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  • 301.
    Blaschke, Sarah
    et al.
    Dept of Cancer Experiences Research, Univ of Melbourne.
    O'Callaghan, Clare
    Dept of Cancer Experiences Research, Univ of Melbourne.
    Schofield, Penelope
    Dept of Cancer Experiences Research, Univ of Melbourne.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Cancer patients' experiences with nature: Normalizing dichotomous realities2017Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 172, s. 107-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To explore cancer patients' subjective experiences with nature in order to examine the relevance of nature-based care opportunities in cancer care contexts. The rationale was to describe the underlying mechanisms of this interaction and produce translatable knowledge. Methods: Qualitative research design informed by grounded theory. Sampling was initially convenience and then theoretical. Competent adults with any cancer diagnosis were eligible to participate in a semi structured interview exploring views about the role of nature in their lives. Audio-recorded and transcribed interviews were analyzed using inductive, cyclic, and constant comparative analysis. Results: Twenty cancer patients (9 female) reported detailed description about their experiences with nature from which a typology of five common nature interactions emerged. A theory model was generated constituting a core category and two inter-related themes explaining a normalization process in which patients negotiate their shifting realities (Core Category). Nature functioned as a support structure and nurtured patients' inner and outer capacities to respond and connect more effectively (Theme A). Once enabled and comforted, patients could engage survival and reconstructive maneuvers and explore the consequences of cancer (Theme B). A dynamic relationship was evident between moving away while, simultaneously, advancing towards the cancer reality in order to accept a shifting normality. From a place of comfort and safety, patients felt supported to deal differently and more creatively with the threat and demands of cancer diagnosis, treatment and outlook. Conclusions: New understanding about nature's role in cancer patients' lives calls attention to recognizing additional forms of psychosocial care that encourage patients' own coping and creative processes to deal with their strain and, in some cases, reconstruct everyday lives. Further research is required to determine how nature opportunities can be feasibly delivered in the cancer care setting.

  • 302.
    Bleeker, Pommeline
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Lindén, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Dahlström, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Min oskuld - deras heder: En kvalitativ studie om utvecklandet av insatser kring hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 303.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    From Vision to Reality in the Personal Social Services in Sweden: how organizational specialization affects clients and social workers2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 304.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    [Förord och fackgranskning till:] Priscilla Dunk-West. Att bli socialarbetare2016Ingår i: Att bli socialarbetare: En reflekterande vägledning för studenter, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 1, s. 9-11Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Både under och efter studierna i socialt arbete kan det vara svårt att ta ett steg tillbaka och reflektera över vad det innebär att ­vara socialarbetare. Med det som utgångspunkt diskuterar Att bli social­arbetare kunskapsbasen i socialt arbete – från mänsklig ­utveckling till det sociala arbetets praktik – och undersöker hur dina egna värderingar, principer och erfarenheter tillsammans ­formar din identitet och praktik som socialarbetare.

  • 305.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    [Förord till] Annemette Matthiessen, Birgitte Zeeberg & Maja Haack: Specialisering – et tveægget sværd? En undersøgelse af organisering i børne- og ungeafdelninger set fra en sagsbehandler- og en familiesynsvinkel.2017Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [da]

    Hvordan skal arbejdet med socialt udsatte mennesker organiseres? Det er et spørgsmål som har været aktuelt i den vestlige verden siden slutningen af 1800-tallet, da fattigvæsen og finantropi overgik til at blive det vi nu kalder socialt arbejde. Idag arbejder socialarbejdere i de nordiske lande næsten udelukkende i organisationer, først og fremmest i kommuner, regioner eller staten. I denne rapport, som handler om socialforvaltningens arbejde med børn og unge i Danmark, bliver det tydeligt, at spørgsmålet om, hvordan det socialt arbejde skal organiseres endnu ikke er besvaret, selv om problematikken har eksisteret i mere end 100 år.

  • 306.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Generative mechanisms in social work practice: how they differ from other types of mechanisms2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of my presentation is generative mechanisms, a basic concept and phenomenon within the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Briefly, a generative mechanism is as a trans-empirical but real existing entity, making events occur. Mechanisms are mostly possible to grasp only indirectly by analytical work (theory building), based however on empirical observations. More specifically I will concentrate on generative mechanisms in social work practice, and how they differ from other types of generative mechanisms.

  • 307.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Knowing or un-knowing?: that is the question in the era of evidence-based social work practice2009Ingår i: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 158-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: A present trend in social work is the focus on evidence-based knowledge. This kind of knowledge does fill a purpose, but is not sufficient on its own. The article argues that social workers need a complement to knowing, and this approach could be conceptualized as un-knowing. In this article, a theory of un-knowing for social work practice is outlined. This implies a theoretical scrutiny of knowing and un-knowing and a discussion of how it can be used in practice. Moreover, the article presents findings from an empirical study of social work students who describe their usage of different forms of knowledge reflexively.

    Findings: The article presents the results of a study in which social work students' usage of different forms of knowledge in their field studies was examined. The results demonstrate that social work students use different forms of knowledge in practice, and un-knowing is one of the actively used forms. Women tend to use un-knowing somewhat more than men.

    Applications : The article is a contribution to the ongoing debate on evidence-based practice in social work. It is argued that it is important to teach social work students to understand un-knowing in theory and to use it in practice, and in combination with other forms of knowledge in social work.

  • 308.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Marknadsorientering av socialtjänstens individ- och familjeomsorg: om villkor, processer och konsekvenser1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of the 1980s, the introduction of market mechanisms in the public sector has been a dominant feature in Sweden. The same is true for the social services in several municipalities, where business style behaviour and organisation, and competition have become salient features of market-oriented social services.

    The aim of the study is to describe and analyse: the structural conditions for market oriented personal social services; how social workers pursue client centred work in market oriented personal social services; the consequences of this market orientation on the personal social services.

    The empirical study is a case study of the personal social services in the municipality of Linköping. The purchaser-provider model in Linköping is one of the most advanced and discussed in Sweden. The research comprises a quantitative pilot study and a qualitative main study. The main study is based on twenty semi-structured interviews with experienced social workers and their immediate superiors.

    The analysis of the interviews reveals that the personal social services are only achieving to a lesser extent the ends that a quasi-market, theoretically, should achieve. The conditions that have to be satisfied to achieve the ends of the quasi-market are only partly met. Bureaucratic control is one important reason why the personal social services are imperfect as a quasi- market.

    The re-organisation has resulted in a number of, to some extent, positive consequences. The re-organisation has, however, also resulted in some negative consequences. In the thesis these are categorised in terms of fragmentation, antagonism and obscurity. A linguistic change, in market oriented personal social services, appears to have influenced social workers to think and act differently in relation to their work.

    The most important conclusion drawn from the study is that the market oriented personal social services partly function as a responsive quasi-market for strong, rational and well- informed clients. However, in relation to the most vulnerable, it is failing in many respects.

  • 309.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Social work research and evaluation: a critical realist perspective2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on evidence in social work, inspired by evidence research and evaluation in medicine, mainly builds on empirical correlations between standardized methods and its effects on clients. This kind of research is a prerequisite for evidence-based practice (EBP). The ambition is to verify that certain methods probably are more effective than others, but the content and processes in between interventions and results remains a black box. This kind of research and evaluation is mainstream in the field of EBP, and randomised controlled trials usually are regarded as ”gold standard”.

    However, if the ambition is to explain how and why results emerge from the content of interventions and its contextual contingencies – to open up the black box – the research or evaluation task will be quite different. In order to discover the powers and causes in the social reality, that in a deeper sense explain empirical observations, we have to turn to a meta-theoretical perspective taking us beneath the empirical surface. Powers and causes in social reality are seldom observable, rather we must grasp them in terms of abstract entities like structures and patterns of generative mechanisms. It is a matter of developing theory about these structures and mechanisms, based on empirical observations. The meta-theoretical perspective critical realism can work as guide to this sub-empirical dimension of social reality.

    This presentation presents the CAIMeR theory that connects critical realism to social work research and evaluation. This theory can help us explain the way results in social work practice arise from the content of interventions and its contextual contingencies. 

  • 310.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Dukes, Kimberly A.
    DM-STAT, One Salem Street Suite 300, Malden, MA 02148 USA; Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. School of Social Work, Boston University, USA.
    Sullivan, Lisa M.
    Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Register data in the evaluation and program planning of addiction treatment programs: using Sweden as an example2015Ingår i: Evaluation and Program Planning, ISSN 0149-7189, E-ISSN 1873-7870, Vol. 49, s. 185-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from large-scale registers is often underutilized when evaluating addiction treatment programs. Since many programs collect register data regarding clients and interventions, there is a potential to make greater use of such records for program evaluation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the value of using large-scale registers in the evaluation and program planning of addiction treatment systems and programs. Sweden is used as an example of a country where register data is both available and is starting to be used in national evaluation and program planning efforts. The article focuses on possibilities, limitations and practicalities when using large-scale register data to conduct evaluations and program planning of addiction treatment programs. Main conclusions are that using register data for evaluation provides large amounts of data at low cost, limitations associated to the use of register data may be handled statistically, register data can answer important questions in planning of addiction treatment programs, and more accurate measures are needed to account for the diversity of client populations.   

  • 311.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Evertsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    European social and caring professions in transition2017Ingår i: Social and caring professions in European welfare states: policies, services and professional practicies / [ed] Björn Blom, Lars Evertsson and Marek Perlinski, Bristol: Policy Press, 2017, s. 1-17Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 312.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Evertsson, LarsUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.Perlinski, MarekUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Social and caring professions in European welfare states: policies, services and professional practices2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This collection provides new insights about current welfare professions in a number of European countries.

    Focusing on research representing different types of European welfare states, including the Scandinavian and the Continental, the book offers in-depth understandings of professionals' everyday work within different contextual conditions, explored from empirical and theoretical perspectives. Subjects covered include knowledge and identity, education and professional development, regulation, accountability, collaboration, assessment and decision making.

    This is a valuable contribution to the discussion of professionalism and welfare professions, offering lessons learned and ways forward.

  • 313.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Evertsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Rexvid, Devin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Decision-making in problematic situations: reflections on social workers’ use of knowledge and implications for social work research2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is an effort to make social workers act according to principles of evidence-based practice. This approach assumes that by supporting social workers with reviews of “what works”, or practice guidelines, decision-making, and knowledge use will improve.

    Our paper discusses decision-making and knowledge use in social work practice. What kind of knowledge is used? How is decision-making conditioned by contextual contingencies? What are the implications for social work research?

    The paper draws on two studies of social workers. From the study Social Workers and Doctors Use of Knowledge in Practice, written narratives describing problematic situations where decision-making were hampered were collected. The participants (29 social workers) were experienced and came from different areas of the Swedish social services.

    The project “Specialization or integration in the Personal Social Services?” studied how specialised respectively integrated organisations condition interventions and outcomes. We studied three organisational models using several research methods: 1) survey among social workers, 2) interviewing politicians, mangers and social workers, 3) focus groups with social workers, 4) analysing official documents, guidelines etc.

    Decision-making and knowledge use proved to be more complex than usually assumed within the EBP paradigm. It is seldom just a matter of rational decision-making and matching specific interventions and well-defined social problems. The character of the interaction with clients conditions social workers’ decision-making and use of knowledge. Interaction with clients, perceived as being “problematic”, causes a rupture in social workers’ professional routine practice, which affects decision-making and knowledge use.

    The predominant discourse on decision-making and knowledge use focuses on "the best” kind of knowledge, how knowledge should be implemented, as well as professionals’ motivation and competence. Professional action is largely viewed as a rational cognitive process. However, this is insufficient and policy-makers and social work researcher should focus more on social and relational aspects (i.e. client encounters) of decision-making and knowledge use.

  • 314.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Fu, Lihua
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    A Comparative Analysis of Social Services Organizations in Sweden and China. Lessons for Social Work and Social Development Practice2016Ingår i: SWSD 2016: Program book, Seoul, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation covers a comparative analysis of social services organizations in Sweden and China, which includes lessons for social work and social development practice.

    The presentation describes how social services organizations in Sweden and China have developed since the 1970s, as well as their current state. This is followed by an analysis of these country's social services organizations, which focus on main advantages and disadvantages, for social workers and service users/clients. In conclusion, we present lessons for social work as well as the social development practice. The presentation is based on our own empirical research and a review of previous research in this area.

    Sweden is one of the world’s most developed welfare states and has had publicly organized social services, on a municipal level, since the 1950s. China has not had well-developed and modern systems of social welfare and social service. Moreover, the traditional social welfare system in China, formed during the planned economy era (1953-1978), is not adequate for the modern China. However, China is currently developing a welfare system with publicly organized social services. The Chinese transformation project is partly inspired from other countries, including Sweden.

    The presentation includes a discussion of two common assumptions: 1) that social services organizations in western welfare states have been developed optimally, and that non-welfare states only need to copy them to obtain well-functioning social services, and 2) that welfare states like Sweden have little to learn from countries like China, concerning social services organizations. We argue that these assumptions are incorrect, e.g. by showing that social services organizations are not universally appropriate, and that such organizations cannot be detached from the culture and mentality in a country. 

  • 315.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Lalos, Ann
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Olsson, Mariann
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hälso- och sjukvården – en central arena för socialt arbete2014Ingår i: Socialt arbete i hälso- och sjukvård: villkor, innehåll och utmaningar / [ed] Ann Lalos, Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Mariann Olsson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2014, 1, s. 17-31Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 316.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Analysis of generative mechanisms2011Ingår i: Journal of Critical Realism, ISSN 1476-7430, E-ISSN 1572-5138, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 60-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is the analysis of generative mechanisms, a basic concept and phenomenon within the metatheoretical perspective of critical realism. It is emphasized that research questions and methods, as well as the knowledge it is possible to attain, depend on the basic view – ontologically and epistemologically – regarding the phenomenon under scrutiny. A generative mechanism is described as a trans empirical but real existing entity, explaining why observable events occur. Mechanisms are mostly possible to grasp only indirectly by analytical work (theory-building), based however on empirical observations. In order to achieve such an explanatory analysis, five methodological steps are suggested and discussed, among them abduction and retroduction. These steps are illustrated throughout by examples drawn from empirical research regarding social work practice. The article is concluded with a discussion of the need for knowledge of generative mechanisms.

     

  • 317.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Evaluation of quality in social-work practice2012Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Social research, ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 3, s. 1-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This theoretical article describes and discusses the concept of quality in relation to the evaluation of social-work practice. Of particular interest are the difference between quality of services and quality of life and the importance of balancing the stakeholders’ different interests in order to make a sound judgement of quality in social work possible. This article begins with presenting some basic perspectives on quality as well as the transference of the concept of quality from manufacturing industry to social-work practice. Thereafter the two main issues are discussed: the concepts of quality of service and of quality of life and the importance of balancing different stakeholders’ perspectives in the evaluation of quality in social-work practice. This article concludes that: 1) it is crucial to be aware of and to consider the distinction between quality of service and quality of life; 2) clients’ perspective on quality of life is an aspect of outcome that currently receives insufficient attention; 3) clients’ subjective experiences of welfare of well-being deserve greater attention for ethical as well as methodological reasons; and 4) judgement of quality in social work are inevitably dependent on different stakeholders’ perspectives.

  • 318.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Explaining social work practice: the CAIMeR theory2015Ingår i: Social work research: Volume 2, Decisions about research strategy / [ed] Ian F. Shaw, Mark Hardy, Jeanne C. Marsh, Sage Publications, 2015, s. 239-260Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: This article presents the CAIMeR theory, consisting of a conceptual framework and a theoretical model, which can help explain how results in social work practice arise from interventions and its contextual contingencies. The theory has been developed over several years in connection with empirical studies, and together with social workers. Findings: The article starts from the meta-theoretical perspective critical realism and its notion of explanative knowledge as a stepping stone to open up the so-called black box. A fundamental concept in critical realism, generative mechanisms, is discussed and elaborated. Applications: The CAIMeR theory can be used in several contexts: social work practice, and for evaluation of social work, and, moreover, for organization development in social work. We argue that social workers, evaluators and decision-makers need accurate theory about the core activity (work with clients) within its contextual conditions. The CAIMeR theory pays attention to generative mechanisms at different levels, which is necessary if one wants to understand what is going on in a certain agency, and explain the results in a more qualified way. The theory can also be useful for researchers and university students that need a comprehensive explanative framework when studying phenomena in social work practice.

  • 319.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Explaining social work practice: The CAIMeR theory2010Ingår i: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 98-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 320.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Kritisk realistisk utvärdering2011Ingår i: Utvärdering i socialt arbete: Utgångspunkter, modeller och användning / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2011, 1, s. 139-154Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 321.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Kunskapsbasering av socialt arbete: ett förklarande perspektiv2009Ingår i: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, nr 2, s. 12-17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 322.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Kvalitetsbegreppet2011Ingår i: Utvärdering i socialt arbete: Utgångspunkter, modeller och användning / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2011, 1, s. 71-87Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 323.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Quality of life and quality of evaluation: how do they relate in social work practice?2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 324.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Teori för socialt arbete2015 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här boken redovisas en teori som har ambitionen att både beskriva och förklara hur det sociala arbetet fungerar. Det är den första svenska boken i sitt slag som presenterar teori utvecklad specifikt ur och för det sociala arbetets praktik. En av grundfrågorna är: Hur kan man förklara hur resultat i socialt arbete uppstår som en följd av socialarbetares och klienters insatser under vissa kontextuella villkor? Teorin går under benämningen KAIMeR, vilket innebär att den på ett systematiskt och sammanhållet sätt beaktar teori om kontext, aktörer, insatser, mekanismer och resultat. Ett centralt inslag är begreppet generativa mekanismer, med vars hjälp man kan fånga de ofta icke observerbara krafter som gör begripligt hur resultat i socialt arbete uppstår som en följd av insatser och kontextuella villkor. I boken beskrivs också en domänteori som klargör hur socialarbetares professionsutövning betingas av politik, förvaltning och institutionella förhållanden i samhället. Boken vänder sig till studerande i socialt arbete och angränsande områden, men även till forskare, chefer och socialarbetare verksamma inom det sociala arbetets område.

  • 325.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Theory for social work practice2019 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a theory with the ambition of both describing and explaining the nature of social-work practice. It is the first book that presents an explanative theory developed specifically from and for social-work practice.

    One of the fundamental questions is: How can we explain how results in social-work practice emanate from social worker's and clients' actions under certain contextual conditions?

    The theory presented in this book is named CAIMeR, which means that it takes a systematic and coherent approach to the theory of Contexts, Actors, Interventions, Mechanisms and Results. The meta-theoretical basis is critical realism, where a key feature is the concept of generative mechanisms. This perspective can help us capture the often unobservable powers that explain how results in social work emerge as a consequence of interventions and contextual conditions. The book also presents a domain theory that explains how social workers' professional practice is conditioned by politics, management and institutional conditions.

    This book is essential reading for students in social work and adjoining disciplines, but also for researchers, managers and professional social workers.

  • 326.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Inledning: Utvärdering i socialt arbete2011Ingår i: Utvärdering i socialt arbete: Utgångspunkter, modeller och användning / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén, Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2011, 1, s. 17-33Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 327.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, StefanUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.Nygren, LennartUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Kunskap i socialt arbete: Om villkor, processer och användning2013Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 328.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Olikheter och beröringspunkter2013Ingår i: Kunskap i socialt arbete: Om villkor, processer och användning (2:a omarb. utgåvan) / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén & Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, s. 176-179Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 329.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Perspektiv och utvecklingslinjer2013Ingår i: Kunskap i socialt arbete: Om villkor, processer och användning (2:a omarb. utgåvan) / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén & Lennart Nygren), Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, s. 79-82Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 330.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, StefanUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.Nygren, LennartUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Utvärdering i socialt arbete: Utgångspunkter, modeller och användning2011Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna utföra ett socialt arbete som ger resultat för de som berörs, behövs en ständig granskning av de metoder och tillvägagångssätt som används. Men vad innebär det att utvärdera socialarbetares enskilda insatser, liksom hela verksamhetsfält?

    I den här boken diskuterar författarna utmaningar och möjligheter när man planerar och genomför olika typer av utvärderingar inom socialt arbete. Aktuella modeller och begrepp granskas kritiskt, och läsaren får bland annat kunskaper om kvalitet och evidensbasering kopplat till utvärdering. Dessutom diskuteras utvärdering inom bl.a. äldreomsorg, individ- och familjeomsorg samt i anslutning till etnicitet, kön och funktionshinder.

  • 331.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Hur bör socialtjänstens IFO organiseras?2011Ingår i: Tidskriften Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, nr 4, s. 12-16Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 332.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Analysing written narratives: considerations on the ‘code-totality problems’2010Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Social Research, ISSN 1892-2783, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 1-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes and discusses a number of fundamental aspects of analysing short written narratives. Of particular interest are the code-totality problems that arise during the transformation of several individual stories into a collective narrative. This article starts with a brief introduction to our previous narrative research on Swedish social-work students, which is followed by a description of textual interpretation according to Paul Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation, and a discussion and elaboration on the different concepts of meaning within his theory. The core of this article is an account of four models for analysing narrative data from several informants. This is followed by a concrete example of the implications that follow from the implementation of these models. We conclude that the degree of heterogeneity in the narrative material affects the choice of the mode of textual analysis and the code compilation.

  • 333.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Analysis of written narratives: how to handle the ”code-totality problems”2008Ingår i: ”Den berättande människan", 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 334.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Review of the book: Toward evidence-based practice: variations on a theme2011Ingår i: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 142-145Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 335.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nygren, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Socionomstudenters kunskapsanvändning i kritiska situationer under studiepraktiken2013Ingår i: Kunskap i socialt arbete: Om villkor, processer och användning (2:a omarb. utgåvan) / [ed] Björn Blom, Stefan Morén & Lennart Nygren, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, s. 193-207Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 336.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Organisational structure as barrier or support in the personal social services?: Results from a client survey2009Ingår i: Dilemmas for human services 2009 : Papers presented at: the 13th International Research Conference “Breaking Down the Barriers”, Staffordshire University, 10 - 11 September 2009 (revised version October 2009), 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 337.
    Blom Bringlöv, Agnes
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    ”Det handlar om att ge och ta”: En kvalitativ studie om betydelsen faktorer kopplade till schemaläggning har för upplevelse av delaktighet och inflytande2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka betydelsen faktorer kopplade till schemaläggning har för upplevelse av delaktighet och inflytande. De faktorer som undersökts är schemaläggningssystem, organisatoriska aspekter, samarbete, och flexibilitet. De teorier som används är Job demand-control model, Social exchange theory och Structural empowerment theory. Det är en kvalitativ intervjustudie med fem informanter som jobbar hel- eller deltid inom äldrevård eller funktionshinderomsorg i Umeå kommun. Informanterna har tre olika schemasystem med det gemensamma att samtliga informanter får ge önskemål på hur de vill att deras schema för kommande schemaperiod ska se ut. Resultatet visar att informanterna upplever olika grad av delaktighet och inflytande i sitt schemaläggningssystem. Centralt schemastöd är den funktion som minskar upplevelsen av delaktighet och inflytande för majoriteten av informanterna. Ökad utbildning, avsatt tid för schemaläggning, stöd för att öka samarbete på arbetsplatsen och kontakt med Centralt schemastöd är faktorer som sammanfattningsvis föreslås kan öka de anställdas delaktighet och inflytande i schemaläggning.

  • 338.
    Blom Bringlöv, Agnes
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    ”Var dig själv, men…”: En kvalitativ studie av könsnormer så som de uttrycks i tips inför arbetsintervjuer2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här kvalitativa netnografiska studien analyseras råd och tips inför arbetsintervjuer riktade till män respektive kvinnor. Datamaterialet kommer från online-forumen Flashback och Familjeliv men även från artiklar med tips från bemanningsföretagen Poolia och Monster, Arbetsförmedlingen, tidningen Karriär och fackförbundet Unionen. Den teoretiska grunden är baserad på Goffmans teori om “impression management”, Hirdmans genusteori, Heiders attributionsteori och Zimmerman och West ”doing gender”. Resultatet visar att kvinnor får fler råd om utseende än män och råden som ges är även mer specifika. Typiskt manliga egenskaper är de mest åtråvärda och präglar därför en majoritet av intervjutipsen, även de som är riktade till kvinnor. Kvinnor uppmanas till att agera typiskt maskulint, och att inte vara för feminina då det kan minska deras jobbchanser. Män uppmanas till att vara sig själva medan kvinnor får mer tydliga direktiv om hur de ska bete sig, hur de ska klä sig och vad de ska säga. Feminina egenskaper anses vara dåliga och manliga/diskreta egenskaper är önskvärda. Kvinnor uppmanas även till återhållsamt uppförande medan män uppmanas till att framhäva sig. Ett beroendeförhållande där arbetsgivaren har övertaget framkommer också. Detta upprätthålls genom att den arbetssökande uppmuntras anpassa sig efter arbetsgivarens behov. Även arbetsgivare deltar i nätmaterialet och bidrar till att reproducera de observerade normerna.

  • 339.
    Blom Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Chassler, Deborah
    Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Factors associated with work and taking prescribed methadone or buprenorphine among Swedish opiate addicts2015Ingår i: Evaluation and Program Planning, ISSN 0149-7189, E-ISSN 1873-7870, Vol. 49, s. 172-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims: Using national register data from 2002 to 2008, this exploratory study examines for opiate addicts (n = 2638) whether there is an association between predisposing, enabling and need factors and working and taking methadone or buprenorphine prescribed by a physician for a year or more.

    Methods: Chi-square analyses and One-way ANOVA were used to determine significant relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable. A binomial logistic regression model, with variables entered as a single block, measured statistical associations between the independent variables and the dichotomous dependent variable.

    Results: Men and those with greater number of years of education (7%) and those with children were 7.08 times more likely to be working and taking prescription methadone or buprenorphine. Those who had more inpatient drug treatment episodes (5%), those who had been charged with crime 3.23 times, and those who had used psychiatric medications were 8.43 times more likely to be working and to have taken prescription methadone or buprenorphine one year or more.

    Conclusion: This study highlights that clients in treatment for opiate addiction who are working and have received methadone or buprenorphine treatment may have better treatment retention and be more integrated socially than their counterparts even though they have a higher level of problem severity and treatment needs.

  • 340.
    Blomberg, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Socialt arbete.
    Inklusion en illusion?: Om delaktighet i samhället för vuxna personer med utvecklingsstörning2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this thesis lies in the great changes that have occurred in the disability field during the last threes decades. The purpose of this thesis is to describe, analyze and try to understand how these changes impact on life conditions for adult persons with mild intellectual disabilities. The main focus in this study is to listen to the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities themselves. The questions addressed in the study are; how do people with intellectual disabilities experience participation, citizen-ship, social exclusion and social inclusion in society? Where are their daily arenas and what characterizes those arenas in terms of citizenship, exclusion and inclusion? What type of experiences do they have from encountering people in the community, from encountering the organisations and staff that provide support and service and from the consequences of disability policies in practise? How do staff close to them work to reach the goals of participation? What role can professionals play in supporting participation? Which possibilities and barriers do the staff experience?

    Empirical data for the study has been gathered by qualitative methods, mainly participant observations and interviews but also from document analysis of local authority documents, official guidelines, laws and national and international disability policy documents.

    The theoretical framework is based on theories about citizenship and participation. Social exclusion and social inclusion are the sensitizing concepts in this study. For the interpretation and analysis theories about citizenship, participation and categorization were used.

    In the light of the empirical findings the results of the study show that three main themes were promi-nent. The first theme concerned the daily arenas, were there were both excluded arenas and included are-nas with various forms of interaction with the society. The arenas for support and service in housing and daily activities are described as excluded arenas with mainly internal social interaction. On the other hand the new arenas such as daily activity centres, located in the community, such as cafés, shops run by peo-ple with intellectual disabilities together with staff had frequent interaction with other people in the soci-ety. The second theme concerned the content in the encounters between respondents with intellectual disabilities and different actors in the community. The informants had both positive and negative experi-ences of these encounters. The encounter with the disability policy was, according to this dissertation, that the user informants hade many experiences of lacking social citizenship but also that they experienced structural inclusion when politicians listen to them and answered their questions. The third theme con-cerned how the staff works to reach the goals of participation where both possibilities and barriers exist on structural and individual levels. This study illustrates the user informants’ many experiences of citi-zenship and social exclusion but also examples of social inclusion.

    In the concluding chapter the results are discussed and analyzed in relation to the theoretical frame-work, where the concept of categorisation was very important. Finally, the description of the process clearly illustrates the difficulties for disability service organisations to develop support and services that are adapted to the actual disability policy. The results shed light on the gap between theory and practise.

    Some of the most positive changes towards inclusion in society for people with intellectual disabilities come from services run by users and staff close to them. Final conclusions and reflections of the results in the study are that support and service also can be discussed in terms of universalism in order to reduce the process of categorisation.

  • 341.
    Blomberg, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Jämställdhet vart tredje år: En diskursanalys av svenska myndigheters jämställdhetsplaner2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Diskrimineringslagstiftningen ska arbetsgivare utforma jämställdhetsplaner med mål och åtgärder för att öka möjligheterna för kvinnor och män att verka på lika villkor. Svenska myndigheter har därutöver ett särskilt ansvar för att arbeta med jämställdhetsfrågor. I denna uppsats undersöks hur problem och lösningar framställs i svenska myndigheters jämställdhetsplaner samt vilka möjliga konsekvenser dessa beskrivningar får för föreställningar om jämställdhet i organisationerna. Genom en diskursanalys har tio myndigheters jämställdhetsplaner analyserats utifrån en analysmall inspirerad av Carol Bacchis modell What’s the problem represented to be? Totalt identifierades fyra teman; information, motiv, normer och ansvar. Resultaten visar att myndigheterna ofta motiverar åtgärder genom nyttoperspektiv där ökad jämställdhet väntas bidra till förbättringar i verksamheten. En stor andel av åtgärderna är formulerade som informations- och utbildningsinsatser. Myndigheterna ämnar således öka jämställdheten genom ökad kunskap. Vidare bygger flera åtgärder på skillnader mellan kvinnor och män vilket innebär att stereotypa föreställningar om kön återskapas i organisationerna. Slutligen uttrycker myndigheterna att de ska bidra till ökad jämställdhet och har anpassat mål och åtgärder för att uppnå lagens krav. Därigenom förefaller myndigheternas ansvar för allas lika rättigheter, möjligheter och skyldigheter utelämnas.   

  • 342.
    Blomkvist, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Engström, Linn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Det åldersbestämda föräldraskapet: En studie om hur unga föräldrar blir bemötta i samhället2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 343.
    Blommendahl, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Skolkuratorers förebyggande arbete: hinder och möjligheter2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 344.
    Blommendahl, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Skolkuratorers förebyggande arbete: möjligheter och hinder2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 345.
    Blomqvist, Lovisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Nyström, Maia
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Äventyr och vänner: En undersökning av Facebookgruppen On Edge - En mötesplats för tjejer som söker äventyr2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to investigate how a functional and committed online community was established. We have analyzed a Facebook group named "On Edge - a community for girls who seeks adventures" to explore how On Edge is communicating to create dedication and identification amongst its members in their online community. The study has combined theories such as social identity theory, prosumption, participatory culture and mediatization theory. We have used a multimodal analysis to analyze the administrators and the members posts on Facebook, an online survey for On Edge’s members to answer and an interview with the founder of the community, Ebba Cronqvist. The result of the multimodal analysis showed that On Edge uses text and images to create a united language within the group that leads to dedication and identification to the community. The survey showed that most of the members felt a need of a place where adventurous women could meet other women who are alike. They help each other because of the friendly atmosphere and by the meaningful exchange of thoughts and minds. We also found that there are some fundamental forces that shapes On Edge to such a well working community: the group is driven by a strong “why”, and by using a language appropriate for the target group together with images, it creates a friendly atmosphere amongst the members in the group.

  • 346.
    Bodin, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Corporate Social Responsibility – ett samtidsfenomen: Uttryck, intryck och avtryck2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    CSR is a far reaching concept and practice, whose popularity and diffusion has increased rapidly in recent years. Research indicates that CSR has made an evolutionary journey from primarily being characterized by reactiveness to develop into a risk minimizing and proactive competitive advantage and should be looked upon as an answer to heightened societal pressure and awareness. Based on a review regarding different relevant theoretical perspectives, this master thesis discusses CSR as a concept and practical matter in relation to various strategically chosen representatives of a selection of professions.

    Moreover, the data were collected through in-depth semi structured interviews. The findings show that CSR is a contemporary and highly context dependent phenomenon whose inherent multiplicity brings a distinct aspect of uncertainty to it, in terms of both meaning and practice. And in some parts there is a reluctance to communicate CSR due to a fear of missing out of important aspects. Furthermore, additionally findings tell us that profitability in a CSR context is a wide continuum of meaning. Moreover, in terms of future research it would be of interest to see more comparative studies between specific businesses and/or cultures to examine how CSR as a management idea is perceived and implemented.

  • 347.
    Bohlin, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Bergqvist, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    ”Alla har vi lika värde, förhoppningsvis”: – en genusbetonad studie av klientmötet vid bedömning av försörjningsstöd2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige befinner sig i framkanten vad gäller utvecklingen av sociala system som avser motverka fattigdom. Socialbidraget är en av de skyddsnät som det svenska välfärdssystemet erbjuder befolkningen i just detta ändamål. Individer som nyttjar detta system är beroende av myndighetspersonerna som fattar besluten. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om klientens genus har någon betydelse när socialsekreteraren möter klienten vid prövning av försörjningsstöd och i så fall hur klientens genus har betydelse? Området har inte undersökts i så stor utsträckning men tidigare studier visar att män och kvinnor erbjuds olika typer av hjälp. En kvalitativ studie har genomförts där Individ- och familjeomsorgen i en medelstor kommun i Sverige undersökts. Studien har en abduktiv ansats, ett bekvämlighetsurval och tre datainsamlingsmetoder i form av intervjuer, observationer och case. Empirin visade att socialsekreterarna har olika syn på genus vilket medför att klienterna bemöts och behandlas olika utifrån könstillhörighet. Detta orsakas av outtalade föreställningar om klienten på arbetsplatsen. Respondenterna visar en viss motvillighet till förändring även om man menar att det är prioriterat. Diskussionen berör de könsroller som formas och reproduceras av samhället och i organisationen samt vikten av att skapa medvetenhet om dessa konstruktioner inom socialt arbete.

  • 348.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Vasa Faculty of Education, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    "He just has to like ham": the centrality of meat in home and consumer studies2015Ingår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 95, s. 101-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe Discourses on meat in the school subject Home and Consumer Studies in five different northern Swedish schools. Fifty-nine students and five teachers from five different schools were recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons. Results indicate that meat was seen as central to nutritional health, sensory experience, culture and social relationships. This positive view was challenged by an alternative Discourse where meat was threatening to health, sensory experience and psychological comfort, but this was not strong enough to affect centrality. Even when participants sought to promote the health advantages of reducing meat consumption, the dominant centrality Discourse was strengthened. This implies that the possible tension between physical and psychosocial/emotional health can make the benefits of a reduction difficult both to convey and accept. A form of critical food literacy may help teachers deconstruct the arbitrary power of the centrality Discourse, but it may also strengthen meat-eater identities because the social norms that guide food choice become salient. A redesign of Discourses might facilitate a reduction in meat consumption, but such a paradigm shift is dependent on the development of society as a whole, and can only be briefly touched upon within the limited timeframes and resources of Home and Consumer Studies.

  • 349.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Anti-immigrant attitudes in context: The role of rhetoric, religion and political representation2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. This thesis directs attention to how attitudes towards immigrants evolve under different contextual circumstances. Unlike previous research that primarily focuses on contextual factors related to the availability of material resources, the included studies explore the influence of less tangible aspects of our surroundings, brought together under the term immaterial contexts. Three kinds of immaterial contexts are in focus: political representatives’ use of nationalistic rhetoric, the parliamentary presence of the extreme right, and the religious context. The studies examine the direct effects of these contexts, but also how individuals’ beliefs, loyalties, and experiences interact with the contextual factors to shape peoples’ attitudes.

    Methods. The thesis takes a comparative approach where countries serve as the main contextual unit. Data on attitudes and other individual features are gathered from the European Social Survey 2002-2012. To be able to analyze these data in the same model as used for country-level data, the thesis applies multi-level models.

    Results. The findings support a theoretical expectation that immaterial contexts influence anti-immigrant attitudes. How people perceive immigrants and immigration can be traced to political and religious aspects of their surroundings. Also, it is found that individuals are not passive recipients of contextual influences as their reactions depend on their preferences and experiences. While political representatives influence anti-immigrant attitudes, these effects are strongly conditional both on features of the representatives themselves, and on characteristics and experiences of individuals. For example, individuals respond to political rhetoric by traditional political parties but are not influenced by the same kind of message if conveyed by a party belonging to the extreme right.

    Conclusion. The thesis is an attempt to widen the very notion of contexts in empirical research, and as such, it is a contribution to the literature on anti-immigrant attitudes. It shows that anti-immigrant attitudes depend not only on material circumstances, but also on immaterial circumstances tied to the political and religious arena. Further, the thesis demonstrates how combining the theoretical perspectives of group threat theory and framing theory implies greater possibilities to conceive of the link between contexts and attitudes, as well as improved theoretical tools to understand when and why such effects do not occur. It signals that research on immaterial contexts is necessary to further advance the comparative scholarship on anti-immigrant attitudes and reach a deeper understanding of how such attitudes emerge and evolve.

  • 350.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Articulated antipathies: political influence on anti-immigrant attitudes2011Ingår i: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, ISSN 0020-7152, E-ISSN 1745-2554, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 457-477Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how political factors influence anti-immigrant attitudes by focusing on political articulation performed by political parties active at the national level in 26 European countries. Multi-level analysis reveals a significant positive association between general party articulation and anti-immigrant attitudes. In particular, it seems to be when traditional right- or left-wing parties articulate that attitudes towards immigrants turn increasingly negative. Left-leaning individuals are particularly influenced when parties belonging to the political left raise these issues, which indicates that the ideological position of the individual functions as a mediating factor in this regard. The results contribute to a broader understanding of the role of political factors and underscore the importance of their inclusion in cross-national studies of anti-immigrant attitudes.

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