theoretical framework in order to analyse how technoscientific and neoliberal developments are parts of constructing specific experiences within trans-specific care. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyse 14 interviews with persons having experiences of, or considering seeking, trans-specific healthcare. The participants experienced trans-specific healthcare as difficult to navigate because of waiting times, lack of support, provider ignorance and relationships of dependency between healthcare-users and providers. These barriers pushed the users to take responsibility for the care process themselves, through ordering hormones from abroad, acquiring medical knowledge and finding alternative support. Based on the participants' experiences, it can be argued that the shift of responsibility from care-providers to users is connected to a lack of resources within trans-specific care, to neoliberal developments within the Swedish healthcare system, but also to discourses that frame taking charge of the care process as an indicator that a person is in need of or ready for care. Thus, access to gender-confirming medical procedures is stratified, based on the ability and opportunity to adopt a charge-taking role and on economic and geographic conditions. Based on the results and discussion, we conclude that trans-specific care ought to focus on supporting the care-seekers throughout the medical process, instead of the current focus on verifying the need for care. There is also a need for increased knowledge and financial resources. A separation between legal and medical gender reassignment could contribute to a better relationship between care-providers and care-users and increase the quality of care.

  • 333.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Alm, Erika
    Hammarström, Anne
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    (Un)safe spaces, affective labour and perceived health among people with trans experiences living in Sweden2019In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 914-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of safe space has been connected to ill health among people with trans experiences. This study analyses trans people’s experiences of being in public, semi-public and community spaces using the analytical concept of safety/unsafety in relation to perceived health. The analytic framework draws on the concepts of cisgenderism, orientation, lines and comfort. The material analysed consisted of 18 individual interviews with people with trans experiences, which were analysed using constructivist thematic analysis. The analysis resulted in the identification of three themes: straightening devices creating limited living space, orienting oneself in (cis)gendered spaces and creating safer (?) community spaces for healing. Experiences of unsafety ranged from incidents and fear of different kinds of violence in public and semi-public spaces to the lack of a transpolitically informed agenda in, for example, feminist spaces. Safer spaces helped participants to feel a sense of belonging, to share their experiences and to heal. Experiences of unsafety and discomfort are important as they will help us to understand the health situations of people with trans experiences. It is important to facilitate the creation of safer spaces to improve the health of members of this group.

  • 334.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Socialmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Which socio-economic measures are associated with psychological distress for men and women?: A cohort analysis2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 231-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are contradictory results regarding whether there is a social gradient in common mental disorders or not, or if this relation differs for different indicators or by gender. We analysed the relation between various measures of socio-economic position and later psychological distress among men and women in a Swedish context. Methods: The study is based on data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (N= 1001, 93.5% response rate), a 27-year prospective study. Logistic regression was used to explore the relation between various indicators of socio-economic position at age 30 (occupation, education, financial strain, cash margin, unemployment and living primarily on social welfare or unemployment insurance) and psychological distress (age 42), controlling for earlier psychological distress (age 21) and parental occupational class. Register data were used to measure unemployment. All other variables were self-reported, and measured by a questionnaire. Results: Financial strain and living on social welfare or unemployment insurance at age 30 were associated with psychological distress at age 42 for men and women. Poor cash margin and unemployment were only associated with psychological distress in women, after controlling for potential confounders. Low occupational class and low education were not significantly related to later psychological distress. Conclusion: The two most commonly used measures of socio-economic position, occupation and education, were not significantly associated with psychological distress while other, less studied measures were. This study highlights the importance of measuring socio-economic position in several ways when studying common mental disorders, as well as to take gender into account.

  • 335.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Factors influencing distress toward erectile dysfunction and attitude toward erectile dysfunction drugs among middle-aged and elderly chinese women and men in Hong Kong2013In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 782-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.  This study aims to explain distress toward erectile dysfunction (ED), attitude toward ED drugs, and experiences with ED drug use in terms of sexual attitudes, relationship satisfaction, and sociodemographic factors among the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Studies show that a significant number of middle-aged and elderly men in Asia suffer from ED. However, people's attitudes toward ED drugs are not positive. Few studies have sought to reveal the influencing factors of this negative attitude.

    Methods.  Nine hundred forty-six Hong Kong women and men aged 36–80 with stable partners were administered a structured questionnaire through face-to-face street-intercept survey. Self-reporting on single-item questions using a five-point Likert scale was adopted for most of the variables, including attitude toward sex, relationship satisfaction, distress toward ED, and attitude toward ED drugs. Perceived importance of sex in an intimate relationship and attitude toward sex were assessed through three items. Respondents were asked to report whether they had taken ED drugs or bought ED drugs for their partners.

    Results.  While perceived importance of sex in an intimate relationship and distress toward ED both contributed to the estimation of attitudes toward ED drugs for both genders, relationship satisfaction was only associated with men's attitude, while women's attitude was related to two other factors: relationship status and income level. Both age and attitude toward ED drugs influenced experiences with ED drug use for women and men. Men's experience with ED drug use was further related to the perceived importance of sex and to men's self-esteem and relationship status.

    Conclusion.  Results of this study could help identify people who are disturbed by ED but reluctant to seek treatment. Clinicians and public health policy makers could make use of the findings to encourage proper understanding of ED.

  • 336.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Structural Thinking: A Two-edged Blade of Fatherhood in Hong Kong2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on the field work consisted of participant observation in a Catholic-background men’s centre in Hong Kong and in-depth interview with individual fathers between 2004 and 2007. The men’s centre promotes that men should assume their familial role as husbands and fathers and that men need other men as peers to support one another. I participated in two of their self-help groups and one men’s rights group. In addition, I conducted face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with a total of 30 fathers through snowballing. Some of these informants were members of the men's centre while some were not. Fathers with different class backgrounds and marital statuses were included. Some were working-class men (e.g. construction site workers), some were professionals (e.g. lawyer), and some were business owners. Some were married; some were divorced; some were single fathers taking care of their children. Yet these fathers were all mid-aged, i.e. late-30s to 60s.

     

    Patriarchy is rooted in the history of Hong Kong and continues to exist in contemporary society. In both the colonial and post-colonial periods, notions of masculinity and fatherhood in Hong Kong are seen to be extremely conservative and they highlight the role of the state in the adoption and reproduction of patriarchal ideology. While changes towards gender equality have occurred slowly after long-term struggle, a coherent gender policy has been lacking. This has contributed to a socio-cultural environment that encourages the naturalization and normalization of the patriarchal structure and practices in the family. 

     

    The “new good men/father” notion proposed by the men’s centre situates men in the family context, with traditional masculinity reiterated and resurrected. Economic requirement on men prevailed in the centre’s discourse. Authority of men was also emphasized through encouraging fathers to assume their educator’s and decision-maker’s role. New elements of fatherhood, like doing housework, taking care of and playing with children, as well as caring the wife, were added as ways to make the family harmonious and under control and became the new hegemonic standards for masculinity. However, wife sometimes exercise resistance to the structural power of men. Some even sabotage the male family structure by claiming their agency through divorce or extra-marital affairs. Patriarchal fatherhood is under threat.

    Divorced and single-fatherhood was seen as deviant and was problematized in the discourse.

     

    The thinking that marriage is the foundation of fatherhood rather than a romantic alliance is common among my informants. This belief subsequently motivates the father to give toil and sweat to maintain marriage and (“complete”) family which is deemed to be the facilitating environment in the interest of children. At the same time, fathers expect to get what they are promised by the patriarchal structure – filial children and an obedient wife. I call this expectation “structural thinking” within the patriarchal habitus of the father. Structural thinking is the internalization of the existing social structure with the expectation of gaining the benefits and outcomes which are defined and laid out by the structure. Within structural thinking, individual’s will and interest are often subsumed under the requirements of the power-laden structure. When the promised outcomes do not occur, structural thinking leads the social actor to blame other individual actors rather than seeing the biased nature of the structure, thus leaving the power-laden structure unchallenged. Men, as the beneficiary of the patriarchal structure, preserve it by demanding themselves and others to conform to it. It leads men to defend the patriarchal family and to tolerate a painful or loveless marriage just to guarantee a caring mother and a legitimate, intact family for the children. I would like to argue in this paper that the family structure legitimizes father’s power which is a two-edged blade – it does not only place him above other individual family members, but also lead to the distortion of his own subjectivities and individuality in cases like divorce.

  • 337.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Under the Shadow of Deviance: Positionality, Subjectivity, and Masculinity of the Male Feminist Ethnographer in a Patriarchal Field Setting2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comes from my reflective account of my ethnographic field experience from 2004 to 2007 in studying construction of masculinities among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong. I came to a men’s centre promoting a “new good men / father” notion as the starting point of my fieldwork. Planning to examine how gender equality would be promoted within the family, I was disappointed by the prevailing discourse of “harmony of the family” in the centre, which left gender power relation, compulsory heterosexuality, and hegemony of monogamy and intact nuclear family unchallenged despite that involvement in childcare and housework was encouraged in fatherhood. At the same time, I discovered that my embodiment and self-presentation of “soft” masculinity did not fit in the male-dominated groups. With the “deviant” masculine embodiment, even though I was not publicly criticized, my subject position as a young, effeminate man somehow hindered my feminist voice being heard or accepted. Yet I could foresee critical analysis in my writing. In such a situation, I had constant worries of being accused of betraying my informants, who might think that I was part of them, sharing their thoughts and views. The fact that I was perceived as a son and a student facilitated my adoption of the performance of learning masculinities and men’s situations from my male informants. Unexpected openness and revelation resulted. In this paper, I am going to discuss the problems and potentials of doing ethnographic research with non-hegemonic masculine embodiment in such an inconsistent fieldsite by examining the positionality and subjectivity of the researcher and the way masculinities effect the situation.

  • 338.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Chan, Lih-Shing Alex
    Community College of City University.
    Walking a Tightrope: Performing Chinese Young Masculinities in Hong Kong2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young men growing up in Hong Kong are caught in the socio-cultural dynamics that problematise their sense of masculinity. The constitution of Chinese masculinity tends to harness the Confucian discourse of self-control, which values containment and even suppression of sexual desire. While such notion of masculinity is also located within heterosexual identification, Chinese men are expected to compartmentalise relational contexts in dealt with their sexual expression. Nonetheless, the objectification of sexuality driven by consumerist urban culture and the commercial media has rapidly pushed the boundary of sexual expression; more than before, Chinese young men are compelled to respond to sexual identification regardless of social settings. By using the data collected from male college students, this paper argues that young men adopt different strategies in performing masculinity while evading certain gendered labels. This paper also proposes that these strategies are to be understood in Bourdieu's theoretical framework.

  • 339.
    Liong, Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Like father, like son: negotiation of masculinity in the ethnographic context in Hong Kong2015In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 937-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist geographers have indicated that ethnographic research is an inter-subjective process constructed in relation to the intersection between the gender and other social dimensions of both the researcher and the informants relevant to the field. In particular, the matching and adaptation of masculinities in the research context is a complex methodological issue that receives relatively little attention. Using my fieldwork experience, this article builds on the contribution of feminist geographers to discuss how my masculine self-presentation was negotiated with the research topic, the caring masculinity endorsed among my middle-aged male informants, the sociocultural milieu and my positionalities and bodily representations in producing collaborative ethnographic data. My young age and doctoral student status, combined with my soft and meek' self-presentation, produced wen masculinity within the Chinese cultural context, which facilitated the paradoxical reception of me as both a son and a consultant in the men's groups. This masculine embodiment not only facilitated our rapport but also signified my cultural competence to participate in decision-making and activist activities in the discussion groups, which brought me to some unexpected research lands. The effect of my masculine embodiment on the ethnographic research process indicates that fieldwork is not only situated in a place but is also itself a space constructed through cultural understanding of social interactions and embodied gender representations.

  • 340.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Dödens pris: den industriella livförsäkringen och begravningsindustrin under det sena 1800-talet och tidiga 1900-talet2014In: Å selge liv og død: kommersielle strategier og kulturuttrykk i markedsføring av død og dødsfrykt / [ed] May-Britt Ohman Nielsen, Tammerfors: University Press of Eastern Finland , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Livholts, Mona
    et al.
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Mittuniversitetet.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Koobak, Redi
    Writing change in feminist and gender studies: staging the political and the embodied2010In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 223-225Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Lundgren, Britta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Introduction2006In: Reaching for Scientific excellence in gender research: conference report / [ed] Hillevi Ganetz, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet (The Swedish Research Council) , 2006, p. 6-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Lundgren, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Bakom lås och bom2008In: Mana, ISSN 9789198346404, no 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 344.
    Lundgren, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Diskurser om mansvåld: reflektioner från en spegel2011In: Våldets topografier: betraktelser över makt och motstånd / [ed] Carina Listerborn, Irene Molina och Diana Mulinari, Stockholm: Atlas , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Lundström, Catrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Complying With Colonialism: Gender, Race and Ethnicity in the Nordic Region2012In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 187-188Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Lundström, Catrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Transnationell vithet: Svenska migrantkvinnor i USA och Singapore2010In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, no 1-2, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines different expressions of whiteness in a transnational context through first-generation Swedish migrant women’s narratives of their bodies, when moving and re-installing themselves in the altered social, racial and political landscapes of the United States and Singapore. Their specific migratory experiences are used as a departure to analyze the ways in which gender- and nation-specific forms of capital may be converted through migration. The central inquiries in the article are concerned with how Swedish women experience their bodies, as migrant bodies, and how embodied privilege move and are being re-invested in two racially different contexts. The study, conducted from 2006-2009, is based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions with almost 50 women in United States and Singapore, all of them being members of a support group for Swedish-speaking women, and three of their spouses. In addition, I have conducted participant observations in several Swedish-related arenas in the two countries. By looking at how Swedishness is being re-installed in non-Swedish contexts, the article contextualizes migrating Swedishness and whiteness and contributes with a transnational perspective on whiteness, which carries a potential to destabilize an idea of whiteness as a homogeneous entity. In sum, it is argued that white privileges often remain normalized and invisible for the informants themselves, but while Swedish femininity is highly valued in the United States, it is represented as a non-normative whiteness in the Singaporean context.

  • 347.
    Lundström, Catrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    White ethnography: (un)comfortable conveniences and shared privileges in fieldwork with swedish migrant women2010In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses methodological dilemmas in ethnographic research with first-generation Swedish migrant women living in the United States. From a (white) Swedish researcher perspective, it seeks to disentangle aspects of shared privileges between researcher and participants and constructions of white spaces in a non-Swedish context. What does it mean to pass as a white, middle-class Swede in research and how are white privileges being upheld in such acting? How are class differences equalized when ethnography is conducted outside the national class system where internal hierarchies may be re-negotiated? The article argues that the use of “methodological capital” (Gallagher 2000), such as embodied capital and passing strategies that might be necessary to reach specific groups of examination, may also reproduce structural privileges by not intervening into normative assumptions of race, class, gender and sexuality. In these circumstances, the article inquires into what can be learned from studying privileged groups and, thereby, what may we fail to see.

  • 348.
    Lundström, Catrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Women with class: Swedish migrant women's class positions in the USA2010In: Journal of Intercultural Studies, ISSN 0725-6868, E-ISSN 1469-9540, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines gender- and nation-specific forms of capital through migration. Itfocuses on first-generation Swedish women moving to a new social and politicallandscape in the USA, typically from upper- and middle-class environments in Sweden.Their migratory experiences are used as a departure to analyse how former class positionsare being re-enacted (or not) in the neo-liberal USA. The study, conducted from 2006to 2008, is based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 33 women andthree of their spouses and participant observations in a support group for Swedishspeakingwomen in the Western region of the USA. Using an intersectional analysis, it issuggested that Swedish women are located in contradictory class positions in the USA interms of the loss of social and cultural capital, access to the social democratic welfarestate and a dependence on racialised labour in a different social geography. It is arguedthat the women’s class privileges are shaped, transformed and reproduced through theircapacities to re-invest their cultural and embodied forms of capital in marriage andby marking a distance to subordinated groups, often other migrant women, therebymirroring the unequal relations between (migrating) women in a global arena.

  • 349.
    Lundström, Catrin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hübinette, Tobias
    Multicultural Centre, Botkyrka.
    Sweden after the recent election: The double-binding power of Swedish Whiteness through the mourning of the loss of "old Sweden" and the passing of "good Sweden".2011In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 42-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 350.
    Lundström, Catrin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sohl, Lena
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Hemmafrun är det nya gamla2011In: Tidskriften Arena, ISSN 1652-0556, no 1, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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