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  • 301.
    Kvist, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Peterson, Elin
    Departamento de Ciencia Poliacutetica y Administracioacuten II, Fac. CC Poliacuteticas y Sociologiacutea, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    What Has Gender Equality Got to Do with It?: An Analysis of Policy Debates Surrounding Domestic Services in the Welfare States of Spain and Sweden2010In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 185-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more political institutions stress the significance of gender equalitypolicies, it becomes important to investigate the different interpretations and meanings attached tothe concept of gender equality in diverse policy contexts. In this article we are interested inproblematizing visions of gender equality by studying the challenges that the growing amount ofpaid domestic work performed within European households poses for gender equality policies andpractices in two European countries. The aim is to reveal normative assumptions and silences inrelation to gender equality by comparing how “paid domestic work” has been framed in policydebates in Sweden and Spain. As welfare states, Sweden and Spain are generally considered to bevery different, and in policies on care for children and the elderly the differences are perhaps mostapparent. In both countries, however, paid domestic work in the home has become more and morecommon in the last two decades. The rise of paid domestic services in European households hasbeen interpreted as due to the limitations or decline of welfare states, the ageing populations, andthe increasing numbers of dual-earner families. These services are most often provided by women,predominantly of immigrant background, and involve a wide range of tasks, including care work.The phenomenon of an increasing sector of domestic (care) work poses a theoretical andmethodological challenge to gender and welfare studies. This article argues that the analysis ofdebates surrounding domestic service in private households is a useful starting-point for anintersectional analysis by means of revealing the normative assumptions and marginalizationembedded in gender equality policies. It uses a comparative frame analysis in combination withintersectional analysis to assess how interactions between gender, class, race, and sexuality havebeen articulated in the policy debates on domestic services in Spain and Sweden.

  • 302.
    Kärnebro, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Plugga stenhårt eller vara rolig?: Normer om språk, kön och skolarbete i identitetsskapande språkpraktiker på fordonsprogrammet2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between language, identity construction and learning in the context of the Vehicle programme, a vocational program in Swedish upper secondary schools. The study focuses on language practices and the norms of language, gender and school work that are negotiated in conversations between pupils and between pupils and teachers. The language practices are considered as talk-in-interaction, and identity construction and learning are understood as processes in socially situated activities. The Vehicle programme has its basis in mechanics with links to the vehicle and transport trades, and can be identified as a male-coded program in several respects. The pupils participating in this study were both boys and girls attending a school situated in the North of Sweden. The study was conducted through an ethnographic approach, employing plural methods including observation, field notes, audio-recordings of conversations, and interviews with pupils in focus groups and individually. Recorded conversations were analysed using tools from conversation analysis. The analysis is based on Judith Butler’s theory of gender as performance, Raewyn Connell’s theory of hegemonic masculinity, and Penelope Eckert’s theory of the heterosexual market. A socio-cultural theory of learning describing communities of practice, by Lave and Wenger, which has also been applied to linguistics by Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, forms the basis of the theoretical framework.

    The analyses of conversations show that the language practices were confrontational, direct and humorous; characteristics that have strong connections to notions of a masculine conversational style. The pupils were not as aware of interactional patterns as they were of the words they used. Thereby the norms in the community of practice, which were based on notions of masculinity and heterosexuality, were not noticed, and worked as undercurrents in the interaction. The girls participated in the language practices in the same ways as the boys, but contrary to the boys, the girls interpreted the language practices as effects of other things than gender, for example as signs of being independent or daring. They also experienced that adjusting to the expectations of normative middle-class femininity was more oppressive than adjusting to the norms that were negotiated within the community of practice. The conversation analyses also show some of the complexity in teachers’ work and their role as mediators of norms and values. Peer reactions to individual pupil turns in the classroom conversations were of more importance for the development of the conversations than teacher responses. Thus there was usually a homogenization of the expressed perspectives. Norms of heterosexuality were constantly reconstructed in interaction within the community of practice and they controlled the pupils’ understanding of what was perceived as normal or deviant behaviour. Thereby the pupils constrained each other’s school performances in the core subjects and reconstructed a difference between being theoretical and practical, a process that was partly supported by the school as an institution. Generally, the pupils in the community of practice had to balance their identity constructions in relation to the peer group, teacher expectations, and their own ambitions, for which reason learning turned out to be more than just a process of acquiring knowledge.

  • 303.
    Kärnebro, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The emergence of men's studies in educational research: experiences from the Swedish case2013In: Social science in context: historical, sociological, and global perspectives / [ed] Rickard Danell, Anna Larsson & Per Wisselgren, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2013, p. 145-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chapter 9, Katarina Kärnebro contextualizes and analyses the historical emergence of men's studies as a new academic field in Sweden from the 1980s onwards, with a focus on its relation to other orientations within gender studies and to educational studies. She discusses the impact of the Anglo-Saxon domination of gender studies on Swedish educational research, and reflects on present and possible future developments of the field.

  • 304.
    Laisser, Rose M
    et al.
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Midwifery School, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lugina, Helen I
    Bugando University College of Health Sciences, Archbishop Antony Mayalla School of Nursing, Mwanza Tanzania.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Department of Clinical Sciences, Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Community perceptions of intimate partner violence: a qualitative study from urban Tanzania2011In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 11, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence.

    METHODS: A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence.

    RESULTS: The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights perspective of violence, as well as actively engaging men. At the macro level, preventive efforts must be prioritized through re-enforcement of legal rights, and provision of adequate medical and social welfare services for both survivors and perpetrators.

  • 305.
    Lauri, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Bäckström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Coffee by women: the 'duty of ethical enjoyment'2018In: Cultural Studies, ISSN 0950-2386, E-ISSN 1466-4348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the contemporary trend of deploying feminist values in the case of ethical branding. Using the psychoanalytical concepts logics of fantasy and enjoyment, we analyse the campaign by Swedish coffee brand Zoégas, Coffee by Women, to understand how a combination of development discourse, ‘women’s empowerment’ and the opportunity to ‘do good’ is employed to sell coffee. The analysis shows that the campaign depicts the threat of a future lack of coffee, creating anxiety in the consumer, supposedly motivating her to purchase Zoégas, as Coffee by Women is claimed to secure and educate new generations of coffee farmers. Simultaneously, this is presented as ‘empowering women’ in the global South. We argue that this narrative builds on a colonial fantasy of global sisterhood and shared interests that works to conceal the political conflicts connected to global trade and climate change. Through a commodification of feminist values and aesthetics, this fantasy works to redirect the desire for social change towards consumption, offering an enjoyable solution that disregards any wider responsibility. It has been argued that the structure of the social bond before the era of mass consumption was characterized by a prohibition on individual enjoyment for the benefit of the common good. After the arrival of mass consumption, the social bond instead became marked by a duty to enjoy. In the contemporary context of ethical capitalism, we suggest that the social bond is rather structured by a ‘duty of ethical enjoyment’, containing elements of both prohibition and pleasure.

  • 306.
    Lauri, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Mittuniversitetet.
    Markets, managers and machines: rationalizing social work2018In: Neoliberalism, Nordic welfare states and social work: current and future challenges / [ed] Masoud Kamali and Jessica H. Jönsson, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 101-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Lauri, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Narratives of governing: rationalization, responsibility and resistance in social work2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, Sweden has had a reputation for having a comprehensive and women friendly welfare state. However, as in many other European countries during the past few decades, the organization and governing of welfare has undergone profound changes. Through interviews with social workers and the application of theories of governmentality, this thesis analyzes the expressions and consequences of such current organization and governing.

    One result is that the introduction of meticulous documentation practices of social workers contact with clients, regulate their interaction and constitute a control over both client and social worker. Another result is that the current organization fragments labor and awards more authority to managers, which functions to produce loyalty to the organization and management, rather than clients. This is expressed in demands not to voice protest, as it is said to create a bad mood. It is also expressed in demands to spend as little as possible on clients; short duration of treatment, preference for outpatient treatment and by making it difficult to receive financial support. This austerity is legitimized through the intermeshing of different ideals; budget awareness, evidence that supports short and outpatient treatment and that clients in order to change their course of life should to be allowed or coerced into taking individual responsibility.

    Another important finding is that the current governing and organization of social work produce distance and detachment, and thus discourage caring subjects. This is a complex process in which an assemblage of different techniques and rationalities undermines the cultivation of a relationship between social worker and client. 1) The ideal of evidence-based practice favors rigid methods over a flexible and holistic approach. 2) Ideals of rationality, closely connected to notions of masculinity and professionalism, value objectivity and devalue and deter the surfacing of emotions. 3) Meticulous practices of documentation reduce the amount of time available to meet clients. 4) Ideals and particular methods designed to promote individual responsibility in clients legitimize social workers distancing themselves from clients’ dependency and needs. 5) A division of labor, in either assessment or treatment, reduces time spent with clients for those who work with assessment and ultimately engage in the rationing of resources. 6) Standardized digital templates, installed to aid in assessments, regulate and proceduralize interactions with the client. 7) Austerity, heavy workloads, individualized responsibility and stress further accentuate distance, as detachment becomes a means to cope with arduous working conditions.

    The transformation of social work described above produces alienation and a fragmentation of social workers’ collective subjects. Simultaneously, an ethos of caring makes some social workers work extra hard to provide for clients, which ultimately covers for flaws in the system. Although such an ethos of caring allows for the further exploitation of social workers, it is also understood as a means of resistance, which in turn also forms the basis for organized resistance.

  • 308.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Betydelser av bröstcancer i ett livssammanhang2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse how a group of women experience that their every-day lives are affected during and after primary breast cancer treatment. The thesis is a consecutive, longitudinal study that takes an explorative qualitative approach. Seventy-one women younger than 60 years of age with primary breast cancer were consecutively included in the study. The women were interviewed four or five times over a period of 4 to 6 years from end of radiotherapy. The analyses of the interviews were inspired by grounded theory and narrative analysis. 

    The thesis encompasses four papers. Paper I focused on the women’s contact with health care. The results of this study indicate that it is crucial for patients in a vulnerable situation to be admitted into a supportive system – ‘admitted into a helping plan’ – that, more or less explicitly, displays a well-thought-out plan of care. This is a process built on individual relationships with members of the health-care staff, but it ends up in a relationship to health care as a helping system, a ‘safe haven’ to attach to. Study II explored the women’s ideas about what motivated and discouraged their return to work. The results illustrate that the meaning of work fluctuates over time and that the processes of returning to work are conditioned by the patients’ individual life situations. Returning to work was regarded as an important part of the healing process because of how it generated and structured the women’s everyday lives. Returning to work meant demonstrating well-being and normalcy after breast cancer. Study III examined how life was lived and valued during and after treatment for breast cancer compared to pre-cancer life. The analysis showed that being afflicted with breast cancer was evaluated from a context of the women’s former everyday lives and stressed that how the women experienced breast cancer was a matter of personal circumstances. Study IV focused on how the women experienced and dealt with their altered bodies. The results showed that the women followed three different body-mind trajectories that depended to a significant extent on the severity of side effects and bodily alterations that resulted from their treatments.

    Being afflicted by breast cancer implies vulnerability and losses, but it can also involve benefits and provide new perspectives on life. How the overall breast cancer experience is valued seems to be very much a matter of circumstances in everyday life. This thesis highlights circumstances that focus in particular on contacts with health care, the body, the work situation, and the family situation. 

  • 309.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Admission into a helping plan: a watershed between positive and negative experiences in breast cancer2010In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 806-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer patients are in an exposed situation that raises certain psychosocial needs in contact with health care. Previous studies have mainly investigated these needs by assessments on predefined categories.Objective: The purpose of the present study is, from the patients' perspective, to identify breast cancer patients' psychosocial needs, and to synthesise them in a model reflecting the core of these needs.Methods: Seventy-one patients treated with radition therapy were consecutively included and repeatedly interviewed about their experiences of health care. 'Critical incidents' where identified from the interviews and analysed due to the similarities-differences technique in grounded theory.Results: Four categories of needs where detected: 'access', 'information', 'treatment', and 'how approached'. These categories and their properties merged into a core category - 'admission into a helping plan'. These findings are well understood in terms of attachment theory. In times of immanent danger and stress people strive to fina a 'safe haven' to attach to. Cancer patients' 'safe haven' can be described as 'a helping plan'. It is not the result of a separate patient-caregiver relationship but is created by a pattern of individual experiences from all kind of contacts with the health-care system as a whole.Conclusions: The presented model of patients needs as converging into 'admission into a helping plan' may serve as an easily comprehendible model for caregivers, guiding them to contribute to the patient's feeling of security and trust, and thus to the patient's own 'hoope work'.

  • 310.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Critical incidents in contact with healthcare reflecting the needs of women with breast cancer2008In: Psycho-Oncology, 2008, p. S10-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Meaning of work and the returning process after breast cancer: a longitudinal study of 56 women2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An increasing number of women survive breast cancer and a majority return to work. However, findings based on mean values may conceal individual processes that need to be better understood to discuss meaningful rehabilitation.

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to describe the sick-leave pattern of a group of Swedish women with primary breast cancer but foremost to explore their ideas about what motivates and discourages their return to work.

    Method: Fifty-six women were repeatedly interviewed over a period of 18 to 24 months. Interview sections that clearly illustrated the women’s experiences and ideas about work were categorized using the comparative similarities-differences technique.

    Findings: The average length of sick leave was 410 days (range 0-942). Six months after the first day of sick leave, 29% worked at least their previous service grade. At 12 months, 55%, and at 18 months 57% did so. Those treated with chemotherapy had in average more than twice as large sick leave as those who did not. Three categories emerged. ‘Motives for not returning to work’ consists of four sub-categories: ‘I’m still too fragile to return to work’; ‘My workplace is a discouraging place’; ‘I took an opportunity to pause’ and ‘I’ve lost the taste for work’. ‘Motives for returning’ consists of two sub-categories: ‘Work generates and structures my everyday life’ and ‘I miss my workplace’. Finally, ‘Transition in work approach’ reflects a changed approach to work.

    Conclusion: The meaning of work varies over time, but first and foremost work was regarded as an important part of the healing process as it restores the disruption of everyday life. Guidelines cannot be reduced to a linear relationship with biomedical variables but the individual context of everyday life must be considered.

  • 312.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Breast Cancer Experience Through the Body: A Consecutive, Six-Year Longitudinal Study of 24 Women2013In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 22, p. 334-334Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a disruptive s bodies in body experiences in a life context are not sufficiently acknowledged in breast cancer research. Due to the increasing number of breast cancer survivors, longitudinal studies that pay attention to long-term experiences of the body are of vital importance in order to gain knowledge valuable for rehabilitation initiatives. This study is a contribution.

    four women were consecutively included in a prospective project and repeatedly interviewed during 6 years from ending hospitalised treatment. The qualitative analysis was made by means of thematic narrative analysis. Out of the interviews individual narratives were constructed s body experience over time. The narratives were repeatedly read to identify possible common thematic elements across participants of how the body appeared to the women and to discern processes of how this developed over time. Three main processes were found in the analysis.

    RESULTS: Common to all women was to initially experience the body as surviving. Survival was key target and bodily complaints were thus measured and valued in favour of that. When back to a new everyday life after treatment five women quickly experienced their bodies as comprehensible. They had undergone a minimum of treatments. 19 women reported more complaints and experienced the body as broken, fragile and as incomprehensible. With time and regained function most came to experience their bodies as comprehensible. Three women, however, met with more bodily decline than they could reconcile, they eventually disassociated from their bodies.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study makes a unique contribution by mapping out how breast cancer patients experience and value their bodies over 6 years from ending hospitalised treatment. The findings are considered from a phenomenological perspective and reflect how the women “discovered” and handled their bodies as something they had, the bodies were seen as separated from themselves while altering and changing due to side effects. The processes of establishing liveable body relations differed depending on treatment impact and ability to incorporate body changes as part of themselves. The findings are discussed in relation to theories of bodynormativity and biographical continuity.

    RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS: The study clarifies that experiences and valuations of body alterations and side effects shifts over time. It indicates the importance of further studies to carefully consider this transition over time and interpret selfassessments of body experience in relation to treatment (on-going/completed) and overall life context (on sick-leave/working).

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study highlights the impact of side effects, especially from endocrine treatment, on breast cancer patients’ everyday life. We find it reasonable to suggest that physicians take a quite humble stand when discussing the treatment options. In cases of massive side effects, it must be possible to end treatment without this causing excessive worries for disease progression.

  • 313.
    Linander, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    “It was like I had to fit into a category”: people with trans experiences navigating access to trans-specific healthcare and health2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Trans issues have received increased attention over the last couple of years and important changes have been made in the legislation relating to gender reassignment and in trans-specific healthcare practices. At the same time, many people with trans experiences report poor mental health, bad experiences when encountering the healthcare and a tendency to postpone seeking care due to being badly treated. Previous research has also shown that gender norms guide the evaluation that precedes access to gender-confirming medical procedures. Critical studies examining practices within trans-specific healthcare in the Swedish context and health among people with trans experiences are limited, especially qualitative interview studies involving people with trans experiences.

    Aim: To analyse how constructions of trans experiences and gender can affect trans-specific healthcare practices, experiences of navigating access to gender- confirming medical procedures, inhabitancy of different spaces and, ultimately, health.

    Conceptual framework: Three areas of theory are used for the conceptual framework: trans studies, queer phenomenology and Foucauldian theories of power and governmentality.

    Methods: The thesis includes three sub-studies (generating four articles): two interview studies that build on interviews with 18 people with trans experiences, and a policy analysis of the guidelines for trans-specific healthcare published by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. For the interview studies, grounded theory and thematic analysis were used as the analytical method. The guidelines were analysed using Bacchi’s method: “What’s the problem represented to be?”.

    Results: The participants experienced trans-specific healthcare as difficult to navigate due to waiting times, lack of knowledge and/or support and relationships of dependency between healthcare users and providers. In the evaluation, gender is reconstructed as linear – stereotypical, binary and stable – and the space for action available to care-seekers is affected by discourses existing both inside and outside trans-specific healthcare. The difficulties in navigating access to care were experienced as creating ill-health. In order to negotiate access to gender-confirming medical procedures, the participants took responsibility for the care process by, for example, ordering hormones from abroad, acquiring medical knowledge and finding alternative support. The linear gendered positioning was variously resisted, negotiated and embraced by the participants.

    The analysis of the guidelines showed that gender identity is constructed as a fixed linear essence but that the guidelines also open up space for a non-linear embodiment. Gender dysphoria is closely constructed in relation to psychiatric knowledge and mental health and the gate-keeping function among mental healthcare professionals is reconstituted in the guidelines. Hence, care-seekers are constructed as not competent enough to make decisions concerning access to gender-confirming medical procedures.

    The participants experienced several different spaces, such as bars, public toilets and changing rooms, gyms and cafés, as unsafe and as contributing to ill-health. In order to overcome the barriers to comfortably inhabiting spaces, the participants performed a kind of labour; for example, preparing in order to visit public baths and to answer transphobic comments and questions. Some spaces, such as trans-separatist, feminist and queer spaces, were experienced as safer and contributed to improved health through experiences of belonging, being able to share bad experiences and being able to relax.

    Conclusions: Trans-specific healthcare practices need to become more affirming and change so that care-seekers have more space for self- determination. Trans-specific healthcare needs more resources in order to decrease waiting times, improve knowledge and support, and hence to improve access to gender-confirming medical procedures. Actions need to be initiated to make spaces safer in order to improve the health of people with trans experiences.

  • 314.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Alm, Erika
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Negotiating the (bio)medical gaze: Experiences of trans-specific healthcare in Sweden2017In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 174, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden as well as in other western countries persons with trans experiences have to go through a clinical evaluation in order to get access to gender-confirming medical procedures. The aim of this study is to analyse care-users' experiences of navigating and negotiating access to gender-confirming medical procedures in Sweden. Biomedicalisation is used as a theoretical framework in order to analyse how technoscientific and neoliberal developments are parts of constructing specific experiences within trans-specific care. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyse 14 interviews with persons having experiences of, or considering seeking, trans-specific healthcare. The participants experienced trans-specific healthcare as difficult to navigate because of waiting times, lack of support, provider ignorance and relationships of dependency between healthcare-users and providers. These barriers pushed the users to take responsibility for the care process themselves, through ordering hormones from abroad, acquiring medical knowledge and finding alternative support. Based on the participants' experiences, it can be argued that the shift of responsibility from care-providers to users is connected to a lack of resources within trans-specific care, to neoliberal developments within the Swedish healthcare system, but also to discourses that frame taking charge of the care process as an indicator that a person is in need of or ready for care. Thus, access to gender-confirming medical procedures is stratified, based on the ability and opportunity to adopt a charge-taking role and on economic and geographic conditions. Based on the results and discussion, we conclude that trans-specific care ought to focus on supporting the care-seekers throughout the medical process, instead of the current focus on verifying the need for care. There is also a need for increased knowledge and financial resources. A separation between legal and medical gender reassignment could contribute to a better relationship between care-providers and care-users and increase the quality of care.

  • 315.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Alm, Erika
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    (Un)safe spaces, affective labour and perceived health among people with trans experiences living in SwedenIn: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 316.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Socialmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Which socio-economic measures are associated with psychological distress for men and women?: A cohort analysis2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 231-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are contradictory results regarding whether there is a social gradient in common mental disorders or not, or if this relation differs for different indicators or by gender. We analysed the relation between various measures of socio-economic position and later psychological distress among men and women in a Swedish context. Methods: The study is based on data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (N= 1001, 93.5% response rate), a 27-year prospective study. Logistic regression was used to explore the relation between various indicators of socio-economic position at age 30 (occupation, education, financial strain, cash margin, unemployment and living primarily on social welfare or unemployment insurance) and psychological distress (age 42), controlling for earlier psychological distress (age 21) and parental occupational class. Register data were used to measure unemployment. All other variables were self-reported, and measured by a questionnaire. Results: Financial strain and living on social welfare or unemployment insurance at age 30 were associated with psychological distress at age 42 for men and women. Poor cash margin and unemployment were only associated with psychological distress in women, after controlling for potential confounders. Low occupational class and low education were not significantly related to later psychological distress. Conclusion: The two most commonly used measures of socio-economic position, occupation and education, were not significantly associated with psychological distress while other, less studied measures were. This study highlights the importance of measuring socio-economic position in several ways when studying common mental disorders, as well as to take gender into account.

  • 317.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Factors influencing distress toward erectile dysfunction and attitude toward erectile dysfunction drugs among middle-aged and elderly chinese women and men in Hong Kong2013In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 782-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.  This study aims to explain distress toward erectile dysfunction (ED), attitude toward ED drugs, and experiences with ED drug use in terms of sexual attitudes, relationship satisfaction, and sociodemographic factors among the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Studies show that a significant number of middle-aged and elderly men in Asia suffer from ED. However, people's attitudes toward ED drugs are not positive. Few studies have sought to reveal the influencing factors of this negative attitude.

    Methods.  Nine hundred forty-six Hong Kong women and men aged 36–80 with stable partners were administered a structured questionnaire through face-to-face street-intercept survey. Self-reporting on single-item questions using a five-point Likert scale was adopted for most of the variables, including attitude toward sex, relationship satisfaction, distress toward ED, and attitude toward ED drugs. Perceived importance of sex in an intimate relationship and attitude toward sex were assessed through three items. Respondents were asked to report whether they had taken ED drugs or bought ED drugs for their partners.

    Results.  While perceived importance of sex in an intimate relationship and distress toward ED both contributed to the estimation of attitudes toward ED drugs for both genders, relationship satisfaction was only associated with men's attitude, while women's attitude was related to two other factors: relationship status and income level. Both age and attitude toward ED drugs influenced experiences with ED drug use for women and men. Men's experience with ED drug use was further related to the perceived importance of sex and to men's self-esteem and relationship status.

    Conclusion.  Results of this study could help identify people who are disturbed by ED but reluctant to seek treatment. Clinicians and public health policy makers could make use of the findings to encourage proper understanding of ED.

  • 318.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Structural Thinking: A Two-edged Blade of Fatherhood in Hong Kong2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on the field work consisted of participant observation in a Catholic-background men’s centre in Hong Kong and in-depth interview with individual fathers between 2004 and 2007. The men’s centre promotes that men should assume their familial role as husbands and fathers and that men need other men as peers to support one another. I participated in two of their self-help groups and one men’s rights group. In addition, I conducted face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with a total of 30 fathers through snowballing. Some of these informants were members of the men's centre while some were not. Fathers with different class backgrounds and marital statuses were included. Some were working-class men (e.g. construction site workers), some were professionals (e.g. lawyer), and some were business owners. Some were married; some were divorced; some were single fathers taking care of their children. Yet these fathers were all mid-aged, i.e. late-30s to 60s.

     

    Patriarchy is rooted in the history of Hong Kong and continues to exist in contemporary society. In both the colonial and post-colonial periods, notions of masculinity and fatherhood in Hong Kong are seen to be extremely conservative and they highlight the role of the state in the adoption and reproduction of patriarchal ideology. While changes towards gender equality have occurred slowly after long-term struggle, a coherent gender policy has been lacking. This has contributed to a socio-cultural environment that encourages the naturalization and normalization of the patriarchal structure and practices in the family. 

     

    The “new good men/father” notion proposed by the men’s centre situates men in the family context, with traditional masculinity reiterated and resurrected. Economic requirement on men prevailed in the centre’s discourse. Authority of men was also emphasized through encouraging fathers to assume their educator’s and decision-maker’s role. New elements of fatherhood, like doing housework, taking care of and playing with children, as well as caring the wife, were added as ways to make the family harmonious and under control and became the new hegemonic standards for masculinity. However, wife sometimes exercise resistance to the structural power of men. Some even sabotage the male family structure by claiming their agency through divorce or extra-marital affairs. Patriarchal fatherhood is under threat.

    Divorced and single-fatherhood was seen as deviant and was problematized in the discourse.

     

    The thinking that marriage is the foundation of fatherhood rather than a romantic alliance is common among my informants. This belief subsequently motivates the father to give toil and sweat to maintain marriage and (“complete”) family which is deemed to be the facilitating environment in the interest of children. At the same time, fathers expect to get what they are promised by the patriarchal structure – filial children and an obedient wife. I call this expectation “structural thinking” within the patriarchal habitus of the father. Structural thinking is the internalization of the existing social structure with the expectation of gaining the benefits and outcomes which are defined and laid out by the structure. Within structural thinking, individual’s will and interest are often subsumed under the requirements of the power-laden structure. When the promised outcomes do not occur, structural thinking leads the social actor to blame other individual actors rather than seeing the biased nature of the structure, thus leaving the power-laden structure unchallenged. Men, as the beneficiary of the patriarchal structure, preserve it by demanding themselves and others to conform to it. It leads men to defend the patriarchal family and to tolerate a painful or loveless marriage just to guarantee a caring mother and a legitimate, intact family for the children. I would like to argue in this paper that the family structure legitimizes father’s power which is a two-edged blade – it does not only place him above other individual family members, but also lead to the distortion of his own subjectivities and individuality in cases like divorce.

  • 319.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Under the Shadow of Deviance: Positionality, Subjectivity, and Masculinity of the Male Feminist Ethnographer in a Patriarchal Field Setting2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comes from my reflective account of my ethnographic field experience from 2004 to 2007 in studying construction of masculinities among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong. I came to a men’s centre promoting a “new good men / father” notion as the starting point of my fieldwork. Planning to examine how gender equality would be promoted within the family, I was disappointed by the prevailing discourse of “harmony of the family” in the centre, which left gender power relation, compulsory heterosexuality, and hegemony of monogamy and intact nuclear family unchallenged despite that involvement in childcare and housework was encouraged in fatherhood. At the same time, I discovered that my embodiment and self-presentation of “soft” masculinity did not fit in the male-dominated groups. With the “deviant” masculine embodiment, even though I was not publicly criticized, my subject position as a young, effeminate man somehow hindered my feminist voice being heard or accepted. Yet I could foresee critical analysis in my writing. In such a situation, I had constant worries of being accused of betraying my informants, who might think that I was part of them, sharing their thoughts and views. The fact that I was perceived as a son and a student facilitated my adoption of the performance of learning masculinities and men’s situations from my male informants. Unexpected openness and revelation resulted. In this paper, I am going to discuss the problems and potentials of doing ethnographic research with non-hegemonic masculine embodiment in such an inconsistent fieldsite by examining the positionality and subjectivity of the researcher and the way masculinities effect the situation.

  • 320.
    Liong, Chan Ching Mario
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Chan, Lih-Shing Alex
    Community College of City University.
    Walking a Tightrope: Performing Chinese Young Masculinities in Hong Kong2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young men growing up in Hong Kong are caught in the socio-cultural dynamics that problematise their sense of masculinity. The constitution of Chinese masculinity tends to harness the Confucian discourse of self-control, which values containment and even suppression of sexual desire. While such notion of masculinity is also located within heterosexual identification, Chinese men are expected to compartmentalise relational contexts in dealt with their sexual expression. Nonetheless, the objectification of sexuality driven by consumerist urban culture and the commercial media has rapidly pushed the boundary of sexual expression; more than before, Chinese young men are compelled to respond to sexual identification regardless of social settings. By using the data collected from male college students, this paper argues that young men adopt different strategies in performing masculinity while evading certain gendered labels. This paper also proposes that these strategies are to be understood in Bourdieu's theoretical framework.

  • 321.
    Liong, Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Like father, like son: negotiation of masculinity in the ethnographic context in Hong Kong2015In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 937-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist geographers have indicated that ethnographic research is an inter-subjective process constructed in relation to the intersection between the gender and other social dimensions of both the researcher and the informants relevant to the field. In particular, the matching and adaptation of masculinities in the research context is a complex methodological issue that receives relatively little attention. Using my fieldwork experience, this article builds on the contribution of feminist geographers to discuss how my masculine self-presentation was negotiated with the research topic, the caring masculinity endorsed among my middle-aged male informants, the sociocultural milieu and my positionalities and bodily representations in producing collaborative ethnographic data. My young age and doctoral student status, combined with my soft and meek' self-presentation, produced wen masculinity within the Chinese cultural context, which facilitated the paradoxical reception of me as both a son and a consultant in the men's groups. This masculine embodiment not only facilitated our rapport but also signified my cultural competence to participate in decision-making and activist activities in the discussion groups, which brought me to some unexpected research lands. The effect of my masculine embodiment on the ethnographic research process indicates that fieldwork is not only situated in a place but is also itself a space constructed through cultural understanding of social interactions and embodied gender representations.

  • 322.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Dödens pris: den industriella livförsäkringen och begravningsindustrin under det sena 1800-talet och tidiga 1900-talet2014In: Å selge liv og død: kommersielle strategier og kulturuttrykk i markedsføring av død og dødsfrykt / [ed] May-Britt Ohman Nielsen, Tammerfors: University Press of Eastern Finland , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 323.
    Livholts, Mona
    et al.
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Mittuniversitetet.
    Bränström Öhman, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Koobak, Redi
    Writing change in feminist and gender studies: staging the political and the embodied2010In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 223-225Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Lundgren, Britta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Introduction2006In: Reaching for Scientific excellence in gender research: conference report / [ed] Hillevi Ganetz, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet (The Swedish Research Council) , 2006, p. 6-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Lundgren, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Bakom lås och bom2008In: Mana, ISSN 9789198346404, no 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 326.
    Lundgren, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Diskurser om mansvåld: reflektioner från en spegel2011In: Våldets topografier: betraktelser över makt och motstånd / [ed] Carina Listerborn, Irene Molina och Diana Mulinari, Stockholm: Atlas , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Lundström, Catrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Complying With Colonialism: Gender, Race and Ethnicity in the Nordic Region2012In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 187-188Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Lundström, Catrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Transnationell vithet: Svenska migrantkvinnor i USA och Singapore2010In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, no 1-2, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines different expressions of whiteness in a transnational context through first-generation Swedish migrant women’s narratives of their bodies, when moving and re-installing themselves in the altered social, racial and political landscapes of the United States and Singapore. Their specific migratory experiences are used as a departure to analyze the ways in which gender- and nation-specific forms of capital may be converted through migration. The central inquiries in the article are concerned with how Swedish women experience their bodies, as migrant bodies, and how embodied privilege move and are being re-invested in two racially different contexts. The study, conducted from 2006-2009, is based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions with almost 50 women in United States and Singapore, all of them being members of a support group for Swedish-speaking women, and three of their spouses. In addition, I have conducted participant observations in several Swedish-related arenas in the two countries. By looking at how Swedishness is being re-installed in non-Swedish contexts, the article contextualizes migrating Swedishness and whiteness and contributes with a transnational perspective on whiteness, which carries a potential to destabilize an idea of whiteness as a homogeneous entity. In sum, it is argued that white privileges often remain normalized and invisible for the informants themselves, but while Swedish femininity is highly valued in the United States, it is represented as a non-normative whiteness in the Singaporean context.

  • 329.
    Lundström, Catrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    White ethnography: (un)comfortable conveniences and shared privileges in fieldwork with swedish migrant women2010In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses methodological dilemmas in ethnographic research with first-generation Swedish migrant women living in the United States. From a (white) Swedish researcher perspective, it seeks to disentangle aspects of shared privileges between researcher and participants and constructions of white spaces in a non-Swedish context. What does it mean to pass as a white, middle-class Swede in research and how are white privileges being upheld in such acting? How are class differences equalized when ethnography is conducted outside the national class system where internal hierarchies may be re-negotiated? The article argues that the use of “methodological capital” (Gallagher 2000), such as embodied capital and passing strategies that might be necessary to reach specific groups of examination, may also reproduce structural privileges by not intervening into normative assumptions of race, class, gender and sexuality. In these circumstances, the article inquires into what can be learned from studying privileged groups and, thereby, what may we fail to see.

  • 330.
    Lundström, Catrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Women with class: Swedish migrant women's class positions in the USA2010In: Journal of Intercultural Studies, ISSN 0725-6868, E-ISSN 1469-9540, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines gender- and nation-specific forms of capital through migration. Itfocuses on first-generation Swedish women moving to a new social and politicallandscape in the USA, typically from upper- and middle-class environments in Sweden.Their migratory experiences are used as a departure to analyse how former class positionsare being re-enacted (or not) in the neo-liberal USA. The study, conducted from 2006to 2008, is based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 33 women andthree of their spouses and participant observations in a support group for Swedishspeakingwomen in the Western region of the USA. Using an intersectional analysis, it issuggested that Swedish women are located in contradictory class positions in the USA interms of the loss of social and cultural capital, access to the social democratic welfarestate and a dependence on racialised labour in a different social geography. It is arguedthat the women’s class privileges are shaped, transformed and reproduced through theircapacities to re-invest their cultural and embodied forms of capital in marriage andby marking a distance to subordinated groups, often other migrant women, therebymirroring the unequal relations between (migrating) women in a global arena.

  • 331.
    Lundström, Catrin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hübinette, Tobias
    Multicultural Centre, Botkyrka.
    Sweden after the recent election: The double-binding power of Swedish Whiteness through the mourning of the loss of "old Sweden" and the passing of "good Sweden".2011In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 42-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 332.
    Lundström, Catrin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sohl, Lena
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Hemmafrun är det nya gamla2011In: Tidskriften Arena, ISSN 1652-0556, no 1, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 333.
    Lundström, Catrin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Twine, France Winddance
    Department of Sociology, University of California, Santa Barbara.
    White migrations: Swedish women, gender vulnerabilities and racial privileges2011In: The European Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 1350-5068, E-ISSN 1461-7420, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines Swedish migrant women to the United States. It asks how racially privileged European migrants adapt to US racial and gender hierarchies that require them to relinquish their economic security and gender autonomy in a neoliberal state? Drawing upon interviews and focus group discussions with 33 Swedish women and three of their spouses, and participant observation between 2006 and 2008 in a network for Swedish speaking women living in the US, the article discusses how a group of ‘white’ migrant women who arrive in the US with an ideology of gender egalitarianism negotiate a more socially conservative and economically vulnerable lifestyle, as the wives (and potential ex-wives) of upper-middle-class men. The article argues that while Swedish women benefit from their racial and social privileges in the US they lose their sense of economic security, acquiring new anxieties that make them reluctant to renounce their Swedish citizenship which they conceive of as a ‘flexible’ resource.

  • 334. Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Tishelman, Carol
    Clock time and embodied time experienced by patients with inoperable lung cancer2010In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore how patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC) discuss their experiences of time, based on content analysis of open interviews with 35 patients 1 year after diagnosis, using Davies' distinction between "clock time" and "embodied time" as sensitizing concepts. Two interrelated themes were derived: (1) aspects related to the healthcare system, with 3 subthemes: waiting times in the healthcare system, limited time for patient-professional contact, and limited time for coordination of services, and (2) existential aspects, with subthemes: the future with LC and managing an uncertain and finite life with LC. Time could be experienced as problematic for these patients, when limited or lacking or through long periods of waiting, especially when these periods occurred without adequate preparation or information. This contributed to exacerbation of these patients' existing sense of uncertainty, their perception of care as impersonal and insecure, and their need to remain alert and act on their own behalf. Awareness of the seriousness of their disease and the prospect of a limited lifetime was described as increasing uncertainty about dying and fear of certain death. People also described efforts to constructively deal with their situation by reprioritizing their remaining time, having increased appreciation of some aspects of daily life, and living consciously in the present. This analysis suggests a collision between clock time, which steers the healthcare system, and embodied time, as experienced by individuals. Greater attention to psychosocial needs is suggested as one means of positively affecting patients' experiences of time and uncertainty.

  • 335.
    Lövgren, Veronica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kalman, Hildur
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sauer, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Disability Research.
    Känsliga personuppgifter: mellan prövning och forskningspraktik2012In: Etiska dilemman: forskningsdeltagande, samtycke och utsatthet / [ed] Hildur Kalman & Veronica Lövgren, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2012, 1, p. 55-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Magnusson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Marecek, Jeanne
    Femisms, psychologies, and the study of social life2017In: The Palgrave handbook of critical social psychology / [ed] Brendan Gough, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, p. 17-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A key goal of feminists in psychology has been to understand and challenge social relations of inequality, privilege, and oppression. Several orienting assumptions of mainstream psychology present obstacles to achieving this goal. For example, one assumption is internalism — focusing on inner motives, traits, and capacities as the determinants of human behaviour, while ignoring the sociocultural context. Another is universalism — the assumption that psychological theories and explanations can hold for all people everywhere and at all times. The chapter also reviews the history of feminism in psychology and provides an overview of methods and practices utilized by feminist psychologists.

  • 337.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Anna Sofia Charlotta Ahlström2018Other (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ester Katarina Boman2018Other (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ett år med Ester: en mikrohistorisk undersökning av det sociala nätverket och känslolivet hos en småskollärare vid sekelskiftet 19002017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 3, p. 379-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the dawn of the twentieth century (1901–1902), the nineteen-year-old junior school teacher Ester Vikström kept a diary. Ester worked in a small coastal village in northern Sweden where she was the only teacher. Through a microhistorical approach this study aims to explore the public and private life of Ester by focusing on her social networks and emotional life. The study uses female agency, a life course approach and concepts from the history of emotions to analyze her diary. The main findings show that Ester was very active in the local community and had a broad social network, which included social ties on many different levels in the social hierarchy. Ester had her closest friends among sea captains’ wives, maidservants and a dock workers family, where she met her future husband. However, Ester was also a friend of the most prominent persons in the community, the doctor and the priest. Her everyday life in the village included involvement with numerous associations such as the home sewing association, the temperance movement and a choral society. In the diary Ester shared much of her emotional life by recounting her experiences and thoughts, which were characterized by a wide spectrum of different emotions: Esters physical and psychological status, her thoughts and empathy in the case of accidents or diseases, the interaction with her students etc. One category of emotions and thoughts is distinguished from the others, the relationship to her fiancée and future husband Emil. This can be seen in Ester’s diary because she uses cipher when she writes about her feelings for Emil. The concluding remarks of this study argue that Ester made use of her agency to integrate in the local community. The diary reveals an intriguing and eventful phase in her life course during her pathway to adulthood. Her custom to use cipher when writing about her deepest and most personal emotions can be viewed as a way to write about something that was not really accepted by the predominant “emotional regime” in the village.

  • 340.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lovisa Sofia (Sofi) Almquist2018Other (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Midnattssol, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ett relationsanarkistiskt ställningstagande - en undersökning av subjektspositionering inom relationsanarki.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to examine what subject positions are possible within the discourse of relationship anarchy. Through semi-structured interviews with four people who define themselves as relationship anarchists I've made a discourse analysis to determine how these relationship anarchists explain what, in the discourse they’re in, is described as an relationship anarchistic way of being, what isn’t and how they relate to this. Relationship anarchy is described as an ideology based on freedom. It is about the right to define their relationships as they like, as something constantly changing and that does not hold a specific value based on its label. But it is apparent that the freedom is relative when it occurs in a discourse where other standards are created. Based on these standards, both the hegemonic discourse, where being a couple is the relationship standard, and the counter-hegemonic relationship anarchist discourse, the respondents are positioning themselves as something different from that, and that their way of practicing relationships are based on responsibility and communication. Based on this I find that there are three possible subject positions within relationship anarchy: the idealogical, the player and the responsible.

  • 342.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Söderman, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Increasing physical activity, but persisting social gaps among middle-aged people: trends in Northern Sweden from 1990 to 20072011In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 4, p. 6347-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is identified as one important protective factor for chronic diseases. Physical activity surveillance is important in assessing healthy population behaviour over time. Many countries lack population trends on physical activity.

    OBJECTIVE: To present trends in physical activity levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden and to evaluate physical activity among women and men with various educational levels.

    METHODS: opulation-based cross-sectional and panel data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) during 1990-2007 were used. All individuals in Västerbotten County who turned 40, 50, or 60 years old were invited to their local primary health care for a health screening. Physical activity during commuting, recreational activities, physical exercise, and socio-demographic data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were categorised as sedentary, moderate physically active, or physically active.

    RESULTS: The prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 16 to 24.2% among men and from 12.6 to 30.4% among women. Increases are observed in all educational groups, but gaps between educational groups widened recently. The level of sedentary behaviour was stable over the time period studied. The 10-year follow-up data show that the prevalences of physically active behaviours increased from 15.8 to 21.4% among men and 12.7 to 23.3% among women. However, 10.2% of men and 3.8% of women remained sedentary.

    CONCLUSION: Despite the promising evidence of increasing physical activity levels among the population in Västerbotten County, challenges remain for how to reduce the stable levels of sedentary behaviours in some subgroups. Persisting social gaps in physical activity levels should be addressed further. An exploration of people's views on engaging in physical activity and barriers to doing so will allow better formulation of targeted interventions within this population.

  • 343.
    Nilsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Children crossing borders: on child perspectives in the Swedish aliens act and the limits of law2007In: Exploiting the limits of law: Swedish feminism and the challenge to pessimism / [ed] Åsa Gunnarsson, Eva-Maria Svensson, Margret Davies, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007, p. 105-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Njozing, Barnabas N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Edin, Kerstin E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Voices from the frontline: counsellors’ perspectives on TB/HIV collaborative activities in the Northwest Region, Cameroon2011In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 11, p. 328-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The overlapping epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections prompted the World Health Organisation in 2004 to recommend collaboration between national TB and HIV programmes. The goal of this collaboration is to decrease the burden of both infections in the population. This policy was subsequently adopted by the national TB and HIV programmes in Cameroon with TB and HIV nurses/counsellors acting as frontline implementers of the collaborative activities in the 10 regions of the country.

    METHODS: Qualitative research interviews were conducted with 30 nurses/counsellors in four approved treatment centres providing comprehensive TB and HIV/AIDS services in the Northwest region of Cameroon. The aim was to explore their experiences in counselling, in delivering joint TB and HIV services, and the constraints to effective collaboration between TB and HIV services. To complement the findings from the counsellors' interviews, as part of an emergent design, further interviews with 2 traditional healers and non-participant observations in two HIV support group meetings were conducted.

    RESULTS: According to the respondents, counselling was regarded as a call to serve humanity irrespective of the reasons for choosing the profession. In addition, the counselling training and supervision received, and the skills acquired, have altogether contributed to build patients' trust in the healthcare system. Teamwork among healthcare workers and other key stakeholders in the community involved in TB/HIV prevention and control was used as a strategy to improve joint service delivery and patients' uptake of services. Several constraints to effective collaboration between TB and HIV services were identified, including shortage of human resources, infrastructure and drug supplies, poor patients' adherence to treatment and the influence of traditional healers who relentlessly dissuade patients from seeking mainstream medical care.

    CONCLUSIONS: In order to achieve a sustainable collaboration between TB and HIV services, adequate planning, investment and strengthening of the health system including human resources, infrastructure and ensuring uninterrupted supplies of medicines are essential. A multidisciplinary approach to service delivery particularly focusing on harnessing the enormous potentials of traditional healers in TB/HIV prevention and control would also be indispensible.

  • 345.
    Njozing, Barnabas N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. St. Mary Soledad Catholic Hospital, Mankon, Bamenda, P.O.Box 157, Cameroon.
    Edin, Kerstin E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    San Sebástian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    “If the patients decide not to tell what can we do?”: TB/HIV counsellors’ dilemma on partner notification for HIV2011In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 11, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a global consensus towards universal access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services consequent to the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy. However, to benefit from these services, knowledge of one's HIV status is critical. Partner notification for HIV is an important component of HIV counselling because it is an effective strategy to prevent secondary transmission, and promote early diagnosis and prompt treatment of HIV patients' sexual partners. However, counsellors are often frustrated by the reluctance of HIV-positive patients to voluntarily notify their sexual partners. This study aimed to explore tuberculosis (TB)/HIV counsellors' perspectives regarding confidentiality and partner notification. Methods: Qualitative research interviews were conducted in the Northwest Region of Cameroon with 30 TB/HIV counsellors in 4 treatment centres, and 2 legal professionals between September and December 2009. Situational Analysis (positional map) was used for data analysis. Results: Confidentiality issues were perceived to be handled properly despite concerns about patients' reluctance to report cases of violation due to apprehension of reprisals from health care staffs. All the respondents encouraged voluntary partner notification, and held four varying positions when confronted with patients who refused to voluntarily notify their partners. Position one focused on absolute respect of patients' autonomy; position two balanced between the respect of patients' autonomy and their partners' safety; position three wished for protection of sexual partners at risk of HIV infection and legal protection for counsellors; and position four requested making HIV testing and partner notification routine processes. Conclusion: Counsellors regularly encounter ethical, legal and moral dilemmas between respecting patients' confidentiality and autonomy, and protecting patients' sexual partners at risk of HIV infection. This reflects the complexity of partner notification and demonstrates that no single approach is optimal, but instead certain contextual factors and a combination of different approaches should be considered. Meanwhile, adopting a human rights perspective in HIV programmes will balance the interests of both patients and their partners, and ultimately enhance universal access to HIV services.

  • 346.
    Norberg, Filippa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    "Sann jämställdhet kan bara byggas på sanningens grund”: En diskursiv analys av begreppet jämställdism2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är dels att undersöka om mediefenomenet Pär Ströms jämställdistiska diskurser går att förstå, genom att knyta an till maskulinitetskonstruktioner. Även hur dessa diskurser förhåller sig till könskategoriseringar och heteronormativitet. Delvis genom att undersöka hur subjektspositionen kön konstrueras i dessa diskurser. Det empiriska materialet utgörs av två böcker skrivna av Pär Ström. Det teoretiska ramverket som tillämpas i analysen är diskursteori, queerteori samt maskulinitetsteori. Främst används queerteoretiska och diskursteoretiska begrepp som verktyg i analysen för att kunna bedriva den diskursanalytiska metoden på empirin. Analysen av empirin visar att Ströms jämställdistiska diskurser innehar ett essentialistiskt, statiskt och binärt förhållningssätt till könskategorier. Även att det går att kontextualisera mediefenomenet Pär Ström i en nyliberal diskurs, där maskulinitet har en inverkan på de jämställdistiska diskursernas innehåll. Slutsatsen i uppsatsen är att det, i de jämställdistiska diskurserna, hävdas en essentialistisk och objektiv sanningssyn, där det framläggs en syn på subjektspositionen kön som dikotomi. Denna objektivitet är problematisk, då den i sin blindhet gentemot sociala strukturer inte kan frångå varken det ”naturgivna” könet eller ett heteronormativt seende. 

  • 347.
    Norlander, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Att vara kvinnlig kapitalist: Anna Hierta-Retzius, Ebba Lind af Hageby och Liljeholmens Stearinfabrik1992In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 446-467Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Norlander, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Den kollektivistiska husmoderligheten: Södra KFUK och fabriksarbeterskorna i Stockholm 1887-19301995In: På tröskeln till välfärden: Välgörenhetsformer och arenor i Norden 1800-1930 / [ed] Marja Taussi Sjöberg och Tinne Vammen, Stockholm: Carlsson , 1995, p. 104-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Norlander, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Det nya universitetet och kvinnorörelsens Umeå.2009In: Pionjärarbete i norr: Kön, makt och politik. Umeå 1989-2009 / [ed] Christina Bernhardsson, Björn Kjellsson, Umeå: Jämställdhetsutskottet i Umeå kommun , 2009, p. 8-11Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 350.
    Norlander, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Empathetic reading: The art of reading a text on its own terms2013In: Gender Studies Education and Pedagogy / [ed] Anna Lundberg & Ann Werner, Gothenburg: Swedish Secretariat for Gender Research , 2013, p. 10-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
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