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  • 301.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baseline training in cognitive and psychodynamic psychotherapy during a psychologist training program: Exploring client outcomes in therapies of one or two semesters2012In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 515-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This effectiveness study explored the outcomes of 187 clients seen by 187 students undergoing baseline training in psychotherapy. Clients reduced their symptoms (SCL-90) and increased their positive self-image (SASB introject) during the therapy. Multiple regression analyses showed no differences between the cognitive and the psychodynamic training approaches and no differences between one and two semesters duration of the therapies. However, 2 - 3% of variance in end states was accounted for by the interaction between the variables, indicating a moderating effect of duration in the two approaches. Outcomes for clients in the cognitive training approach were significantly better with two semesters than with one semester, while there was no such difference in the psychodynamic approach. Consequences for baseline training are discussed.

  • 302.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    Barber, Jacques P.
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    Gallop, Robert
    Statistics and Applied Mrthematics, West Chester University, West Chester, USA.
    Crits-Christoph, Paul
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    How many treatment sessions and patients are needed to create a stable score of adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence?2012In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 475-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study utilized a generalizability theory analysis of adherence and competence ratings to evaluate the number of sessions and patients needed to yield dependable scores at the patient and therapist levels. Independent judges' ratings of supportive expressive therapy (n = 94), cognitive therapy (n = 103), and individual drug counseling (n = 98) were obtained on tapes of sessions from the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Generalizability coefficients revealed that, for all three treatments, ratings made on approximately five to 10 sessions per patient are needed to achieve sufficient dependability at the patient level. At the therapist level, four to 14 patients need to be evaluated (depending on the modality), to yield dependable scores. Many studies today use fewer numbers.

  • 303.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Connolly Gibson, Mary Beth
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Barber, Jacques P.
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Gallop, Robert
    Statistics and Applied Mathematics, West Chester University, West Chester, USA.
    Crits-Christoph, Paul
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Do supervisors and independent judges agree on evaluations of therapist adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence?2012In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 720-730Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Novice psychotherapists’ development in professional characteristics and work involvement styles in trainingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about how psychotherapists develop their professional characteristics and work involvement styles during training is scant; in addition, awareness of the need to find answers to how psychotherapy training can best be organized is increasing. This study investigated novice therapists’ development of healing and stressful work involvement in baseline psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided information longitudinally by responding to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ). The results demonstrated that therapists’ healing and stressful work involvement, current therapeutic skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed positively and linearly. Technical expertise changed the most, having a large effect, and relational skills developed moderately. Surprisingly, in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The process of positive and linear development of in-session feelings is important in psychotherapy education. The question becomes how the training should address trainees’ personal issues or countertransference that might affect in-session feelings.

  • 305.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trainee Psychotherapists' Development in Self-Rated Professional Qualities in Training2013In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated changes in trainees’ self-rated experience as a therapist over the course of one practicum treatment case in basic psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided longitudinal information on their healing involvement and stressful work involvement. The results of the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ) demonstrated that trainees’ basic relational skills, technical skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed linearly, with an increasing slope. Technical expertise changed the most, and relational skills developed moderately. In-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The individualized reliable change scores show that the process during training is different for different students. Most students did not change at all, and some students even changed negatively. Investigation of how pedagogic variables affect therapists’ development is necessary to support the professional growth of trainees in their involvement with different types of psychotherapy.

  • 306.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utbildningsterapeuters utveckling av allians och terapeutförmågor: en longitudinell studie2015In: Tidskriften psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, no 3, p. 38-41Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 307.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-image pattern as predictors of change and outcome of trainee-led psychotherapy2011In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the outcome of undergraduate trainee-led psychotherapy and how different self-image patterns explain symptom change. Pre- and post-treatment data from 235 Swedish outpatients were used. Clients were assessed with Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). Outcome effect size was moderate and in line with earlier studies on trainees. Clinical significant change showed that 42% of all clients were recovered or improved after 18 sessions in either training condition PDT or CBT. Regression analysis showed that a more negative self-image and higher levels of self-control before treatment predicted improvement in both psychiatric symptoms and personality factors. A negative self-image, when observed before treatment, can be understood as an increased motivation for change.

  • 308.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relationship between clients' personality traits, working alliance and therapy2017In: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated the relationships between client personality traits, and changes in those traits after cognitive behavioral or psychodynamic short-term therapy, and clients' perceived working alliances with their therapists and their clinical outcomes at a university training clinic in Sweden.

    Design: This was a longitudinal study, with the measures collected at pre- and post-therapy.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 138 clients with moderate psychological symptoms. Personality traits were measured using the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory, a health-relevant instrument that measures five factors.

    Results: The results showed that Antagonism, Impulsivity, Hedonic Capacity, and Negative Affectivity improved significantly during therapy, while Alexithymia did not. Pre-therapy personality traits were not related to perceived working alliances (as measured by the Working Alliance Inventory) or therapeutic outcomes (as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure). Post-therapy personality traits negative affectivity, hedonic capacity and alexithymia were related to working alliance, and changes in personality traits were predictive of therapy outcome. The change in Hedonic Capacity and Negative Affectivity explained about 20% of the variance in post-therapy symptoms after controlling for pre-therapy symptoms.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that therapeutic foci on hedonism (extraversion) and negative affectivity (neuroticism) could be important for working alliance formation and symptom reduction in therapy. Future research should examine whether changes in clients' negative affectivity or hedonic capacity mediates the relation between perceived working alliance quality and clinical outcome in training and other psychotherapeutic contexts.

  • 309. Derwinger, A
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    MacDonald, S
    Backman, L
    Forgetting numbers in old age: Strategy and learning speed matter2005In: GERONTOLOGY, ISSN 0304-324X, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 277-288Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 310. Derwingwer, A
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Backman, L
    Design your own memory strategies! Self-generated strategy training versus mnemonic training in old age: An 8-month follow-up2005In: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION, ISSN 0960-2011, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 37-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 311.
    di Zazzo, Nicole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Delaktighet och frånvaro - Blivande fäders förhandlingar om faderskapets innebörd2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 312.
    di Zazzo, Nicole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Delaktighet och frånvaro: Blivande fäders förhandlingar om faderskapets innebörd2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Dimova-Bränström, Neda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekman, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Om frihet, ansvar och meningslöshet: Studentterapeuters känsloupplevelser i samtal om existentiella teman2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study aims to examine the emotional experiences of trainee therapists when talking about existential issues with their clients. The study was based on semi-structured interviews with six trainee therapists all of whom were doing a major in psychology at a Swedish university. The interviews were analysed by abductive thematic analysis. The analysis was based on the themes experienced affects, therapists’ affect consciousness, containing of the affects, the therapist’s work with the affects and the influence of conversation about existential issues. The results showed that a lower affect consciousness and a lower consciousness about one’s existential standings made it more difficult for the trainees to contain the affects and to work with them, which lead to missed opportunities in therapy. The trainees’ affect consciousness increased with self-reflection and experiences. The results are in line with earlier research which shows that inexperienced therapists are focusing too much on their performance and pay therefore less attention to the affects in the room.

  • 314.
    do Rego Leite, Umbelina
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Roazzi, Antonio
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Campello de Souza, Bruno
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Brazilian Validation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for Children - ZTPI-C2017In: Proceeding of the 16th International FacetTheory Conference, Netanya, Israel. June 26-29, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to create and validate aversion of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for children based on itemsadapted from the original adult ZTPI scale and the Negative Future Subscale.For that purpose, an instrument containing 69 items, divided into six maincategories (past, present, and future, each with positive and negativeperceptions), was applied to 675 boys and girls aged from 8 to 12 years frompublic and private schools in Brazil. Cluster analyses done on the items ofeach of the six categories, and a total of 27 items were removed due to theirdistance to the centroid. The remaining 42 items were then submitted to an SSAand the resulting diagram partitioned into a polar structure according to the principles of Facet Theory.The specific structure found was interpreted in terms of Zimbardo et al. (1999) time perspective framework as well as  children's temporal knowledge and its development.

  • 315.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of functional asymmetries in young infants: A sensory-motor approach2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human functional laterality, typically involving a right-sided preference in most sensory-motor activities, is still a poorly understood issue. This is perhaps particularly true in terms of what underlying mechanisms that may govern lateral biases, as well as the developmental origins and course of events. The present thesis aims at investigating functional asymmetries in the upper and lower body movements of young human infants. In Study I, the presence of side biases in the stepping and placing responses and head turning in healthy fullterm newborns were explored. No evident lateral bias for the leg responses in terms of the first foot moved or direction of head turning was found. However, a lateral bias was revealed for onset latency in relation to the first foot moved in both stepping and placing. Asymmetries in head turning did not correspond to asymmetries in leg movements. In Study II, functional asymmetries in the stepping response of newborn infants were investigated in more detail by means of 3-D kinematic movement registration. Evident side differences were found in relation to smoother movement trajectories of the right leg by means of less movement segmentation compared to the left leg. Side differences were also found in relation to intralimb coordination in terms of stronger ankle-knee couplings and smaller phase shifts in the right leg than the left. In Study III, using the same movement registration technique, the kinematics of left and right arm movements during goal-directed reaching in infants were prospectively studied over the ages 6, 9, 12, and 36 months. Main findings included side differences and developmental trends related to the segmentation of the reaching movements and the reaching trajectory, as well as the distribution of arm-hand-use frequency. The results from Study I and II are discussed in relation to underlying neural mechanisms for lateral biases in leg movements and the important role of a thorough methodology in investigating newborn responses. Findings from Study III are discussed in terms of what they imply about the developmental origins for hand preference. An emphasis is also put on developmental differences between fullterm and preterm infants. Overall, the studies of the present thesis show that an increased understanding of subtle expressions of early functional asymmetries in the upper and lower body movements of young infants may be gained by means of refined measurements. Furthermore, such knowledge may provide an insight into the underlying neural mechanisms subserving asymmetries in the movements of young infants. The present studies also add new information to the current understanding of the development of human lateralized functions, in particular the findings derived from the longitudinal data. Apart from theoretical implications, the present thesis also involves a discussion with regard to the clinical relevance of investigating functional asymmetries in the movements of young infants.

  • 316.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stepping, placing and headturning biases in newborn infants: A neurodevelopmental perspective2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present thesis the stepping, placing and head turning responses in healthy humanfullterm newborns are investigated. The main focus is put on a study of these newbornresponses in relation to functional asymmetries, while at the same time exploring anddiscussing different factors that possibly can affect the outcome of such studies. Study I aims to examine one such factor in relation to underlying mechanisms controlling leg movements in focusing on the effects of glucose on newborn stepping and placing responses. The results revealed that glucose, as well as an inactive state, resulted in less pronounced stepping responses and difficulties in eliciting them. There was also a tendency towards a similar finding for placing in that both glucose and an inactive state were associated with a less vigorous placing response, although this could not be proved significant. However, there was no effect of glucose on expressions of laterality in either ofthe responses studied. A theoretical debate in progress concerns whether different newborn functional asymmetries can be said representing a single neural system for lateralization or multiple sub-systems rooted in different neural mechanisms (Grattan, De Vos, Levy, & McClintock, 1992). In order to look closer at this issue in relation to newborn head- and leg preferences, Study II was designed to investigate the presence of side biases in newbornstepping and placing responses (lower-body), together with head turning preference (upperbody), and whether observed lateral biases of the upper- and lower body are congruent with each other. No evident lateral bias could be found for either response in terms of the first foot moved or direction of head turning. Furthermore, asymmetries in head turning did not correspond to asymmetries in leg movements, in support for multiple sub-systemsrather than a single lateralized system. However, a lateral bias was found for onset latency in relation to the first foot moved in both stepping and placing. The findings are discussed in relation to underlying neural mechanisms for lateral biases in leg movements and the important role of a thorough methodology in investigating newborn responses.

  • 317.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Barbu-Roth, Marianne
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Fagard, Jacqueline
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have investigated manual performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored object-oriented behavioral strategies and side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left and right). Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and hand opening prior to grasping. Additionally, assessments of hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings regarding infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal path. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  • 318.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Wärvik, Maja
    Gender differences in needs, received interventions and realization of individual goals in the rehabilitation of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fagard, J.
    Laboratoire psychologie de la Perception,Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Jacquet, A.-Y.
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception (CNRS UMR 8158), Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Goal-directed arm movements in children with fetal alcohol syndrome: a kinematic approach2011In: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 312-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although many studies have documented deficits in general motor functioning in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), few have employed detailed measurements to explore the specific nature of such disabilities. This pilot study explores whether three-dimensional (3D) kinematic analysis may generate increased knowledge of the effect of intrauterine alcohol exposure on motor control processes by detecting atypical upper-limb movement pattern specificity in children with FAS relative to typically developing (TD) children. 

    Methods: Left and right arm and head movements during a sequential unimanual goal-directed precision task in a sample of children with FAS and in TD children were registered by an optoelectronic tracking system (ProReflex, Qualisys Inc.). 

    Results: Children with FAS demonstrated evidently poorer task performance compared with TD children. Additionally, analyses of arm movement kinematics revealed atypical spatio-temporal organization in the children with FAS. In general, they exhibited longer arm movement trajectories at both the proximal and distal level, faster velocities at the proximal level but slower at the distal level, and more segmented distal movements. Children with FAS also showed atypically augmented and fast head movements during the task performance. 

    Conclusions: Findings indicate neuromotor deficits and developmental delay in goaldirected arm movements because of prenatal alcohol exposure. It is suggested that 3D kinematic analysis is a valid technique for furthering the understanding of motor control processes in children with FAS/fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. A combination with relevant neuroimaging techniques in future studies would enable a more clear-cut interpretation of how atypical movement patterns relate to underlying brain abnormalities.

  • 320.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fagard, J
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, CNRS-Université Paris, Paris, France.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kinematic measurment of goal-directed arm movements in children with fetal alcohol syndrome: A preliminary study2008In: Developmental medicine and child neurology, 50:  (Suppl. 114) 31-32 (posterabstract), Zagreb, Croatia: The 20th Annual Meeting of the EACD , 2008, p. 31-32Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 321.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fagard, Jacqueline
    Labratoire Psychologie de la Perception, CNRS-Université Paris, Paris, France.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kinematic measurement of goal-directed arm movements in children with fetal alcohol syndrome: A preliminary study2008In: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 50 (Suppl. 114), Kroatien 5-7 juni, 2008, Wiley Online Library , 2008, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Inadequate nutritional status can lead to several preventable developmental disorders. Populations living at high altitude are particularly at risk. Our aim is to contribute to the general knowledge of nutritional status of children in Ladakh.

    Method: Review of the literature concerning nutritional status in micronutrients, especially among children living in the Himalayan regions.

    Results: Iodine deficiency is the most common cause in the world of preventable learning disability*. Although the extension of severe endemic areas has been reduced, it is estimated that around 200 million people in the world are still living in remote places at risk of severe iodine deficiency. A recent survey in the ‘sub-Himalayan goiter belt’ indicates that iodine deficiency continues to threaten the health of this population.

    Studies in the Kashmir Valley found that, despite abundant sunlight, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a well-known cause of child morbidity and mortality and of visual defect. In India, 52,000 children go blind every year on account of VAD, and vitamin A supplementation programs are ongoing. VAD and iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) often coexist in vulnerable groups. In Africa it was shown that in IDD- and VAD-affected children receiving iodized salt and concurrent vitamin A supplementation improves iodine efficacy. In the Tibet Autonomous Region the nutritional status of children is deficient in proteins, iodine, selenium, calcium, and vitamins A and D. Interaction between iron and VAD is well known as well.

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, data concerning nutritional status of children living in Ladakh are lacking. Micronutrient deficiency is a public health concern that has lead to supplementation programmes. As interactions between several micronutrients have been evidenced, more integrated, multifaceted programmes are needed. Despite significant progress in many regions, continuing efforts are needed to reach underserved populations.

  • 322.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Kolbäcken Child Rehabilitation Centre, Umeå, Sweden .
    Hedlund, Ludmilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ödman, Pia
    Avd för sjukgymnastik, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Linköpings universitet.
    Health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with functional disabilities in a northern Swedish county2014In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1877-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) studies in children and adolescents with disabilities tend to report lower self-reported health than in the typical population. However, reports are not always consistent and HRQoL appears to vary depending on diagnosis, cultural setting and clinical context. The aim of this study was to explore HRQoL in children and adolescents with various disabilities in Västerbotten County, Sweden.

    METHODS: A total of 175 children and adolescents [57 girls, 118 boys; mean age 11.7 years (range 7-17 years)] divided into four different diagnostic groups (intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, movement disorders and hearing disabilities) participated in the study. The EuroQol Five Dimensions Health Questionnaire, Youth version (EQ-5D-Y) was used as HRQoL measure.

    RESULTS: Significant differences in various EQ-5D-Y dimensions between the different diagnostic groups were found, but no differences in overall health status. HRQoL in children and adolescents with hearing disabilities was found similar to the typical child population in Sweden whereas children and adolescents with other diagnoses reported evidently more problems.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that there is an increased risk for children with functional disabilities other than hearing disabilities in northern Sweden to experience difficulties in various health domains and lowered general health.

  • 323.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hopkins, Brian
    Lancaster University and Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Francis, Brian
    Lancaster University and Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of finger on the kinematics of reaching movements in young children and adults2007In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, Vol. 23, p. 315-321Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 324.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hopkins, Brian
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Glucose effects on stepping and placing responses in newborn infants2003In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 162, p. 545-547Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hopkins, Brian
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster, University, Lancaster, UK .
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Upper and lower body functional asymmetries in the newborn: do they have the same lateral biases?2005In: Developmental Psychobiology, ISSN 0012-1630, E-ISSN 1098-2302, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still an open question as to whether functional asymmetries in the human newborn derive from a single lateralized system or multiple subsystems based on different neural mechanisms. In the present study, asymmetries in head turning were compared to those in leg movements during stepping and placing, with the latter also being related to differences in leg mass. The effects of an active versus an inactive state or condition were examined for all three behaviors. No overall lateral biases were found for head turning or for the first foot to move in stepping and placing, and there were no concordances among them; however, there was an asymmetry in that the left foot had a shorter onset latency when compared to the right foot for both stepping and placing. Findings are discussed in terms of what they imply about underlying neural systems that have a bearing on expressions of newborn laterality, and also with regard to the impact of methodological differences in this area of study.

  • 326.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Farooqi, Aijaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Improved fine motor performance in children born preterm: a longitudinal study of upper-limb kinematics from 4 to 8 years2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    Although children born preterm (PT) are at known risk for impaired neuromotor development, longitudinal studies using detailed measurements of motor performance are rare. This study investigated developmental changes in goal-directed upper-limb kinematics from 4-8 years old in a sample of children born fullterm (FT) and PT without known developmental disabilities.

    Participants and Methods:

    3D kinematic recordings of performance with either arm/hand during a goal-directed unimanual precision task were carried out at 4 and 8 years in 37 children (13 very PT, V-PT, < 32 GW; 5 moderately PT, M-PT, 33-35 GW; 19 FT).

    Results:

    Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for group and occasion, and interaction effects between group and occasion, for distal movement duration (p < .0001) and segmentation in terms of movement units (MUs, p < .0001). From initially having displayed less proficient movement organization at 4 years than both children born FT and M-PT, the children born V-PT showed a marked catch-up at 8 years, where no significant group differences remained. The mean between-occasion difference was substantial for both duration and segmentation in V-PT relative the other groups, although with noticeably higher within-group variability (MSD = 1.2 s/7.8 MUs) than M-PT (MSD = 0.5 s/2.5 MUs) and FT (MSD = 0.5 s/4.2 MUs).

    Conclusion:

    The children born PT, V-PT in particular, generally displayed a considerable gain in fine motor performance from preschool to school age. Compared with the FT and M-PT groups, however, the rate of improvement appears more heterogeneous in the V-PT group

  • 327.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Research and Development Unit, Kolbäcken Child Rehabilitation Centre, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Farooqi, Aijaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relations Among Upper-Limb Movement Organization and Cognitive Function at School Age in Children Born Preterm2013In: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, ISSN 0196-206X, E-ISSN 1536-7312, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 344-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore relations between aspects of upper-body spatiotemporal movement organization and intelligence in children born preterm at school age.

    Methods: Three-dimensional (3D) kinematic recordings of arm and head movements during a unimanual precision task were related to performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, in a sample of 32 children born preterm (gestational age, mean: 31.5 weeks [range: 22-35 weeks]; birth weight, mean: 1699 g [range: 404-2962 g]) at 6 years to 8 years with no diagnosed cognitive, sensory, or motor impairments compared with 40 age-matched control children born fullterm.

    Results: In the children born preterm, upper-limb movement duration and segmentation of movement trajectories were significantly associated with full-scale intelligence quotient independent of gestational age (GA) and sex. These effects pertained to the preferred side, characterized by more effective movement organization being linked with increased intelligence scores. The same relations were not seen in the controls. Within the children born preterm, a significant effect of GA was also found for some aspects of upper-limb movement organization. Full-scale intelligence quotient was within normal limits for both groups but significantly lower in the preterm (mean: 94.5 [range: 72-120]) compared with the fullterm (mean: 101.7 [range: 76-119]) born children.

    Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that, independent of GA, the spatiotemporal organization of upper-limb movements is partly associated with cognitive performance in children born preterm.

  • 328.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brain findings in relation to cognitive outcomes in preterm children at school age2012In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 54, p. 33-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether brain volumes in ex-preterm born children at school age relates to their cognitive abilities.

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that a preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for cognitive deficits that often remain undetected until school age. Such deficits are likely caused by an atypical neurodevelopment. There is, however, relatively little known about the characterization of the preterm born children’s brain in relation to long-term cognitive performance.

    METHODS: A sample of preterm children (n = 32) and typically developing fullterm children (n = 38) at 7-8-years underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with additional synthetic MR for extraction of brain tissue. MR-findings were related to performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV).

    RESULTS: The preterm children performed significantly poorer than fullterm peers on the WISC-IV in terms of total IQ (M = 95.1 and 103.5, respectively) and other measures. Overall, the total brain volume was positively correlated with general cognitive ability (total IQ). Additionally, a significant relation between grey matter (GM) and IQ was found for the preterm children. However, no association between white matter (WM) and IQ was found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Even in a small sample of school-aged children with a history of birth comparatively close to term it was possible to detect a link between atypical brain volumes and cognitive functioning. The nature of these associations is discussed in terms of how GM and WM may contribute to long-term cognition deficits associated with a preterm birth.

  • 329.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developmental progression and side specialization in upper-limb movements from 4 to 8 years in children born preterm and fullterm2018In: Developmental Neuropsychology, ISSN 8756-5641, E-ISSN 1532-6942, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated developmental changes and differences in upper-limb movement organization from 4 to 8 years of age in children born preterm (PT) and fullterm (FT). Kinematic recordings of precision-demanding unimanual movements and lateral assessments were carried out in 37 children (18 PT). All children, particularly children born PT, displayed considerable gain in movement kinematics. Contrary to controls, children born PT displayed persistently less-evident side preference. Gestational age (GA) contributed significantly to kinematic differences shown, with larger upper-limb deviances in the lowest GAs, in agreement with cross-sectional findings of altered hemispheric connections and delayed side-specialization among children born very PT.

  • 330.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Existence of functional asymmetries in arm movements of preterm born children at 6 to 8 years old2010In: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 52 (Suppl. 4) Brussels, Belgium May 27-29, 2010, Wiley Online Library , 2010, p. 31-31Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Handedness in preterm born children: a systematic review and a meta-analysis2011In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 2299-2310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that left and/or non-right handedness (NRH) is over-represented in children with a history of preterm birth because such births are associated with a greater incidence of insult to the brain. We report an approximate two-fold increase in left and/or non-right handedness based on a systematic search of the literature from 1980 to September 2010 for English-language articles reporting handedness status in preterm children compared with fullterm controls either as a main focus of the study or as a secondary finding. In total, thirty articles met the inclusion criteria. However, there was a great variation between the included studies in terms of objectives, population characteristics, sample size and methodologies used. While the majority of studies reported a higher incidence of NRH in preterm than fullterm children, this was not a consistent finding. A quality assessment was made to explore the differences in overall study quality and handedness assessment methodology between studies. A random-effects model meta-analysis was then performed to estimate the accumulated effect of preterm birth on handedness (18 studies; 1947 cases and 8170 controls). Preterm children displayed a significantly higher occurrence of NRH than fullterm children (odds ratio [OR]: 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.59–2.78). Sources of heterogeneity were investigated by supplementary meta-analyses considering studies with high or low overall and handedness assessment quality. Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test of the intercept and Duvall and Tweedie’s trim-and-fill method. The outcomes of these procedures did not jeopardize the overall finding of reliably increased OR for NRH in preterm children. The present review suggests that a preterm birth is indeed associated with a greater than two-fold likelihood of NRH. Several studies also explored the relationship between handedness and neuropsychological functioning (cognition mainly) with an array of methods. Although not without disagreement, this association was found to be concordant. Studying handedness in preterm children, therefore, is a potentially important index of hemispheric organization and cognitive and sensory–motor functions following neurodevelopmental disturbance.

  • 332.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relationen mellan sensomotorisk funktion, kognitiv nivå och neurobiologisk utveckling hos barn som fötts för tidigt2013In: Svensk Neuropsykologi: Medlemstidning för Sveriges Neuropsykologiska Förening, ISSN 1402-6945, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 25-30Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relations between cognitive performance and movement organization in preterm children at 6 to 8 years old2011In: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 53 (Suppl. s3), Wiley online library , 2011, p. 45-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore the relations between cognitive performance and spatio-temporal organization of upper-body movements in preterm children at school age compared with full-term peers.

    Background: Neuromotor disabilities and lowered cognitive performance are frequently reported in school-aged preterm children. A few studies have also reported associations between intelligence and motor skill outcomes in this population as assessed by standardized test batteries. At present, however, there is no knowledge of how measures of intelligence relate to more refined measurements of movement quality in preterm children.

    Design/Method: In the present study, performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) was related to optoelectronic registrations (ProReflex, Qualisys Inc.) of arm movement performance during a unimanual precision task in a sample of preterm children at 6 to 8 years (n=31) compared with typically developing full-term children (n=36).

    Results: A significant group effect was revealed for Fullscale IQ, indicating poorer overall performance on the WISC-IV by preterm (mean 95.1) than full-term (mean 103.5) participants. The same pattern was apparent for both the Verbal and Performance indexes and the majority of the sub-tests. Correlation analyses were performed to test the associations between cognitive performance and spatiotemporal movement parameters. Several findings emerged from this procedure and will be presented, including significant relations between Full-scale IQ and movement segmentation at both the proximal and distal level in preterm but not full-term participants.

    Conclusions: Measures of WISC-IV appear significantly associated with kinematic outcome measures in schoolaged preterm children in terms of better cognitive performance being linked with better movement organization. The same associations were not seen in the age- and sexmatched full-term group. This type of investigation adds to the understanding of relations between cognitive and motor performance in the context of movement organization, coordination, and control depending on birth history.

  • 334.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Language as the key for understanding, hemispheric asymmetry2006In: Svensk Neuropsykologi, ISSN 1402-6945, Vol. 18, no 2-3, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lessons from the infant laboratory: The right-arm theory2006In: Svensk Neuropsykologi, ISSN 1402-6945, Vol. 18, no 2-3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perspectives on laterality: A brief introduction2006In: Svensk Neuropsykologi, ISSN 1402-6, Vol. 18, no 2-3, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hopkins, Brian
    Functional asymmetries in the stepping response of the human newborn: a kinematic approach2007In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 177, no 3, p. 324-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate subtle expressions of functional asymmetries in newborn leg movements, kinematic registrations were made on a sample of 40 healthy fullterm newborn infants during performance of the stepping response. Time–position data were collected from markers attached to the hip, knee and ankle joints of the left and right leg, and movements of both legs recorded simultaneously. Findings included evident side differences in terms of smoother trajectories of the right leg as a consequence of less movement segmentation compared to the left leg. Additionally, analyses of intralimb coordination revealed side differences with regard to stronger ankle–knee couplings and smaller phase shifts in the right leg. The findings suggest that asymmetries in newborn stepping responses are present in terms of spatio-temporal parameters and intralimb coordination. No evidence of a lateral preference in terms of frequency of the first foot moved was found. The present study adds new understanding to the lateralized attributes of the stepping response in the human newborn and as such points to new directions of research on the nature of laterality in the future.

  • 338.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Titran, Maurice
    Centre Hospitalier de Roubaix (CAMSP), Roubaix, France.
    Esseily, Rana
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception (CNRS UMR 8158), Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Fagard, Jacqueline
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception (CNRS UMR 8158), Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Atypical functional lateralization in children with fetal alcohol syndrome2009In: Developmental Psychobiology, ISSN 0012-1630, E-ISSN 1098-2302, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 696-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to explore effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on functional lateralization, item tasks measuring preferences of hand, foot, eye, and ear were administered to a sample of 23 children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. In addition, a dichotic listening task was administered to a subsample of 11 children with FAS and a TD group of comparable age, sex and handedness. The children with FAS were characterized by increased nonright-handedness compared with TD children. No differences were evident for preferential use of foot, eye, or ear. Moreover, children with FAS displayed more right ear extinctions during dichotic listening relative to TD children, indicating a lack of right ear advantage. The results add to findings of decreased manual asymmetry and less left-lateralized speech perception in children with developmental disorders, and are further discussed in relation to the high incidence of callosal abnormalities in alcohol-exposed children.

  • 339.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rösblad, Birgit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impairment severity selectively affects the control of proximaland distal components of reaching movements in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy2009In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 807-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored proximal-to-distal components during goal-directed reaching movements in children with mild or moderate hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP); [seven females, fourmales;mean age 8y 6mo; SD 27mo], compared with age-matched, typically developing children (seven females, fivemales; mean age 8y 3mo [SD 25mo]. Severity of HCP was assessed following the approach of Claeys et al. Optoelectronic registrations were made during unimanual reaching-to-grasp and reaching-to-hit movements with both the affected non-preferred and unaffected with HCP, particularly those withmoderate impairment, displayed less optimal spatiotemporal organization of movements performed with the affected arm. Compared with the goal to hit, and increasingly with more severe impairment, children with HCP adapted to the goal to grasp by recruiting augmented shoulder movements when reaching with the affected side. A resulting impact on distal kinematics was found in shorter, straighter, and less segmentedmovement paths. Thus, depending on severity of hemispheric lesions and task complexity, unilateral brain injuries in HCPmay selectively affect neural pathways underlying both proximal and distal arm movement control. Levels of both ipsi- and  ontralateral activation in relation to side and lesion severity should be considered in future studies on prehension movements in HCP.

  • 340.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Timby, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, USA.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Formula feeding supplemented with milk fat globule membranes  improves cognitive score in term infants at 12 months2013In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55 (Suppl. S2): Abstracts of the European Academy of Childhood Disability 25th Annual Meeting, 10-12 October 2013, Newcastle-Gateshead, UK, Mac Keith Press , 2013, p. 50-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Findings of enhanced cognitive development in breast‐fed compared with formula‐fed infants suggest that breast milk contains neurodevelopmentally beneficial components. Animal studies report positive behavioral effects of supplementation with components included in the bovine milkfat globule membrane fraction (MFGM). Behavioral effects of MFGM supplemented formula in human infants have not been studied. This study tested the hypothesis that infants fed an experimental formula (EF) supplemented with a bovine MFGM fraction would display a more favorable neurofunctional development than infants fed a standard formula (SF) at 12 months.

    Participants and Methods: Healthy term formula‐fed infants (n = 160) and a breast‐fed reference (BFR) group (n = 80) were included in a prospective double blind randomized trial before 2 months of age. Formula‐fed infants were randomized to receive EF or SF from inclusion until 6 months. At 12 months, cognitive, motor and verbal functions were tested using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development‐III.

    Results: The cognitive score was significantly higher in the EF (105.8 ± 9.2) than SF (101.8 ± 8.0) group, but equal between the EF and BFR groups. No differences were found in motor or verbal score between the formula groups. The BFR group displayed higher verbal but not motor scores than the formula groups.

    Conclusion: In keeping with the hypothesis, feeding infants MFGM supplemented formula resulted in improved cognitive function at 12 months compared with a standard formula. The difference in cognitive score between the EF and SF groups is compliant with calculated differences between formula‐fed and breast‐fed infants in previous studies.

  • 341.
    Donati, C.
    et al.
    Italian Institute of Toy Saftey, Como, Italy.
    Benelli, B.
    Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, University of Padova, Italy.
    Fabregant, M.
    Pedagogy-Product Department of Technological Institute of Toys, IBI, Alicante, Spain.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coradetti, R.
    Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Torino, Italy.
    Snidero, S.
    Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Torino, Italy.
    Scarinzi, C.
    Department of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Torino, Italy.
    Morra, B.
    Ear, nose and Throat Department, San Giovanni Battista Hosptal, torino, Italy.
    Gregori, D.
    University of Public Health and Micribiology, University of Torino, Italy.
    Are FPCIs a source of increased risk for children? Results of a multicenter, experimental study comparing children´s behaviour with FPCIs and toys2007In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 38, p. 589-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Food Products Containing Inedibles (FPCIs) are believed to represent a source of higher choking risk in children. The aim of this study was to set up a controlled study, conducted on children aged 3-6 in a laboratory setting, in order to understand their behavior when interacting with FPCIs (with reference to mouthing activities, double nature recognition, and toy assembling ability). METHOD: The experimental phase was divided into two sessions: a FPCI session and a Toy session, to which 247 children were randomly assigned. During these sessions children were observed in order to catch their mouthing activity according to the two types of objects available to them (FPCIs and Toys). RESULTS: This study shows that: (a) children's behavior with respect to toys contained in FPCIs and toys presented alone is not significantly different; (b) children's ability to distinguish between the edible and non-edible part of the FPCI was very high; and (c) mouthing episodes of the inedible parts were negligible and comparable between FPCIs and toys presented alone. This strongly suggests that, with respect to choking risk, FPCIs are not per se distinguishable from toys containing small parts. IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Restrictions on the sale of FPCIs with small toys exist in the U.S. market. In Europe, FPCIs are allowed to be on sale, under the condition that, in case, they will follow the general regulatory requirements of small toys packaged and sold alone. In this case, they must provide age warnings and labels. Our findings do not justify the different attention that toys in FPCIs are at times afforded by regulators when compared to "stand alone" toys.

  • 342. Dong, Bo
    et al.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bao, Min
    Cortical mechanisms for afterimage formation: evidence from interocular grouping2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 41101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether the retinal process alone or retinal and cortical processes jointly determine afterimage (AI) formation has long been debated. Based on the retinal rebound responses, recent work proposes that afterimage signals are exclusively generated in the retina, although later modified by cortical mechanisms. We tested this notion with the method of "indirect proof". Each eye was presented with a 2-by-2 checkerboard of horizontal and vertical grating patches. Each corresponding patch of the two checkerboards was perpendicular to each other, which produces binocular rivalry, and can generate percepts ranging from complete interocular grouping to either monocular pattern. The monocular percepts became more frequent with higher contrast. Due to adaptation, the visual system is less sensitive during the AIs than during the inductions with AI-similar contrast. If the retina is the only origin of AIs, comparable contrast appearance would require stronger retinal signals in the AIs than in the inductions, thus leading to more frequent monocular percepts in the AIs than in the inductions. Surprisingly, subjects saw the fully coherent stripes significantly more often in AIs. Our results thus contradict the retinal generation notion, and suggest that in addition to the retina, cortex is directly involved in the generation of AI signals.

  • 343.
    Doolin, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Helmersson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Resources available to psychologists within two adult psychiatric clinics2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, several reports regarding the increasing number psychologists on sick leave in Sweden have been published. These suggest deficits in their working environment. The aim of this study was to examine resources in the working environment of psychologists within the adult psychiatric clinics in a county council in northern Sweden. The research questions involved identifying resources in the workplace of psychologists, based on the four levels of Job Demand-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). The sample consisted of six participants and data was collected through individual in-person interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis.  The results are in parts consistent with previous research but also include several resources less well-known related to well-being amongst psychologists. These were Nature of the work, Training and education, Physical resources and Mentoring. The conclusions provide useful information to improve the working environment of psychologists, by protecting existing resources and providing important resources requested. 

  • 344. Dragano, Nico
    et al.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Erbel, Raimund
    Fahlen, Goran
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Heikkila, Katriina
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Knutsson, Anders
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Schupp, Juergen
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Theorell, Tores
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Zins, Marie
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease A Multicohort Study of 90,164 Individuals2017In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 619-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease.

    Methods: This multicohort study (the “IPD-Work” consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease at baseline was assessed by validated effort–reward imbalance and job strain questionnaires. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Study-specific estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis.

    Results: At baseline, 31.7% of study members reported effort–reward imbalance at work and 15.9% reported job strain. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 1,078 coronary events were recorded. After adjustment for potential confounders, a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.35) was observed for effort–reward imbalance compared with no imbalance. The hazard ratio was 1.16 (1.01–1.34) for having either effort–reward imbalance or job strain and 1.41 (1.12–1.76) for having both these stressors compared to having neither effort–reward imbalance nor job strain.

    Conclusions: Individuals with effort–reward imbalance at work have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and this appears to be independent of job strain experienced. These findings support expanding focus beyond just job strain in future research on work stress.

  • 345.
    Drejby, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Det goda ledarskapet: Anställdas upplevelse av ledarskap vid omorganisation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at define Good Leadership (GL) and investigate what effect increased spatial distance between leadership and employees can have on employee satisfaction with leadership. The ambition is to increase understanding on how employees experience leadership-related issues at times of reorganization. In this study, a Good Leadership (GL) is defined as the overall result of estimates of supportive relationships, leadership and self-determination. The study examined how GL was experienced by employees in a municipal organization as the distance to the managers increased. In the study, 106 employees participated in the municipality of Örnsköldsvik that was moved to new offices. The participants were employed in the ages of 18 - 60+, divided into five agegroups. A questionnaire, Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), was used for data collection. In addition, background factors such as age and form of employment was investigated to see if they affected any changes. T-test showed no significant difference between pre- and postmeasurement. Regression analysis, however, showed that the background variable Part-time employee influenced the view of GL. Employee estimations on leadership quality decreased in this group. Further research is recommended to use the control group as well as to examine the effect leader presence has on employees.

  • 346. du Prel, Jean-Baptist
    et al.
    Runeson-Broberg, Roma
    Westerholm, Peter
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Fahlen, Goran
    Knutsson, Anders
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peter, Richard
    Work overcommitment: Is it a trait or a state?2018In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Effort–reward imbalance (ERI) is a well-tested work-related stress model with three components, the two extrinsic components “efforts” and “rewards” and the one intrinsic component “overcommitment”. While an imbalance between “efforts” and “rewards” leads to strain reactions, “work-related overcommitment” (OC) has been described as a personal characteristic with a set of attitudes, behaviours, and emotions reflecting excessive striving combined with a strong desire for approval. However, the question whether OC is a personality trait or a response pattern sensitive to changes in the work context (state) is still open.

    Methods: 2940 Swedish industrial employees were included in this longitudinal analysis of the WOLF-Norrland data over 5 years. A change of OC index or its subscales were regressed against a change of freedom of choice at work, extra work, and ERI adjusted for age, sex, and education.

    Results: While OC was insensitive to changes in freedom of choice at work and extra work, it was clearly associated with changes of work-related stress over time. Three of four OC subscales exhibited statistically significant associations with ERI.

    Conclusions: For the first time, we studied fundamental characteristics of OC as an independent personality variable (trait) or an outcome variable subject to changes in the work environment (state). The association between external ERI and OC over time supports our hypothesis of OC being a state. Further investigations are needed to establish OC as a trait or a state.

  • 347. Dunkel, Curtis S.
    et al.
    van der Linden, Dimitri
    Beaver, Kevin M.
    Woodley, Michael A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using a prison sample to assess the association between the general factor of personality and general intelligence2014In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 47, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, most research has indicated that there is a positive, yet small, association between the general factor of personality (GFP) and general intelligence (g). The premise of the current study was that this relationship could be underestimated due to the measures used to compute a GFP and the failure to control for a social desirability response bias. These possible attenuating factors were examined through the analysis of an extensive data file of prisoners. The GFP was significantly correlated with g and this association was stronger with more extensive tests of g, with a California Personality Inventory based GFP in comparison to a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory based GFP, and when socially desirable responding was included as a statistical control. Additional analyses also revealed that the GFP shows Jensen Effects, the stronger the g loaded the scale the stronger its correlation with the GFP. A similar trend was found when examining the strength of the correlations between g and the personality scales. The higher a personality scale loaded on the GFP, the stronger it tended to correlate with g. The results may be informative as to the underlying basis for the GFP. 

  • 348. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Even "Bigger Gods" developed amongst the pastoralist followers of Moses and Mohammed: consistent with uncertainty and disadvantage, but not prosocality2016In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 39, p. 27-28, article id e11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gods of monotheistic religions, which began amongst pastoralists and defeated exiles, are closer to Big Gods than those associated with ancient city-based polities. The development of Big Gods is contingent upon a need to reduce uncertainty and negative feelings in combination with a relatively high level of prosociality, rather than a need to induce or assess prosociality.

  • 349. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Execution, violent punishment and selection for religiousness in medieval England2018In: Evolutionary Psychological Science, E-ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frost and Harpending, Evolutionary Psychology, 13 (2015), have argued that the increasing use of capital punishment across the Middle Ages in Europe altered the genotype, helping to create a less violent and generally more law-abiding population. Developing this insight, we hypothesise that the same system of violent punishments would also have helped to genotypically create a more religious society by indirectly selecting for religiousness, through the execution of men who had not yet sired any offspring. We estimate the selection differential for religiousness based on genetic correlation data for conceivably related traits, and compare that to the actual increase in religiosity across the Middle Ages. We further explore other mechanisms by which religiousness was being selected for in Medieval England, and conclude that executions most likely contributed substantially to the increase in religiosity, but that other selection pressures also played a role.

  • 350. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Life History and Race Differences in Puberty Length: A Test of Differential-K Theory.In: Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 56Article in journal (Refereed)
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