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  • 301.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    On the economics of increasing complexity: With some special focus on culture2010In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 59-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution seeks to find a setting in which evolution in terms of changing structure, rather than growth within a given structure, can be modelled. In particular the evolution of increasing complexity is focused. The setting chosen uses Lancasterian property space as an invariant in which the changing, emerging, and disappearing actual implements are property bundles. The aim is to produce a development tree like the Darwinian, and the tool used for modelling the branching bifurcations is catastrophe theory.

  • 302.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    On the Genesis of Hexagonal Shapes2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexagonal shapes for market areas have been dominant in spatial economics ever since Christaller observed them and Lösch explained their emergence in terms of optimality. It is observed in the following that, though hexagons are best, the differences to for instance squares in terms of efficiency are negligibly small. As the existence of hexagonal shapes - in the space economy, as well as in beehives or other patterns of the physical world cannot be denied - a different cause for their emergence is proposed. Such an explanation is structural stability, which allows three market areas, but not four or six, to come together in each common vertex. The focus is hence the way market areas are organized in space, rather than their shape.

  • 303.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    On the genesis of hexagonal shapes2005In: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexagonal shapes for market areas have been dominant in spatial economics ever since Christaller observed them and Losch explained their emergence in terms of optimality. It is observed in the following that, though hexagons are best, the differences to for instance squares in terms of efficiency are negligibly small. As the existence of hexagonal shapes-in the space economy, as well as in beehives or other patterns of the physical world cannot be denied-a different cause for their emergence is proposed. Such an explanation is structural stability, which allows three market areas, but not four or six, to come together in each common vertex. The focus is hence the way market areas are organized in space, rather than their shape.

  • 304.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    On the stability of Cournot equilibrium when the number of competitors increases2008In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 66, no 3–4, p. 445-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reconsiders whether the Cournot equilibrium really becomes a perfect competition equilibrium when the number of competitors goes to infinity. It has been questioned whether the equilibrium remains stable with an increasing number of firms. Contraindications were given for linear and for isoelastic demand functions. However, marginal costs were then taken as constant, which means adding more potentially infinite-sized firms. As we want to compare cases with few large firms to cases with many small firms, the model is tuned so as to incorporate capacity limits, decreasing with an increasing number of firms. Then destabilization is avoided.

  • 305.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    On the Stability of Cournot Equilibrium when the Number of Competitors Increases2008In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 66, no 3-4, p. 445-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reconsiders whether the Cournot equilibrium really becomes a perfect competition equilibrium when the number of competitors goes to infinity. It has been questioned whether the equilibrium remains stable with an increasing number of firms. Contraindications were given for linear and for isoelastic demand functions. However, marginal costs were then taken as constant, which means adding more potentially infinite-sized firms. As we want to compare cases with few large firms to cases with many small firms, the model is tuned so as to incorporate capacity limits, decreasing with an increasing number of firms. Then destabilization is avoided.

  • 306.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Rational expectations and the Cournot-Theocharis problem2006In: Discrete dynamics in nature and society, ISSN 1026-0226, E-ISSN 1607-887X, no 32103, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic models in economics, often “rational expectations” are assumed. These are meant to show that the agents can correctly foresee the result of their own and the other agents' actions. In this paper, it is shown that this cannot happen in a simple oligopoly model with a linear demand function and constant marginal costs. “Naive expectations,” that is, where each agent assumes the other agents to retain their previous period action, are shown to result in a 2-period cycle. However, adapting to the observed periodicity always doubles the actual resulting periodicity. In general, it is impossible for the agents to learn any periodicity except the trivial case of a fixed point. This makes the whole idea of “rational expectations” untenable in Cournot oligopoly models.

  • 307.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Relative Dynamics and the Hicks Trade Cycle Model2004Report (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Smith-Ricardo specialization in the presence of tiring effects2009In: New directions in regional economic development / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Åke E. Andersson, Paul C. Cheshire, Roger R. Stough, Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, p. 47-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Stackelberg Leadership2011In: Oligopol: Old Ends - New Mean / [ed] Tönu Puu, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 69-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    About a Century after Cournot invented duopoly theory (1838), Heinrich von Stackelberg (1934) proposed one of the most original developments of it.

  • 310.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    The Hicksian trade cycle with floor and ceiling dependent on capital stock2007In: Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, ISSN 0165-1889, E-ISSN 1879-1743, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 575-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reconsiders the Hicksian multiplier – accelerator model with ‘floor’ and ‘ceiling’. The new thrust is that these constraints are tied to the actual stock of capital, the floor to the depreciation on this stock, the ceiling to capital as a limiting production factor according to the fixed proportions technology that also underlies the principle of acceleration. For capital formation just the Hicksian investment theory is used. The result is one unified model creating economic growth and growth rate cycles.

  • 311.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    The Hicksian Trade Cycle with Floor and Ceiling Dependent on Capital Stock2007In: Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, ISSN 0165-1889, E-ISSN 1879-1743, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 575-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reconsiders the Hicksian multiplier-accelerator model with 'floor' and 'ceiling'. The new thrust is that these constraints are tied to the actual stock of capital, the floor to the depreciation on this stock, the ceiling to capital as a limiting production factor according to the fixed proportions technology that also underlies the principle of acceleration. For capital formation just the Hicksian investment theory is used. The result is one unified model creating economic growth and growth rate cycles.

  • 312.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    The Hotelling Paradox2011In: Oligopoly: Old Ends - New Means / [ed] Tönu Puu, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 151-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As mentioned in Chap. 1, the so called Bertand variant of oligopoly, with differentiated goods, is a less yielding format for interesting models than the very clear cut original Cournot case. The main reason is the difficulty of quantifying the difference between close substitutes. There is, however, one exception, and that is the 1929 model by Harold Hotelling. In this frame consumers regard the commodity supplied by different competitors as homogenous, but there is a difference between suppliers due to spatial distance from the consumers and the necessary transportation costs. Each producer has its market area, within which it is a monopolist. As the consumers always buy from the cheapest supplier, in terms of mill price plus transportation cost, there is competition at the market boundaries defined through the condition that supply prices break even. If one local monopolist raises mill price, it will see the market area diminished, and with this total demand for its supply.

  • 313.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Travelling waves in a modified Hoteling population model2006In: The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren / [ed] Thomas Aronsson, Roger Axelsson, Runar Brännlund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 246-259Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Unifying Cournot and Stackelberg duopoly in one dynamical system2008In: Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance, Springer-Verlag , 2008, in printChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 315.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Beckmann, Martin
    Continuous Space Modelling2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Urbino, Dept of Economics, Italy.
    Hotelling type duopoly and oligopoly2002In: Oligopoly dynamics: models and tools, Berlin: Springer-verlag , 2002, p. 265-310Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Gardini, Laura
    Department of Economics, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Sushko, Irina
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    A Hicksian multiplier-accelerator model with floor determined by capital stock2005In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 331-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reconsiders the Hicksian multiplier-accelerator model with the “floor” related to the depreciation on actual capital stock. Through the introduction of the capital variable, a growth trend is created endogenously by the model itself, along with growth rate oscillations around it. The “ceiling” can be dispensed with altogether. As everything is growing in such a model, a variable transformation is introduced to focus relative dynamics of the income growth rate and the actual capital output ratio.

  • 318.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Gardini, Laura
    Department of Economics, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Sushko, Irina
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    A Hicksian multiplier-accelerator model with floor determined by capital stock2005In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 331-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reconsiders the Hicksian multiplier-accelerator model with the “floor” related to the depreciation on actual capital stock. Through the introduction of the capital variable, a growth trend is created endogenously by the model itself, along with growth rate oscillations around it. The “ceiling” can be dispensed with altogether. As everything is growing in such a model, a variable transformation is introduced to focus relative dynamics of the income growth rate and the actual capital output ratio.

  • 319.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Gardini, Laura
    Dep. of Economics, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Sushko, Irina
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    A Hicksian Multiplier-Accelerator Model with Floor Determined by Capital Stock and Tongues of Periodicity in a Family of Two-dimensional Discontinuous Maps of Real Möbius Type2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Hicksian Multiplier-Accelerator Model

    This article reconsiders the Hicksian multiplier-accelerator model with the "floor" related to the depreciation on actual capital stock. Through the introduction of the capital variable a growth trend is created endogenously by the model itself, along with growth rate oscillations around it. The "ceiling" can be dispensed with altogether. As everything is growing in such a model, a variable transformation is introduced to the end of focusing relative dynamics of the income growth rate and the actual capital output ratio.

    Tongues of Periodicity in a Family of Two-dimensional Discontinuous Maps of Real Möbius Type

    In this paper we consider a two-dimensional piecewise-smooth discontinuous map representing the so-called "relative dynmics" of an Hicksian business cycle model. The main features of the dynamics occur in the parameter region in which no fixed points at finite distance exist, but we may have attracting cycles of any periods. The bifurcations associated with the periodicity tongues of the map are studied making use of the first return map on a suitable segment of the phase plane. The bifurcation curves bounding the periodicity tongues in the parameter plane are related with saddle-node and border-collision bifurcations of the first-return map. Moreover, the particular "sausages structure" of the bifurcation tongues is also explained.

  • 320.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Urbino, Dept Economics, Italy.
    Sushko, Irina
    National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Cournot duopoly with kinked demand according to Palander and Wald2002In: OLIGOPOLY DYNAMICS: MODELS AND TOOLS, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2002, p. 111-146Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 321.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Urbino, Dept Economics, Italy.
    Sushko, Irina
    Ínstitute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Cournot duopoly with kinked linear demand according to Palander and Wald2002In: Oligopoly Dynamics: Models and Tools, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2002, p. 147-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 322.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Gardini, Laura
    Department of Economics, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Sushko, Irina
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    On the Change of Periodicities in the Hicksian Multiplier-Accelerator Model with a Consumption Floor2006In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 681-696Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hicksian multiplier-accelerator model with “floor” and “ceiling” continues to be the most successful machine generating business cycles. This is, no doubt, due to its capability of explaining both downturn and upswing through one single model. The “ceiling” is due to a full employment constraint, whereas the “floor” is due to a limit to disinvestment when no worn out capital at all is replaced. However, another “floor” to consumption at zero level seems never to have been discussed. Hence, net disinvestments, even if they are bounded downwards, may also give rise to negative consumption, which is absurd. As we will show, the effect of an additional constraint to avoid this is easy to analyze, and results in a change of the periodicities according to a simple rule.

  • 323.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Gardini, Laura
    Department of Economics, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Sushko, Iryna
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    On the change of periodicities in the Hicksian multiplier-accelerator model with a consumption floor2006In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 681-696Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 324.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Marin, Manuel Ruiz
    Univ Politecn Cartagena, Dpto Metodos Cuantitativos & Informat, Spain.
    The dynamics of a triopoly Cournot game when the competitors operate under capacity constraints2006In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 403-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers Cournot oligopoly with three competitors, given an iso-elastic demand function, and cost functions that asymptotically go to infinity when capacity limits are approached. It is shown that for some parameter values (capacity limits) the Cournot equilibrium point loses stability through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. In addition global bifurcation scenarios are simulated numerically, and some are illustrated through Arnol'd tongues in the parameter plane.

  • 325.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Marín, Manuel Ruíz
    Facultad de C.C. de la Empresa, Dpto. Métodos Cuantitativos e Informáticos, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain.
    The dynamics of a triopoly Cournot game when the competitors operate under capacity constraints2006In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 403-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers Cournot oligopoly with three competitors, given an iso-elastic demand function, and cost functions that asymptotically go to infinity when capacity limits are approached. It is shown that for some parameter values (capacity limits) the Cournot equilibrium point loses stability through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. In addition global bifurcation scenarios are simulated numerically, and some are illustrated through Arnol’d tongues in the parameter plane.

  • 326.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Norin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Cournot duopoly when the competitors operate under capacity constraints2003In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 577-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers Cournot duopoly where the competitors have capacity constraints. An isoelastic demand function, which always results when consumers maximise utility functions of the Cobb–Douglas type, is used. It has been demonstrated that isoelastic demand, combined with constant marginal costs, results in complex dynamics. The purpose of the present paper is to reconsider the case, using in stead cost functions with capacity limits. This is a point on which Edgeworth insisted as important. Comparisons between cases of few large and many small competitors cannot be made when firms have constant returns and hence are all infinitely large in potential.

  • 327.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Norin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Cournot duopoly when the competitors operate under capacity constraints2003In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 577-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers Cournot duopoly where the competitors have capacity constraints. An isoelastic demand function, which always results when consumers maximise utility functions of the Cobb–Douglas type, is used. It has been demonstrated that isoelastic demand, combined with constant marginal costs, results in complex dynamics. The purpose of the present paper is to reconsider the case, using in stead cost functions with capacity limits. This is a point on which Edgeworth insisted as important. Comparisons between cases of few large and many small competitors cannot be made when firms have constant returns and hence are all infinitely large in potential.

  • 328.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Norin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Cournot Duopoly when the Competitors Operate under Capacity Constraints2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper considers Cournot duopoly where the competitors have capacity constraints. An isoelastic demand function, which always results when consumers maximise utility functions of the CobbDouglas type, is used. It has been demonstrated that isoelastic demand, combined with constant marginal costs, results in complex dynamics. The purpose of the present paper is to reconsider the case, using in stead cost functions with capacity limits. This is a point on which Edgeworth insisted as important. Comparisons between cases of few large and many small competitors cannot be made when firms have constant returns and hence are all infinitely large in potential.

  • 329.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Panchuk, Anastasiia
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Oligopoly and stability2009In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 2505-2516Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Ruiz, Manuel
    Investment decisions reconsidered: the case of imperfect capital markets2008In: Problems and Perspectives in Management, ISSN 1727-7051, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sushko, Irina
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    A business cycle model with cubic nonlinearity2004In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 597-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a simple multiplier-accelerator model of the business cycle, including a cubic nonlinearity. The corresponding two dimensional iterative map is represented in terms of its bifurcation diagram in parameter space. A number of bifurcation sequences for attractors and their basins are studied.

  • 332.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sushko, Irina
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine.
    A Business Cycle Model with Cubic Nonlinearity2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a simple multiplier-accelerator model of the business cycle, including a cubic nonlinearity. The corresponding two dimensional iterative map is represented in terms of its bifurcation diagram in parameter space. A number of bifurcation sequences for attractors and their basins are studied.

  • 333.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sushko, Irina
    Institute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine.
    A business cycle model with cubic nonlinearity2004In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 597-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a simple multiplier-accelerator model of the business cycle, including a cubic nonlinearity. The corresponding two dimensional iterative map is represented in terms of its bifurcation diagram in parameter space. A number of bifurcation sequences for attractors and their basins are studied.

  • 334.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sushko, IrinaInstitute of Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Business Cycle Dynamics: Models and Tools2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sushko, Irina
    Gardini, Laura
    A Goodwin-Type Model with Cubic Investment Function2006In: Business Cycle Dynamics: Models and Tools, Springer-Verlag , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Puu, Tönu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Tramontana, Fabio
    Can Bertrand and Cournot oligopolies be combined?2019In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 125, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been some recent attempts to combine Cournot and Bertrand duopolies in one single model. Unfortunately, these attempts do not work. A commodity cannot be homogenous and non-homogenous at the same time. It is always the consumers, who decide whether they perceive competing products as identical or as different brands for which they are willing to pay different prices. There is, of course, nothing that forbids the coexistence of both such consumer groups. Neither is there any obstacle for the competing sellers to sell to both markets. Then we only need an old idea from economic theory, i.e., price discrimination, to rectify the logic. By this the challenging combination idea comes on a stable footing. The model also results in some interesting mathematical facts, such as mulistability and coexistence of attractors. 

  • 337.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Department of Economics.
    Nordmark, Arvid
    Norrtälje Municipality.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Does Competition Increase Economic Efficiency in Swedish County Councils?2011In: Advances in Management and Applied Economics, ISSN 1792-7544, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish health care system is to a large extent publicly managed by 21 local county councils. During recent years there has been a movement were local county councils have opted to allow more of the production to be performed by alternative producers (i.e., private firms, cooperatives etc.). The purpose of this paper is thus to study if local county councils who has a large proportion of health care performed by alternative producers are more economically efficient than other county councils. The results indicate that county councils with more alternative caregivers are supplying their services more efficiently.

  • 338.
    Rönngren, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Omvärldsbevakning i Västerbotten2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För kommuner, landsting och regionförbund är ett offensivt omvärldsarbete en nödvän-dighet för att långsiktigt kunna bedriva en effektiv verksamhet med god hushållning, utveckla robusta strategier, utvecklas i enlighet med uppsatta mål, kunna upptäcka hot samt nyttja möjligheter.

    Inom projektet ACANALYS har en undersökning genomförts i Västerbotten med syfte att kartlägga hur kommuner, landsting och regionförbund idag arbetar med omvärldsbevakning och omvärldsanalys samt hur samverkan kan utvecklas. I intervjuer med kommunchefer och strateger har information hämtats in, sammanställts och analyserats. En kartläggning har genomförts av kommunernas, landstingets och regionförbundets omvärldsarbete, hur vi samverkar idag kring dessa frågor samt hur aktörerna ser på framtida samverkan kring omvärldsarbetet.

    Resultatet av kartläggningen av omvärldsarbetet i Västerbotten visar att det råder stora variationer i hur man arbetar och vilken vikt man lägger vid omvärldsarbetet. Kartlägg-ningen visar att det i regionen Västerbotten finns en bra grund för omvärldsbevakning men också många möjligheter att utveckla omvärldsarbetet och att det finns vinster med att förbättra samverkan kring omvärldsbevakning och omvärldsanalys. Den visar också på ett behov av en framtida analysenhet som kan hjälpa kommunerna med djupare analyser av omvärlds- och närvärldsinformation som påverkar deras framtida förutsättningar som or-ganisation.

    Här summeras några förslag på möjliga förbättringsåtgärder. Dessa kan ses som utgångspunkter för utvecklingen av omvärldsarbetet i region Västerbotten.

    * Inspiration – hur gör andra? Se och lär av andra kommuner och regioner som arbe-tar systematiskt och samverkar kring omvärldsbevakning.

    * Utbildning – effektiv omvärldsbevakning. Att tala samma språk, att ha en gemen-sam grund ger effektivitet i arbetet.

    * Metodik och systematik – enkel modell. Det måste vara enkelt! Alla har begränsa-de resurser och måste prioritera.

    * Samverkansmodell – hjälpas åt i länet med trendspaning och analys. Här kan vi hjälpa varandra för att alla ska bli starkare både genom trendspaning och etablering av en regional analysenhet.

  • 339.
    Sahlin, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Prissättning av suventionerad kultur: vilka är de internationella erfarenheterna?1996Report (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Sahlén, Klas-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Hälsa På-projektet: Effekter av förebyggande hembesök hos pigga pensionärer i Nordmaling2002Report (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Sandberg, Krister
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Estimation of hedonic prices for co-operative flats in the city of Umeå with spatial autoregressive GMM2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we estimate hedonic prices for cooperative flats in the city of Umeå, Sweden, during 1998 and 1999. Structural and neighborhood characteristics together with accessibility measures are used as attributes in the hedonic price function. Since there are indications of spatial dependence Ordinary Least Squares estimation is inappropriate. Instead Spatial Autoregressive GMM estimation is used. Two attractive nodes, although with different purposes, are found in the city. Thus there are signs supporting the view that Umeå has developed into a multinodal structure for property values.

  • 342.
    Sandberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Rädslans restriktioner: En studie av kvinnors rädsla i Umeå2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this qualitative study is: to explore the new discipline of Geography of fear, and to examine how and why fear of crime is restricting some women’s access to, and activity in, public space. The theoretical frameworks consist of the constraints used in Timegeography, and the literature around the discipline of Geography of fear. This research is founded on an analysis of empirical data from indepth interviews, with eight women in Umeå. An attempt to identify patterns from the stories has been made of the spatial constraints in women’s lives.The fear of crime is partly unrelated to actual victimisation. The women felt that they adopted their life, and made some adjustment in their everyday life. The adjustment where quite small, but they still had an influence on their movability. The women I interviewed all adopted different strategies to feel safer. The dominated strategy were to avoid ”dangerous places” at ”dangerous times”. The more personal strategies were to arm them self with keys or hairspray, or what ever cold come in hand. Women’s inability to use public space freely is not regarded as a serious constraint, but rather as a normal and accepted condition.

  • 343.
    Snickars, Folke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Chans för Norrbotten: Program för CERUMs forskning om Norrbottens utvecklingsproblem1984Report (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Snickars, Folke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Teknisk utveckling och långsiktig regional förnyelse1984Report (Other academic)
  • 345.
    Sondell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Det regionala uppdraget: En fjärde uppgift?1999Report (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Sondell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Halvtidsutvärdering av Interregprojektet Virtual Education Environment MittSkandia1999Report (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Sondell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Population, Planning and Policies1997Report (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Hållbar utveckling och restriktiv markanvändning i Västerbotten2007Report (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Myrlund, Håkan
    IES/Statsvetenskap, Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Holm, Stig-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Stage, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Den hållbara regionen: Om förutsättningar och framtidsmöjligheter för en hållbar samhällsutveckling i Västerbottens län - ett projektförslag2001Report (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Ström, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Att etablera alternativkultur: En rapport om det annorlunda Umeå2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kultur som skapas i en stad eller i en region bidrar till dess goda rykte. Men vad som slår hos en viss publik kan inte alltid förutses. Även Umeås alternativa musikliv har "spritt ordet" om staden vidare ut i världen: Umeå är annorlunda.

    Ett gott rykte som en "alternativ" stad är inte helt lätt att beordra eller administrera fram. Den här rapporten handlar om hur man ändå kan försöka locka det alternativa att etablera sig. Här jämförs två verksamheter inriktade mot ungdomskultur, den ena kommunal, den andra självstyrd, med syfte att hitta styrkor och svagheter. Utifrån denna jämförelse skapas sedan en bild av ett idealt kulturhus.

    En sådan idealbild skulle kunna användas som underlag för diskussioner om principer för styrning och resursfördelning på kulturområdet inte bara i Umeå och i andra västerbottenskommuner utan även i regionen.

    Med hjälp av rapportens idealbild hävdas att kommunala myndigheter har anlednig att uppmärksamma fördelarna med att ett hus styrs ideellt och är självförsörjande. I gengäld bör också husets förvaltare, i den mån de förväntar sig kommunalt stöd, acceptera att lyfta fram verksamhetens allmänna nytta. Det ideala huset bör till exempel kunna anta flera olika identiteter, för att lättare kunna fylla en mångfald av arrangemang.

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