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  • 301.
    Dahlstedt, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergstedt, Annie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    ”Kanske lägger man det litegrann hos patienten…”: En studie av systemisk makt inom psykologisk praktik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande studie undersöker hur auktoritet upprätthålls i psykologisk praktik, genom sex intervjuer med kliniska psykologer under utbildning till specialister inom psykoterapi. Data analyserades med Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. I materialet konstruerades patientens förmåga att tillgodogöra sig bedömning och behandling utifrån dennes klassificerade förutsättningar, vilket gav två möjliga positioner för patienten: följsamhet eller motstånd. Psykologen konstruerade sig själv som professionell respektive kompetent auktoritet samt som människa med självtvivel. Både patientens och psykologens position definierades utifrån respektive relation till psykologisk kunskap; patienten utifrån förmåga eller vilja att acceptera och agera efter psykologisk teori och psykologen som given auktoritet genom kunskap och utbildning. Patienters motstånd och psykologens självtvivel hanterades genom att konstrueras som problem inom dem själva och auktoritet upprätthålls genom följsamhet till denna positionering. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån en svensk vårdkontext styrd av New Public Management och Evidensbaserad praktik.

  • 302.
    Dahlström, Carolin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nygård, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of a preterm birth:: Kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function in school-aged children2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Premature birth is a well-known risk factor for deviations in neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to investigate possible long-term effects of preterm birth. Associations was to be investigated between preterm birth and kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function among 40 children born preterm (PT) compared to 48 age-matched children born full-term (FT). Kinematics was registered by a goal-directed task (pressing buttons in sequences, uni- or bimanually). Cognitive function was measured with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – 4th Edition and side-preference with Dichotic Listening and hand, foot and eye observations. Results showed significant differences between groups regarding kinematics and general cognitive function. Gestational age (GA) is associated with kinematics, cognitive function and side-preference. Findings suggest immature spatio-temporal movement organization as a long-term effect of risk factors associated to preterm birth, specifically children born very PT. This may also be related to lower cognitive function due to deviations in related cerebral structures.

  • 303.
    Dahlström, Carolin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nygård, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Uni- and bimanual goal-directed arm movement organization in children at 6-9 years: Effects of a preterm birth2014Inngår i: Congress Programme. 1st Clinical Movement Analysis Word Conference, 2014, s. 110-110Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION and AIM

    Psychomotor deficits are more commonly reported among children born preterm (PT) than those born full-term (FT). Further, evidence exists for more covert motor problems in children born preterm at school age [1]. Such findings may be associated with a more immature spatiotemporal model of movements and lower cognitive functioning in children born PT than FT [2]. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gestational age (GA) on uni- and bimanual goal-directed arm movement organization and on cognitive functioning in children at school age.

    PATIENTS/MATERIALS and METHODS

    Participants consisted of 88 children between 6-9 years of age (M = 7.7 years; 40 PT, 19 girls; 48 FT, 22 girls) without known developmental delays or deviations. Children born PT were divided into two subgroups: moderately PT (M-PT), 34-36 weeks’ gestation (GW), and very PT (V-PT), < 34 GW. Movement kinematics were examined during performance of a goal-directed task, where the participants pushed three buttons in a sequential order in two different directions (vertical or horizontal) with either the right or left hand (unimanual) and with both hands simultaneously (bimanual). Movements were recorded by a 6-camera movement registration system (240Hz, ProReflex) and the number of movement units (MUs) was derived from head, shoulders, elbow, and wrist movement velocity profiles. Cognitive function in terms of verbal IQ (VIQ) and full scale IQ (FSIQ) was measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV).

    RESULTS

    Overall, a significant difference between the groups regarding number of MUs and FSIQ was found. In general, children born V-PT showed more MUs compared with the FT and M-PT group. Regardless of group, a significant higher amount of MUs was found in the bimanual condition than in the unimanual, and during horizontal movement performance in comparison with vertical. Furthermore, GA was significant negatively correlated with number of MUs for right and left wrist and right elbow, and also with FSIQ.

    DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS

    These findings suggest that lower GAs are associated with both more segmented goal-directed arm movements as well as with lower general cognitive ability. During the more demanding tasks, i.e. bimanual and horizontal movements, this association became particularly evident, where the children born V-PT exhibited the greatest difficulties. Thus, this indicate immature spatio-temporal movement organization as a long-lasting effect of risk factors associated with a preterm birth, specifically for children born V-PT, that may be related to lower cognitive function. Further, limitations in kinematic degrees of freedom, leading to restricted amounts of solutions when solving a motor task, may also partly explain these findings.

    REFERENCES

    [1] Bracewell, M. & Marlow, N. (2002). Patterns of motor disability in very preterm children. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 8(4), 241-248.

    [2] Domellöf, E., Johansson, A-M., Farooqi, A., Domellöf M. & Rönnqvist, L. (2013). Relations among upper-limb movement organization and cognitive function at school age in children born preterm. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 34(5), 344-352.

  • 304.
    Dahlström, Ellen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hälsofrämjande faktorer i chefers arbetsmiljö2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie är att undersöka chefers upplevelser av hälsofrämjande faktorer i sin egen arbetsmiljö och hur de inkluderar detta i sitt ledarskap. De frågeställningar som är aktuella är: Vilka hälsofrämjande faktorer upplever en chef i sin arbetsmiljö och hur överför chefen de hälsofrämjande faktorerna till medarbetarnas arbetsmiljö? Datamaterialet har samlats in genom två fokusgruppsintervjuer. Totalt deltog nio chefer i två svenska kommuner och materialet har analyserats med hjälp av en tematisk analys. Tre teman framgick av analysen: Struktur, välmående och medvetna val. Struktur menar cheferna är en förutsättning för att utföra uppdraget. Välmående hos både dem själva och deras medarbetare bidrar till upplevd hälsa och medvetna val görs för att främja sin egen och medarbetarnas hälsa. Detta görs genom ett positivt förhållningssätt hos cheferna. Studiens slutsats är att chefer upplever flera hälsofrämjande faktorer i sitt arbete. Stöd av kollegor, medarbetarnas trivsel och chefens egen hälsa är några. Avgörande för chefens upplevda hälsa är att dessa faktorer måste balansera gentemot de krav cheferna har i sitt uppdrag. De hälsofrämjande faktorer som cheferna själva upplever i sin arbetsmiljö försöker de på ett medvetet sätt överföra till medarbetarnas arbetsmiljö.

  • 305. Dantoft, Thomas M.
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikkel-id e013879Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom=-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n=-butanol exposure.

    Design: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

  • 306.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Chemical Intolerance2015Inngår i: Current Rheumatology Reviews, ISSN 1573-3971, E-ISSN 1875-6360, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 167-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism( s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach.

  • 307. Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lind, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brix, Susanne
    Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikkel-id e0143534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls. Method Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained. Results The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. Conclusion We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

  • 308.
    David, Franzén
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Personlighetstest i rekrytering: Testtagarens perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Personlighetstest och arbetspsykologisk testning är en växande trend inom rekryteringen av personal i Sverige och internationellt. Många studier har undersökt dessa urvalsmetoders psykometriska egenskaper, validitet och reliabilitet. Få har dock undersökt testtagarnas upplevelser av denna typ av tester. Syftet med denna studie var att bidra till en ökad förståelse för testtagares upplevelser av personlighetstest och arbetspsykologisk testning i rekrytering. Detta med utgångspunkt i validitetsteori med fokus på faking och forskning om rättvisa i urval och testning. Tematisk analys av fem semistrukturerade intervjuer resulterade i två teman Tolkning kontra sanning och Att presentera sig själv i en rekryteringskontext. Det första temat innehöll undertemana Testresultat som diskussionsunderlag och Sanningen serverad. Det andra innehöll undertemana Mjuka upp i kanterna, Man måste hålla linjen och Ingen människa är en ö. Tre av studiens mest centrala resultat var: (1) vikten av kompetens i tolkning och återkoppling; (2) betydelsen av rättvisedimensioner för testtagarnas upplevelser; (3) relationen mellan faking och den unika kontext som en rekryteringssituation utgör.

  • 309.
    Davidsson, Pontus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Utveckling av psykologiska färdigheter i en framggångsrik talangutvecklingsmiljö. En fallstudie utifrån ett ledarperspektiv.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Talangutvecklingsmodeller inom idrotten beskriver översiktligt hur talangutvecklingsmiljöer bör utformas medan forskning kring psykologiska färdigheter främst har inriktats på elitidrottare. Det behövs mer kunskap kring hur talangutvecklingsmiljöer bör organisera sig för att främja ungdomars utveckling av psykologiska färdigheter. Studiens första syfte var att identifiera psykologiska färdigheter som ledare ansåg viktiga inom talangutveckling. Det andra syftet var att undersöka hur ledarna arbetade för att främja denna utveckling. Utifrån en kvalitativ metod genomfördes semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju ledare i en framgångsrik talangutvecklingsmiljö. Ledarna identifierade passion för idrotten, insikt om vad som krävs, eget ansvarstagande samt förmågan att hantera motgångar som viktiga psykologiska färdigheter. För att främja ungdomarnas psykologiska utveckling är ledarna positiva och engagerade. De använder sig av individuella utvecklingsplaner och uppmuntrar eget ansvarstagande. De förespråkar erfarenhetsinlärning och försöker utveckla spelarnas  tålamod.

  • 310. Davies, Matthew
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Silva, Pedro
    Gouyon, Pabien
    The Effect of Microtiming Deviations on the Perception of Groove in Short Rhythms2013Inngår i: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 497-510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    GROOVE IS A SENSATION OF MOVEMENT OR WANTing to move when we listen to certain types of music; it is central to the appreciation of many styles such as Jazz, Funk, Latin, and many more. To better understand the mechanisms that lead to the sensation of groove, we explore the relationship between groove and systematic microtiming deviations. Manifested as small, intentional deviations in timing, systematic microtiming is widely considered within the music community to be a critical component of music performances that groove. To investigate the effect of microtiming on the perception of groove we synthesized typical rhythm patterns for Jazz, Funk, and Samba with idiomatic microtiming deviation patterns for each style. The magnitude of the deviations was parametrically varied from nil to about double the natural level. In two experiments, untrained listeners and experts listened to all combinations of same and different music and microtiming style and magnitude combinations, and rated liking, groove, naturalness, and speed. Contrary to a common and frequently expressed belief in the literature, systematic microtiming led to decreased groove ratings, as well as liking and naturalness, with the exception of the simple short-long shuffle Jazz pattern. A comparison of the ratings between the two listener groups revealed this effect to be stronger for the expert listener group than for the untrained listeners, suggesting that musical expertise plays an important role in the perception and appreciation of micro timing in rhythmic patterns.

  • 311.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wetherell, Mark
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance2018Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 36, nr 17, s. 1985-1992Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experi- mental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach- athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 

  • 312.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Northumbria University.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Attachment styles within the coach-athlete dyad: preliminary investigation and assessment development2013Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 120-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present preliminary study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new sport-specific self-report instrument designed to assess athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles. The development and initial validation comprised three main phases. In Phase 1, a pool of items was generated based on pre-existing self-report attachment instruments, modified to reflect a coach and an athlete’s style of attachment. In Phase 2, the content validity of the items was assessed by a panel of experts. A final scale was developed and administered to 405 coaches and 298 athletes (N = 703 participants). In Phase 3, confirmatory factor analysis of the obtained data was conducted to determine the final items of the Coach-Athlete Attachment Scale (CAAS). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable goodness of ft indexes for a 3-first order factor model as well as a 2-first order factor model for both the athlete and the coach data, respectively. A secure attachment style positively predicted relationship satisfaction, while an insecure attachment style was a negative predictor of relationship satisfaction. The CAAS revealed initial psychometric properties of content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as reliability.

  • 313.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Northumbria University.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Lafrenière, Mark-Andre
    An attachment theory perspective in the examination of relational processes associated with coach-athlete dyads2013Inngår i: Journal of sport and exercise psychology, ISSN 0895-2779, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 156-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to examine actor and partner effects of (a) athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, and (b) athletes’ and coaches’ quality of the coach-athlete relationship on relationship satisfaction employing the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Coaches (N = 107) and athletes (N = 107) completed a questionnaire related to attachment styles, relationship quality, and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation model analyses revealed (a) actor effects for coaches’ and athletes’ avoidant attachment styles on their own perception of relationship quality and coaches’ and athletes’ perception of relationship quality on their own perception of relationship satisfaction, and (b) partner effects for athletes’ avoidant attachment style on coaches’ perceptions of relationship quality and for coaches’ perceptions of relationship quality on athletes’ perceptions of relationship satisfaction. The findings highlight that attachments styles can help us understand the processes involved in the formation and maintenance of quality relational bonds between coaches and athletes.

  • 314.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Communication Strategies: The Fuel for Quality Coach-Athlete Relationships and Athlete Satisfaction2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 2156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present two-study paper examined the role of communication strategies that athletes use to develop their coach-athlete relationship. Study 1 examined the mediating role of motivation, support, and conflict management strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' perceptions of sport satisfaction. Study 2 examined the longitudinal and mediational associations of communication strategies and relationship quality across two time points, over a 6-week period. Within both studies, data were collected through multi-section questionnaires assessing the studies' variables. For study 1, structural equation modeling highlighted significant indirect effects for motivation and support strategies between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athletes' experiences of sport satisfaction. For study 2, significant indirect effects were found for the athletes' perceptions of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship at time 2 between athletes' use of communication strategies at time point 1 and time point 2. Together these findings provide support for the practical utility of communications strategies in enhancing the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete's experiences of sport satisfaction. In addition, the findings provide evidence to highlight the potential cyclical relationship between communication and relationship quality across time.

  • 315.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom.
    Angry Athletes: Psychological, Physiological, and Performance Implications2011Inngår i: Psychology of Anger: Symptoms, Causes and Coping / [ed] James P. Welty, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, s. 197-212Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 316.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Current perspectives on psychological aspects associated with the development, and practice of effective coaching and management2016Inngår i: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Davis, Paul A., New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, s. 1-12Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 317.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    The psychology of effective coaching and management2016Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Psychology of Effective Coaching and Management is a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, educators, and administrators that want to increase their knowledge of psychological aspects associated with the development and practice of coaching and management. The reader is guided through models of the coaching process, approaches to coach learning, context specific education, and tools for observing coaching behaviors. Additionally, considerations for enhancing positive youth development, motivational climate, group dynamics, self-regulation, emotions, and mental toughness are outlined. The application of mental skills such as self-talk, the consideration of an athlete’s personality in coaching practice, and leadership theories in management are also reviewed. Examples of highly effective sport organizations and approaches to optimizing relationships with support staff are presented, as well as research and implications of coach burnout. The book is written by world leading scholars, sport psychologists, coaches, and managers from the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Sweden, Spain, Greece, Croatia and the UK. Each chapter presents current research and offers suggestions for optimizing effective coaching and management. The chapters are written to be accessible to a wide range of readers, and each chapter offers a set of key considerations for enhancing practice. The aim of the book is to present up-to-date knowledge of the theories and research undertaken in sport coaching and management, with a particular focus upon applying understanding to maximize effective practice. This book will serve as essential reading for scholars and students; it can be used as a key text in sports coaching or coach education programs. Furthermore, coaches as well as their athletes will benefit from the recommendations for practice presented in the book.

  • 318.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Emotions and emotion regulation in coaching2016Inngår i: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Paul A. Davis, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, s. 285-306Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 319.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wills, Samuel
    Appleby, Ralph
    Nieuwenhuys, Arnie
    Exploring "Sledging" and Interpersonal Emotion-Regulation Strategies in Professional Cricket2018Inngår i: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 136-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines cricketers’ perceptions of emotional interactions between competitors. Semistructured interviews with 12 male professional cricketers explored experiences (i.e., emotions, cognitions, behaviors) relating to incidents during competition where they or an opponent attempted to evoke an emotional reaction (e.g., sledging). Cricketers described their use of sledging as aggressive actions and verbal interactions with the aim of disrupting concentration and altering the emotional states of opponents. They described experiencing a variety of emotions (e.g., anxiety, anger) in response to opponents’ attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation; linguistic analyses indicated that both positive than negative emotions were experienced. A range of strategies in response to competitors’ deliberate attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation were outlined. The present study extends previous research investigating interpersonal emotion regulation within teams by indicating that professional cricketers are aware of the impact of cognitions and emotions on performance and attempt to negatively influence these factors in competitors

  • 320.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

  • 321.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Woodman, Tim
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Callow, Nichola
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Better out than in: The influence of anger regulation on physical performance2010Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 457-460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of individual differences in anger regulation as potential moderators of the anger–performance relationship. Extending Lazarus’s (1991, 2000a) cognitive–motivational–relational theory of emotion, we investigated the influence of trait anger and the anger regulation styles of anger-in and anger-out on the performance of a physical task. As hypothesized, trait anger and anger-out were positively associated with anger-derived performance enhancement on a peak force task; anger-in significantly inhibited the trait anger–performance relationship. Results are discussed in relation to Lazarus’s cognitive–motivational–relational theory and future research directions are offered.

  • 322.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Examining associations between affective states and physiological responses before, during, and after competitive cycling time trials2018Inngår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, s. S86-S86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 323. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom.
    Rothmann Jr, S
    Linking employee burnout to medical aid provider expenditure2013Inngår i: SAMJ South African Medical Journal, ISSN 0256-9574, E-ISSN 2078-5135, Vol. 103, nr 2, s. 89-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Healthcare has become a major expense. Burnout and its connection with psychological and physical health is well researched, yet little research has been done on the connection between burnout and financial outcomes, specifically as indicated by the costs incurred by medical aid providers as a result of members' claims. Objective. To investigate the connection between employee burnout and medical aid claims and expenditure data in a sample from the private sector. Method. A cross-sectional design was used. The sample comprised 3 182 participants. The available objective medical aid expenditure data connected with each participant were: total insured benefits, general practitioner visits, specialist visits, general practitioner insured benefits, and claims for medicine. A low and a high burnout group were extracted, based on comorbidity of the two core components of burnout. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was then applied to investigate the differences in estimated marginal means of the expenditures on the low and the high burnout contrast groups, while controlling for age and gender. Results. The high burnout group frequented a general practitioner more often, and the medical aid provider expenditure was nearly double that of the low burnout group, on all the variables. Specialist visits did not show a significant result. Conclusion. High burnout is associated with a higher expenditure by a medical aid provider, compared with low burnout, per member. Stakeholders should therefore address burnout to reduce expenditure and promote health.

  • 324. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Rothmann, Jnr., I.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model with a categorical estimator.2012Inngår i: Psychological Reports, Vol. 111, nr 2, s. 528-544Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 325. De Beer,, L. T.,
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    2013Inngår i: Demands, exhaustion and absenteeism: Comparing management, professionals and administrative occupations., 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 326.
    De Beer, L. T.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Jr., S.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory2013Inngår i: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, nr 1, artikkel-id a1055Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: Reversed causality is an area that has not commanded major attention within the South African context, specifically pertaining to engagement, burnout and job demands resources. Therefore, this necessitated an investigation to elucidate the potential effects.

    Research purpose: To investigate the reversed causal hypotheses of burnout and engagement in job demands-resources theory over time.

    Motivation for the study: Organisations and researchers should be made aware of the effects that burnout and engagement could have over time on resources and demands.

    Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal design was employed. The availability sample (n = 593) included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at both points in time. Structural equation modelling techniques were implemented with a categorical estimator to investigate the proposed hypotheses.

    Main findings: Burnout was found to have a significant negative longitudinal relationship with colleague support and supervisor support, whilst the negative relationship with supervisor support over time was more prominent. Engagement showed only one significant but small, negative relationship with supervisor support over time. All other relationships were statistically non-significant.

    Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between burnout and relationships at work over time. Proactive measures to promote relationships at work, specifically supervisor support, should be considered in addition to combatting burnout itself and promoting engagement.

    Contribution/value-add: This study provides insights and information on reversed causality, namely, the effects that engagement and burnout can have over time.

  • 327. De Beer, Leon T.
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Sebastiaan Jr.
    Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa2016Inngår i: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 36-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes.

  • 328.
    De Beer, Leon T.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Sebastiaan Jr.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: a three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process2016Inngår i: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 387-399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: The study reported here investigated the causal relationships in the health impairment process of employee well-being, and the mediating role of burnout in the relationship between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms, over time. The research is deemed important due to the need for longitudinal evidence of the health impairment process of employee well-being over three waves of data. Design: A quantitative survey design was followed. Participants constituted a longitudinal sample of 370 participants, at three time points, after attrition. Methods: Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling methods were implemented. Results: Work overload at time one predicted burnout at time two, and burnout at time two predicted psychological ill-health symptoms at time three. Indirect effects were found between work overload time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three via burnout time two, and also between burnout time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three, via burnout time two. Conclusions: The results provided supportive evidence for an “indirect-only” mediation effect, for burnout's causal mediation mechanism in the health impairment process between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms.

  • 329. De Beer, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann, I., Jnr
    Designated and non-designated employee experiences in post-apartheid South Africa: Examples of informative hypothesis testing.2015Inngår i: The International Journal of Human Resource Management.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 330. De Beer,, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann,, Jnr., I.
    Job burnout’s relationship with sleep difficulties in the presence of control variables: A self-report study.2014Inngår i: South African Journal of Psychology.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 331.
    De Chateau, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum: I. First observations at 36 hours1977Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 137-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The immediate post partum period may be particularly important for the developing relationship between mother and infant; little is as yet known, however, of the long-term effects of hospital practice during this period. This study examines the effect of extra contact during the first hour following delivery. An extra skin to skin contact and suckling contact was given to 22 primiparous mothers and their infants. One control group of 20 primiparous mothers and infants and a second one of 20 multiparous mothers and infants was given routine care immediately after birth. All mothers and infants were healthy with normal pregnancies and deliveries. At 36 hours a first observation was made of maternal and infant behaviour during breast feeding in all three groups. At this stage primiparae with extra contact showed behaviour much more like the behaviour of multiparae with routine care. Infants of primiparae with routine care cried most frequently. The behaviour of mothers of boys differed more from group to group than did that of mothers of girls.

  • 332.
    de Chateau, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum: II. A follw-up at three months1977Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 145-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Primiparous mothers and their infants who had an extra 15–20 minutes' suckling and skin to skin contact during the first hour after delivery, behaved differently at 36 hours post partum compared with a control group without this extra contact. The present study is a 3-month follow-up of these mothers and infants by means of direct observation of mother-infant free play and a personal interview with the mothers. Mothers in the extra contact group spent more time kissing and looking en face at their infants; these infants smiled more often and cried less frequently. A greater proportion of the mothers with extra contact were still breast feeding at 3 months. The influence of extra contact on behaviour was more pronounced in boy–mother than in girl–mother pairs.

  • 333.
    de Chateau, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Long-term effect on mother-infant behaviour of extra contact during the first hour post partum: III. Follw-up at one year1984Inngår i: Scandinavian journal of social medicine, ISSN 1403-4948 Print; 1651-1905 Online, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 91-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present prospective study examined, one year after delivery, the possible effects of early extra contact during the first hour following delivery. An extra skin-to-skin contact and suckling contact was allowed 22 primiparous mothers and their infants (P+ group). One control group of 20 primiparous mothers and their infants were given routine care immediately after birth (P group). During observation of a physical examination of the infant, ‘extra contact mothers’ held and touched their infants more frequently and more often talked positively to their infants than did mothers given routine care. ‘Extra contact mothers’ had returned to their professional employment outside the home to a lesser extent than had routine care mothers. A greater proportion of ‘extra contact’ infants slept in a room of their own. In the P+ group, mothers who had returned to gainful employment were also able to have their babies sleep in a room of their own—no such correspondence was found in the P group. The Gesell Developmental Schedules revealed that, in four parts out of five, infants with extra contact immediately after birth, were ahead of those in the control group. On the other hand, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Cesarec Marke Personality Scheme did not reveal any major differences between the two groups. Mothers with early extra skin-to-skin contact and suckling contact breast-fed their infants on an average for 2 1/2 months longer than did routine care mothers. No other differences in feeding habits were found. The influence of extra contact was more pronounced in boy–mother than in girl–mother pairs.

  • 334. de Chateau, Peter
    et al.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Three-year follow-up of early postpartum contact1984Inngår i: Frontiers of Infant Psychiatry, Vol. II / [ed] J.D. Call, E. Galenson, & R.L. Tyson, New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers , 1984, s. 313-322Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 335. de Frias, Cindy M
    et al.
    Annerbrink, Kristina
    Westberg, Lars
    Eriksson, Elias
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    COMT gene polymorphism is associated with declarative memory in adulthood and old age2004Inngår i: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 533-539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in memory performance is to a large extent explained by genes. In the prefrontal cortex, the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is essential in the metabolic degradation of dopamine, a neurotransmitter implicated in cognitive functions. The present study examined the effect of a polymorphism in the COMT gene on individual differences and changes in memory in adulthood and old age. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory were administered to 286 men (initially aged 35-85 years) from a random sample of the population (i.e., the Betula prospective cohort study) at two occasions followed over a 5-year period. Carriers of the Met/Met genotype (with low enzyme activity) performed better on episodic and semantic memory, as compared to carriers of the Val allele (with higher enzyme activity). Division of episodic memory into its recall and recognition components showed that the difference was specific to episodic recall, not recognition tasks; an effect that was observed across three age groups (middle-age, young-old, and old-old adults) and over a 5-year period. The COMT gene is a plausible candidate gene for memory functioning in adulthood and old age.

  • 336. De Manzano, Ö
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ullén, F
    Associationsbetween creative achievement in scientific and artistic domains, intelligence,personality, and sex.2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 337.
    De Waal,, J.J.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Towards understanding causality between work engagement and psychological capital2013Inngår i: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: It is of theoretical and practical interest to establish the sequential relationship between work engagement and positive organisational behaviour, as represented by the psychological capital (PsyCap) construct.

    Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to conceptualise and investigate the causal relationship and temporal order in the relationship between PsyCap and engagement by means of longitudinal data.

    Motivation for the study: The rationale for establishing the sequence of engagement and psychological capital lies in the fact that training interventions to enhance the organisational well-being of employees may need to be focused on either one or the other.

    Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal study with a cross-lagged panel design was conducted; data was gathered by means of a survey that was constructed for the purpose of the study. The survey contained the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and a measure of PsyCap. All employees within a chemical factory (N = 1003) were approached to provide data; 163 employees participated.

    Main findings: Results revealed that PsyCap at Time 1 (T1) did not significantly predict engagement at Time 2 (T2). Evidence does however exist that initial levels of employee engagement predict subsequent PsyCap.

    Practical/managerial implications: Results suggest that employee interventions aimed at protecting and fostering employee engagement may have implications for subsequent employee psychological capital.

    Contribution/value-add: As an empirical, longitudinal study to address the temporal order between PsyCap and work engagement, this study makes a contribution especially to theory, but also with practical implications by indicating that engagement precedes employee psychological capital.

  • 338. De Witte, H
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa.
    De Cuyper, N
    Review of 30 Years of Longitudinal Studies on the Association Between Job Insecurity and Health and Well-Being: Is There Causal Evidence?2016Inngår i: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 18-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this review article, we present an overview of the results of longitudinal studies on the consequences of job insecurity for healthand well-being. We discuss the evidence for normal causation (“Does job insecurity influence outcomes?”), reversed causation (“Do specificoutcomes predict job insecurity?”), and reciprocal causation. We also review the various theories used to develop the hypotheses and whethertheory has been used at all.

    Method: Scientific and scholarly databases were searched to find all existing articles. We found 57 longitudinal studies published since 1987 ina variety of countries throughout the world. All articles were summarised in an encompassing table.

    Results: The results show strong evidence for normal causation, in which job insecurity influences both psychological well-being and somatichealth over time. The results were somewhat dependent on the type of outcome variable analysed, with clear evidence regarding exhaustion(burnout), general mental/psychological well-being, self-rated health, and a variety of somatic complaints. For aspects such as job satisfaction,work engagement, and psychosomatic complaints, the results suggested normal causation in one half to two thirds of the studies only. Reversedor reciprocal causation was rarely studied, and when studied, rarely found.

    Conclusions: Job insecurity influences health and well-being over time, rather than the other way round. Limitations and suggestions for futureresearch are discussed.

  • 339.
    Del Missier, F
    et al.
    Psicologia general nellÚniversità di Trieste.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Memoria, attenzione e decisione2009Inngår i: Psicologia del giudizio e della decisione, Bologna: Socièta editrice il Mulino , 2009, s. 118-138Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 340. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parker, Andrew M
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Unraveling the Aging Skein : Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 123-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 341. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    De Bruin, Waendi Bruine
    Decision-making competence, executive functioning, and general cognitive abilities2012Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 331-351Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies investigated the relationship between general cognitive abilities and decision making, few have characterized specific cognitive abilities underlying decision-making competence. In this paper, we focus on executive functionscontrol processes involved in the regulation of cognition. Specifically, we report on an individual-differences study that investigated the relationship of executive functioning (EF) and general cognitive abilities (fluid intelligence and numeracy) with different aspects of decision-making competence. Individual differences in EF components explained aspects of decision-making competence even after controlling for fluid intelligence and numeracy. However, different aspects of decision-making competence varied in the extent to which they relied on different executive functions. In particular, resistance to framing effects, the ability to apply decision rules, and successful engagement in cognitive reflection partially depend on individual differences on the monitoring/inhibition dimension of EF. The ability to provide consistent judgments in risk perception is related to the shifting aspect of EF. The ability to recognize social norms and resistance to sunk costs were not significantly related to EF, thus supporting the idea that executive control is not a major determinant of these aspects of decision-making competence. Finally, substantial variance in some of the decision-making tasks remained unexplained, suggesting that other cognitive or non-cognitive abilities need to be considered in future studies. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 342.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    de Bruin, Wändi Bruine
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Executive functions in decision making: An individual differences approach2010Inngår i: Thinking and Reasoning, ISSN 1354-6783, E-ISSN 1464-0708, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 69-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This individual differences study examined the relationships between three executive functions (updating, shifting, and inhibition), measured as latent variables, and performance on two cognitively demanding subtests of the Adult Decision Making Competence battery: Applying Decision Rules and Consistency in Risk Perception. Structural equation m delling showed that executive functions contribute differentially to performance in these two tasks, with Applying Decision Rules being mainly related to inhibition and Consistency in Risk Perception mainly associated to shifting. The results suggest that the successful application of decision rules requires the capacity to selectively focus attention and inhibit irrelevant (or no more relevant) stimuli. They also suggest that consistency in risk perception depends on the ability to shift between judgement contexts.

  • 343.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Trieste.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Leeds University Business School and Carnegie Mellon University.
    Parker, Andrew M.
    RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    University of Stockholm ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Multifold Relationship Between Memory and Decision Making: An Individual-Differences Study2013Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 39, nr 5, s. 1344-1364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several judgment and decision-making tasks are assumed to involve memory functions, but significant knowledge gaps on the memory processes underlying these tasks remain. In a study on 568 adults between 25 and 80 years of age, hypotheses were tested on the specific relationships between individual differences in working memory, episodic memory, and semantic memory, respectively, and 6 main components of decision-making competence. In line with the hypotheses, working memory was positively related with the more cognitively demanding tasks (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, and Under/Overconfidence), whereas episodic memory was positively associated with a more experience-based judgment task (Recognizing Social Norms). Furthermore, semantic memory was positively related with 2 more knowledge-based decision-making tasks (Consistency in Risk Perception and Resistance to Sunk Costs). Finally, the age-related decline observed in some of the decision-making tasks was (partially or totally) mediated by the age-related decline in working memory or episodic memory. These findings are discussed in relation to the functional roles fulfilled by different memory processes in judgment and decision-making tasks.

  • 344.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Learning psychotherapy: An effectiveness study of clients and therapists2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Many psychotherapy studies with trainees have been conducted, but few have investigated how effective baseline trainee-led psychotherapies are. Baseline trainee-led psychotherapies are often provided by a professional education, and the therapists are often young, untrained and inexperienced. The present study was conducted at the Clinical Psychology Program at Umeå University, in Sweden. The psychology students were in their fourth or fifth year of, in total, five years, and few had practiced therapy before. Clients, students and education providers are interested in the outcome of trainee-led psychotherapies because clients want an effective treatment, and students and the educators want the best education. In research, there is an interest in knowing more about training, how training influences clients’ benefits of therapy, and how training works in regular activity. In the present thesis, we investigate questions related to outcome and how different training factors affect outcome. The overall purpose of the present thesis was to examine 1) the effectiveness of trainee-led therapies in a psychology education setting and 2) if clients’ self-image patterns would predict the outcome 3) if different training conditions covary with treatment outcome 4) how novices develop in their professional characteristics and work involvement styles.

    Methods and Result The current thesis utilized data from the Swedish naturalistic study Effects of Student Therapies (EUT) at Umeå University. The EUT is a naturalistic psychotherapist research project, which comprises client data from 2003 to 2012. The present study included 235 clients. The mean age of the clients was 31 years (SD = 9.66), and 69% of the clients were women. The clients had mixed psychological symptoms and were well functioning. Psychological symptoms were measured by Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973). The patients’ self-image was measured using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB), the introject questionnaire (Benjamin, 1974). All therapists were students at the psychology program. In Paper III, 76 therapists participated. The therapists’ mean age was 28 years (SD = 5.55), and 71% of the therapists were women. Therapists’ professional characteristics and work involvement styles were measured by Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ; Orlinsky et al., 1999).

    Four specific objectives have been addressed. The first objective was to investigate the overall effectiveness of treatment. In Papers I and II, the effect sizes implicated that the therapy outcome was moderate. Paper I showed that 67% of the clients were in the dysfunctional domain before therapy compared to 34% after completed therapy. Further in Paper I, it was found that 42% of the clients had recovered or improved at the end of the therapy, but most of the clients remained unchanged (55%) and a few percent had deteriorated (3%). This result is in line with a Norwegian training study (Ryum, Stiles & Vogel, 2007) but less effective than effectiveness studies have shown with professional therapists (e.g. Hunsley & Lee, 2007). Paper II, where we used a subsample of Paper I’s clients, showed a similar result.

    The second objective was to investigate if clients’ self-image pattern (attachment group, disrupted attachment group, self-control and self-autonomy) predicted change in psychological symptoms (GSI: global severity index) and personality symptoms (PSI: personality symptom index). The disrupted attachment group or the clients’ negative self-image had the strongest relationship to outcome and explained 8% vs. 10% in outcome (PSI vs. GSI). Self-control explained a further 3% (GSI) and 4% (PSI) of the result, and self-autonomy added 1% in both GSI and PSI. The result indicates that clients with an increased negative self-image, higher self-control, and lower level of self-autonomy before therapy improve more in both psychological symptoms and personality symptoms than clients with a less negative self-image, lower self-control, and higher level of self-autonomy.

    The third objective was to explore if treatment duration (one or two semesters) and training condition (cognitive therapy and psychodynamic therapy) could affect basic psychotherapy outcome. Paper II demonstrated that clients in all training conditions, cognitive therapy two semesters (CT2), psychodynamic therapy one semester (PDT1) and psychodynamic therapy two semesters (PDT2), had significant changes in self-image patterns and symptoms, except for cognitive therapy one semester (CT1). Analyses using clinically significant change demonstrated that fewer clients in CT1 had recovered and reliably improved compared to the other training conditions (in CT1: 20- 23%, in PDT1: 27- 43%, in CT2: 49- 54% and in PDT2: 35- 41%). Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that clients’ pre-tests characteristics self-image pattern (affiliation: AFF) and psychological symptoms (global severity index: GSI) explained 34% of the results. Treatment duration and training condition demonstrated an interaction effect between duration and theoretical approach, explaining about 2%. The regression lines for self-image pattern AFF and psychological symptoms GSI showed that clients in CT2 and PDT1 improved more than clients receiving CT1 and PDT2.

    The fourth objective was to examine how novice therapists in psychotherapy training develop in professional characteristics and work involvement styles (healing and stressful work involvement styles). The study was longitudinal and therapists were measured at session 2, 8, 16, 22 and endpoint. Mixed model analyses of the Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ) (when controlled for therapists’ age and gender) showed that the therapists’ professional characteristics and work involvement styles changed positively over time in training, except for in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom. The therapists increased most in technical expertise and less in basic relational skill. The result also indicated that the students changed linearly over time.

    Conclusion The present studies draw attention to the moderate outcome for clients in trainee-led psychotherapy. The novices appear to need time to increase in effectiveness possibly due to the high load of technical training in the beginning of the therapy. However, when exploring different training durations and training conditions, the contexts are shown to influence the outcome. In addition, clients with a more negative self-image pattern, with higher levels of self-control and lower levels of self-autonomy had better outcome, a finding with prognostic value. Finally, the training of students improves both a healing and a stressful involvement style, but in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom are more resistant to change.

  • 345.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Baseline training in cognitive and psychodynamic psychotherapy during a psychologist training program: Exploring client outcomes in therapies of one or two semesters2012Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 515-526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This effectiveness study explored the outcomes of 187 clients seen by 187 students undergoing baseline training in psychotherapy. Clients reduced their symptoms (SCL-90) and increased their positive self-image (SASB introject) during the therapy. Multiple regression analyses showed no differences between the cognitive and the psychodynamic training approaches and no differences between one and two semesters duration of the therapies. However, 2 - 3% of variance in end states was accounted for by the interaction between the variables, indicating a moderating effect of duration in the two approaches. Outcomes for clients in the cognitive training approach were significantly better with two semesters than with one semester, while there was no such difference in the psychodynamic approach. Consequences for baseline training are discussed.

  • 346.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Connolly Gibbons, Mary Beth
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    Barber, Jacques P.
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    Gallop, Robert
    Statistics and Applied Mrthematics, West Chester University, West Chester, USA.
    Crits-Christoph, Paul
    Center for Psychotherapy Research, Department of Psyhiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphuia, USA.
    How many treatment sessions and patients are needed to create a stable score of adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence?2012Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 475-488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study utilized a generalizability theory analysis of adherence and competence ratings to evaluate the number of sessions and patients needed to yield dependable scores at the patient and therapist levels. Independent judges' ratings of supportive expressive therapy (n = 94), cognitive therapy (n = 103), and individual drug counseling (n = 98) were obtained on tapes of sessions from the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Generalizability coefficients revealed that, for all three treatments, ratings made on approximately five to 10 sessions per patient are needed to achieve sufficient dependability at the patient level. At the therapist level, four to 14 patients need to be evaluated (depending on the modality), to yield dependable scores. Many studies today use fewer numbers.

  • 347.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Connolly Gibson, Mary Beth
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Barber, Jacques P.
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Gallop, Robert
    Statistics and Applied Mathematics, West Chester University, West Chester, USA.
    Crits-Christoph, Paul
    Center for Psychotherapy research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Do supervisors and independent judges agree on evaluations of therapist adherence and competence in the treatment of cocaine dependence?2012Inngår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 720-730Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 348.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019Inngår i: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, nr 8, artikkel-id e8150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • 349.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Novice psychotherapists’ development in professional characteristics and work involvement styles in trainingManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about how psychotherapists develop their professional characteristics and work involvement styles during training is scant; in addition, awareness of the need to find answers to how psychotherapy training can best be organized is increasing. This study investigated novice therapists’ development of healing and stressful work involvement in baseline psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided information longitudinally by responding to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ). The results demonstrated that therapists’ healing and stressful work involvement, current therapeutic skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed positively and linearly. Technical expertise changed the most, having a large effect, and relational skills developed moderately. Surprisingly, in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The process of positive and linear development of in-session feelings is important in psychotherapy education. The question becomes how the training should address trainees’ personal issues or countertransference that might affect in-session feelings.

  • 350.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Utbildningsterapeuters utveckling av allians och terapeutförmågor: en longitudinell studie2015Inngår i: Tidskriften psykoterapi, ISSN 2001-5836, nr 3, s. 38-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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