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  • 301.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Modelling recreational angling demand in Sweden based on region-specific inclusive values2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis endeavours to model a trip demand function for recreationalangling in Sweden, including the individual expected per-trip utility of regionalattributes. The analysis is conducted with the use of a Random Utility Model (RUM)for the estimation of ‘site-specific’ utility, and a negative binomial logit model fortrip demand. The site quality variable is stated as expected catch-rates (CR) definedin terms of three different specifications: sample mean CR, individually perfectlyforesighted CR, and an econometrically predicted individual CR. Results indicatethat the econometrically estimated individual catch-rate specification performs wellas an explanatory variable both when modelling discrete site choice and trip demand,while the sample mean and perfectly foresighted CR specifications provide withunintuitive and insignificant parameter values. The inclusive value of the regionchosen by the angler, estimated with the RUM, was subsequently found to be asignificant predicting variable for the number of recreational angling trips conductedby Swedish anglers.

  • 302.
    Gustavsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Even Flow - Water coordination efficiency & Hydropower production under outflow regulation2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis sets out to investigate the impact of the European Union’s water framework directive on water coordination efficiency in the hydropower market, and whether water coordination inefficiency might offset the benefits of market competition. I implement a dynamic market model examining Stackelberg competition and a monopoly/collusion market type with regards to reservoir and production capacities and the impact of upstream production plans on downstream production possibilities. The main finding is that under limited storage possibilities, the lack of centralized coordination planning causes competition to be less desirable than a private monopoly from a consumer welfare maximizing perspective. However, granted that the reservoir and storage possibilities are big enough in relation to the outflow requirement – the benefits of competition outweigh this coordination cost and the need for collusive behavior.

  • 303.
    Gyllenram, André
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hanes, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    The influence of non-cognitive and cognitive ability on individuals' stock market participation2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Stock market participation is found to be positively related to cognitive, as well as non-cognitive ability, controlling for wealth, income, age, and other demographic and socioeconomic factors. Interestingly, the effects are of economic significant magnitudes, e.g. participation is on average 11.49% larger among those with high compared with low cognitive and non-cognitive abilities, and holds also when controlling for individuals risk preferences. The later indicates that cognitive and non-cognitive abilities have a role in affecting financial decisions also through non-preference driven effects. Limitations in non-cognitive ability do further explain non-participation among affluent individuals.

  • 304.
    Gyllenram, André
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Hanes, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Förmåga att hantera stress och individers beslut att äga aktier2015Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 7-15Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nyare finansiell forskning har påvisat att individers kognitiva förmåga (IQ) påverkar finansiella beslut. Att äga aktier korrelerar t ex starkt med IQ. Men även bland ”smarta” individer är det många som inte äger aktier. Detta är förbryllande, då avkastningen på aktiemarknaden historiskt har slagit andra investeringsalternativ, och det indikerar att det kanske inte räcker med att vara ”smart” för att göra smarta val. En möjlig förklaring till detta, som vi finner empiriskt stöd för, är att även andra personliga egenskaper, som exempelvis stresstålighet, kan påverka finansiella beslut.

  • 305.
    Göttfert, Joline
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Cointegration among cryptocurrencies: A cointegration analysis of Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, EOS, Ethereum, Litecoin and Ripple2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if there is cointegration between the daily closing price of the cryptocurrency Bitcoin and five other cryptocurrencies; Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, EOS and Litecoin in five different time periods, all ending April 9, 2019. To test if there is a long-run relationship between Bitcoin and these mentioned cryptocurrencies, two different tests for cointegration are applied; the Engle-Granger two step approach and Johansen’s cointegration test as well as a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The results from both cointegration tests suggest that Bitcoin is cointegrated with Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Litecoin and Ripple. The Johansen test and the Engle-Granger method for cointegration demonstrate that Bitcoin and EOS do not have any cointegrating relationship. Another finding is that, based on the results from the VECM estimation, the price of Bitcoin has a statistically significant long-run impact on the prices of Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Litecoin and Ripple.

  • 306.
    Göttfert, Joline
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Värdering av bitcoin: En selektiv litteraturöversikt av värderingsmodeller för bitcoin2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har två delsyften. Det första delsyftet är att ge en beskrivning av vad bitcoin är och hur tekniken bakom bitcoin fungerar. Det andra delsyftet är att redogöra för hur bitcoin ska värderas. Genom en selektiv litteraturöversikt med avseende på värderingsmodeller för bitcoin har det andra delsyftet besvarats. I litteraturen har tre olika ansatser till att värdera bitcoin återfunnits och denna uppsats presenterar respektive värderingsansats för bitcoin och de resultat som har framkommit av tidigare studiers empiriska test. I den första modellen har bitcoin klassificerats och värderats som ett betalningsmedel. Ansatsen för den andra modellen är att värdera bitcoin som en finansiell tillgång. Utgångspunkten för den tredje modellen är att bitcoin är ett nätverk och ska värderas utifrån den aspekten med hjälp av Metcalfe’s lag. Sammanfattningsvis kan alla tre modeller förklara bitcoins prisbildning till en viss del. Slutsatsen är att bitcoin i högre grad kan klassificeras och värderas som en finansiell tillgång, eller som ett nätverk, än som ett fungerande betalningsmedel.

  • 307.
    Günther, Siloni
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    What Drives Firm Investment?: A Closer Look at the Role of Interest, Exchange and Bank Lending Rates2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Using both an OLS as well as VAR model approach, this study investigates the role of interest, exchange and bank lending rates in aggregate firm investment in Sweden, based on quarterly data from 2008 to 2018. While an initially strong and positive relationship between policy-controlled interest rates and bank lending rates reports evidence for efficient monetary policy transmission, aggregate firm investment rates seem to respond to changes in interest and previous periods’ investment rates only, suggesting exchange rates to be insignificant for aggregate firm investment spending decisions.

  • 308.
    Günther, Siloni
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Edlund, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Culture and the Municipality - A Love Story?: Exploring what determines cultural spending decisions2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines possible determinants of per capita local government spending on culture and the arts in Sweden within the median voter framework. Here, our analysis is based on a cross-sectional data set consisting of all 290 Swedish municipalities in the year of 2016. The results obtained through OLS regression show that the variables Left-wing Parties, Education, as well as Senior citizens affect cultural spending decisions made by the municipalities positively, while the variable Median Income has a negative impact. Here, the share of mandates held by left-wing parties is found to stand out, as political orientation towards the left relates to a higher level of cultural spending, whereas the remaining three display rather small effects. Thereby, we conclude that the main reasoning behind cultural spending depends on the ideology of the political leaders, the median voter’s preference, whereby the aspect of a municipality’s location may be explored further.

  • 309.
    Hagman, Mårten
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Money Management Using the Kelly Criterion: An Application of the Kelly Criterion on an Intraday Trading Strategy Based on the Swedish Stock Market Index OMXS302015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 310.
    Hagman, Mårten
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The Effects of Trust on Stock Market Participation: A Cross-Sectional Study Based on 15 Countries2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 311.
    Hagman, Mårten
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Är den svenska aktiemarknaden effektiv?: En undersökning med två handelsverktyg inom teknisk analys2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 312.
    Hakobyan, Lilit
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Economic stagnation and stable growth: the persistence and survival of growth regimes under political transitions2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the survival of four different growth regimes conditional on political regime transitions that occurred during the first or prior year of the economic regime. The results suggest that in countries with no history of military dictatorship (MD), the episodes of fast-growing regimes initiated by political democratisation have an approximately 40% lower hazard of termination than the miracle growth episodes that were not started by political transitions. This finding does not hold in countries in which the consolidation of democracy is complicated by the historical role played by the army in the governing process. Additional analyses are carried out for the effect of political transitions on the duration of ongoing economic regimes. The data does not support the argument that “order” and the “rule of law” promote economic growth under more authoritarian regimes, which commonly feature authoritarian leaders during times of economic crisis. Political transitions of both directions under an economic crisis render the ongoing economic regime more durable. In contrast political transitions (of both directions) seem to be economically more efficient under the regime of stagnation.

  • 313.
    Hakobyan, Lilit
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Essays on growth and political transition2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 314.
    Hakobyan, Lilit
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Income inequality, competitiveness of political systems and the distance to the efficient frontier of economic growth2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether and under which conditions democracy renders economic performance more efficient. Efficiency, measured by the ratio of (mean)/ (standard deviation) of output growth, becomes an important indicator of the relative goodness of economic performance when countries face a trade-off between development scenarios with high-mean and low-volatility of output growth. This seems to be a case when economies approach the efficient frontier. However, when countries are far away from the frontier economic efficiency may be improved by simultaneously increasing the mean and decreasing the volatility of growth. This study differs from others on the topic in three basic ways: (i) asymmetric (G)ARCH models are employed to simultaneously estimate the mean and volatility of output growth conditional on the factors of interest; (ii) variations in within-country effects of democratisation on the mean, variance and efficiency of economic growth conditional on cross-country variations of income inequality are analysed; (iii) the asymmetry of deviations from the mean is investigated. The results suggest (do not suggest) that in countries with no (with) military dictatorship history democratisation moves economies towards the efficient frontier. The positive effect of democratisation on the efficiency of economic performance seems to be systematically stronger in countries with lower (higher) income inequality in the countries with (without) consolidated civil governments.

  • 315.
    Hakobyan, Lilit
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Political transition, economic growth and reoccurring crisis in countries with and without experience of military dictatorship2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the experience of 83 countries from the period of 1950 - 2004 and addresses the following question: when do democratic transitions produce (good) bad economic outcomes. Following the theoretical papers of Acemoglu et al . (2004, 2008(a)), an attempt is made to control for both de jure and de facto sides of political power. In addition, the countries with and without the experience of Military Dictatorship ( MD ) are analysed separately. The results imply that concentration of economic power per se produces bad economic outcomes. Besides, the data seem to contain an indication that democratisation induces additional socially wasteful investments into de facto political power. In addition, the analyses suggest that, when the army assumes political leadership, countries with low concentration of economic power demonstrate better economic performance. In terms of Acemoglu et al. (2007), this may support the idea that the institutional environment switches from a “weak” to a “strong” one. Finally, the potential trade - off between democratisation and political stability seems to be mainly relevant to the degree of severity of reoccurring economic crises in countries with MD experience.

  • 316.
    Hallberg, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Ryhage, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Effects of Monetary Policy on Stock Market Liquidity: Empirical Analysis on the Swedish Market2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    After the 2008-2009 crisis, many studies have been done to assess the stock market liquidity and what influences this. The monetary policy of a central bank can have a broad impact of a country's economy and is believed to also affect the stock market. In addition, the goal of the central bank differs for every country which may affect the transmission effects seen in previous studies. This study takes a closer look at how monetary policy affect stock market liquidity fora small open economy, Sweden. The method of use includes vector autoregression, Granger tests and impulse response functions. The results show that we cannot distinguish a clear effect on stock market liquidity. However, findings show that there is a disturbance in stock market liquidity after a change in monetary policy. Granger tests also suggest an interesting dual causality. These results are consistent when testing both with monthly and daily data.

  • 317.
    Hallblad, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Produktmarknadsregleringar och konkurrens: En tidsserieanalys för att studera effekter av produktmarknadsregleringar på priskostnadsmarginalen2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 318.
    Hallblad, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The Multi-year Through-the-cycle and Point-in-time Probability of Default2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 319.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Is the EU Structural Fund Creating Economic Growth?: A Policy Analysis of the European Regional Development Fund - ERDF2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union uses a considered amount of the member states´ resources in the structural and cohesion funds to equalise income differences in the union and to induce growth to get economic cohesion between regions. An interesting and disputed question is if the funds are used in an effective way and if they reach their goals of economic growth. This is studied in the paper by a literature review and a following policy analysis which compare EU cohesion policy and academic knowledge. This question is addressed by performing a literature review of 16 articles about economic growth and its determinants in the European Union, and by comparing results from these studies with priorities of the main structural and cohesion fund’s policy, the investment priorities of European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The paper concludes that seven out of 11 investment priorities correspond or fairly well correspond, to results from academic research of European growth. The study highlights the importance of the 11th investment priority, which is regional governments´ quality and its impact on the structural and cohesion funds´ growth efficiency. The paper also concludes that a well-adopted policy change would be to increase the status and importance of the 11th investment priority of the ERDF and the overall EU cohesion policy.

  • 320.
    Hamrén, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundin, Mirjam
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Effekter av korruption på ekonomisk tillväxt: En empirisk studie av OECD-länder 1996-20142016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker effekterna av korruption på BNP-tillväxt per capita. Förutomkorruptionens direkta effekt analyseras korruptionens indirekta effekter via överföringskanaler. Deöverföringskanaler som testas är utbildningsnivå, privata investeringar, offentlig konsumtion ochhandel. Direkt och indirekt effekt summeras sedermera och utgör korruptionens totala effekt påBNP-tillväxt per capita. Dessa effekter undersöks med ekonometriska metoder där en multipel linjärregression genomförs med minstakvadratmetoden. Analysen baseras på data för de 35 OECDländernaöver tidsperioden 1996-2014. Resultatet av regressionsanalysen visar en negativ direkteffekt av korruption på tillväxt, vilket stödjer tidigare forskning. Endast överföringskanalernaoffentlig konsumtion och handel uppvisar signifikanta resultat. Korruption genom offentligkonsumtion visar på ett positivt samband med BNP-tillväxt per capita medan korruption genomhandel visar på det motsatta. Den totala effekten är negativ.

  • 321.
    Hanes, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Amalgamation impacts on local public expenditures in Sweden2015Ingår i: Local Government Studies, ISSN 0300-3930, E-ISSN 1743-9388, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 63-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns amalgamation impacts on local public expenditures. The empirical analysis is based on the extensive 1952 municipal reform in Sweden. The 1952 reform amalgamated municipalities in a way that they had at least 2,000–3,500 inhabitants. This was done in the belief that larger municipalities would improve administration efficiency and public services by exploiting economies of scale. The results show that the reform had a negative impact on expenditures as long as the municipalities did not exceed a critical size.

  • 322.
    Hanes, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Municipal Preferences for State-imposed Amalgamations: An Empirical Study Based on the Swedish Municipal Reform of 19522012Ingår i: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 49, nr 12, s. 2733-2750Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns municipal preferences for state-imposed municipal amalgamations, focusing on factors that may explain municipal acceptance of, or objection to, a state-imposed amalgamation decision. The empirical analysis is based on the extensive municipal reform that occurred in Sweden in 1952, which reduced the number of municipalities from 2498 to 1037. In 66 per cent of the amalgamated cases, at least one municipality complained. The results show that income differences affected the willingness to amalgamate; high-income municipalities opposed amalgamation with less wealthy municipalities. The results also indicate that the size (absolute and relative) of the municipalities affected their willingness to amalgamate. Small and large municipalities were most likely to accept the amalgamation decision and equally sized municipalities were less likely to amalgamate voluntarily.

  • 323.
    Harnesk, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Att spara eller inte att inte spara?: En paneldatastudie över bestämningsfaktorer för hushållens sparkvot2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 324.
    Hauer, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Escaping Unemployment: A regional estimation of enrolment decisions in Sweden using a human capital model2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 325. Heal, Geoffrey
    et al.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Distribution, sustainability and environmental policy2007Ingår i: Handbook Of Sustainable Development / [ed] Giles Atkinson , Simon Dietz , Eric Neumayer, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007, s. 155-170Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 326.
    Hedgren, Max
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Bredal, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Avkastningskurvan - En ledande indikator för ekonomisk utveckling?: En studie om avkastningskurvans prediktionsmöjligheter av BNP-tillväxt i Sverige under perioden 1993-20132014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 327.
    Heidrich, Stefanie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    A study of the Missing Data Problem for Intergenerational Mobility using Simulations2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Applied research on the association between parent and child lifetime income is relying on income data that covers only part of the life cycle which may lead to misleading estimates of the intergenerational elasticity (IGE). In this paper I study the bias of IGE estimates for different missing-data scenarios based on simulated income processes. Using an income process from the income dynamics and risks literature to generate two linked generations' complete income histories, I use Monte Carlo methods to study the relationship between available data patterns and the bias of the IGE. I find that the traditional approach using the average of the typically available log income observations leads to IGE estimates that are around 40 percent too small. Moreover, I show that the attenuation bias is not reduced by averaging over many father income observations. Using just one income observation for each generation at the optimal age (as discussed in the paper) or using weighted instead of unweighted averages can reduce the bias. In addition, the rank-rank slope is found to be clearly less sensitive to missing data. 

  • 328.
    Heidrich, Stefanie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Essays on intergenerational income mobility, geographical mobility, and education2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory part and the following four self-contained papers:

    In Paper [I] we analyze the implications of social identity and self-categorization for optimal redistributive income taxation. A two-type model is supplemented by an assumption that individuals select themselves into social categories, in which norms are formed and education effort choices partly depend on these norms. The results show, among other things, that externality correction by a welfarist government leads to an element of tax progression that serves to reduce the discrepancy between the effort norm and the actual effort chosen by low-productivity individuals in the high-effort group. Furthermore, if the preference for social identity is sufficiently strong, increased wage-inequality leads to higher social welfare through a relaxation of the selection constraint. It may thus be desirable to use publicly provided education to induce more wage-inequality, even if higher wage-inequality increases the intrinsic utility of a potential mimicker.

    In Paper [II] I employ high quality register data to present new facts about income mobility in Sweden. The focus of the paper is regional differences in mobility, using a novel approach based on a multilevel model. This method is well-suited when regions differ greatly in population size as is the case in Sweden. The maximum likelihood estimates are substantially more precise than those obtained by running separate OLS regressions. I find small regional differences in income mobility when measured in relative terms. Regional differences are large when adopting an absolute measure and focusing on children with below-median parent income. On the national level I find that the association between parent and child income ranks has decreased over time, implying increased mobility.

    In Paper [III] I study the long term effects of inter-municipal moving during childhood on income using Swedish register data. Due to the richness of the data I am able to control for important sources of selection into moving, such as parent separation, parents' unemployment, education, long run income, and immigration background. I find that children's long run incomes are significantly negatively affected by moving during childhood, and the effect is larger for those who move more often. For children who move once, I also estimate the effect of the timing and the quality of the move. I measure the quality of each neighborhood based on the adult outcomes for individuals who never move. The quality of a move is defined as the difference in quality between the origin and the destination. Given that a family moves, I find that the negative effect of childhood moving on adult income is increasing in age at move. Children benefit economically from the quality of the region they move to only if they move before age 12 (sons) and age 16 (daughters).

    In Paper [IV] I study the bias of IGE estimates for different missing-data scenarios based on simulated income processes. Using an income process from the income dynamics and risks literature to generate two linked generations’ complete income histories, I use Monte Carlo methods to study the relationship between available data patterns and the bias of the IGE. I find that the traditional approach using the average of the typically available log income observations leads to IGE estimates that are around 40 percent too small. Moreover, I show that the attenuation bias is not reduced by averaging over many father income observations. Using just one income observation for each generation at the optimal age (as discussed in the paper) or using weighted instead of unweighted averages can reduce the bias. In addition, the rank-rank slope is found to be clearly less sensitive to missing data.

  • 329.
    Heidrich, Stefanie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Intergenerational Mobility in Sweden: a Regional Perspective2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    I employ high quality register data and present new facts about income mobility in Sweden. The focus of the paper is regional mobility using a novel estimation approach based on a multilevel model. The maximum likelihood estimates are substantially more precise than those obtained by running separate OLS regressions. I find small regional differences in income mobility when measured in relative terms. Regional differences are large when adopting an absolute measure and focusing on upward mobility. On the national level I find that the association between parent and child income ranks has decreased over time, implying increased mobility.

  • 330.
    Heidrich, Stefanie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The Effect of Moving during Childhood on Long Run Income: Evidence from Swedish Register Data2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I study the long-term effects of inter-municipal moving during childhood on income using Swedish register data. Due to the richness of the data I am able to control for important sources of selection into moving, such as parent separation, parents’ unemployment, education, long run income, and immigration background. I find that children’s long run incomes are significantly negatively affected by moving during childhood, and the ffect is larger for those who move more often. For children who move once, I also estimate the effect of the timing and the quality of the move. I measure the quality of each neighborhood based on the adult outcomes for individuals who never move; the quality of a move follows as the difference in quality between the origin and the destination. Given that a family moves, I find that the negative effect of childhood moving on adult income is increasing in age at move. Children benefit economically from the quality of the region they move to only if they move before age 12 (sons) and age 16 (daughters).

  • 331.
    Hellström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Socioekonomisk status och hälsa: Påverkar utbildning, inkomst och kön uppsökande av läkarvård?2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inkomst och utbildningsnivå är två socioekonomiska faktorer som påverkar individers hälsa. Kostnaden för sjukvård i Sverige är till största delen skattefinansierad och är i princip, förutom en låg egenkostnad, gratis för individen. Att individens hälsonivå påverkas av de två ovannämnda socioekonomiska faktorerna är ett faktum men påverkar de även antalet läkarbesök individen gör?

     

    Uppsatsens syfte är att analysera om det finns samband mellan utbildning, inkomst samt kön för huruvida en individ söker läkarkontakt.

     

    Resultatet av studien visade att:

    - högutbildade har signifikant mer läkarkontakt än lågutbildade.

    - inkomst i de två högsta percentilerna, samt de två lägsta, är negativt korrelerat med läkarkontakt

    - kvinnor, procentuellt sett, sökte fler kontakter med läkare än män i de första modellerna i analysen. När modellerna kontrollerades för hälsa framkom ett signifikant estimat där män söker mer kontakt än kvinnor.

  • 332.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Liu, Yuna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Stock exchange mergers and return co-movement: A flexible dynamic component correlations model2013Ingår i: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 121, nr 3, s. 511-515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of a common cross-border stock trading platform is found, by use of a Flexible Dynamic Component Correlations (FDCC) model, to have increased long-run trends in conditional correlations between foreign and domestic stock market returns.

  • 333.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Liu, Yuna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Stock exchange mergers and weak-form information efficiency: Evidence from the OMX Nordic and Baltic consolidation2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study whether the creation of a uniform Nordic and Baltic stock trading platform has affected weak-form information efficiency. In the study, a time-varying measure of return predictability for individual stocks is used in a panel-data setting to test for stock market merger effects. The results indicate that the stock market consolidations have had a positive effect on the information efficiency and turnover for an average firm. The merger effects are, however, asymmetrically distributed which indicates a flight to liquidity effect in the sense that relatively large (small) firms located on relatively large (small) markets experience an improved (reduced) information efficiency and turnover. Although the results indicate that changes in the level of investor attention (measured by turnover) may explain part of the changes in information efficiency, they also lend support to the hypothesis that merger effects may partially be driven by changes in the composition of informed versus uninformed investors following a stock.

  • 334.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Liu, Yuna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Stock Exchange Mergers and Weak-Form Information Efficiency: Evidence from the OMX Nordic and Baltic Consolidation2018Ingår i: The Nordic Journal of Business, ISSN 2342-9003, E-ISSN 2342-9011, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 114-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study whether the creation of a uniform Nordic and Baltic stock trading platform has affected weak-form information efficiency. A time-varying measure of return predictability for individual stocks is used in a panel-data seting to test for stock market merger effects. The results indicate that the stock market consolidations have had a positive effect on the information efficiency and turnover for an average firm. The merger effects are, however, asymmetrically distributed, indicating, among other, a flight to liquidity effect, i.e. relatively large (small) firms located on relatively large (small) markets experience an improved (reduced) information efficiency.

  • 335.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Yu, Haishan
    Department of Economics, Dalarna University, 78188 Borlänge, Sweden.
    Why do electricity prices jump?: Empirical evidence from the Nordic electricity market2012Ingår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 1774-1781Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper empirically explores the possible causes behind electricity price jumps in the Nordic electricity market, Nord Pool. A time-series model (a mixed GARCH–EARJI jump model) capturing the common statistical features of electricity prices is used to identify price jumps. By the model, a categorical variable is defined distinguishing no, positive and negative jumps. The causes for the jumps are then explored through the use of ordered probit models in a second stage. The empirical results indicate that the structure of the market plays an important role in whether shocks in the demand and supply for electricity translate into price jumps.

  • 336.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Zetterdahl, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hanes, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Loved ones matter: family effects and stock market participation2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper new and detailed empirical evidence on the impact of family on individuals’ stock market participation decision is provided. Since influence is likely to vary systematically over different types of individuals the heterogeneous effect of social interaction, in a setting including both community as well as within-family effects, is further examined. The main results indicate that individuals’ likelihood for subsequent participation increases (decreases) following positive (negative) parental and partner stock market experiences. The effect of social interaction is further found to be of relatively greater importance for individuals with relatively lower levels of financial literacy and for individuals with an on average higher level of interpersonal trust. In terms of gender, both male and female participation is positively affected by family influence, while community effects mainly pertain to males.

  • 337.
    Henriksson, Kajsa-Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lika lön, oavsett kön?: En studie av kommunanställdas lönegap 2001-20132015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 338.
    Holmberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Crowdfunding and Economic Growth: Potential Effects on Investment Efficiency2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowdfunding is an alternative form of finance that have emerged with the widespread adoption of the internet. With the increasing utilization of crowdfunding, this thesis sets out to theoretically investigate whether crowdfunding could affect economic growth. If the choice of investment allocation mechanism could have any effect on the efficiency of investments made in the economy. The results show that crowdfunding could have a potential effect on the leakage of investments in the economy. The relative accuracy of the screening process and the transaction costs coupled with the method used for conducting the investments could affect the socially optimal proportion of investments conducted using crowdfunding.

  • 339.
    Holmberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The Relative Efficiency of Swedish Secondary Schools: An estimation using Stochastic Frontier Analysis2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of public education is of importance for a society and its citizens as education is contributing to the stability of a democratic society and affects the expected future income levels for the individuals receiving it. A significant share of the Swedish GDP is devoted to the provision of educational services which raises the necessity of monitoring the use of these resources. This thesis endeavoured to estimate a production possibility frontier and the relative efficiency of Swedish upper secondary schools. To accomplish this then Stochastic Frontier Analysis was implemented. Data on student results, teacher ratio and students’ socioeconomic characteristics for individual schools during the scholastic years of 2006/2007 through 2015/2016 gathered from the Swedish National Agency for Education was used in this study. The effects of competition on school performance and the relative efficiency of public and independent schools were two factors of interest in the thesis. The results of the analysis point toward a possible positive relationship between local school competition and student results, that Swedish secondary schools could have high average levels of technical efficiency and that the type of the principal organiser might be of minor importance for school efficiency.

  • 340.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Essays on credit markets and banking2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers related to banking, credit markets and financial stability.   

    Paper [I] presents a credit market model and finds, using an agent based modeling approach, that credit crunches have a tendency to occur; even when credit markets are almost entirely transparent in the absence of external shocks. We find evidence supporting the asset deterioration hypothesis and results that emphasize the importance of accurate firm quality estimates. In addition, we find that an increase in the debt’s time to maturity, homogenous expected default rates and a conservative lending approach, reduces the probability of a credit crunch. Thus, our results suggest some up till now partially overlooked components contributing to the financial stability of an economy.    

    Paper [II] derives an econometric disequilibrium model for time series data. This is done by error correcting the supply of some good. The model separates between a continuously clearing market and a clearing market in the long-run such that we are able to obtain a novel test of clearing markets. We apply the model to the Swedish market for short-term business loans, and find that this market is characterized by a long-run nonmarket clearing equilibrium.   

    Paper [III] studies the risk-return profile of centralized and decentralized banks. We address the conditions that favor a particular lending regime while acknowledging the effects on lending and returns caused by the course of the business cycle. To analyze these issues, we develop a model which incorporates two stylized facts; (i) banks in which lendingdecisions are decentralized tend to have a lower cost associated with screening potential borrowers and (ii) decentralized decision-making may generate inefficient outcomes because of lack of coordination. Simulations are used to compare the two banking regimes. Among the results, it is found that even though a bank group where decisions are decentralizedmay end up with a portfolio of loans which is (relatively) poorly diversified between regions, the ability to effectively screen potential borrowers may nevertheless give a decentralized bank a lower overall risk in the lending portfolio than when decisions are centralized.   

    In Paper [IV], we argue that the practice used in the valuation of a portfolio of assets is important for the calculation of the Value at Risk. In particular, a seller seeking to liquidate a large portfolio may not face horizontal demand curves. We propose a partially new approach for incorporating this fact in the Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall measures and in an empirical illustration, we compare it to a competing approach. We find substantial differences.

  • 341.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lönnbark, Carl
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundström, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Assessing the profitability of intraday opening range breakout strategies2013Ingår i: Finance Research Letters, ISSN 1544-6123, E-ISSN 1544-6131, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 27-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to beat the market by mechanical trading rules based on historical and publicly known information? Such rules have long been used by investors and in this paper, we test the success rate of trades and profitability of the Open Range Breakout (ORB) strategy. An investor that trades on the ORB strategy seeks to identify large intraday price movements and trades only when the price moves beyond some predetermined threshold. We present an ORB strategy based on normally distributed returns to identify such days and find that our ORB trading strategy result in significantly higher returns than zero as well as an increased success rate in relation to a fair game. The characteristics of such an approach over conventional statistical tests is that it involves the joint distribution of low, high, open and close over a given time horizon.

  • 342.
    Hornbrinck, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Olausson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Foreign Direct Investments in Europe: Testing European Union membership as a Determinant for FDI2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 343.
    Huiwen, Tay
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: A study of Singapore and Hong Kong.2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    FDI has played a critical role in helping Asian economies achieve rapid economicdevelopment as more countries begin to open their economies. Although, there are manyresearches done on FDI in the developing Asian economies, few studies focuses ondeveloped Asian countries such as Hong Kong and Singapore. Hence, the objectives of thisthesis are to study the significance and the similarities and differences of the determinantsthat could possibly drive these high levels of inward FDI in Singapore and its closecompetitor, Hong Kong. The study will also examine the significance of the growth rates ofthese determinants in relation to the growth of FDI inflow into both countries.

    The determinants that are examined are exchange rate, market size, inflation rate,infrastructure and trade openness together with a dummy variable to account for the impactof Hong Kong’s return to China. The determinants are examined at level with a time trendand at growth. Data is collected over the period of 1975-2014 for Singapore and 1980-2014for Hong Kong. Using the Ordinary Least Square regression (OLS) at level with a time trendincluded, we found that market size and trade openness have a significant impact on FDIinflow into Singapore while in the case of Hong Kong, none of the determinants showed highlevel of significance in attracting FDI inflow. However, for the OLS regression on the growthrates, only Singapore displayed significance for the determinant of trade openness, whileHong Kong did not show any significance on the selected determinants. Based on the results,all variables displayed the expected relationship with FDI, except for the determinant ofinfrastructure (at level) for Hong Kong.

  • 344.
    Humavindu, Michael N.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Estimating national economic parameters for Namibia using the shadow pricing approach2013Ingår i: Development Southern Africa, ISSN 0376-835X, E-ISSN 1470-3637, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 211-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates national economic parameters to be used for project appraisal in Namibia. The shadow prices of capital, labour, and foreign exchange are derived. The results suggest that the economic opportunity cost of capital is 7.2%. The economic costs of Namibian labour as a share of financial costs are 32% for urban semi-skilled and unskilled labour, and 54% for rural semi-skilled and unskilled labour. The economic costs of foreign labour as a share of financial costs are 59%. The shadow exchange rate factor is estimated to be 4% for the Namibian economy.

  • 345.
    Humavindu, Michael N.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Stage, Jesper
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hedonic pricing in Windhoek townships2003Ingår i: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 391-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies the hedonic pricing model to property sales in the township areas in Windhoek, the capital city of Namibia, where municipal authorities have pursued a programme of selling plots of land to settlers in order to encourage them into a formalized economic situation. We find that, apart from house quality, access to the central business district, access to marketplaces and access to transportation, environmental quality also has a large impact on property prices. Properties located close to a garbage dump sell at considerable discounts, while properties located close to a combined conservation and recreation area sell at premium prices. The results thus suggest that the hedonic pricing method can be useful for studying townships in developing countries, and that this can help to clarify the importance of environmental factors which are otherwise frequently neglected in town planning for township settlements.

  • 346.
    Hyytinen, Ari
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Toivonen, Otto
    Aalto University & KU Leuven, Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE); CEPR.
    Design of public procurement auctions: evidence from cleaning contracts2018Ingår i: The Rand Journal of Economics, ISSN 0741-6261, E-ISSN 1756-2171, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 398-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze a regime change from beauty contests to first‐price sealed‐bid and scoring auctions, using Swedish data on public procurement of cleaning services. In beauty contests, the lowest bid often lost, leaving substantial money on the table. The procurement costs were similar before and after the regime change: (i) Entry strongly decreases the procurement cost but did not change. Entry would have decreased had the municipalities not adjusted the objects of auctions. (ii) Municipalities favored in‐house suppliers in the old regime, leading to more aggressive bidding by others. With favoritism reduced, these changes balanced each other out.

  • 347.
    Häggström, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    An Empirical Analysis of Soft Drink Addiction2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 348.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH.
    Östberg, Katarina
    SLU.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Estimating Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy in Swedish Coastal Environments: A Walk along different Socio-economic Dimensions2016Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 49-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies distributional effects of environmental policies in Swedish coastal environments, in monetary and environmental quality terms, for different dimensions: income, gender, age, non-users vs. users, distance, familiarity, and origin (if people have a Swedish background or not). The study area is widely used for different recreational activities and has a mix of different visitors. The data come from a choice experiment study. The results indicate that latent class modelling can be used to identify how monetary preferences vary between different groups of respondents, and largely confirm the limited existing knowledge from the previous research on distributional effects of environmental policies. However, the previous literature on distributional effects related to background is very limited, making it hard to draw comparisons. The results in our paper also show that the distributional effects differ depending on the environmental amenity. These results are of policy relevance since coastal environments are important for people's well-being and associated with positive health effects.

  • 349.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Division for Environmental Strategies Research, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Östberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Estimating distributional effects of environmental policy in Swedish coastal environments: A walk along different socio-economic dimensions2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies distributional effects of environmental policies in Swedish coastal environments, in monetary and environmental quality terms, for different socio-economic groups. The study area is widely used for different recreational activities and has a mix of different visitors. Data comes from a choice experiment study. Some results confirm limited existing knowledge from previous research, although the ethnical dimension to a certain extent contradicts conventional perceptions. Based on previous research from other countries, the hypothesis would be that native Swedes would benefit more from environmental improvements than respondents with a non-Swedish background. Interestingly results differ, depending on the environmental amenity. For example, respondents with a non-Swedish origin benefit more, both in monetary and environmental quality terms, from reduced noise and littering compared to respondents with a Swedish origin. Also, independent of ethnical background, people use the area in a similar manner.

  • 350.
    Högvall, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Arbetslöshetsersättning och löner: En studie av medlemsavgiftsdifferentieringens effekter på lönebildningen2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetslöshetsförsäkringen är ett område med omfattande forskning från både svenskt och internationellt håll. Ofta undersöks sysselsättningseffekter, men mindre är känt om effekter på lönesättningen. I den här studien utgår jag från teorier om lönesättningsprocesser i ekonomier med starka fackliga organisationer som vill optimera medlemmarnas totala nytta. Det innebär att avvägningar görs mellan lönenivå och sysselsättning. Avvägningarna kan då göras mot löneökningar i större grad om arbetslöshetsförsäkringen minskar kostnaden av arbetslöshet. År 2007-2008 genomfördes omfattande reformer i arbetslöshetsförsäkringen som minskade dess möjlighet att kompensera för låg sysselsättning. Däribland en generell höjning av medlemsavgifterna och en starkare koppling av avgiften till arbetslösheten i a-kassan.

    Uppsatsen granskar sambandet mellan lön och arbetslöshet empiriskt med utgångspunkt i höjningen och differentieringen av medlemsavgifterna år 2007-2008. Jag testar för skillnader i sambandet före och efter reformernas genomförande. Metoden som används är linjär regression med utgångspunkt i en panel av yrkesgrupper, under åren 2004-2010.

    I enlighet med teorin finner jag ett negativt samband mellan a-kassors arbetslöshet och lön under perioden med differentierade medlemsavgifter, men inte före. En ökning av arbetslösheten med 1 procentenhet innebar en minskning av löneökningen med ca 88,4 kronor. Skattningens säkerhet är dock svag då den inte i tillräcklig grad tar hänsyn till andra orsaker som kan ha påverkat löneutvecklingen i tidsperioden.

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