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  • 301.
    Lind, Pia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Hur upplevs förändringarna av de nya administrativa rutinerna för sjuksköterskorna respektive medicinska sekreterare på ögonmottagningen på Helsingborgs lasarett?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 302.
    Lind, Pia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Svensk sjukvård i skamvrån?: Synpunkter på ökande anmälningsstatistik i svensk sjukvård 1980-20142016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har det varit en hel del förändringar inom sjukvården. Hela sjukvården har påverkats av reformer och de förändrade ekonomiska förutsättningarna som har blivit sedan 1980-talet. Personalen inom sjukvården har fått mycket ändrade arbetsvillkor där det bland annat har försvunnit en hel yrkesgrupp och administrationsbördan har ökat.

    Under denna tid har man dessutom kunnat se ökningar av anmälningar inom sjukvården. Denna uppsats försöker se på om det finns ett samband mellan förändrad sjukvårdsstruktur och arbetsmetoder och det ökade antal med anmälningar.

    Forskningen och artiklarna handlar dels om den omorganisation som gjorts och vad de olika reformerna har inneburit för sjukvården. Det finns även med en del om personalens arbetsuppgifter och de förändringar som personalen har fått erfara samt om bemötande inom vården.

    I studien har det också gjorts några intervjuer för att försöka få reda på hur personal och politiker ser på de förändringar som gjorts.

    Resultatet visar att det absolut kan kopplas ihop samband mellan omorganisation, arbetsdelning, vårdutförande och anmälningar. Mindre tid till patienterna innebär mer stress för personalen samtidigt som stressen gör att risken för misstag ökar.

    Sverige har ändrats mycket med tanke på att vi har blivit mer mångkulturella än vi varit tidigare vilket också ställer högre krav på personal som arbetar inom serviceorganisationer. Förändringar med nya kulturer, nya människor som kommer hit med nya förväntningar eller andra förväntningar.

  • 303.
    Lindberg, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Teamarbetets påverkan på Tegs hälsocentral: Ur ett arbetsorganisatoriskt perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 304.
    Lindberg, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Förändringskrafter inom hälso- och sjukvården: En studie om en ny regionindelning och Västerbottens läns landsting2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 305.
    Lindblom, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Sammanhållen journalföring: En balansgång mellan patientsäkerhet, patientintegritet och vårdkvalité2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 306.
    Linde, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Hur hanteras bemötandefrågor för en mer jämlik hälso- och sjukvård?: En studie av riktlinjer inom primärvården i Västerbottens läns landsting2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 307.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    A dark side of car ownership: perspectives on the rebound effect i Sweden 1950-2007Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 308.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Bilism för regional utjämning?: Studier av privatbilismens geografiska och socioekonomiska spridningsmönster 1950-20002008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis, with the English title Automobility towards Regional Equality? Studies of the geographical and socioeconomic diffusion of the private automobility in Sweden 1950-2000, has the overall aim to investigate the interaction between the private automobility and the Swedish socio-economical development in general. Firstly, the diffusion of private car ownership in Sweden is mapped both geographically and economically at the national level covering all citizens above the age of 18. Secondly, a comparison with the Norwegian diffusion pattern shows how automobility has interacted with two partly different national contexts. This aim will be dealt with in two articles.

    Since the diffusion of private cars in Sweden has not yet been examined in a long run and national perspective covering all individuals, the first article, Driving from the Centre to the Periphery? The Diffusion of Private Cars in Sweden 1950-2000 with focus on 1960-1975, investigates how the diffusion of private cars followed the over all socio-economic and geographical changes from 1960 to 1975; did changes in car ownership per capita primarily follow changes in incomes or changes in population density (urbanisation)? Swedish traffic and regional policies in the 1960s aimed at making the car an instrument for national integration and regional equality, and make it available throughout the country. In the article the effect of that policy is tested. The analysis is based on Swedish census material that includes all car owners for the years 1960, 1970 and 1975. Our conclusion is that income levels were more important than other explanations to the diffusion of private cars in Sweden between 1960 and 1975.

    Since Norwegian private car density has lagged behind the Swedish and did not reach the same national levels until the late 1980s, despite the same GDP per capita levels, the second article, Two Sides of the same Coin? Private Car Ownership in Sweden and Norway since 1950, compares car diffusion in Norway and Sweden in both historical time and model time in order to find specific explanations for the national and regional patterns of car diffusion. Can both the time lag and the diffusion process be explained with national differences in income, institutions, infrastructure, and population settlements? Or have regional differences in income and population density affected the outcome? Our conclusion is that car diffusion in Norway and Sweden displays two sides of same coin; the national levels converged, but the process did not follow the same regional pattern. Regional differences in income and population density have in general been a significant explanation for car density in Sweden but not in Norway.

    Thus, the licentiate thesis shows how private car ownership in Sweden from the 1950s has interacted with increasing regional equality, especially concerning geographical diffusion.

  • 309.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    "En ledande och samordnande funktion": om trafiksäkerhetens reglering och organisering i Sverige 1950-20072011Inngår i: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 77, nr 1, s. 82-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the organization of Swedish national road safety. The Swedish government has shown an interest in road safety since the beginning of the twentieth century, so the question is not if, but how road safety has been organized over time. Today, the ‘Vision Zero’ policy is used as the framework for road safety management within road policy as a whole. One reason for the adoption of Vision Zero was that road traffic deaths and injuries are considered a (global) public health problem and should be combated. The article presents a fresh approach to the Swedish government’s organization of road safety since the 1950s. The focus is the establishment and subsequent closure of the National Road Safety Office (TSV), and how the various and changing forms of organizations before, during, and after the TSV have been reflected in the national road plans of 1958, 1970, and 1998. Government bills and official reports reflect the national decision-making processes and the reasoning behind the founding and closure of the TSV. Before the TSV was set up in 1968, road safety had been the responsibility of the National Road Administration, which resumed responsibility when the TSV was closed down in 1993. The present study shows that the motives for the TSV’s creation and demise were the same, despite a time-frame that ran to fully twenty-five years: on each occasion road safety management was felt to be too haphazard, when it needed to be more coherent and efficient. These organizational changes were reflected in road planning, where control of the infrastructure increased, especially in recent decades. This conclusion sits well with previous research, which has shown the need for a more closely managed road network in order to implement Vision Zero.

  • 310.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Samhällsförändring på väg: Perspektiv på den svenska bilismens utveckling mellan 1950 och 20072010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to give a perspective on the development of the Swedish automobility between 1950 and 2007. New knowledge on automobility’s role for economic historical development will be achieved by studying the interaction between the diffusion of the private car on the national and the regional level, and the households’ preferences and the government’s regulations of car ownership.

    The first paper, Two Sides of the Same Coin?, compares car diffusion in Norway and Sweden to find explanations for the national and regional patterns. We ask whether the slower diffusion in Norway can be explained with national differences in income, institutions, infrastructure and population settlements; or if regional differences in income and population density have affected the outcome? Our conclusion is that car diffusion in Norway and Sweden displays two sides of the same coin; the national levels converged, but the process did not follow the same regional pattern. Regional differences in income and population density have in general been a significant explanation for car density in Sweden, but not in Norway.  

    The second paper, Driving from the Centre to the Periphery?, examines whether the diffusion of private cars followed the over-all socio-economic and geographical changes in Sweden from 1960 to 1975. In particular, it studies if ownership per capita followed changes in income or changes in population density (urbanisation). The analysis is based on unique Swedish parish-scale census material that includes all private car owners for the years 1960, 1970 and 1975. Our conclusion is that income levels were more important than other explanations for the diffusion of private cars in Sweden between 1960 and 1975.

    The third paper, ‘En ledande och samordnande funktion’, contributes with new knowledge on how the Swedish government has organised traffic safety in certain ways since the 1950s. The emphasis is on the establishment and closing down of the National Road Safety Office (TSV) and how the changing forms of organisations before, during and after TSV have been reflected in the road plans from 1958, 1970 and 1990. Our conclusion is that the motives for both establishment and closing down of the TSV were the same; to create a more efficient organisation regarding traffic safety. These changes have been reflected in the road plans where an increased control over the infrastructure can be recognised, especially during the last two decades.

    The fourth paper, A Dark Side of Car Ownership, examines whether improved technical performance with respect to fuel consumption have been counterbalanced through increasing engine power and weight, how such properties are valued by the consumers, and in what way political instruments have affected this development. The analysis is based on historical data covering all car models within the 50 percentiles of new registrations. Our conclusion is that a vehicle purchase rebound effect can be identified since the fuel consumption has decreased over time, while the engine effect has increased. Also, the Swedish car fleet has developed in a setting of political instruments and regulations working in favour of larger and more fuel consuming cars.

  • 311.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Driving from the center to the periphery?: The diffusion of private cars in Sweden, 1960-19752010Inngår i: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 164-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of private cars in Sweden has not yet been examined in a national long-run perspective covering all individuals. This article enquires whether the diffusion of private cars followed the overall socioeconomic and geographical changes in Sweden from 1960 to 1975. In particular, it asks if ownership per capita followed changes in incomes or changes in population density (urbanisation). In the 1960s Swedish traffic and regional policy aimed at making the car an instrument of national integration and regional equality, and making it available throughout the country. This article tracks the effects of that policy. The analysis is based on Swedish parish-scale census material that includes all car owners for the years 1960, 1970 and 1975. The conclusion is that income levels were more important than other explanations for the diffusion of private cars in Sweden between 1960 and 1975. National policy goals regarding cars as means of regional integration and equalisation were not fulfilled up to 1975.

  • 312.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Two Sides of the same Coin?: Private car ownership in Sweden and Norway since 19502009Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 172-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Norwegian private car density has lagged behind the Swedish and did not reach same national levels until the late 1980s, despite the same GDP per capita levels. Can both the time lag and the diffusion process be explained with national differences in income, institutions, infrastructure and population settlements? Or have regional differences in income and population density affected the outcome? The aim of this article is to compare car diffusion in Norway and Sweden in order to find explanations for the national and regional patterns of car diffusion. The conclusion is that car diffusion in Norway and Sweden displays two sides of same coin; the national levels converged, but the process did not follow the same regional pattern. Regional differences in income and population density have in general been a significant explanation for car density in Sweden, but not in Norway.

  • 313.
    Lindgren Örcel, Dennis
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Hur uppdelad patienthantering och administration påverkar sjukvården.: En tvåfallstudie mellan Angereds Närsjukhus och offentliga hälsocentraler i Kalmar2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 314.
    Lindkvist, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    "Det var något politiskt jippo": Fyra läkares attityder till journaler på nätet 1,5 år efter införandet i Uppsala2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 315.
    Lindman, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Könets betydelse för vården: Har kön och genus betydelse när vi blir sjuka?2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 316.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    An EKC-pattern in historical perspective: carbon dioxideemissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden1870–19972002Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 333-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been subject to research and debate since the early 1990s. This articleexamines the inverted-U trajectory of Swedish CO2 emissions during an extended time period beginning in 1870. Thebasis for the investigation is a structural time series approach that utilizes a stochastic trend as an indicator oftechnological and structural change, and GDP growth and changes in the price of fuel and cement price asindependent variables. Finally, the development of technological and structural change with respect to CO2 emissionsis interpreted within the context of growth regimes. The result suggests that the period 1920–1960, with high,sustained growth rates was associated with less technological and structural changes relating to CO2 emissions thanperiods with lower growth rates, such as the late 1800s and the post-1970 period. Furthermore, it is suggested thattime-specific technological clusters may affect EKC patterns.

  • 317.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    En global lyxfälla?: Långsiktiga perspektiv på hushållens skuldsättning2010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 318.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Estimates of changes in the Swedish standing timber volume 1800 to 1980: An EHNA Study1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 319.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Greening the national accounts: basic concepts and a case study of historical environmental accounting for Sweden2019Inngår i: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan, Academic Press, 2019, s. 1-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 320.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Hälsopolisens livsmedelskontroller: Kommentar till Ulf Rämme2001Inngår i: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, nr 4, s. 595-598Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 321.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Koldioxideffektivitet i ekonomisk-historiskt perspektiv2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 322.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Miljöjusterade historiska nationalräkenskaper1994Inngår i: Nordiska historiska nationalräkenskaper: Workshop vid Olofsfors herrgård 27-28 maj 1994 / [ed] Olle Krantz, Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia , 1994, s. 1-29Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 323.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Patterns of Historical CO2 intensity Transitions among High and Low-Income Countries2004Inngår i: Explorations in Economic History, ISSN 0014-4983, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 426-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the long-term relationship between CO2 emissions and economic development for various high-income OECD countries that, in turn, are compared with pattern for developing countries. A majority of high-income countries have experienced environmental Kuznets curve types of transitions with respect to CO2 intensity (emissions per GDP), while the these patterns are absent in the poorer countries. Moreover, the overall historical pattern is one of convergence with respect to intensities. These observations are consistent with an explanation that takes into account includes time-specific, or vintage technology.

  • 324.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Relativprisförändringar och förändrad koldioxidproduktivitet i svensk tillverkningsindustri 1914 till 19952007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The following report investigates relationships between labour and carbon dioxide productivity in the Swedish manufacturing industry 1914-1995. Furthermore, relationships between changing energy relative prices and carbon dioxide emissions are studied. Main conclusions are that improved labour and carbon dioxide productivity was evident during the post 1973 period, while the results are more ambiguous during the 1950 to 1973 period. During the period 1913 to 1950 the relationship was probably negative.

    For the whole investigated period there are evidence that carbon dioxide emissions are negatively correlated with oil prices. The relationship was however not stable over each sub-period. An overall interpretation of the results is that carbon dioxide emissions and carbon dioxide productivity historically have been affected by other factors apart from relative price changes. Climate policy, which tends to be working towards long-term goals, should therefore pay attention to policy tools that may complement economic tools such as taxes.

  • 325.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Rethinking the environmental state: an economic history of the Swedish Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon2019Inngår i: In search of good energy policy / [ed] Marc Ozawa, Jonathan Chaplin,Michael Pollitt, David Reiner, Paul Warde, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, s. 139-164Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to recognize that macroeconomic conditions and dynamics were important for the design of Swedish energy policy and that the transformation pressure on the Swedish energy system was exceptionally high by international comparison. Historic decisions, which were governed by a rationality fostered by the circumstances in the 1940s and early 1950s, came to form important structures which affected the outcome of the energy policy in the 1970s and 1980s. The perhaps most striking consequence of this was the emergence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon with few international counterparts. The transformative change of the Swedish energy system included several steps, which in retrospect seem accidental. The challenge today is to copy the sequence, while at the same time realizing that the structures and historical circumstances that brought about a sequence that was historically determined and of a contingent nature cannot easily serve as a 'copy and paste' learning example.

  • 326.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Riktlinjer för historiska miljöräkenskaper2001Inngår i: Nordiska historiska nationalräkenskaper: Nordic historical national accounts. Artikelsamling från workshop V, Anumark, 29 september till 1 oktober, 2000 / [ed] Magnus Lindmark och Peter Vikström, Umeå: Institutionen för ekonomisk historia , 2001, s. 85-108Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 327.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Some principles for environmental historical national accounting: a discussion paper1997Inngår i: Nordiska Historiska Nationalräkenskaper: Workshop 2 i Järvänpää 20-22 september 1996 / [ed] Jari Eloranta, Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä University , 1997Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 328.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Strukturomvandling och förändrad koldioxidproduktivitet i svensk industri 1936-19792007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an investigation of changes in carbon dioxide emission productivity in the Swedish manufacturing industry. Productivity changes are measured for approximately 100 sectors within manufacturing industry. Furthermore, aggregated productivity change is decomposed into technical and structural effects. Analytically the relationship between carbon dioxide productivity and labour productivity is investigated. A main conclusion is that sectors with a large contribution to the aggregated labour productivity tend to large contributors also to carbon dioxide productivity.

  • 329.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Strypa tillväxten bästa lösningen?2013Inngår i: Generationsmålet: kontroverser kring klimat och konsumtion / [ed] Magnus Jiborn och Astrid Kander, Dialogos Förlag, 2013, 1, s. 78-92Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet diskuteras möjliga konsekvenser av att möta de svenska klimatmålen genom att minska konsumtionen. Vad händer med levnadsstandarden om vi hade halverat arbetstiden och vilken historisk epok motsvarar det i termer av materiell välfärd?

  • 330.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Technical change and the pattern of industrialization in Sweden 1880-1990: TFP calculations based on new estimates of stocks2003Inngår i: Nordic Historical National Accounts: Proceedings from Workshop VI Reykjavik 19-20 September 2003 / [ed] Gundmundur Jonsson, Reykjavik: University of Iceland , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 331.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    The Nature of Natural Resource Net Prices: On the presence of Hotelling rents, monopoly rents and Ricardian rents in Swedish iron ore industry2004Inngår i: Studying Economic Growth. New Tools and Perspectives: Workshop arranged in Umeå June 2-3 2003 / [ed] Peter Vikström, Umeå: Umeå : Univ., Inst. för ekonomisk historia , 2004, s. 189-205Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 332.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Towards environmental historical national accounts for Sweden: methodological considerations and estimates for the 19th and 20th centuries1998Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    New questions in a changing economy demands development of both contemporary and historical national accounts. One such question concerns economic and environmental relationships. From a national accounting perspective this issue has been approached in terms of environmental accounting. The aim of this study is to investigate how proposals for integrated environmental and economic accounting can be used for an extension of the Historical National Accounts for Sweden and for examining the long-term relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation and resource depletion. This issue is approached through methodological considerations and estimates of iron ore and timber depletion and discharge of pollutants.

    The conclusions are that it is possible to construct environmental historical national accounts, but that the lack of historical data and theoretical difficulties cause a high level of abstraction and other problems concerning the series.

    The empirical investigations show that the 19th century can be considered a period of depletion intensive growth. Furthermore, there seems to be evidence of a correlation between changes in the natural resource net prices and previous periodizations of Swedish economic development. Concerning pollutants, the analyses shows an increase of the aggregated discharges until the late 1960s. However, the pollution intensity of growth has fallen throughout the period, possibly in a pattern of long trend periods.

  • 333.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Välfärdsstatens expansion. Ekonomisk tillväxt och offentlig sektor under 200 år. Av Peter H. Lindert2007Inngår i: Tidskrift for velferdsforskning, ISSN 0809-2052, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 65-66Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 334.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekonomisk historia.
    Öringsvatten eller terrawatt? : naturskydd i ett grönt strukturanalytiskt perspektiv2004Inngår i: Strukturernas dynamik : kontinuitet och förändring i ekonomisk historia : festskrift till Olle Krantz, Umeå : Univ., Inst. för ekonomisk historia, 2004 (Umeå : Print & Media, Umeå universitet) , 2004, s. 159-174Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 335.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Acar, Sevil
    Riders on the storm: how hard did Robert Gordon’s environmental headwind blow in the past?2019Inngår i: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan, Academic Press, 2019, s. 135-151Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 336.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Acar, Sevil
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Department of Economics, Mahmutbey Dilmenler Caddesi, No: 26, Bagcilar, 34217 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Sustainability in the making? A historical estimate of Swedish sustainable and unsustainable development 1850-20002013Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, s. 176-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we estimate the long-rundevelopment of genuine savings in Sweden during the period 1850 to 2000. Bydoing so we are able to present a first analysis of long-run sustainabledevelopment during a single country’s transition to modern economic growth ratesand high income levels. We find that genuine savings may have been negative upuntil c. 1910. This suggests a period of transition to positive genuine savings in conjunction with or even preceding the transition to modern economic rates.Important contributions to the transition were increasing investments in humancapital, improved sanitary conditions, reduced depletion of forests andaccelerated investments in machinery and infrastructure.

  • 337.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Acar, Sevil
    The environmental Kuznets curve and the Pasteur effect: environmental costs in Sweden 1850-20002014Inngår i: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, E-ISSN 1474-0044, Vol. 18, s. 306-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of environmental problems is among other things affected by knowledge and economic growth and the perception of welfare. In this article, we present a method for aggregating historically relevant environmental pressure indicators, thereby acknowledging that the complexity of environmental problems calls for multi-indicator approaches. Secondly, we use the aggregate for exploring the long-run dynamics between the environment and economic growth, using a methodology used in the study of the so-called environmental Kuznets curve. We find evidence for a right tilted-S form dynamic relationship. The dynamics is analyzed in a framework stressing that new knowledge of environmental problems is an important driver for the changing relationship, here called "the Pasteur effect".

  • 338.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    All fired up: the growth of fire insurance in Sweden, 1830-19502010Inngår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 99-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we investigate supply and demand factors that have been put forward to explain the growth of fire insurance markets in Sweden during the financial revolution. We show that income growth and urbanisation fostered the demand for fire insurance. The supply of fire insurance, on the other hand, helps explain financial market development. Fire insurance assisted in mortgaging fixed assets, such as houses, through guaranteeing them as collateral. On both the upply side and the demand side, fire insurance was a key factor of the financial revolution in Sweden.

  • 339.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    An historical wealth assessment – measuring the Swedish national wealth for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 122-137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides historical account of wealth accumulation and composition in Sweden during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A detailed account on capital formation during the industrialisation process shows that produced capital grew faster than natural capital from the 1850s. Natural capital was changing from a predominance of forest towards crop land as the main asset in the early twentieth century. Produced capital was largely bounded in the agriculture sector up till the second half of the nineteenth century. Heavy investments in the infrastructure sector and later in the manufacturing section changed the produced capital structure and thereby lowered transport costs and return of investment in manufacturing and services; providing incentives for accumulating the stock of produced capital and enhance consumption and living standard. The return on capital was dispersed from the outset of the period but has converged over time.

  • 340.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Growth Performance and Organizational Forms: The Case of Swedish Life Insurance, 1890 to 19502015Inngår i: Corporate Forms and Organizational Choice in International Insurance / [ed] Robin Pearson and Takau Yoneyama, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2015, 1, s. 244-260Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish life insurance, mutual and stock insurers have competed since the late nineteenth century. Stock insurers were prime movers controlling the early market. After the establishment of the first mutual insurer in 1887, however, stock insurers lost substantial market share. By themid-twentieth century, mutual insurers controlled 70 per cent of the life insurance market. In this chapter we explain how and why the mutual form was more successful than the stock organizational form in Swedish life insurance from the late nineteenth century to the midtwentieth century. Our preliminary results show that mutuals were more successful than stock companies in attracting demand from the growing wage-labour population. By introducing the concept of industrial insurance and by keeping claims experiences low, mutual companies were able to efficiently expand their businesses and their market share.

  • 341.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Household firewood consumption in Sweden during the nineteenth century2010Inngår i: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, nr 2, s. 55-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Household firewood consumption underwent significant changes during the industrial breakthrough. Recent literature on Sweden makes thecase that greater energy efficiency drastically reduced rural household fuel consumption, while coal substituted for firewood in cities. This article shows that although coal substituted for wood in some urban areas, rural firewood consumption was not reduced. Higher standards of living indicate contrary to previous results that fuel consumption increased during the industrialisation process. The study shows that households with higher standard of living consumed more fuel and that rural households, due to lower fuel prices, consumed relatively more fuel than urban households. The result shows contrary to previous research that the total energy intensity decreased more rapidly after and no tbefore the industrial breakthrough.

  • 342.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Replik: Inte självklart att slopad löneavgift ger högre lönsamhet2018Inngår i: Västerbottens-Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Minskas de delar av arbetsgivaravgiften som egentligen är försäkringspremier dyker premierna i stället upp som fönsterkuvert hos arbetstagarna i stället, som hade krävt motsvarande löneökningar för att ha råd att betala dom. Det skriver två forskare i en replik till Svenskt näringsliv.

  • 343.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Tillväxten och de stigande förväntningarnas missnöje2019Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 75-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 344.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Where Was the Wealth of the Nation?: Measuring Swedish Capital for the 19th and 20th Centuries2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents estimates of the Swedish national wealth from 1830 to 2010. This contributes to economic historical research on structural change and growth, while it also supplements debates on the composition of wealth and incomes across countries. The report also includes for the first time a historical estimate of the Consumer Rate Interest CRI and an estimate of wealth based on surveys and insurance data. The report includes an extensive description and documentation of the historical estimates. The main findings are that the proportion of intangible capital grew before modern economic growth was achieved in Sweden during the 1890’s. Secondly, we show that the proportion of natural assets fell prior to and during the industrialization, while the share of produced capital has fluctuated, but has remained fairly stable over the period as a whole.

  • 345.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Expansion for pollution reduction? Environmental adaption of a Swedish and a Canadian metal smelter, 1960-20052008Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 530-546Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the historical developments of the environmental adaptation process at one Swedish metal smelting firm, contrasting the result with cases in Canada. The findings suggest that the Swedish system in excluding stakeholders, focusing on plant emissions and stipulating pollution reduction at economically feasible costs mitigated risk which resulted in long-term contracts in a cooperative framework in which engineers were given a high degree of discretion. This enabled an 'expansion-for-emission-reduction' strategy which is consistent with the so-called Porter and van der Linde hypothesis. Moreover, the findings suggest that environmental management systems should be considered in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) research.

  • 346.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Technical change, carbon dioxide reduction and energyconsumption in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973-20062010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paperindustry 1973-2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 per cent reduction in CO2 emission. Foremost energy substitution but also efficiently improvement contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subvention, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. Taxes on energy explain 40 per cent of the total reduction in CO2 active climate policy in 1991. Co2 intensity. Most of the reduction took place before the implementation of

  • 347.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Energy transition, carbon dioxide reduction and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: 1973-20062011Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, nr 9, s. 5449-5456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry from 1973 to 2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emission, where most of the reduction took place before the implementation of active climate policy in 1991. Foremost energy substitution and also efficiency improvements contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subsidies, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. The study finds that energy transformation was coinciding with ongoing structural change in the industry during the 1970s and 1980s as well as a strong period of environmental adaption. We therefore suggest that the oil reduction was reinforced through the dynamics between the energy issue and an overall renewing process of the industry. This suggests a need to coordinate climate and environmental policy measures with the long-term industrial dynamics of structural change. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 348.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Environmental historical national accounts: Some problems and prospects1995Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 349.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Lars Fredrik, Andersson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Mike B., Adams
    The Evolution and Development of the Swedish Insurance Market2006Inngår i: Accounting, Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 341-370Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an overview of the historical development of the insurance market in Sweden from the eighteenth century up to modern times. We consider theoretical perspectives drawn from the economics and political regulation literature that might help to explain important institutional features of the market- in particular, its oligopoly structure, the lack of foreign participation and the significant presence of mutual forms of organisation. We also offer a prognosis as to the current challenges and prospects of the Swedish insurance market in an increasingly competitive and global market.

  • 350.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Minde, Kjell-Björn
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Et energiregnskap for Fastlands-Norge 1835–20122018Inngår i: Heimen, ISSN 0017-9841, E-ISSN 1894-3195, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 157-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption in the Norwegian mainland economy 1835–2012

    A characteristic feature of the pre-industrial societies was that they relied on limited energy resources. It was only by using fossil fuels and new technologies that these societies could move the boundaries that the organic economy had set for production and consumption.

    Norwegian energy history is, from the 1900th Century on, about the movement of those boundaries and is composed of two stories. One deals with the mainland economy, the other deals with the foreign economy (the merchant marine, etc.). These two stories are closely connected but are nonetheless dissimilar.

    In this article, we present a sketch of the first story about energy consumption in the mainland economy, in the form of an energy accounting for the Norwegian mainland 1835–2012. The accounts show the accumulated consumption of energy from nine selected energy carriers in Norway. Our work is the first overall accounting 1835–2012, and gives new insights into the field of energy consumption research. Specifically, we provide a new accounting of Norwegian energy consumption in the years 1835–1900 and 1950–1976.

    In the result section we first present figures for energy consumption 1835–2012. Secondly, we briefly outline an energy history for the foreign sector. We round out the result section with a brief reflection on whether the Norwegian energy history is so deviant from other countries that we can talk about a separate Norwegian development.

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