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  • 301.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Lingvistiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Edlund, Lars-ErikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sveriges nationalatlas: Språken i Sverige2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Edlund, Lars-ErikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Sveriges nationalatlas: Språken i Sverige2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Dahlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Tal om terror: säkerhetspolitisk retorik i Sverige och Ryssland hösten 20012008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming to facilitate the description and evaluation of rhetorical responses to security issues, a framework was developed for comparative analysis of oral and written presentations. The framework was applied on three speeches held by the Swedish Prime Minister Göran Persson and three speeches by the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin in the wake of the terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon on September 11 and the subsequent military operation in Afghanistan.

    The framework was based on four narrative structures, referred to as images. The image of aggression was used to describe the speaker’s interpretation of a dramatic event, the image of threat to describe his consideration of the security threat and the image of securitisation to analyse solutions suggested in relation to the threat. The image of communication, finally, was used to describe relations between the speaker and his audience appearing in the speeches. Each image included an actor, an act or event, a referent object to the act and time and space. The images were analysed as discrete parts and also by an integrating approach. In the analysis, descriptions of the images were related to rhetorical tools, including logos, pathos, ethos, identification, vividness and agency.

    The analyses revealed similarities and dissimilarities between the two speakers. As for similarities, Persson and Putin used similar topoi. Persson used democracy – terrorism whereas Putin preferred civilisation – terrorism/barbarism, and both used cooperation. To both speakers, the images of aggression and threat tended to appeal to pathos and identification, and the image of securitisation and communication to logos and ethos. As for dissimilarities, Persson relied on the UN whereas Putin offered direct help to the US operation. In Persson’s speeches, the predominant topos was cooperation, in Putin’s civilisation – terrorism/barbarism. Persson focused on democratic values, Putin on the fight against terrorism. Persson’s images were more elaborated and vivid, Putin’s more moderate. These dissimilarities were tentatively explained by the two speakers’ different individual styles and domestic situations and, most important, by the speakers’ different agency on the international arena.

    In essence, the present framework, based on four discrete images, was found to be well-suited for cross-cultural analysis of rhetorical responses to security issues. The similarities exceeded the dissimilarities, which led to the conclusion that rhetoric of security politics may be defined as a discrete rhetorical genre. A bi-polar world view pervaded the rhetoric, preventing long-term solutions to security issues. Instead a focus on cooperation topoi, nuanced information, and the means and ends of securitisation was suggested.

  • 304. Damber, U.
    et al.
    Samuelsson, S.
    Taube, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Differences between overachieving and underachieving classes in reading: Teacher, classroom and student characteristics2012In: Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, ISSN 1468-7984, E-ISSN 1741-2919, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 339-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the classroom, teacher and student factors distinguishing grade three classes performing at higher levels than expected, in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) and language factors, from classes performing below their potential with regard to the same factors. Data from a standardized reading comprehension test and student and teacher questionnaires covering teacher, classroom and student characteristics were collected. The participants were 1,092 grade three classes and their class teachers, from Stockholm, Sweden. By use of regression and a twin-matching procedure, one group of 94 underachieving classes and another group of 94 overachieving classes were formed for comparison. Data about extended voluntary reading, classroom climate, teacher experience and the use of authentic literature were seen to be the main four indicators discriminating between over- and underachieving classes beyond the impact of SES and language background.

  • 305.
    Damber, Ulla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lundgren, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Från färdighetsträning till kritisk literacy2013In: Svenskläraren : medlemsblad för Svensklärarföreningen, ISSN 0346-2412, no 3, p. 6-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Damber, Ulla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Bokläsning mer än en mysstund2014In: Förskoletidningen, ISSN 1402-7135, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 8-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Damber, Ulla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Malmö högskola.
    Ohlsson, Camilla
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Litteraturläsning i förskolan2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 308.
    Dassoum, Diana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The Notion of Absurdity: A comparative analysis between an absurd and an ideal bureaucratic system2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The novel Catch-22 by Joseph Heller is described as a portrait of absurdities. This essay explores and answers the question as to what this absurdity can be derived from. Guiding research questions are: how is the bureaucratic system depicted in the novel, and how does this system compare to the ideal model of a bureaucracy created by Max Weber? Through a comparative analysis of these two texts the result is that various organizational structures of the system: rationality, consistency, rules and regulations, procedures, and hierarchy, each and together give rise to a notion of absurdity in the novel because of how these structures are depicted.

  • 309.
    Davour, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Emotion Metaphor in Popular Music: Differences in the use of metaphors for love, anger, sadness and happiness in popular music in the past and the present2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Examined here is the possible difference in use of metaphors for emotions in lyrics of music popular in 1964 compared to music popular in 2014. Questions regard frequency of occurrence of emotion metaphors including love, anger, sadness and happiness and the range and variation in source concepts for the four emotion target concepts respectively. The data set consists of the lyrics of the 50 most popular songs of the years 1964 and 2014, respectively. The lyrics were scanned and instances of emotion metaphor were categorized. This study shows that the frequency of occurrence of emotion metaphor was higher in the 2014 data set compared to that of 1964. Out of the four emotions in consideration, LOVE was the target concept shown to have the widest range of source concepts. Furthermore, the research indicates a change in what source concepts are used when regarding the target concepts HAPPINESS and SADNESS.

  • 310. Degerman, Peter
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders EÖhman, AndersUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Norrlandslitteratur: ekokritiska perspektiv2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Dermineur, Elise M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth-Century France: State Power and Provincial Aristocracy in Languedoc2013In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 149-150Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Dermineur, Elise M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Memoirs of Mademoiselle de Montpensier (La Grande Mademoiselle)2016In: French History, ISSN 0269-1191, E-ISSN 1477-4542, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 429-430Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 313.
    Dermineur, Elise M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Karlsson Sjögren, ÅsaUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.Langum, VirginiaUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Revisiting gender in European history, 1400-18002018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do women have a history? Did women have a renaissance? These were provocative questions when they were raised in the heyday of women's studies in the 1970s. But how relevant does gender remain to premodern history in the twenty-first century? This book considers this question in eight new case studies that span the European continent from 1400 to 1800. An introductory essay examines the category of gender in historiography and specifically within premodern historiography, as well as the issue of source material for historians of the period. The eight individual essays seek to examine gender in relation to emerging fields and theoretical considerations, as well as how premodern history contributes to traditional concepts and theories within women's and gender studies, such as patriarchy.

  • 314.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    Apologising in British English2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis explores the form, function and sociolinguistic distribution of explicit apologies in the spoken part of the British National Corpus. The sub-corpus used for the study comprises a spoken text mass of about five million words and represents dialogue produced by more than 1700 speakers, acting in a number of different conversational settings. More than 3000 examples of apologising are included in the analysis.

    Primarily, the form and function of the apologies are examined in relation to the type of offence leading up to the speech act. Aspects such as the sincerity of the apologies and the use of additional remedial strategies other than explicit apologising are also considered. Variations in the distributions of the different types of apologies found are subsequently investigated for the two independent variables speaker social identity (gender, social class and age) and conversational setting (genre, formality and group size). The effect of the speaker-addressee relationship on the apology rate and the types of apologies produced is also examined.

    In this study, the prototypical apology, a speech act used to remedy a real or perceived offence, is only one of a number of uses of the apology form in the corpus. Other common functions of the form include discourse-managing devices such as request cues for repetition and markers of hesitation, as well as disarming devices uttered before expressing disagreement and controversial opinions.

    Among the speaker social variables investigated, age and social class are particularly important in affecting apologetic behaviour. Young and middle-class speakers favour the use of the apology form. No substantial gender differences in apologising are apparent in the corpus. I have also been able to show that large conversational groups result in frequent use of the form. Finally, analysis of the effects of the speaker-addressee relationship on the use of the speech act shows that, contrary to expectations based on Brown & Levinson’s theory of politeness, it is the powerful who tend to apologise to the powerless rather than vice versa.

    The study implies that formulaic politeness is an important linguistic marker of social class and that its use often involves control of the addressee.

  • 315.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Debating across borders2011In: Informed design of educational technologies in higher education: enhanced learning and teaching / [ed] Anders D. Olofsson and J. Ola Lindberg, Hershey PA: Information Science Reference , 2011, 1, p. 241-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, virtual world environments such as Second Life® (SL) have become accepted as platforms for innovative educational activities at many universities in recent years. One such activity includes innovative ways of students coming in contact with other students in so-called telecollaborations. The present case study explores the initial stages in an Action Research process, namely the design and initial implementation of a telecollaborative language learning activity between four universities in Second Life under the EU-funded Avalon project. The chapter describes how theoretical frameworks including the Ecology of Language Learning (van Lier, 2004), the Five Stage Model of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (Salmon, 2004) and Activity Theory (Leont'ev, 1978) were used in order to address different aspects of the design of the course. Based on questionnaire responses from students and observations, the chapter then goes on to evaluate the relative success/failure of the first course trial. Finally, the chapter discusses the implications of the lessons learnt from this pilot project on further developments of the course concept in the action research process, and goes on to discuss implications of the findings for the use of virtual worlds in more mainstream educational settings.

  • 316.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Social variation in the use of apology formulae in the British National Corpus2006In: The changing face of corpus linguistics / [ed] Antoinette Renouf & Andrew Kehoe, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2006, 1, p. 205-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores sociolinguistic variation in the frequency of apologising in the spoken part of the British National Corpus. The starting point for the investigation is the apology formula, represented by the lexemes afraid, apologise, apology, excuse, forgive, pardon, regret and sorry. The sub-corpus used for the study comprises a spoken text mass of about five million words and represents dialogue produced by more than 1700 speakers acting in a number of different conversational settings. More than 3000 examples of apologising form the basis for the analysis. In the BNC, young and middle-class speakers favoured the use of the apology form. Only minor gender differences in apologising were apparent. The study implies that formulaic politeness is an important linguistic marker of social class and also shows that corpus linguistic methodology can successfully be used in socio-pragmatic research.

  • 317.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Carita, Lundmark
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    “Let’s Keep it Informal, Guys”: a Study of the Effects of Teacher Communicative Strategies on Student Activity and Collaborative Learning in Internet-based English Courses2008In: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN ISSN 1404-7659, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 36-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the quantity and quality of communication produced by teachers in Internet courses of academic English, particularly during the initial stages of course activity. The courses are entirely conducted in virtual learning environments without physical meetings, and are part of the Bachelor programme (A–C level) of English at Mid Sweden University. The pedagogic design of the courses is based on collaborative learning, which presupposes a communicative environment with positive interdependence and interaction, where knowledge is shared by students questioning and challenging each other. Consequently, the teacher’s role in setting communicative norms which encourage an environment of high acceptance, where students feel that they can express their opinions freely, is of utmost importance. The results suggest that there are two important factors that affect student activity in the initial stages of an online course: how much the teacher communicates with the class and the manner in which he or she does so.

  • 318. Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Dyrvold, Kristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gregersdotter, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sheppard, Nicholas
    Mittuniversitetet.
    McIntyre, David
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Kollaborativ inlärning som startpunkt för utveckling av internetkurser inom ämnet engelska2006In: Från vision till praktik: språkutbildning och informationsteknologi / [ed] Patrik Svensson, Härnösand: Nätuniversitetet , 2006, 1, p. 215-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet granskar design för kollaborativ inlärning i engelska online-kurser

  • 319.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Peer-based intervention och key-stroke logging som hjälpmedel för att stimulera språkinlärning i översättningsundervisningen2005In: Forskning om undervisning i främmande språk: rapport från workshop i Växjö 10-11 juni 2004 / [ed] E. Larsson Ringqvist & I. Valfridsson, Växjö universitet: Växjö university press , 2005, 1, p. 65-75Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet undersöker 'Key-stroke logging' samt 'peer-based intervention' som vertyg för att utveckla översättning som utbildningsmoment

  • 320.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting Learning Reflection in the Language Translation Class2009In: International Journal of Information Communication Technologies and Human Development, ISSN 1935-5661, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations.Computer keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, and enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention has potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, and (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation.

  • 321.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Molka-Danielsen, Judith
    Molde university.
    Richardson, David
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Carter, Bryan
    University of Central Missouri.
    Teaching Language in a Virtual World2007In: / [ed] Laurence Habib, Trondheim: Tapir University Press , 2007, p. 97-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the development of a course for teaching a language in a virtual world. In particular we evaluated the' Course entitled, "Social English for Doctoral Students" that took place in the spring semester of 2007. This course activated learners and educators using a variety of support media including Marratech, an online conferencing system, and Second Life, a virtual world platform. The pilot course formed part of a one year project sponsored by The Norwegian University program(NUV) entitled "A Virtual Platform for Life Long Learning". In addition to the description of the course framework, we contribute with the development of an evaluation framework that may be applied to other courses taught in Second Life.

  • 322.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nykvist, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet.
    M-learning to empower the learner and to facilitate informal study groups2010In: eLearning Africa 2010, 5th International Conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training / [ed] Rebecca Stromeyer, Berlin: ICWE GmbH , 2010, p. 356-359Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the findings from a m-learning project with teacher trainess at the Open University of Tanzania.

  • 323.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    Pisa University, Itlay.
    Talking into empty space?: signalling involvement in a virtual language classroom in Second Life2009In: Language Awareness, ISSN 0965-8416, Vol. 18, no 3-4, p. 310-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compare the first and the last sessions from an online oral proficiencycourse aimed at doctoral students conducted in the virtual world Second Life. The study attempts to identify how supportive moves made by the teacher encourage learners to engage with language, and what type of linguistic behaviour in the learners leads to engagement in others. We compare overall differences in terms of floor space and turn-taking patterns, and also conduct a more in-depth discourse analysis of parts of the sessions focusing on supportive moves such as back-channelling and elicitors. There are indications that the supportive linguistic behaviour of teachers is important in increasing learner engagement. In our studywe are also able to observe a change in student linguistic behaviour between the first and the last sessions with students becoming more active in signalling involvement as the course progresses. Finally, by illustrating some of the language awareness issues that arise in online environments, we hope to contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of online communication.

  • 324.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Panichi, Luisa
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Towards Models for Designing Language Learning in Virtual Worlds2013In: International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, ISSN 1947-8518, E-ISSN 1947-8526, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 65-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some of the overall frameworks and models for language learning that were used under Avalon (Access to Virtual and Action Learning live ONline), an EU co-funded project aimed at developing language-learning scenarios in virtual worlds. The introduction and background summarize some of the theories that constitute the starting points for the designs and are followed by a discussion of how the affordances of virtual worlds support the communicative language-learning model used in the project. The authors’ main focus then turns to pedagogic design, where the authors present the methods used during the project and some generic aspects of course designs that were developed. The article ends with a more specific look at examples of task design from the courses given under the project framework.

  • 325.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Identifying Identity: Using Second Life in the Teaching of Sociolinguistics for the Raising of Gender Awareness2012In: EuroCall Review, ISSN 1695-2618, Vol. 20, p. 49-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One of the aims of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying courses in sociolinguistics. Several experiments were conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice morphing” (a tool which allows the voice of the speaker to be distorted so that a male speaker can sound more feminine and vice versa) allowed students to enter the virtual world incognito in order to “experience” a different linguistic identity. Activities were conducted in cross-cultural settings involving students from Sweden and Chile. The paper presents the initial stages of development of a model for how language awareness issues can be internalised through first-hand experience in virtual worlds.

  • 326.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gender-Bending in Virtual Space: Using Voice-Morphing in Second Life to Raise Sociolinguistic Gender Awareness2011In: Learning a Language in Virtual Worlds: A Review of Innovation and ICT in Language Teaching Methodology, International Conference, Warsaw, 17th November 2011 / [ed] Sławomir Czepielewski, Warsaw: Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration , 2011, p. 54-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One aim of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying sociolinguistics. Several experiments have been conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice-morphing” allowed students to be exposed to, or experience different linguistic identities. In the following paper, we describe four such experiments.In the First one, we recreated a classic sociolinguistic experimental design, the so-called matched-guise test, in order to test whether our female students were evaluated differently on various personal characteristics when they appeared as male avatars. Contrary to previous match-guise studies, our results showed that all the females were more positively evaluated than all the ‘males’. However, this overall pattern was very likely a result of the poor quality of the female-to-male voice-morph. In the second experiment, students were offered the possibility of experiencing the opposite gender in a cross-cultural course setting in SL, in order to reflect over how this “gender change” affected the way they were treated in conversations. Only one student took this opportunity leaving few conclusions, except awareness of the ethically problematic aspects of such arrangements. In the third experiment, we used voice-morphing in SL to raise students’ awareness of how gender stereotypes can influence their perception of teachers. In addition to the real (male) teacher, we created two voice-morphed teacher assistant avatars in SL, one male and one female. Student evaluations showed that they were partly influenced by stereotypes and partly not. The design of the experiment was criticized by the students, however, as they felt that they had had too little time with the teacher assistants to evaluate them properly and therefore gave average ratings. In the fourth study we used similar characters as in the previous study, but in an online lecture during which the real teacher spoke as himself and also gave talks, one as his female and one as his male 55PhD student. The students listening to the lecture evaluated the female PhD student as more likeable and the male PhD student as more intelligent. After, the design was revealed and the students reflected extensively on the result and how unconscious gender stereotypes influence how we judge people. The models and studies presented here point to the potential of virtual worlds as tools for awareness-raising activities regarding gender as a social construct

  • 327.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Raising language awareness using digital media: methods for revealing linguistic stereotyping2016In: Research methods for creating and curating data in the digital humanities / [ed] Matt Hayler and Gabrielle Griffin, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, p. 158-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether we are aware of it or not, language is at the heart of the mechanisms leading to stereotyping and inequality. It is one of the major factors that we evaluate when we meet others, and it has long been demonstrated that individuals are judged in terms of intellect and other character traits on the basis of their language output (e.g. Cavallaro & Chin 2009). We also adapt our own language to fit underlying norms and preconceived social stereotypes when we communicate with others. In this way, we help to shape individuals through the way we treat them linguistically, and social identity expressed through language is consequently something that is renegotiated during every meeting between humans (Crawford 1995). An awareness of such mechanisms is especially important for teachers.

    In most language courses aimed at student teachers of various levels, students are given a theoretical overview of research on aspects related to identity (gender, ethnicity, social class etc.) and language. But however well intended, there is a real danger that research focussed on identifying differences also strengthens stereotypes. Further, there is a risk that such theoretical knowledge remains just that; creating the link between so-called factual knowledge – for example, theoretical frameworks and previous studies – and internalized knowledge, applicable in our everyday lives, is especially challenging. This is particularly true in the domain of language, where metalinguistic knowledge ideally should be translated into professional language practice, a key skill for anyone working with human interaction.

    The Chapter explores  preliminary experiments conducted in 2011 where we were able to use digital media in order manipulate identity variables such as gender, and describes the aim of the current project - to further develop and explore experiential pedagogic approaches aimed at raising sociolinguistic language awareness about conceived identity-related phenomena in language, and to systematically test the effects of these methods. The project thereby combines the fields of sociolinguistics, social psychology and digital humanities in an innovative way with the objective to produce tested methods for exposing and combatting linguistic stereotyping. 

  • 328.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zelime, Justin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Towards a framework for investigating Language-in-education policies in second-language medium of instruction contexts2014In: Island Studies, ISSN 1694-2582, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have shown that Second Language (L2) Medium of Instruction (MoI) policies in Africa are linked to educational inequity, substandard teaching practice, low literacy skills and poor overall academic performance. In the light of this background, this paper proposes a framework for making more thorough enquiries into questions related to L2 as MoI, L2 writing and academic success. The framework uses the Seychelles, a small island nation in the Indian Ocean, as its point of departure. Here the L1, Seychelles Creole, is used as MoI during the first two years of education and is then abruptly replaced by English – a practice model typical in the region. Given that primary six and secondary five national exams indicate that many learners have limited literacy skills in English, it is reasonable to postulate that current policies may contribute to educational inequity, especially given that the present-day system relies heavily on written examinations.

    Taking its vantage point from a Social Practice (Street, 1984) model of literacy (Purcell-Gates, Perry & Briseño, 2011), the proposed framework approaches the “problem” from several perspectives such as curriculum questions related to L2 and L1 literacy and how/whether these live up to practical student needs; the learner perspective and how external factors may affect learners’ prerequisites to acquire adequate L2 literacy skills; teaching aspects that may affect learning; the role of L1 literacy in L2 literacy development, and sociolinguistic factors such as the status of the languages in question in society. An eclectic approach is proposed in order to shed more light on the effects of L2 MoI in the Seychelles, with the ultimate aim to provide a more informed foundation for future educational policy making. The proposed framework is highly relevant for all post-colonial contexts where L2s are used as MoIs.

  • 329.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Ädel, Anneli
    Stockholms universitet.
    Garettson, Gregory
    Walker, Terry
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Introducing Mini-McCALL: a pilot version of the Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning2009In: ICAME journal, ISSN 0801-5775, no 33, p. 21-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present Mini-McCALL, a 1.3-million-word corpus of computer-mediated communication in the context of online English university courses.The data consist of three types of written communication – both between students and between students and teachers – in English: discussion forum messages, e-mail messages, and documents handed in as assignments.This pilot corpus comprises the first stage of a proposed 10-million-word corpus of computer-assisted language learning based on the online English courses offered by the Department of Humanities at Mid-Sweden University (Mittuniversitetet).In what follows, we first consider e-learning – online, off-campus study,where the medium of instruction and communication involves computer technology– from a theoretical perspective, and the need for such a corpus as ours to facilitate research into this new learning environment, as well as into the language used in e-learning. We then describe the structure and content of Mini-McCALL and highlight both the research potential of the material and studiescurrently underway, as well as looking forward to the future development of the full Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (McCALL).Both Mini-McCALL and the ultimate McCALL corpus will be made freely available to the research community.

  • 330.
    Domellöf, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    I oss är en mångfald levande: Karin Boye som kritiker och prosamodernist1986Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe Karin Boye as a critic and a modernist novel writer. The material consists of Karin Boye's works, articles from newspapers and periodicals and secondary sources. The method applied is a critical investigation of basic hermeneutic principles with special reference to sexual/textual politics.

    The introductory survey of the development of critical methods in the Swedish literary institution from 1925 to 1935 shows the total domination of traditional hermeneutic methods based on an idealistic conception of man and on aesthetic norms and ideological presumptions inherited from the 19th century novel. The reception of Karin Boyes novels 1931—1934 shows to what extent patriarchal ideology also informed the critical terms. In later research on Karin Boye the interpretation of her early novels has never been questioned. Nor has her position as an introducer of the new modernist aesthetics as an editor of the avantgarde journal Spektrum or as a critic in the left wing press been regarded as a factor to take into account.

    In Spektrum Karin Boye formulates a radical program which combines the new aesthetics with the social situation of the time as well as with psychoanalytic theory. Karin Boye's awareness that the medium — language — was part of the modern writer's dilemma led her to explore new methods of representation. Like other modernists Karin Boye shows a desire for inclusive - ness. She looks for literary forms that can bring together the full complexity of modern experience in a meaningful way. Karin Boye stresses that the shift from traditional literary conventions to a new way of representation demands of the reader a far more active participation in understanding the work of art.

    In her novels Astarte, Merit vaknar and Kris Karin Boye develops her ideas of poetic language, which could have an emancipatory function in the life of modern man. She uses an experimental method to criticize the rationalism of the Platonic tradition. Karin Boyes way of organizing the text involves irony, the use of analogy and the mythical method. She also lets the novels draw attention to themselves as works of art, emphasizing that they are subject to the techniques of presentation the novelist adopts. A matter of special inquiry is the connection between women's liberation and the female writer's use of images, symbols and myths. The works of Karin Boye show an interesting relationship between feminism and modernism.

  • 331.
    Drewett, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Curses, Ogres and Lesbians: An Examination of the Subversion and Perpetuation of Fairy Tale Norms in Two Adaptations of Beauty and The Beast2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fairy tales as a form of social acculturation can subvert and/or perpetuate potentially harmful social norms. In this essay, Chris Anne Wolfe’s lesbian romance novel Bitter Thorns (1994) and the film Shrek (2001) are analysed as adaptations of the fairy tale Beauty and the Beast, with a focus on the extent to which they challenge and/or reinforce three fairy tale norms: women as tradeable objects, heteronormativity and idealised beauty. Both these texts can be seen as subversive, Bitter Thorns in how it challenges heteronormativity and Shrek in how it challenges the norm of idealised beauty. This subversion, however, is limited, as both texts do more to perpetuate fairy tale norms than to challenge them. They both reinforce the idea of women as objects for trade, Bitter Thorns perpetuates the norm of idealised beauty, and Shrek advocates heteronormative relationships and the dominance of heterosexual masculinity.

  • 332.
    Drewett, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Women, Animals and Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Approach to Margaret Atwood's The Edible Woman and Michel Faber's Under the Skin2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, Margaret Atwood’s The Edible Woman and Michel Faber’s Under the Skin are analysed from the perspective of feminist-vegetarian critical theory. Both texts deal with the idea of feeling like or being meat, but approach this idea from different angles. In The Edible Woman, the connection to feeling like meat is metaphorical and rooted in gender relations, while in Under the Skin, it is literal, related to the idea of being animal. What becomes clear through an analysis of these two texts is that they both deal with the interlocking oppressions of women and animals. In The Edible Woman, protagonist Marian loses her subjectivity and stops eating meat when, as a result of the dynamics of her relationship with her boyfriend (later fiancé), she starts identifying with animals that are hunted or eaten. In Under the Skin, the alien protagonist Isserley, as female, non-human and in her natural form looking like a kind of mammal, represents both women and animals in her objectifying returned gaze on human men. Examining these two texts together highlights the interlocking nature of patriarchy and speciesism, and shows how these oppressions are better understood in relation to each other.

  • 333.
    Droguett Gonzalez, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    När X blir Y: En genusanalys om hur könsroller i Stephenie Meyers roman Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined gestaltas genom genderswap.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ämnar att analysera genderswap tekniken i Stephenie Meyers bok Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined ur ett genusperspektiv. Uppsatsen förhåller sig till Lena Gemzöes bok Feminism där genusproblematiker diskuteras. Uppsatsen avser att jämföra Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined med original boken Twilight för att undersöka om det finns könsskillnader mellan huvudkaraktärerna Bella och Beau och hur genderswap påverkar detta.

    Analysen visar att via genderswap lyckas man framhäva skillnaderna mellan Bella och Beau i förhållande till våld, familjesfären och manliga privilegier. Via ett genderswap visar Meyer på hur den kvinnliga stereotypen fortfarande präglar Bella som kvinnlig karaktär och hur Beau som Bellas respektive manliga version framhäver existerande problematiker inom berättelsen. Jag argumenterar att analysen om genderswap driver till diskussion om hur könsroller gestaltas i Meyers två böcker och skapar utrymme för vidare diskussion inom ämnet. 

  • 334.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Difficult to read or difficult to solve?: The role of natural language and other semiotic resources in mathematics tasks2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When students solve mathematics tasks, the tasks are commonly given as written text, usually consisting of natural language, mathematical notation and different types of images. This is one reason why reading and interpreting such texts are important parts of being mathematically proficient, at least within the school context. The ability utilized when dealing with aspects of mathematical text is denoted in this thesis as a mathematical reading ability; this ability is useful when reading mathematical language, for example, in task text. There is, however, a lack of knowledge of what characterizes this mathematical language, what students need to learn regarding the mathematical language, and exactly which mathematical language that tests should preferably assess. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge of aspects of difficulty related to textual features in mathematics tasks. In particular, one aim is to distinguish between a difficulty that has to do with a mathematical ability and another that has not. Different types of text analyses are utilized to capture textural features that might be demanding for the students when reading and solving mathematics tasks. Aspects regarding vocabulary are investigated both in a literature review and in a study where corpora are used to analyse word commonness. Other textual analyses focus on textual features that concern mathematical notation and images, besides natural language. Statistical methods are used to analyse potential relations between the textual features of interest and both task difficulty and task demand on reading ability. The results from the research review are sparse regarding difficult vocabulary, since few of the reviewed studies analyses word aspects separately. Several of the analysed textual features are related to aspects of difficulty. The results show that tasks with more words that are uncommon both in a mathematical context and in an everyday context, may favour students with good reading ability rather than students with good mathematical ability. Another textual feature that is likely to be demanding for students, is if the task texts contains many meaning relations, for example, when several words refer to the same or similar object. These results have implications for the school practice both regarding textual features that are important from an educational perspective and regarding the construction of tests. The research does also contribute to an understanding of what characterizes a mathematical language.

  • 335.
    Eckeskog, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Varför knackar han inte bara på?: en studie om arbete med läsförståelse i åk 1-22013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe, analyze and explore how five teachers work with reading comprehension in grade one and grade two, ages 7 and 8. My approach was ethnographically inspired and data was collected through observations, teachers´ diaries and interviews. The findings indicate that in the observed teachers´ classroom students' language skills were central. In order to teach the students how to use strategies in their own reading, teachers trained the students to use strategies while reading aloud to them. When reading aloud to the students, focus was on reading comprehension but sometimes texts were used by the teachers as tools to teach strategies.  The teachers seemed to think that students first have to learn to read (decode) before working with strategies for reading comprehension during individual reading. In the classrooms a substantial amount of time was spent on dialogue, both before as well as during reading texts aloud. When the teachers asked questions, vocabulary was often focused. The teachers also asked about spelling and punctuation in the text. The questions were mostly aimed at controlling or inferencing the children but the teachers also asked questions where factual knowledge was needed. Regardless of the type of questions the teacher poses, the students respond with comments or inferences. The types of questions that the teacher asked of a text tend to be dominant when the children were invited to ask questions themselves. The teachers in the study were pleased with the students' development and performance in reading comprehension and the students seemed interested to read themselves and to listening to the teachers reading aloud. Children used reading comprehension strategies when listening to teachers reading, but it is unclear to what extent they use it to their individual reading.

  • 336.
    Edin, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vad påverkar klarspråk?: En kvalitativ undersökning av arbetet med klarspråk på Sveriges riksdag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka vad som påverkar klarspråksarbetet på

    Sveriges riksdag. Materialet består av enskilda intervjuer med fyra textgranskare på

    Riksdagsförvaltningen, enheten riksdagstryck. Fokus ligger på granskningen av

    betänkanden. De teman som undersöks är textgranskarnas syn på mottagarna,

    textgranskarnas tolkning av klarspråk, huruvida textgranskarna följer rådande

    klarspråksnormer, vilka redskap textgranskarna har att tillgå i arbetet med klarspråk samt

    vilka hinder respektive möjligheter som finns för klarspråk inom verksamheten. Resultaten

    visar att arbetet med klarspråk på riksdagen påverkas av flera olika faktorer, bland annat

    riksdagens traditioner vad gäller arbetssätt och skrivsätt. Främst tycks textgranskarnas

    möjlighet att påverka betänkandena, också på ett tidigt stadium, och deras kommunikation

    med skribenterna vara av vikt för att utveckla klarspråksarbetet. En seriös satsning genom ett

    klarspråksprojekt skulle kunna ge textgranskarna möjligheten att komma in tidigare i

    processen när betänkandena blir till och utveckla kontakten med skribenterna. Baserat på

    resultatet drar jag slutsatsen att man kan anta att god kommunikation mellan skribenter och

    textgranskare samt både skribenters och textgranskares möjlighet att påverka texterna de

    arbetar med har en positiv inverkan på klarspråksarbetet i en verksamhet.

  • 337.
    Edin Waldenborg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Att fånga livet med få ord: Kristin Lavransdotter genom Alice Munros ögon - novellens möjligheter och begränsningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 338.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    A Country Maid and her Diary: Methodological Reflections on Historical Literacy Practices2013In: White Field, Black Seeds: Nordic Literacy Practices in the Long Nineteenth Century / [ed] Anna Kuismin & M. J. Driscoll, Helsingfors: Finnish Literature Society, 2013, p. 89-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Att läsa och att skriva: Två vågor av vardagligt skriftbruk i Norden 1800–20002012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skriftteknologi har funnits i mänsklighetens tjänst i mer än 5000 år. I Norden är det först under de senaste tvåhundra åren som teknologin blivit tillgänglig för en bredare allmänhet.

    Under perioden 1800–2000 svepte två vågor av skriftbruk in över den industrialiserade delen av världen: en första våg som förde med sig alfabetisering, en andra med digitalisering. Vågorna har bland annat inneburit att skrift tagit allt större plats i människors vardagsliv, det man kallar vardagligt skriftbruk.

    I bokens tolv artiklar ges en tvärvetenskaplig belysning av vardagens läsande och skrivande. Författarna kommer från många olika ämnen: här medverkar historiker, bokhistoriker, didaktiker, etnologer, språkvetare och litteraturvetare. Artiklarna behandlar exempelvis vardagligt skriftbruk i 1800-talets skillingtryck, dagböcker och brev, 1900-talets vykort och allsångshäften – och vardagligt skriftbruk hos skolelever idag och dess konsekvenser för skrivundervisning i skolan. De flesta artiklarna är skrivna ur ett svenskt perspektiv, men placeras in i ett literacy-historiskt nordiskt sammanhang. En artikel behandlar också vardagligt skriftbruk på Island under 1800-talet.

    Antologin är ett resultat av den tvärvetenskapliga och nordiska samverkan som ägt rum inom nätverket ”Vardagligt skriftbruk. Diakrona perspektiv på literacy i Sverige och övriga Norden” och som åren 2009–2012 finansierats av Stiftelsen Riksbankens Jubileumsfond.

  • 340.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Att skriva fram ett modernt jag: dagboken som vardaglig skriftpraktik under tidigt 1900-tal2017In: Mellannorrland i centrum: språkliga och historiska studier tillägnade professor Eva Nyman / [ed] Lars-Erik Edlund & Elzbieta Strzelecka, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2017, p. 291-310Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Att skriva vykort: En vardaglig skriftpraktik i början av 1900-talet2012In: Att läsa och att skriva: Två vågor av vardagligt skriftbruk i Norden 1800–2000 / [ed] Ann-Catrine Edlund, Umeå: Umeå universitet & Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2012, p. 137-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Writing Postcards. A Vernacular Writing Practice from the Early 20th Century

    Several new writing practices have developed in the traces of the digital revolution, e.g. blogs, texting, email and Facebook. Around the turn of the 2oth century, the result of something that can be described as a revolution in technology of writing could also be seen. By then, ordinary people had gained access to the writing technology and they were using more and more writing in their everyday life. Old and new writing practices developed in connection with artefacts such as letters, diaries, songbooks and postcards.  The postcard was introduced as a new medium for communication in Europe, for short and quick messages. The postcard has a lot in common with today’s growing digital writing practices, such as texting, with regard to the length of the message, new writing conventions and the fast spreading of the writing practice. The postcard was also multimodal with both pictures and text, and the limited writing space led to new and simplified writing conventions. The new media and its writing practices very soon became a huge success among the general public. In this article, the growth of the writing practice of the postcard is presented and placed in a literacy-theoretical context with the help of the concepts of vernacular literacy and vernacular literacy practice. The writing practice of the postcard has not yet been investigated in a Swedish literacy context. The article points towards possible issues that can be further investigated from a literacy perspective.

  • 342.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Då säljakt bedrevs: En tillbakablick på 1900-talets säljakt via jägarnas ord för säl2001In: Sälen - problem och resurs: Konferens den 3-4 april i Umeå, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien , 2001, p. 59-65Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Ekosemantik: Ett ekologiskt perspektiv på kategorisering av sälar2000In: Studier i svensk språkhistoria 5: Förhandlingar vid femte sammankomsten för svenska språkets historia. Umeå 20-22 november 1997., Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2000, p. 151-162Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    En säljägare från Obbola berättar2006In: Obbola krönika, ISSN 1404-1766, p. 37-41Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 345.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages.
    Ett rum för dagen: en studie av två kvinnors dagboksskrivande i norrländsk jordbruksmiljö2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book, ”Room for the Day”, a form of vernacular literacy is studied, the diary writing of two women in northern Sweden in the 1930s and 1940s. The two women have a common denominator, in that they both earned their own living and lived in simple circumstances. Julia Englund (1882–1951) lived and worked in a fishing environment on the coast of Norrbotten, and Linnéa Johansson (1917–2006) in an agrarian environment in the inland of Västerbotten. Julia’s diaries are preserved from the period 1932–48. Linnéa began her lifelong diary writing in 1934 at the age of 17. In this book the diaries written between 1934 and 1942 are studied, during a period when Linnéa mainly worked as a maid. Julia and Linnéa are thus in two different phases of life during the investigated writing periods. Julia is upper middle age and Linnéa is young. Both women’s use of writing is limited to vernacular literacy.

    The two women’s work situation is characterized by mobility. Julia, who shared her household with her brother, lived in the archipelago during the summer and autumn, where she fished for herring and bleak together with her brother. In winter and spring they lived in Bensbyn where Julia weaved carpets which she sold in the nearby town of Luleå. The sales journeys to Luleå did not just involve geographical mobility, but social mobility as well, since Julia’s customers were found in a middle-class environment. That way she moved between different social environments. Linnéa’s work situation involved geographical mobility as well, which in addition gave her experiences of different social environments. During the nine years that she earns her own living she works for 18 different employers and changes her place of work some 30 times. As a maid she also comes in close contact with an unfamiliar middle-class environment when she worked for the itinerant agricultural consultant, the inspector and the clergyman.

    In this study, diary writing is regarded as a literary practice, which can be placed in a wider theoretical context, within the field of research comprehensively calledethnography of communication, where human communication is studied with a combination of linguistic and anthropological methods. My point of departure is the field of research known as new literacy, where methods from ethnography of communication are used in the study of writing. Literacy is understood as a set of social practices, illustrated with the term literacy practice. Literacy practices are located in time and space and thereby located in a specific time and a specific place.

    That diary writing is part of a social practice may seem to be a problematic argument. A social practice is normally an interplay with other individuals or groups of individuals, which isn’t the case here. But the literacy event is here perceived as part of a social practice, based on the assumption that the literacy event is part of a process of identity construction – a process where the writer has a dialogue with herself, using writing as technique, and pen and paper as tool. In the daily literacy event, individual activities and experiences are made visible at the same time that the writer positions herself in relation to the social contexts that she, as an individual, is a part of.

    By using the diary text as a basis it is possible to investigate how the subjective identity, also called the self, is formed. The continuous narrative in people’s lives is regarded as a fundamental condition for the forming of the self. The theoretical inspiration to the forming of the self has mainly been derived from the philosopher Seyla Benhabib and the historian Joan Scott. Both emphasize the individual’s own participation in the processes of identity construction, where each separate individual is assumed to be a co-creator in the narrative about his or her life.

    Separate individuals thus possess a certain room of manoeuver and it is therefore possible for them to influence their situation. This means that I see Julia Englund and Linnéa Johansson as co-creators in the narratives about their lives, in the story or stories that construct their respective selves. One of these narratives is the written text that develops in their diary writing.

    Naturally, Julia Englund and Linnéa Johansson are not sole participants in the forming of their life stories, in the construction of their selves. There are several cultural and social conditions, related to the construction of identity, which are specific for the time and the place where they both lived and worked. With Seyla Benhabib’s terminology they have “many established stories” to relate to, while Joan Scott states that they are “being subject to definite conditions of existence”. That way the diary material makes it possible to study one identity constructing process where the subjective identity, the self, is both created and recreated.

    The comprehensive aim of my study of the practice of diary writing is to analyse the functions of the literacy practice for the two diary writers Julia Englund and Linnéa Johansson: Why do two women with little writing experience keep diaries in the northernmost parts of Sweden in the 1930s? What are the functions of their literacy practice? The comprehensive issue is also related to issues concerning identity. How do Julia and Linnéa represent their selves in the narrative which develops in their diary writing?

    I also pose the question whether the literacy practice has consequences for the women’s room of manoeuver: Does the literacy practice entail an increased room of manoeuver for Julia and Linnéa? Is it possible for them, via their diary writing, to engage in activities which would be difficult to perform in other ways in their historical and social position? I have chosen to apply a spatial perspective to the material and the issues of research. Primarily this means that the diary is regarded as a written room. Secondly it means that I also take spatial dimensions into consideration in discussing the life situation of the writers.

    Both Julia Englund and Linnéa Johansson write regularly in their diaries. The continuity of their writing indicates that the literacy practice has been very valuable for both of them. In Julia’s text I have been able to discern three lived rooms inside the walls of the diary: the room of business, the room of faith and the room of household. In the room of business, Julia’s activities relating to fishing, weaving and sales are noted. In the room of faith her practice of faith in the Baptist parish, where she was active, is documented. In the third room, the room of household, the work connected with the care of her home is documented. Julia is the principal character in her text, and only a few other actors appear. Julia is mainly visible in the room of business and in the room of faith, but also to a certain extent in the room of household where she writes more sporadically.

    The character of Linnéa Johansson’s literacy practice changes during the investigated period. In her initial dairy writing in the agrarian environment, the farm is in focus. Linnéa herself seems to be barely present in the written room. The man on the farm is the main character, and apart from him there is a vast gallery of characters, consisting of all the visitors who come to the farm. But in Linnéa’s literacy practice in the unfamiliar middle-class environment, Linnéa herself is the centre and not the household. In this written room Linnéa is the sole main character. It is Linnéa’s work which is made visible in the written room, and it is Linnéa’s free time, and her joys and sorrows, which take up space. There is a relatively detailed account of her own chores here. The room which the literacy practice creates in the middle-class environment is built for Linnéa’s own needs. In this strange environment she needs someone to talk to, and that is how she uses her diary. Thus, in Umeå, Linnéa initiates a literacy practice where she is a more obvious subject – in an environment where she was alone and vulnerable. She also brings parts of the literacy practice which she establishes in the middle-class environment to her continued writing in the agrarian environment.

    The literacy practice can be said to fill two practical functions. Julia Englund’s literacy practice constitutes a tentative beginning of a small business account. In the room of business, economic data which are important for Julia’s business activities are written down, albeit in an informal way. The diary writing can also be regarded as a chance for both women to practise their writing skills. They are here provided with a chance to daily practise their formal writing skills. Their writing also involves training in mastering the norms of the written language, which markedly differed from the spoken language that both these dialect speaking writers used.

    In diary writing there is a general connection between literacy event and identity – a connection which concerns all different forms of diary writing. The recurring and regular literacy event in itself gives continuity and constancy to the writer’s identity. In the diary, everyday experiences are written into a narrative about the passage of time where the moment’s fleeting experience is given a permanent form through writing. Maybe the need for constancy and continuity was extra emphasized in Julia and Linnéa, because of their respective work situation which was strongly characterized by mobility.

    The literacy practice contributes to providing the self with continuity and it also has a confirming function. Both Julia and Linnéa confirm their professional activities. Julia confirms her craftsmanship, and Linnéa gives written confirmation to parts of the maid’s chores. The two women are also provided with a chance to confirm the hardships they encounter in their work, and thus they can also make shorter reflections about their work situation. On a few occasions Julia complains that her work is hard and tiring. The maid Linnéa often confirms the difficulties she encounters in her work, mainly in the middle-class environment. They also both confirm strong feelings. In both women’s texts there are strong emotional expressions. They don’t occur too often, but they are there. Julia expresses strong feelings of sorrow and regret, while Linnéa writes down her feelings of abandonment and loneliness in an equally strong way. The use of a signature, which is sometimes frequent in Linnéa’s texts, can also be seen as a confirmation and a mark of her own identity.

    In both women’s diary writings there are only a few elements with an exploratory function. Julia Englund has sometimes written down two versions of one and the same event, for example the death of her sister Mina. The literary practice has here given her an opportunity to explore new ways of looking at life by testing different forms of expression. In one respect one might also say that Linnéa Johansson literary practice is exploratory. In 1939–40 Linnéa changes her last name fromJohansson to Robertsson on some ten occasions when she writes her signature. The name change stems from a wish to change her last name, but to do so was unthinkable. But the writing gives her a chance to explore how it would feel to bear the name of Robertsson, to explore and try out an alternative identity.

    The literacy practice can be said to have given the women a somewhat increased room of manoeuver. Julia’s room of manoeuver is enlarged in relation to the two public rooms that she participates in – the room of business and the room of faith. Because of her business activities she often spent time in the public rooms of the town on her sales journeys. In her literacy practice she makes her competence, her capacity and her customer’s positive evaluations visible. In the room of faith she writes down critical comments of courses of events in the Baptism parish that she is a member of, and here she expresses both concern and negative criticism. The critical comments are, however, few, but are given more weight in that they so markedly differ from her otherwise positive and tolerant attitude. The literacy practice thus gives her a better chance to confirm the value of her own work in the room of business, and a chance to express questioning comments in the room of faith.

    Linnéa Johansson’s increased room of manoeuvre can be related to a private sphere, in relation to the private employers that she worked for as a maid. Through her literacy practice she gets a chance to confirm the work that she has done and at the same time complain about the hardships connected to her work. The literacy practice also makes a challenging activity possible; a careful questioning of her employer’s social position. Thanks to the literacy practice she also gets a chance to explore a new identity. Only in the written room can she assume the name of Linnéa Robertsson.

    In conclusion I will state that both Julia’s and Linnéa’s literacy practice has had a strengthening effect on their subjective identity. It is mainly their professional identity that was strengthened but also their self confidence. Their literacy practice did not began with this aim in mind, and it is probably uncertain whether they were aware of this strengthening function. But maybe it is also this strengthening effect that was the driving force behind their long-standing literacy practice.

  • 346.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Från avskrift till egen textproduktion: Två ångermanländska visböcker från 1930-tal2003In: Ord i Nord: Vänskrift till Lars-Erik Edlund 16 augusti 2003, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2003, p. 33-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Introduction2014In: Vernacular Literacies - Past, Present and Future / [ed] Ann-Catrine Edlund, Lars-Erik Edlund, Susanne Haugen, Umeå: Umeå universitet och Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2014, p. 5-11Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kan män vara sjuksköterskor och kvinnor brandmän?: Om sambandet mellan yrkesbeteckningar och kön2004In: Den könsuppdelade arbetsmarknaden: Betänkande av utredningen om den könssegregerade svenska arbetsmarknaden, Stockholm: Fritzes offentliga publikationer , 2004, p. 263-280Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 349.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages.
    Kan män vara sjuksköterskor och kvinnor brandmän? Om sambandet mellan yrkesbeteckningar och kön2004In: Den könsuppdelade arbetsmarknaden:: betänkande av utredningen om den könssegregerade svenska arbetsmarknaden / [ed] Statens offentliga utredningar, Stockholm, 2004, p. 263-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kustbefolkningen och sälen2003In: Kustbefolkningen och gråsälen i Kvarken, p. 8-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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