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  • 301.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Förord2006Ingår i: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, s. 7-14Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 302.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Nordlund, ChristerUmeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar2007Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 303.
    Nilsson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tedebrand, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Familjer i växande städer: Strukturer och strategier vid familjebildning i Sverige 1840-19402005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book originates from a research program on the urban family in Sweden 1840-1940. It examines the family at the centre of life during Sweden’s transition to a modern industrialized and urbanized country. The proportion of singles and married people as well as ages at marriage are analysed against the background of economic development, social structure, the housing situation and “male breadwinner-ideology”. Generational relations and the different family and household forms in urban areas are discussed.

    By using the potential of the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University in combination with population registers from the 20th century, eight marriage cohorts from the 1840’s to the 1930’s are created for two middle-sized Swedish cities, Linköping and Sundsvall. The authors explore in detail the new fertility regimes that emerged rather rapidly in urban Sweden during the first decades of the last century. The concept “family strategies” is used to understand the behaviour of individuals and families within all social classes during the fertility transition. Smaller families were achieved through increased use of spacing and stopping and mainly by pre-industrial forms of fertility control. However, the authors also stress the importance of bourgeois debaters and early feminists as well as left wing women’s associations for bringing down the birth rate.

    Finally, the book raises central issues concerning the economic, social and psychological forces that shaped the modern family and the interrelationship between history, demography and other related sciences.

  • 304.
    Nilsson, Inger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Grönlandsfrågan 1929-1933: en studie i småstatsimperialism1978Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 305.
    Nordahl, Per
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Weaving the ethnic fabric: social networks among Swedish-American radicals in Chicago 1890-19401994Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation deals with how a segment of the Swedish immigrant group mobilized to be included in American society. Three Swedish-American working class organizations have been studied as to how they interacted to promote their interests in Chicago and the Lake View district during the first decades of this century. Reflecting political, cultural and economic aspects of the immigrant workers' lives the case studies indicate that Swedish immigrant workers constructed an organizational network parallel to the one they had left in the old country known as "folkrörelsesamverkan" (popular movement cooperation). Like in Sweden this network was constructed as a haven for social mobilization, with the exception that in the American context an ethnic aspect was added.In the formative phase of their haven, historical retrospect and the defence of organized labor in the old country were important aspects of their activities. Through the educational and cultural programs that were organized, the group articulated and consolidated its position for interaction with American society including other ethnic groups. Political radicalism, including a pro-labor temperance movement, distinguished the group both within the Swedish enclave and the American labor movement. Nevertheless, in constant conflict and cooperation with other groups, new bonds of solidarity were developed which gradually enabled a re-definition of the group to include fewer ethnic and more class aspects. Once a wider definition of the group was implemented, the need for separate Swedish-American organizations decreased. Hence in the 1930s, by which time the Swedish immigrants had been included in the American labor movement, the Swedish-American labor movement also withered.

  • 306.
    Nordbäck, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Samvetets röst: Om mötet mellan luthersk ortodoxi och konservativ pietism i 1720-talets Sverige2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with the encounter between Lutheran orthodoxy and conservative pietism 1720–1730. The aim has been to compare their views on society and man.

    In the pietistic conflict, orthodoxy gave rise to attitudes which proved to be key to its view on society and man. It was a deeply rooted traditionalism, patriarchal order of society, demand for confessional uniformity and a corporativistic view on society. The above mentioned contained a specific view on the relationship between the church, state and individual. By using the Organism Metaphor, i.e. society depicted as a body, orthodoxy made visible the church’s collective unity. This body was also identical to the Swedish kingdom. If uniformity in faith and ceremonies was to be dissolved, it implied a disintegration of the social body and breaking of the bonds which held together both church and country. Uniformity was upheld through confessionalism and the partiarchal order of the church. The priests’ monopoly on official functions, and the legal calling created a barrier protecting this relationship to power. Where the views on society and man intersected, one specific theme can be identified – conscience. This spiritual function connected man to law, society’s patriarchal order and God.

    I have emphasised five distinct traits of pietism: its polarizing tendencies, strong emotionalism, its reformist attitude towards church and social life, its egalitarianism and religious individualism. All of these traits collided with orthodoxy’s view on society and man. Pietism can be described as a massive christianization project, which included moral and ethic education of the people on an individual and collective level. Where pietism and religious individualism coincided with egalitarianism, a new discourse for conscience was established, where conscience became both an internal court of law – with God acting as judge – and a spiritual authority whose integrity grew in proportion to authority and church.

  • 307.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Anders Ekström (red), Den mediala vetenskapen: anm av Christer Nordlund2005Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, nr 3, s. 525-526Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 308.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier. Centrum för världsbilder, livshållning och vetenskap.
    Between Science and Industry: On the Establishment, Organisation and Practices of the Swedish Geological Survey in the Nineteenth Century2007Ingår i: Earth Sciences History: Journal of the History of the Earth Sciences Society, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 127-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 309.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Både modern och passé2006Ingår i: Västerbottens-KurirenArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 310.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Det upphöjda landet: vetenskapen, landhöjningsfrågan och kartläggningen av Sveriges förflutna, 1860-19302001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking the establishment of Ice Age theory as its point of departure, the present dissertation examines aspects of geological, plant geographical and archaeological research on shoreline displacement conducted in Sweden during the period 1860-1930, and the significance of this research for the perception of "the Swedish landscape" and its post-glacial history. The research is analyzed on three levels under the rubrics "The Highest Shoreline and the Ancylus Lake", "The Question of Land Elevation", and "Charting Swedens Past", respectively. Taken together, these levels capture the varying perceptions and exchanges of opinion of the nature of shoreline displacement and the contexts in which they were applied.

    The present study is conducted via a theoretical and methodological approach where both the ideas and the practices of science are studied: activities in the field and at the various institutions (primarily the Swedish Geological Survey, its museum and the Geological Society of Stockholm); arguments and hypotheses presented in artides and handbooks, including visual images, diagrams and maps; social networks, career paths and controversies. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between science and nationalism, and comparisons are made with research conducted in an imperialist context.

    Ice Age theory helped initiate research whose purpose was to discover how the Swedish naturai and cultural landscape carne into being. The foremost task of geology became studying geographic evolution during the Quaternary epoch, how the land had "risen from ice and water". Plant geography studied how and whence plant life had migrated and how vegetation had evolved under the influence of biological, geological and climatological factors. In a similar manner, archaeologists studied the migration and dissemination of mankind during the StoneAge. When natural scientists primarily used "natural landmarks" as its source material, archaeologists relied on "archaeological finds", which were invested with scientific value but also became symbols of national collective memory. Through this survey, national identity was unifìed with the territory itself and its evolutionary history.

    Knowledge about shoreline displacement became significant for geology, plant geography and archaeology, which in turn encouraged interdisciplinary collaboration, but also locked the researchers into a similar way of thinking about the nature of shoreline displacement. According to this "thought style", the phenomenon was first and foremost the result of the vertical movement of the land rather than movement in the ocean surface. Up until the 1870s, the Ice Age was thought to have been followed by one single subsidence and elevation; during the 1880s, two such land oscillations; three during the 1910s and by the 1920s, five. Only toward the end of the 1920s did Swedish researchers begin to accept a multi-factor explanation, which succeeded in finally subverting the reigning thought style. According to this explanation, shoreline displacement was not solely the result of changes in the land or the sea, but of both.

  • 311.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Det övervakade geniet: Albert Einsteins vänsterengagemang - ett fall för FBI2005Ingår i: Västerbottens-Kuriren, nr 2005-08-18Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 312.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Dolda platser i hormonernas historia: bondgården, kvinnokliniken och vårdhemmet2006Ingår i: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, s. 50-70Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 313.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier. Centrum för världsbilder, livshållning och vetenskap.
    Earth, Water, Ice and Fire: Two Hundred Years of Geological Research in the English Lake District2007Ingår i: Isis: An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences, Vol. 98, nr 3, s. 616-Artikel, recension (Refereegranskat)
  • 314.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier. Centrum för världsbilder, livshållning och vetenskap.
    En brännande samhällsfråga2007Ingår i: Upsala Nya TidningArtikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 315.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Endocrinology and expectations in 1930s America: Louis Berman's ideas on new creations in human beings2007Ingår i: British Journal for the History of Science, ISSN 0007-0874, E-ISSN 1474-001X, Vol. 40, nr 144:1, s. 83-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    in the first half of the twentieth century, hormones took pride of place as life's master molecules and the endocrinologist took precedence over the geneticist as the scientist offering the means to control life. But, as with molecular genetics and biotechnology today, the status of endocrinology was not based solely on contemporary scientific and medical practices. To a high degree it was also reliant on expectations or visions of what endocrinologists would soon be able to do. Inspired by the approach of social studies of techno-scientific expectations, the ann of this article is to explore some of the great expectations connected to the development of endocrinology in the 1930s. The analysis is based on popular books written by the American physician and endocrinologist Louis Berman. The paper argues that Berman thought not only that it was perfectly possible to understand human nature through hormone analysis but that endocrinologists would be able to control, design and 'improve' humans by using hormone replacement therapy. Furthermore, in contrast to most of the eugenics of his time, Berman suggested that the whole population of the world should be improved. As a political activist he wanted to contribute to the development of new human beings, 'ideal normal persons', thereby reaching an 'ideal society'. That HRT could involve risks was something that he seems not to have taken into account.

  • 316.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Entering the invisible cities of Finland2005Ingår i: H-Net: Humanities and Social Sciences OnlineArtikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 317.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Fantasi möter vetenskap2006Ingår i: Upsala Nya TidningArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 318.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Geologi och nationalism2005Ingår i: Vitenskap og teknologi for samfunnet?: bergfagene som kunnskapsfelt / [ed] Astrid Wale, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2005Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 319.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Harry Collins & Trevor Pinch,2006Ingår i: Lychnos: Årsbok för idé- och lärdomshistoriaArtikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 320.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Hormoner och visioner i mellankrigstid: Louis Bermans idéer om möjligheten att förädla mänskligheten2004Ingår i: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, s. 165-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first half of the twentieth century, hormones took pride of place as life’s master molecules, and the endocrinologist took precedence over the geneticist as the scientist offering the means to control life. But, as with genetics and biotechnology today, the status of endocrinology was not only based on contemporary scientific and medical practices but also, to a high degree, on expectations, or visions, about what endocrinologists would be able to do ”in the future”. Inspired by the research field social studies of techno-scientific expectations, the aim of this article is to explore some of the great expectations that were connected to the development of endocrinology in the 1930s. The analysis is based on popular books written by the American endocrinologist Louis Berman, who worked in New York City most of his life, part time at Columbia University. In 1921, Berman reached fame for his book The glands regulating personality, which was a study of the glands of internal secretion in relation to what Berman called the ”types of human nature”. In the journal Science, Berman later named his approach ”psycho-endocrinology”. In the 1930s, Berman not only argued that it was possible to understand human nature through hormone analysis, but that endocrinologists would also be able to control and ”improve” human nature by using hormone therapy. Furthermore, in contrast to most of the eugenics of his time, Berman suggested that the whole population of the world should be improved, not only humans within a specific race or in specific nations. As a political activist of the 1930s, Berman wanted to contribute to the development of new creations in human beings, ”ideal normal persons”, and thereby to reach an ”ideal society”. That such large-scale hormone replacement therapy could involve risks, such as side effects, was something that Berman seems not to have taken into account.

  • 321.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier. Centrum för världsbilder, livshållning och vetenskap.
    Hormones and Expectations in 1930s America: Louis Berman’s Ideas on New Creations in Human Beings2007Ingår i: British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 83-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 322.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier. Centrum för världsbilder, livshållning och vetenskap.
    Hormones for Life?: Behind the Rise and Fall of a Hormone Remedy (Gonadex) against Sterility in the Swedish Welfare State2007Ingår i: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 191-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 323.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    How the Coast Became High: an Historical Introduction to the High Coast (Höga Kusten) World Heritage Site in Sweden2005Ingår i: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 113-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 324.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Kariesforskning och tandvårdspolitik i Folkhemmet.2006Ingår i: Historisk tidskriftArtikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 325.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Katastrof, drev och syndabockar2005Ingår i: Västerbottens-Kuriren, nr 2005-02-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 326.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Kultur, samhälle och vetenskap: livsföreställningar kultur, samhälle och biovetenskap2004Ingår i: Livsföreställningar kultur, samhälle och biovetenskap / [ed] Christer Nordlund, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2004Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 327.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Landhöjning - så vått?: Reflexioner kring ett naturfenomens kulturella betydelse2005Ingår i: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 328.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Livsföreställningar kultur, samhälle och biovetenskap.2004Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 329.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Miljöpolitikens utmaningar2005Ingår i: Upsala Nya Tidning, nr 2005-12-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 330.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Natur i norr: historiska studier i gränser, vetenskap och miljö1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 331.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Nonchalans och precision2005Ingår i: Västerbottens-Kuriren, nr 2005-11-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 332.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Rec. av John V. Pickstone, Ways of Knowing: a new history of science, technology and medicine2005Ingår i: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, s. 418-419Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 333.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Rec. av K. Grandin, N. Wormbs&S. Widmalm, The Science-Industry Nexus2005Ingår i: Lychnos: årsbok för idé- och lärdomshistoria 2005, Uppsala: Lärdomshistoriska samfundet , 2005Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 334.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Rec. av P. Fara, Pandora´s Breeches2005Ingår i: Kvinnovetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-8365, nr 2-3Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 335.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Tragikomiska genier som kioskvältare2007Ingår i: Västerbottens-KurirenArtikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 336.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Vad biologer också borde veta om biologi.: Rec. av Garland Allen och Jeffrey Baker, Biology: Scientific Process and Social Issues2004Ingår i: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning, ISSN 1404-7659, Vol. 11, nr 1-2, s. 117-121Artikel, recension (Refereegranskat)
  • 337.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Vägen mot det goda samhället2006Ingår i: Upsala Nya TidningArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 338.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Ärftlighetens arv2005Ingår i: Upsala Nya Tidning, nr 2005-02-20Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 339.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Espmark, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Rec. av Peter J. Bowler & Iwan Rhys Morus, Making Modern Science: A Historical Survey2006Ingår i: LMNT-nytt, ISSN 1402-0041, Vol. 2, s. 44-45Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 340.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Inledning2005Ingår i: Polhem: teknikhistorisk årsbok, Tema: Teknik och miljö / [ed] Anders Lundgren, Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Uppsala: Svenska nationalkommittén för teknikhistoria , 2005, s. 5-10Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 341.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Sundquist, Björn
    Geologi och ära: en studie av den 11:e internationella geologkongressen i Stockholm 19102004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 342.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Sundquist, Björn
    ?.
    Science and Honour: The 11th International Geological Congress in Stockholm 19102004Ingår i: Episodes, ISSN 0705-3797, Vol. 27, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 343.
    Norlin, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Universitetspedagogik i praktiken: reflektioner kring en doktorandkurs2007Ingår i: Utsikter, insikter, avsikter: universitetspedagogisk konferens i Umeå 27 – 28 februari 2007 / [ed] Mohammad Faazelhashemi, Thomas Fritz, Umeå: Universitetspedagogiskt Centrum, Umeå universitet , 2007, s. 221-229Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under höstterminen 2006 inrättades en ny kurs, Universitetspedagogik i praktiken, vid Institutionen för historiska studier vid Umeå Universitet. Kursen är en fempoängskurs på forskarutbildningen och syftet är att erbjuda doktorander en möjlighet att, under handledning av en ordinarie lärare, undervisa på grundutbildningen och därmed tillgodogöra sig praktisk undervisningserfarenhet. Föreliggande text handlar just om denna kurs, om bakgrunden till dess inrättande, om dess innehåll samt om hur den i praktiken fortlöpte. Samtidigt diskuteras också dess värden betraktat både ur en doktorands och ur en lektors perspektiv.

  • 344.
    Norrbin, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Från isolering till integrering: en kollektivbiografisk studie över de kvinnliga riksdagsledamöterna under tvåkammarriksdagens tid 1922-19702004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is focused on the female parliamentary members as agents: those who forced their way through the power structures, those who were elected to political commissions of trust, and those who managed to pursue political issues in the maledominated environment. The overall aim of the study has been to investigate the roots of the female parliamentary members’ political actions and their ability to act strategically and purposfully in order to obtain power in the Swedish bicameral Riksdag. By depicting a collective biography of the female parliamentary members I have investigated how the individual female politicians advanced in their careers and explained the changes over time.

    Four problem areas were investigated. The gender structure in the Riksdag was studied through mapping of the female parliamentary members’ backgrounds and career routes. The women’s political interests and work in the Riksdag were studied. In addition I investigated whether there was any cooperation among the female parliamentary members and whether on some occasions they cooperated in order to promote common female interests and also whether there were women in the Riksdag who worked and cooperated in order to level out the gender differences in society. Finally the female parliamentary members’ views of the parliamentary and party work were studied.

    When the Riksdag was first opened to female members the structures isolated them. The men did not admit them into the work of the Riksdag on the same conditions. The women were restricted by the gender order of the Riksdag, but some agents could still modify the structural conditions. Some of the female agents broke their isolation by acting collectively. Their work on the female issues gave them legitimacy in time. They acquired channels in order to work for their interests. They widened their areas of interest and in time they managed to take part in the work of the committees and parliamentary groups. They were then rewarded with assignments. The male parliamentary members admitted the female parliamentary members into politics. They also started co-operating with the men to an increasingly high degree. At the end of the period of investigation the female parliamentary members became more and more integrated in the work of the Riksdag. The great usefulness of the female parliamentary members’ work did not manifest itself however until the 1970s, when they were very successful in their political endeavours and the female representation increased considerably.

  • 345.
    Norrhem, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier. Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Ceremoniers makt och betydelsen av kön2006Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, nr 1, s. 93-98Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 346.
    Norrhem, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Ebba Brahe: Makt och kärlek under stormaktstiden2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ebba Brahe (1596-1674) styrde skickligt över sitt eget och sina barns liv. Hon ingick i drottning Kristinas innersta krets och äldste sonen Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie blev en tid drottningens gunstling. Som maka och mor banade hon väg för man och barn, men spelade också en roll för andra mäns och kvinnors uppåtstigande i samhället. Som änka inte bara förvaltade hon utan förökade också gods- och bruksinnehav.

  • 347.
    Norrhem, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Kvinnor vid maktens sida: 1632 - 17722007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 348.
    Norrhem, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Humanistisk fakultet, Historiska studier.
    Liket i garderoben. En studie av sexualitet, livsstil och begravning2007Ingår i: Tidskrift för genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, nr 4, s. 107-109Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 349.
    Norrhem, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Svenska adelskvinnor och politik 1632-1771: om nedärvda och förvärvade resursers betydelse2007Ingår i: Kvinnor och politik i det tidigmoderna Norden: rapport til 26:e Nordiska historikermötet i Reykjavík den 8-12 augusti 2007 / [ed] Åsa Karlsson Sjögren, Reykjavík: Háskólaútgáfan, 2007, s. 155-173Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 350.
    Norrhem, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Historiska studier.
    Uppkomlingarna: kanslitjänstemännen i 1600-talets Sverige och Europa1993Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil servants with close access to monarchs have often been seen as influential advisers. A specific group of civil servants were the Royal Secretaries in Sweden and Spain, and the Secretaries of State in England and France. They all held offices which gave them close and continuous access to their masters.

    In all the above-mentioned countries these civil servants were recruited from among groups divergent from the political, social and economic elite. This discrepancy in social status was most apparent in Sweden and Spain. In Spain this led to a political conflict between secretaries and the aristocracy, which in turn led to the marginalization of the secretaries; in Sweden a similar political conflict remained unresolved throughout the century.

    In England and France the old establishment was able to enclose both the administration and its members. In Sweden the aristocracy failed to integrate this new office-holding nobility, thus laying the foundations for the strengthening of a homogeneous group which politically was strongly supportive of the monarchs.

    In France, England and Sweden the secretaries could use their offices to influence political decisions. This became a problem in Sweden since the Royal Secretaries within their own group were well-integrated by family and friendship connections. By supporting the monarchs, they themselves gained support and towards the end of the century these socially inferior civil servants had grown in importance and formed a politically important group alongside the established nobility.

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