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  • 301. Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Keeping the tempo and perceiving the beat2006In: 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, August 22-26 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska institutet,Stockholm.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Training of the executive component of working memory: subcortial areas mediate transfer effects2009In: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, ISSN 0922-6028, E-ISSN 1878-3627, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 405-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Several recent studies show that training can improve working memory (WM) performance. In this review, many issues related to WM training, such as neural basis, transfer effects, and age-related changes are addressed.

    Method: We focus on our own studies investigating training on tasks taxing the executive updating function and discuss our findings in relation to results from other studies investigating training of the executive component of WM.

    Results: The review confirms positive behavioral effects of training on working memory. The most common neural pattern following training is fronto-parietal activity decreases. Increases in sub-cortical areas are also frequently reported after training, and we suggest that such increases indicate changes in the underlying skill following training. Transfer effects are in general difficult to demonstrate. Some studies show that older adults increase their performance after WM training. However, transfer effects are small or nonexistent in old age.

    Conclusions: The main finding in this review is that sub-cortical areas seem to have a critical role in mediating transfer effects to untrained tasks after at least some forms of working memory training (such as updating).

  • 303.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Plasticity of executive functioning in young and older adults: immediative training gains, transfer, and long-term maintenance2008In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 720-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated immediate training gains, transfer effects, and 18-month maintenance after 5 weeks of computer-based training in updating of information in working memory in young and older subjects. Trained young and older adults improved significantly more than controls on the criterion task (letter memory), and these gains were maintained 18 months later. Transfer effects were in general limited and restricted to the young participants, who showed transfer to an untrained task that required updating (3-back). The findings demonstrate substantial and durable plasticity of executive functioning across adulthood and old age, although there appear to be age-related constraints in the ability to generalize the acquired updating skill.

  • 304.
    Dahlin, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 320, no 5882, p. 1510-1512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process-specific training can improve performance on untrained tasks, but the magnitude of gain is variable and often there is no transfer at all. We demonstrate transfer to a 3-back test of working memory after 5 weeks of training in updating. The transfer effect was based on a joint training-related activity increase for the criterion (letter memory) and transfer tasks in a striatal region that also was recruited pretraining. No transfer was observed to a task that did not engage updating and striatal regions, and age-related striatal changes imposed constraints on transfer. These findings indicate that transfer can occur if the criterion and transfer tasks engage specific overlapping processing components and brain regions.

  • 305. Dahlin, Mats
    et al.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Johansson, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjögren, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Kadowaki, Asa
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial2016In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 77, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.

  • 306.
    Dahlqvist, Alexandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johnsson, Amelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Socioemotionell hälsa hos treåringar i Västerbotten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Early social-­emotional health has proved to be important for the child's later development (Leuzinger-­Bohleber, 2014). If deficiencies occur this can lead to mental illness, which makes it important to examine children’s social-­emotional health at an early stage. The aim of this study was to examine social-­emotional health of three-­year-­olds in Västerbotten, Sweden. Furthermore, to examine gender differences and if there is an association with eating habits. The self-­assessment tool Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social-­Emotional (ASQ:SE) was used to let parents of three year olds (N = 878) estimate the child's social-­emotional health. The results showed that 6 % of three-­year-­olds in this study were estimated to be over the cut-off value and that boys are estimated to have a poorer social-­emotional health than girls. The results also showed that healthy nutrition is significantly associated with higher social-emotional health however the association was weak. How many months the child exclusively breastfed showed no association. In conclusion the results indicate that three-­year-­olds in Västerbotten have a satisfactory level of social-­emotional health and that girls have a better social-­emotional health than boys. Furthermore the study shows that there is a small possibility that nutrition affects the social-­emotional health in three-­year-­olds however further research is necessary.        

  • 307.
    Dahlqvist, Hannah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Heiskanen, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    EFFECTS OF SPORTS-RELATED CONCUSSION AND SYMPTOM RATING ON NEUROCOGNITIVE PERFORMANCE: NORMATIVE DATA OF THE IMMEDIATE POST-CONCUSSION ASSESSMENT AND COGNITIVE TESTING (IMPACT) IN ELITE ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS IN SWEDEN2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has found little or no negative effects of concussion history on neurocognitive performance among athletes. Higher symptom ratings have however been observed among athletes who have experienced several concussions compared to those with zero or one. Previous research has focused on the effect of concussions on symptom ratings and neurocognitive performance, but not the combined effect of concussion history and symptom ratings on neurocognitive performance. Thus, the present cross-sectional study sought to present normative data for the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test battery, and to examine the combined effect of concussion history and symptom ratings on neurocognitive performance among elite ice hockey players in Sweden. The study analyzed data derived from a register database. Participants consisted of male and female elite ice hockey players (n= 761, M age= 21.12, SD= 5.12), ranging from 16-45 years, who had underwent ImPACT testing. For the normative data, the participants were divided into groups based on sex and age. In the multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) the athletes were divided into nine different groups depending on the combination of concussion history (0, 1, or ≥2) and symptom ratings (low, moderate, or high). Female athletes were excluded from the MANCOVA analysis since the sample were too small and did not meet the criteria for analysis. The results for the normative data, separated by gender, showed statistically significant differences in neurocognitive performance between the age groups. The MANCOVA showed neither an effect on neurocognitive performance for the combination of concussion history and symptom ratings, nor number of concussions alone. A main effect of symptom ratings was found for Impulse control, where athletes with high symptoms ratings displayed worse performance than those with low symptom ratings. The present study confirms previous research regarding concussion history not being a predictor for neurocognitive performance. This study also found that high symptom ratings were present even in athletes without concussion history which means that high symptom ratings may be explained by other factors other than concussions itself.

  • 308.
    Dahlstedt, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergstedt, Annie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ”Kanske lägger man det litegrann hos patienten…”: En studie av systemisk makt inom psykologisk praktik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following article explores how authority is maintained in psychological practice. Six interviews with clinical psychologists specializing in psychotherapy were conducted and analyzed by drawing on Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. The resulting accounts demonstrate that the patient’s ability to assimilate to assessment and treatment was based on its classified capacities, which constructed two possible positions for the patient: compliance or resistance. The psychologist was constructed as a professional authority, qualified authority and as a human with self-doubt. Both the patient’s and psychologist’s position were defined in relation to psychological theory; the patient on its ability and will to accept and act along psychological theory and the psychologist who gained authority through knowledge and education. The patient’s resistance and the psychologist’s self-doubt were dealt with by being positioned as a problem within themselves and authority was maintained by complying to this positioning. The results are discussed within a Swedish health context, governed by New Public Management and Evidence Based Practice.

  • 309.
    Dahlström, Carolin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nygård, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of a preterm birth:: Kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function in school-aged children2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Premature birth is a well-known risk factor for deviations in neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to investigate possible long-term effects of preterm birth. Associations was to be investigated between preterm birth and kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function among 40 children born preterm (PT) compared to 48 age-matched children born full-term (FT). Kinematics was registered by a goal-directed task (pressing buttons in sequences, uni- or bimanually). Cognitive function was measured with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – 4th Edition and side-preference with Dichotic Listening and hand, foot and eye observations. Results showed significant differences between groups regarding kinematics and general cognitive function. Gestational age (GA) is associated with kinematics, cognitive function and side-preference. Findings suggest immature spatio-temporal movement organization as a long-term effect of risk factors associated to preterm birth, specifically children born very PT. This may also be related to lower cognitive function due to deviations in related cerebral structures.

  • 310.
    Dahlström, Carolin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nygård, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Uni- and bimanual goal-directed arm movement organization in children at 6-9 years: Effects of a preterm birth2014In: Congress Programme. 1st Clinical Movement Analysis Word Conference, 2014, p. 110-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION and AIM

    Psychomotor deficits are more commonly reported among children born preterm (PT) than those born full-term (FT). Further, evidence exists for more covert motor problems in children born preterm at school age [1]. Such findings may be associated with a more immature spatiotemporal model of movements and lower cognitive functioning in children born PT than FT [2]. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gestational age (GA) on uni- and bimanual goal-directed arm movement organization and on cognitive functioning in children at school age.

    PATIENTS/MATERIALS and METHODS

    Participants consisted of 88 children between 6-9 years of age (M = 7.7 years; 40 PT, 19 girls; 48 FT, 22 girls) without known developmental delays or deviations. Children born PT were divided into two subgroups: moderately PT (M-PT), 34-36 weeks’ gestation (GW), and very PT (V-PT), < 34 GW. Movement kinematics were examined during performance of a goal-directed task, where the participants pushed three buttons in a sequential order in two different directions (vertical or horizontal) with either the right or left hand (unimanual) and with both hands simultaneously (bimanual). Movements were recorded by a 6-camera movement registration system (240Hz, ProReflex) and the number of movement units (MUs) was derived from head, shoulders, elbow, and wrist movement velocity profiles. Cognitive function in terms of verbal IQ (VIQ) and full scale IQ (FSIQ) was measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV).

    RESULTS

    Overall, a significant difference between the groups regarding number of MUs and FSIQ was found. In general, children born V-PT showed more MUs compared with the FT and M-PT group. Regardless of group, a significant higher amount of MUs was found in the bimanual condition than in the unimanual, and during horizontal movement performance in comparison with vertical. Furthermore, GA was significant negatively correlated with number of MUs for right and left wrist and right elbow, and also with FSIQ.

    DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS

    These findings suggest that lower GAs are associated with both more segmented goal-directed arm movements as well as with lower general cognitive ability. During the more demanding tasks, i.e. bimanual and horizontal movements, this association became particularly evident, where the children born V-PT exhibited the greatest difficulties. Thus, this indicate immature spatio-temporal movement organization as a long-lasting effect of risk factors associated with a preterm birth, specifically for children born V-PT, that may be related to lower cognitive function. Further, limitations in kinematic degrees of freedom, leading to restricted amounts of solutions when solving a motor task, may also partly explain these findings.

    REFERENCES

    [1] Bracewell, M. & Marlow, N. (2002). Patterns of motor disability in very preterm children. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 8(4), 241-248.

    [2] Domellöf, E., Johansson, A-M., Farooqi, A., Domellöf M. & Rönnqvist, L. (2013). Relations among upper-limb movement organization and cognitive function at school age in children born preterm. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 34(5), 344-352.

  • 311.
    Dahlström, Ellen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hälsofrämjande faktorer i chefers arbetsmiljö2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this qualitative study is to examine managers’ experiences of health promoting factors in their own working environment as well as how managers include these experiences in their performed leadership. The questions that are relevant to this study are: which health promoting factors do a manager percieve in their working environment and how does the managers transfer these health promoting factors to the employees’ working environment? The empirical data was collected by conducting two focus groups interviews. In total nine managers in two Swedish municipalities participated and the empirical data was condensed by using thematic analysis and three themes were identified: Structure, well-being and considered choices. Structure is regarded as a basic condition to perform in their work. Both managers’ and employees’ well-being contribute to managers’ perceived health, and managers consider their choices to promote their own and the employees’ health. These considered choices are expressed by positive attitudes. In conclusion, managers perceive several health promoting factors in their working environment. Support from colleagues, co-workers’ health and managers’ own health are some examples. However, crucial for managers’ health is that these factors are balanced with their work demands. The managers attempt to promote their perceived health to transfer to the employees’ work environment.

  • 312. Dantoft, Thomas M.
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 2, article id e013879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom=-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n=-butanol exposure.

    Design: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

  • 313.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Chemical Intolerance2015In: Current Rheumatology Reviews, ISSN 1573-3971, E-ISSN 1875-6360, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 167-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism( s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach.

  • 314. Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brix, Susanne
    Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0143534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls. Method Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained. Results The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. Conclusion We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

  • 315.
    David, Franzén
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personlighetstest i rekrytering: Testtagarens perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personlighetstest och arbetspsykologisk testning är en växande trend inom rekryteringen av personal i Sverige och internationellt. Många studier har undersökt dessa urvalsmetoders psykometriska egenskaper, validitet och reliabilitet. Få har dock undersökt testtagarnas upplevelser av denna typ av tester. Syftet med denna studie var att bidra till en ökad förståelse för testtagares upplevelser av personlighetstest och arbetspsykologisk testning i rekrytering. Detta med utgångspunkt i validitetsteori med fokus på faking och forskning om rättvisa i urval och testning. Tematisk analys av fem semistrukturerade intervjuer resulterade i två teman Tolkning kontra sanning och Att presentera sig själv i en rekryteringskontext. Det första temat innehöll undertemana Testresultat som diskussionsunderlag och Sanningen serverad. Det andra innehöll undertemana Mjuka upp i kanterna, Man måste hålla linjen och Ingen människa är en ö. Tre av studiens mest centrala resultat var: (1) vikten av kompetens i tolkning och återkoppling; (2) betydelsen av rättvisedimensioner för testtagarnas upplevelser; (3) relationen mellan faking och den unika kontext som en rekryteringssituation utgör.

  • 316.
    Davidsson, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utveckling av psykologiska färdigheter i en framggångsrik talangutvecklingsmiljö. En fallstudie utifrån ett ledarperspektiv.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Talangutvecklingsmodeller inom idrotten beskriver översiktligt hur talangutvecklingsmiljöer bör utformas medan forskning kring psykologiska färdigheter främst har inriktats på elitidrottare. Det behövs mer kunskap kring hur talangutvecklingsmiljöer bör organisera sig för att främja ungdomars utveckling av psykologiska färdigheter. Studiens första syfte var att identifiera psykologiska färdigheter som ledare ansåg viktiga inom talangutveckling. Det andra syftet var att undersöka hur ledarna arbetade för att främja denna utveckling. Utifrån en kvalitativ metod genomfördes semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju ledare i en framgångsrik talangutvecklingsmiljö. Ledarna identifierade passion för idrotten, insikt om vad som krävs, eget ansvarstagande samt förmågan att hantera motgångar som viktiga psykologiska färdigheter. För att främja ungdomarnas psykologiska utveckling är ledarna positiva och engagerade. De använder sig av individuella utvecklingsplaner och uppmuntrar eget ansvarstagande. De förespråkar erfarenhetsinlärning och försöker utveckla spelarnas  tålamod.

  • 317. Davies, Matthew
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Silva, Pedro
    Gouyon, Pabien
    The Effect of Microtiming Deviations on the Perception of Groove in Short Rhythms2013In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 497-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GROOVE IS A SENSATION OF MOVEMENT OR WANTing to move when we listen to certain types of music; it is central to the appreciation of many styles such as Jazz, Funk, Latin, and many more. To better understand the mechanisms that lead to the sensation of groove, we explore the relationship between groove and systematic microtiming deviations. Manifested as small, intentional deviations in timing, systematic microtiming is widely considered within the music community to be a critical component of music performances that groove. To investigate the effect of microtiming on the perception of groove we synthesized typical rhythm patterns for Jazz, Funk, and Samba with idiomatic microtiming deviation patterns for each style. The magnitude of the deviations was parametrically varied from nil to about double the natural level. In two experiments, untrained listeners and experts listened to all combinations of same and different music and microtiming style and magnitude combinations, and rated liking, groove, naturalness, and speed. Contrary to a common and frequently expressed belief in the literature, systematic microtiming led to decreased groove ratings, as well as liking and naturalness, with the exception of the simple short-long shuffle Jazz pattern. A comparison of the ratings between the two listener groups revealed this effect to be stronger for the expert listener group than for the untrained listeners, suggesting that musical expertise plays an important role in the perception and appreciation of micro timing in rhythmic patterns.

  • 318.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wetherell, Mark
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance2018In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 36, no 17, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experi- mental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach- athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 

  • 319.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Communication Strategies: The Fuel for Quality Coach-Athlete Relationships and Athlete Satisfaction2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present two-study paper examined the role of communication strategies that athletes use to develop their coach-athlete relationship. Study 1 examined the mediating role of motivation, support, and conflict management strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' perceptions of sport satisfaction. Study 2 examined the longitudinal and mediational associations of communication strategies and relationship quality across two time points, over a 6-week period. Within both studies, data were collected through multi-section questionnaires assessing the studies' variables. For study 1, structural equation modeling highlighted significant indirect effects for motivation and support strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' experiences of sport satisfaction. For study 2, significant indirect effects were found for the athletes' perceptions of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship at time 2 between athletes' use of communication strategies at time point 1 and time point 2. Together these findings provide support for the practical utility of communications strategies in enhancing the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete's experiences of sport satisfaction. In addition, the findings provide evidence to highlight the potential cyclical relationship between communication and relationship quality across time.

  • 320.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches2019In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that athletes' relationships with their coach can act as a risk factor in the development of burnout. Coaching practice may be enhanced through understanding the multidimensional factors that can augment the associations between coach-athlete relationship quality and athlete burnout. The present study explored both individual difference characteristics (gender, age, and sport level) and sociocultural factors (sport type) as moderators of this relationship. Our findings show statistically significant interaction effects for gender and age. Coaches and practitioners working with younger athletes and male performers in particular, are advised to work with strategies aiming to build relationships and reduce the risk of burnout.

  • 321.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom.
    Angry Athletes: Psychological, Physiological, and Performance Implications2011In: Psychology of Anger: Symptoms, Causes and Coping / [ed] James P. Welty, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 197-212Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 322.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wills, Samuel
    Appleby, Ralph
    Nieuwenhuys, Arnie
    Exploring "Sledging" and Interpersonal Emotion-Regulation Strategies in Professional Cricket2018In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines cricketers’ perceptions of emotional interactions between competitors. Semistructured interviews with 12 male professional cricketers explored experiences (i.e., emotions, cognitions, behaviors) relating to incidents during competition where they or an opponent attempted to evoke an emotional reaction (e.g., sledging). Cricketers described their use of sledging as aggressive actions and verbal interactions with the aim of disrupting concentration and altering the emotional states of opponents. They described experiencing a variety of emotions (e.g., anxiety, anger) in response to opponents’ attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation; linguistic analyses indicated that both positive than negative emotions were experienced. A range of strategies in response to competitors’ deliberate attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation were outlined. The present study extends previous research investigating interpersonal emotion regulation within teams by indicating that professional cricketers are aware of the impact of cognitions and emotions on performance and attempt to negatively influence these factors in competitors

  • 323.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

  • 324.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining associations between affective states and physiological responses before, during, and after competitive cycling time trials2018In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, p. S86-S86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 325. de Chateau, Peter
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Three-year follow-up of early postpartum contact1984In: Frontiers of Infant Psychiatry, Vol. II / [ed] J.D. Call, E. Galenson, & R.L. Tyson, New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers , 1984, p. 313-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 326. De Manzano, Ö
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, F
    Associationsbetween creative achievement in scientific and artistic domains, intelligence,personality, and sex.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Del Missier, F
    et al.
    Psicologia general nellÚniversità di Trieste.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memoria, attenzione e decisione2009In: Psicologia del giudizio e della decisione, Bologna: Socièta editrice il Mulino , 2009, p. 118-138Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 328. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parker, Andrew M
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Unraveling the Aging Skein : Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 329. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De Bruin, Waendi Bruine
    Decision-making competence, executive functioning, and general cognitive abilities2012In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 331-351Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies investigated the relationship between general cognitive abilities and decision making, few have characterized specific cognitive abilities underlying decision-making competence. In this paper, we focus on executive functionscontrol processes involved in the regulation of cognition. Specifically, we report on an individual-differences study that investigated the relationship of executive functioning (EF) and general cognitive abilities (fluid intelligence and numeracy) with different aspects of decision-making competence. Individual differences in EF components explained aspects of decision-making competence even after controlling for fluid intelligence and numeracy. However, different aspects of decision-making competence varied in the extent to which they relied on different executive functions. In particular, resistance to framing effects, the ability to apply decision rules, and successful engagement in cognitive reflection partially depend on individual differences on the monitoring/inhibition dimension of EF. The ability to provide consistent judgments in risk perception is related to the shifting aspect of EF. The ability to recognize social norms and resistance to sunk costs were not significantly related to EF, thus supporting the idea that executive control is not a major determinant of these aspects of decision-making competence. Finally, substantial variance in some of the decision-making tasks remained unexplained, suggesting that other cognitive or non-cognitive abilities need to be considered in future studies. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 330.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Bruin, Wändi Bruine
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Executive functions in decision making: An individual differences approach2010In: Thinking and Reasoning, ISSN 1354-6783, E-ISSN 1464-0708, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 69-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This individual differences study examined the relationships between three executive functions (updating, shifting, and inhibition), measured as latent variables, and performance on two cognitively demanding subtests of the Adult Decision Making Competence battery: Applying Decision Rules and Consistency in Risk Perception. Structural equation m delling showed that executive functions contribute differentially to performance in these two tasks, with Applying Decision Rules being mainly related to inhibition and Consistency in Risk Perception mainly associated to shifting. The results suggest that the successful application of decision rules requires the capacity to selectively focus attention and inhibit irrelevant (or no more relevant) stimuli. They also suggest that consistency in risk perception depends on the ability to shift between judgement contexts.

  • 331.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Trieste.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Leeds University Business School and Carnegie Mellon University.
    Parker, Andrew M.
    RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    University of Stockholm ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Multifold Relationship Between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study2013In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 1344-1364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory, and semantic memory, respectively, and 6 main components of decision-making competence. In line with the hypotheses, working memory was positively related with the more cognitively demanding tasks (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, and Under/Overconfidence), whereas episodic memory was positively associated with a more experience-based judgment task (Recognizing Social Norms). Furthermore, semantic memory was positively related with 2 more knowledge-based decision-making tasks (Consistency in Risk Perception and Resistance to Sunk Costs). Finally, the age-related decline observed in some of the decision-making tasks was (partially or totally) mediated by the age-related decline in working memory or episodic memory. These findings are discussed in relation to the functional roles fulfilled by different memory processes in judgment and decision-making tasks.

  • 332.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning psychotherapy: An effectiveness study of clients and therapists2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Many psychotherapy studies with trainees have been conducted, but few have investigated how effective baseline trainee-led psychotherapies are. Baseline trainee-led psychotherapies are often provided by a professional education, and the therapists are often young, untrained and inexperienced. The present study was conducted at the Clinical Psychology Program at Umeå University, in Sweden. The psychology students were in their fourth or fifth year of, in total, five years, and few had practiced therapy before. Clients, students and education providers are interested in the outcome of trainee-led psychotherapies because clients want an effective treatment, and students and the educators want the best education. In research, there is an interest in knowing more about training, how training influences clients’ benefits of therapy, and how training works in regular activity. In the present thesis, we investigate questions related to outcome and how different training factors affect outcome. The overall purpose of the present thesis was to examine 1) the effectiveness of trainee-led therapies in a psychology education setting and 2) if clients’ self-image patterns would predict the outcome 3) if different training conditions covary with treatment outcome 4) how novices develop in their professional characteristics and work involvement styles.

    Methods and Result The current thesis utilized data from the Swedish naturalistic study Effects of Student Therapies (EUT) at Umeå University. The EUT is a naturalistic psychotherapist research project, which comprises client data from 2003 to 2012. The present study included 235 clients. The mean age of the clients was 31 years (SD = 9.66), and 69% of the clients were women. The clients had mixed psychological symptoms and were well functioning. Psychological symptoms were measured by Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973). The patients’ self-image was measured using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB), the introject questionnaire (Benjamin, 1974). All therapists were students at the psychology program. In Paper III, 76 therapists participated. The therapists’ mean age was 28 years (SD = 5.55), and 71% of the therapists were women. Therapists’ professional characteristics and work involvement styles were measured by Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ; Orlinsky et al., 1999).

    Four specific objectives have been addressed. The first objective was to investigate the overall effectiveness of treatment. In Papers I and II, the effect sizes implicated that the therapy outcome was moderate. Paper I showed that 67% of the clients were in the dysfunctional domain before therapy compared to 34% after completed therapy. Further in Paper I, it was found that 42% of the clients had recovered or improved at the end of the therapy, but most of the clients remained unchanged (55%) and a few percent had deteriorated (3%). This result is in line with a Norwegian training study (Ryum, Stiles & Vogel, 2007) but less effective than effectiveness studies have shown with professional therapists (e.g. Hunsley & Lee, 2007). Paper II, where we used a subsample of Paper I’s clients, showed a similar result.

    The second objective was to investigate if clients’ self-image pattern (attachment group, disrupted attachment group, self-control and self-autonomy) predicted change in psychological symptoms (GSI: global severity index) and personality symptoms (PSI: personality symptom index). The disrupted attachment group or the clients’ negative self-image had the strongest relationship to outcome and explained 8% vs. 10% in outcome (PSI vs. GSI). Self-control explained a further 3% (GSI) and 4% (PSI) of the result, and self-autonomy added 1% in both GSI and PSI. The result indicates that clients with an increased negative self-image, higher self-control, and lower level of self-autonomy before therapy improve more in both psychological symptoms and personality symptoms than clients with a less negative self-image, lower self-control, and higher level of self-autonomy.

    The third objective was to explore if treatment duration (one or two semesters) and training condition (cognitive therapy and psychodynamic therapy) could affect basic psychotherapy outcome. Paper II demonstrated that clients in all training conditions, cognitive therapy two semesters (CT2), psychodynamic therapy one semester (PDT1) and psychodynamic therapy two semesters (PDT2), had significant changes in self-image patterns and symptoms, except for cognitive therapy one semester (CT1). Analyses using clinically significant change demonstrated that fewer clients in CT1 had recovered and reliably improved compared to the other training conditions (in CT1: 20- 23%, in PDT1: 27- 43%, in CT2: 49- 54% and in PDT2: 35- 41%). Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that clients’ pre-tests characteristics self-image pattern (affiliation: AFF) and psychological symptoms (global severity index: GSI) explained 34% of the results. Treatment duration and training condition demonstrated an interaction effect between duration and theoretical approach, explaining about 2%. The regression lines for self-image pattern AFF and psychological symptoms GSI showed that clients in CT2 and PDT1 improved more than clients receiving CT1 and PDT2.

    The fourth objective was to examine how novice therapists in psychotherapy training develop in professional characteristics and work involvement styles (healing and stressful work involvement styles). The study was longitudinal and therapists were measured at session 2, 8, 16, 22 and endpoint. Mixed model analyses of the Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ) (when controlled for therapists’ age and gender) showed that the therapists’ professional characteristics and work involvement styles changed positively over time in training, except for in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom. The therapists increased most in technical expertise and less in basic relational skill. The result also indicated that the students changed linearly over time.

    Conclusion The present studies draw attention to the moderate outcome for clients in trainee-led psychotherapy. The novices appear to need time to increase in effectiveness possibly due to the high load of technical training in the beginning of the therapy. However, when exploring different training durations and training conditions, the contexts are shown to influence the outcome. In addition, clients with a more negative self-image pattern, with higher levels of self-control and lower levels of self-autonomy had better outcome, a finding with prognostic value. Finally, the training of students improves both a healing and a stressful involvement style, but in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom are more resistant to change.

  • 333.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Baseline training in cognitive and psychodynamic psychotherapy during a psychologist training program: Exploring client outcomes in therapies of one or two semesters2012In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 515-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This effectiveness study explored the outcomes of 187 clients seen by 187 students undergoing baseline training in psychotherapy. Clients reduced their symptoms (SCL-90) and increased their positive self-image (SASB introject) during the therapy. Multiple regression analyses showed no differences between the cognitive and the psychodynamic training approaches and no differences between one and two semesters duration of the therapies. However, 2 - 3% of variance in end states was accounted for by the interaction between the variables, indicating a moderating effect of duration in the two approaches. Outcomes for clients in the cognitive training approach were significantly better with two semesters than with one semester, while there was no such difference in the psychodynamic approach. Consequences for baseline training are discussed.

  • 334.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    Barber, Jacques P.
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    Gallop, Robert
    Statistics and Applied Mrthematics, West Chester University, West Chester, USA.
    Crits-Christoph, Paul
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    How many treatment sessions and patients are needed to create a stable score of adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence?2012In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 475-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study utilized a generalizability theory analysis of adherence and competence ratings to evaluate the number of sessions and patients needed to yield dependable scores at the patient and therapist levels. Independent judges' ratings of supportive expressive therapy (n = 94), cognitive therapy (n = 103), and individual drug counseling (n = 98) were obtained on tapes of sessions from the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Generalizability coefficients revealed that, for all three treatments, ratings made on approximately five to 10 sessions per patient are needed to achieve sufficient dependability at the patient level. At the therapist level, four to 14 patients need to be evaluated (depending on the modality), to yield dependable scores. Many studies today use fewer numbers.

  • 335.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Connolly Gibson, Mary Beth
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Barber, Jacques P.
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Gallop, Robert
    Statistics and Applied Mathematics, West Chester University, West Chester, USA.
    Crits-Christoph, Paul
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Do supervisors and independent judges agree on evaluations of therapist adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence?2012In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 720-730Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, no 8, article id e8150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • 337.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Novice psychotherapists’ development in professional characteristics and work involvement styles in trainingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about how psychotherapists develop their professional characteristics and work involvement styles during training is scant; in addition, awareness of the need to find answers to how psychotherapy training can best be organized is increasing. This study investigated novice therapists’ development of healing and stressful work involvement in baseline psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided information longitudinally by responding to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ). The results demonstrated that therapists’ healing and stressful work involvement, current therapeutic skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed positively and linearly. Technical expertise changed the most, having a large effect, and relational skills developed moderately. Surprisingly, in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The process of positive and linear development of in-session feelings is important in psychotherapy education. The question becomes how the training should address trainees’ personal issues or countertransference that might affect in-session feelings.

  • 338.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trainee Psychotherapists' Development in Self-Rated Professional Qualities in Training2013In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated changes in trainees’ self-rated experience as a therapist over the course of one practicum treatment case in basic psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided longitudinal information on their healing involvement and stressful work involvement. The results of the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ) demonstrated that trainees’ basic relational skills, technical skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed linearly, with an increasing slope. Technical expertise changed the most, and relational skills developed moderately. In-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The individualized reliable change scores show that the process during training is different for different students. Most students did not change at all, and some students even changed negatively. Investigation of how pedagogic variables affect therapists’ development is necessary to support the professional growth of trainees in their involvement with different types of psychotherapy.

  • 339.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utbildningsterapeuters utveckling av allians och terapeutförmågor: en longitudinell studie2015In: Tidskriften psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, no 3, p. 38-41Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 340.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-image pattern as predictors of change and outcome of trainee-led psychotherapy2011In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the outcome of undergraduate trainee-led psychotherapy and how different self-image patterns explain symptom change. Pre- and post-treatment data from 235 Swedish outpatients were used. Clients were assessed with Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). Outcome effect size was moderate and in line with earlier studies on trainees. Clinical significant change showed that 42% of all clients were recovered or improved after 18 sessions in either training condition PDT or CBT. Regression analysis showed that a more negative self-image and higher levels of self-control before treatment predicted improvement in both psychiatric symptoms and personality factors. A negative self-image, when observed before treatment, can be understood as an increased motivation for change.

  • 341.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relationship between clients' personality traits, working alliance and therapy2017In: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated the relationships between client personality traits, and changes in those traits after cognitive behavioral or psychodynamic short-term therapy, and clients' perceived working alliances with their therapists and their clinical outcomes at a university training clinic in Sweden.

    Design: This was a longitudinal study, with the measures collected at pre- and post-therapy.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 138 clients with moderate psychological symptoms. Personality traits were measured using the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory, a health-relevant instrument that measures five factors.

    Results: The results showed that Antagonism, Impulsivity, Hedonic Capacity, and Negative Affectivity improved significantly during therapy, while Alexithymia did not. Pre-therapy personality traits were not related to perceived working alliances (as measured by the Working Alliance Inventory) or therapeutic outcomes (as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure). Post-therapy personality traits negative affectivity, hedonic capacity and alexithymia were related to working alliance, and changes in personality traits were predictive of therapy outcome. The change in Hedonic Capacity and Negative Affectivity explained about 20% of the variance in post-therapy symptoms after controlling for pre-therapy symptoms.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that therapeutic foci on hedonism (extraversion) and negative affectivity (neuroticism) could be important for working alliance formation and symptom reduction in therapy. Future research should examine whether changes in clients' negative affectivity or hedonic capacity mediates the relation between perceived working alliance quality and clinical outcome in training and other psychotherapeutic contexts.

  • 342. Derwinger, A
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    MacDonald, S
    Backman, L
    Forgetting numbers in old age: Strategy and learning speed matter2005In: GERONTOLOGY, ISSN 0304-324X, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 277-288Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 343. Derwingwer, A
    et al.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Backman, L
    Design your own memory strategies! Self-generated strategy training versus mnemonic training in old age: An 8-month follow-up2005In: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION, ISSN 0960-2011, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 37-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Devlin, Roisin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    La Greca, Filippo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    “Can someone tell me the way”: A study on human wayfinding behaviour under incorrect information2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the right path is a key aspect for successful navigation through the environment, with technologies such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) having improved this. However, human navigators can still be met with incorrect information either from devices or peers. The literature on how individuals then successfully navigate is limited. The current study attempts to fill in some of the gaps, assessing both individual and group differences. The navigation performance of twenty-five young adults was tested using a Virtual Environment (VE) built with Unreal Engine 4. Participants’ self-assessment of spatial ability, trait anxiety, and wayfinding preferences was further assessed through a series of pre- and post-test measures. Using quantitative data analysis, no significant differences in wayfinding strategies when given incorrect information were found and furthermore there was no interaction between trait anxiety and navigational performance. However, participants in general experienced increased difficulty when the incorrect information given was with regards to landmarks. Furthermore, males had decreased accuracy compared to females but only when given incorrect turn information. Even with this lower performance in terms of accuracy, males still rated themselves higher with regards to spatial ability. These results are particularly interesting for human navigation research and might be used to improve GPS-devices or other technology used for navigation (e.g. taking into account gender differences). Further research is needed due to some limitations present in the current study including a limited sample size.

  • 345.
    di Zazzo, Nicole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Delaktighet och frånvaro - Blivande fäders förhandlingar om faderskapets innebörd2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 346.
    di Zazzo, Nicole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Delaktighet och frånvaro: Blivande fäders förhandlingar om faderskapets innebörd2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 347.
    Dimova-Bränström, Neda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekman, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Om frihet, ansvar och meningslöshet: Studentterapeuters känsloupplevelser i samtal om existentiella teman2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study aims to examine the emotional experiences of trainee therapists when talking about existential issues with their clients. The study was based on semi-structured interviews with six trainee therapists all of whom were doing a major in psychology at a Swedish university. The interviews were analysed by abductive thematic analysis. The analysis was based on the themes experienced affects, therapists’ affect consciousness, containing of the affects, the therapist’s work with the affects and the influence of conversation about existential issues. The results showed that a lower affect consciousness and a lower consciousness about one’s existential standings made it more difficult for the trainees to contain the affects and to work with them, which lead to missed opportunities in therapy. The trainees’ affect consciousness increased with self-reflection and experiences. The results are in line with earlier research which shows that inexperienced therapists are focusing too much on their performance and pay therefore less attention to the affects in the room.

  • 348.
    do Rego Leite, Umbelina
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Roazzi, Antonio
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Campello de Souza, Bruno
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Brazilian Validation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for Children - ZTPI-C2017In: Proceeding of the 16th International FacetTheory Conference, Netanya, Israel. June 26-29, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to create and validate aversion of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory for children based on itemsadapted from the original adult ZTPI scale and the Negative Future Subscale.For that purpose, an instrument containing 69 items, divided into six maincategories (past, present, and future, each with positive and negativeperceptions), was applied to 675 boys and girls aged from 8 to 12 years frompublic and private schools in Brazil. Cluster analyses done on the items ofeach of the six categories, and a total of 27 items were removed due to theirdistance to the centroid. The remaining 42 items were then submitted to an SSAand the resulting diagram partitioned into a polar structure according to the principles of Facet Theory.The specific structure found was interpreted in terms of Zimbardo et al. (1999) time perspective framework as well as  children's temporal knowledge and its development.

  • 349.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of functional asymmetries in young infants: A sensory-motor approach2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human functional laterality, typically involving a right-sided preference in most sensory-motor activities, is still a poorly understood issue. This is perhaps particularly true in terms of what underlying mechanisms that may govern lateral biases, as well as the developmental origins and course of events. The present thesis aims at investigating functional asymmetries in the upper and lower body movements of young human infants. In Study I, the presence of side biases in the stepping and placing responses and head turning in healthy fullterm newborns were explored. No evident lateral bias for the leg responses in terms of the first foot moved or direction of head turning was found. However, a lateral bias was revealed for onset latency in relation to the first foot moved in both stepping and placing. Asymmetries in head turning did not correspond to asymmetries in leg movements. In Study II, functional asymmetries in the stepping response of newborn infants were investigated in more detail by means of 3-D kinematic movement registration. Evident side differences were found in relation to smoother movement trajectories of the right leg by means of less movement segmentation compared to the left leg. Side differences were also found in relation to intralimb coordination in terms of stronger ankle-knee couplings and smaller phase shifts in the right leg than the left. In Study III, using the same movement registration technique, the kinematics of left and right arm movements during goal-directed reaching in infants were prospectively studied over the ages 6, 9, 12, and 36 months. Main findings included side differences and developmental trends related to the segmentation of the reaching movements and the reaching trajectory, as well as the distribution of arm-hand-use frequency. The results from Study I and II are discussed in relation to underlying neural mechanisms for lateral biases in leg movements and the important role of a thorough methodology in investigating newborn responses. Findings from Study III are discussed in terms of what they imply about the developmental origins for hand preference. An emphasis is also put on developmental differences between fullterm and preterm infants. Overall, the studies of the present thesis show that an increased understanding of subtle expressions of early functional asymmetries in the upper and lower body movements of young infants may be gained by means of refined measurements. Furthermore, such knowledge may provide an insight into the underlying neural mechanisms subserving asymmetries in the movements of young infants. The present studies also add new information to the current understanding of the development of human lateralized functions, in particular the findings derived from the longitudinal data. Apart from theoretical implications, the present thesis also involves a discussion with regard to the clinical relevance of investigating functional asymmetries in the movements of young infants.

  • 350.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stepping, placing and headturning biases in newborn infants: A neurodevelopmental perspective2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present thesis the stepping, placing and head turning responses in healthy humanfullterm newborns are investigated. The main focus is put on a study of these newbornresponses in relation to functional asymmetries, while at the same time exploring anddiscussing different factors that possibly can affect the outcome of such studies. Study I aims to examine one such factor in relation to underlying mechanisms controlling leg movements in focusing on the effects of glucose on newborn stepping and placing responses. The results revealed that glucose, as well as an inactive state, resulted in less pronounced stepping responses and difficulties in eliciting them. There was also a tendency towards a similar finding for placing in that both glucose and an inactive state were associated with a less vigorous placing response, although this could not be proved significant. However, there was no effect of glucose on expressions of laterality in either ofthe responses studied. A theoretical debate in progress concerns whether different newborn functional asymmetries can be said representing a single neural system for lateralization or multiple sub-systems rooted in different neural mechanisms (Grattan, De Vos, Levy, & McClintock, 1992). In order to look closer at this issue in relation to newborn head- and leg preferences, Study II was designed to investigate the presence of side biases in newbornstepping and placing responses (lower-body), together with head turning preference (upperbody), and whether observed lateral biases of the upper- and lower body are congruent with each other. No evident lateral bias could be found for either response in terms of the first foot moved or direction of head turning. Furthermore, asymmetries in head turning did not correspond to asymmetries in leg movements, in support for multiple sub-systemsrather than a single lateralized system. However, a lateral bias was found for onset latency in relation to the first foot moved in both stepping and placing. The findings are discussed in relation to underlying neural mechanisms for lateral biases in leg movements and the important role of a thorough methodology in investigating newborn responses.

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