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  • 3401.
    Zinko, Ursula
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Seibert, Jan
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Plant species number predicted by a topography based groundwater-flow index2005Inngår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 430-441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of a clear understanding of the factors governing the often-great variation of species numbers over entire landscapes confounds attempts to manage biodiversity. We hypothesized that in a topographically variable boreal forest landscape the availability of shallow groundwater is a major determinant of plant species numbers. We then developed a topographically derived hydrologic index based on multidirectional flow algorithms to account for the variation in availability of such groundwater in the landscape. We found a positive correlation between species numbers of vascular plants in plots ranging from 0.01 to 200 m2 and the hydrologic index. Generally, the landscape was relatively dry and species-poor, but interspersed patches with shallow groundwater had high species numbers and high proportions of regionally uncommon plant species. The index explained 30% of the variation in vascular plant number and correlated quite well (rs = 0.50) with groundwater level, but not as well with a community H+concentration value (instead of community pH, rs = −0.31), based on species composition. In addition, we found a very strong correlation between species number and the community H+ concentration value (rs−0.84). The hydrologic index is a useful tool for the identification of spatial of species number patterns across entire landscapes. This is an important step in identifying the areas most in need of protection or restoration, designing survey techniques, and understanding the fundamental processes that control the spatial distribution of species.

  • 3402.
    Zubic, Aida
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Comparison of energy and greenhouse gas balances of three biofuel options2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 3403.
    Åberg, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Is it possible to define different process domains in stream systems based on remote data?: Comparing surficial geology, geomorphological characteristics in the landscape and channel slope between lakes, rapids and slow-flowing reaches.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration of stream channels have become a common way of trying to restore both the channels and the ecosystems that earlier have been channelized mainly to facilitate the movement of timber. According to previous studies a lot of the restoration has been performed without a sufficiently detailed plan and with too little focus on how the landscape interplay with the restoration, which makes the potential to learn from possible mistakes minimal. In this study, a hydrological analysis of Hjuken river was done to examine if remote data through an analysis using GIS could be used for identifying three different process domains (lake, slow-flowing reaches and rapids), and if it is possible to determine which process domain it is by examining three different variables: channel slope, surficial geology and the geomorphologic characteristics in the landscape. Based on the statistical treatment and the analysis of the data, the result shows a significant difference between every process domain and variable except for the channel slope when it comes to slow-flowing reaches and rapids. This tells us that all the variables that has been analysed could be a crucial factor in most of the cases. However, the result does not seem reliable compared to previous studies. The conclusion of the study is that the error from the identification of the process domains is from the orthophotos. Remote data is too weak to use as the only source for this kind of analysis. However, the definition of process domains is probably more diffuse than today’s description. There needs to be more studies on each process domain, it is probably not enough with three different types, either there should be subclasses for each process domain or even more process domains.

  • 3404.
    Åberg, J
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Algesten, G
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Söderback, K
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    A comparison of the carbon balances of a natural lake (L. Örträsket) and a hydroelectric reservoir (L. Skinnmuddselet) in northern Sweden2004Inngår i: Water Research, Vol. 38, s. 531-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon balances were calculated for the summer stratification period of 2001 for the hydroelectric reservoir L. Skinnmuddselet (created in 1989) and the natural L. Örträsket, and estimated on annual basis for both lakes. The reservoir and the lake have similar chemical characteristics and are located in adjacent catchments in the northern part of Sweden. Our main hypothesis was that the CO2 production and emissions from the reservoir, L. Skinnmuddselet, would be greater than in the natural L. Örträsket, due to the decomposition of flooded vegetation and peat.

    The carbon balances showed that the total production of CO2 per unit lake surface area during the summer was very similar in the natural lake and the reservoir (31.3 g C m−2 in L. Örträsket and 25.3 g C m−2 in L. Skinnmuddselet). The sediments were the major CO2 source in the reservoir, while most of the mineralization in the natural lake occurred in the water column. On annual basis the natural L. Örträsket produced and emitted more CO2 per unit of lake surface area than the reservoir L. Skinnmuddselet since mineralization proceeded during winter when L. Skinnmuddselet was emptied for electricity production. Therefore, the potential for CO2 emission was not greater in the reservoir than in the natural lake.

  • 3405.
    Åberg, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Production and emission of CO2 in two unproductive lakes in northern Sweden2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Unproductive lakes are one of few natural landscape compartments with net release of carbon to the atmosphere. Lakes also generally decrease the net terrestrial carbon uptake, since most of the CO2 production in unproductive lakes are derived from organic carbon produced on land (e.g. in forests). High latitude lakes are predicted to be particularly affected by the global climate change. The carbon cycling in these lakes and their role in the landscape are therefore important to study.

    In this thesis, carbon turnover processes were studied in two lakes above the arctic circle (Lake Diktar-Erik and Lake Merasjärvi) in year 2004 and 2005. Both lakes were net heterotrophic, with large variations in CO2 concentrations both on shorter (30min) and longer (24h) time-scales. The pelagic habitat supported a major part of the net production of CO2, with larger dynamics in the CO2 production than the sediments. The CO2 variations of the surface water were related to respiration of allochthonous organic carbon, and were affected by the concentration and quality of the DOC, as well as the whole lake water temperatures, and vertical water movements.

    The emission of CO2 from Lake Merasjärvi was measured with the eddy covariance tech­nique. The results showed that the gas transfer rate during moderate winds were higher than expected, causing the two most commonly used models to underestimate the long term fluxes of CO2 from the lake.

    Taken together, the results of the thesis show that the studied lakes contributed to bring terrestrial organic carbon back into the atmosphere, driven by a substantial internal CO2 production based on mineralization of allochthonous organic carbon. Major results are that the eddy covariance technique indicated that commonly used models tend to underestimate the net release rate of CO2 from lakes to the atmosphere, and that the lake CO2 dynamics can be the results of interactions between biogeochemical and physical processes in the lake water.

  • 3406.
    Åberg, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Contributions of internal and external sources to the CO2 emission from a subarctic lake2005Inngår i: Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., Vol. 29, s. 577-579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3407.
    Åberg, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Importance of water temperature and thermal stratification dynamics for temporal variation of surface water CO2 in a boreal lake2010Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 115, nr G02024, s. 10PP-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation of the surface water CO2 concentration is likely to be the result of biological activity and physical processes as water mixing and gas exchange with the atmosphere. Here we have studied the variations in surface water CO2 during the ice-free period in the humic Lake Merasjärvi in northern Sweden. Meteorological, hydrological and limnological data were collected using data logging equipment permitting high time-resolution. The surface water of the lake was supersaturated with respect to CO2 throughout the study period. There were, however, considerable diurnal and longer-term temporal variations of the surface water CO2 concentrations. Partial least squares (PLS) models were used to link the logged CO2 data to the multivariate dataset. On the longer-term time scale (analyzed with 24h means of the logged data) high concentrations of surface water CO2 were best related to the depth and temperature of the upper warmer layer (epilimnion), and to erosion of the underlying colder layer (hypolimnion). The diurnal variation (analyzed with 30 minute means of the logged data) was best related to the thermal dynamics within the epilimnion, which regulated the surface water access to CO2 stores within this layer. Variables related to CO2 emission and photosynthesis (wind and PAR), showed only weak correlations to variations of the surface water CO2 concentration. Accordingly, the CO2 flux, measured with the eddy-covariance technique, was not correlated to the surface water CO2 concentration.

  • 3408.
    Åberg, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nääs, Klockar-Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Pelagic and benthic net production of dissolved inorganic carbon in an unproductive subarctic lake2007Inngår i: Freshwater Biology, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 549-560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Both the pelagic and benthic net dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) productions were measured in situ on four occasions from June to September 2004, in the unproductive Lake Diktar-Erik in subarctic Sweden. The stable isotopic signal (δ13C) of respired organic material was estimated from hypolimnion water data and data from a laboratory incubation using epilimnion water.

    2. Both pelagic and benthic habitats were net heterotrophic during the study period, with a total net DIC production of 416 mg C m-2 day-1, of which the pelagic habitat contributed approximately 85%. The net DIC production decreased with depth both in the pelagic water and in the sediments, and most of the net DIC production occurred in the upper water column.

    3. Temporal variations in both pelagic and benthic DIC production were small, although we observed a significant decrease in pelagic net DIC production after the autumn turnover. Water temperature was the single most important factor explaining temporal and vertical variations in pelagic DIC production. No single factor explained more than 10% of the benthic net DIC production, which probably was regulated by several interacting factors.

    4. Pelagic DIC production, and thus most of the whole-lake net production of DIC, was mainly due to the respiration of allochthonous organic carbon. Stable isotope data inferred that nearly 100% of accumulated DIC in the hypolimnion water had an allochthonous carbon source. Similarly, in the laboratory incubation using epilimnion water, c. 85% of accumulated DIC was indicated to have an allochthonous organic carbon source.

  • 3409.
    Åberg, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Evaluating a fast headspace method for measuring DIC and subsequent calculation of pCO(2) in freshwater systems2014Inngår i: INLAND WATERS, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 157-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of different sampling and analysis methods are found in the literature for determining carbon dioxide (CO2) in freshwaters, methods that rarely have been evaluated or compared. Here we present an evaluation of an acidified headspace method (AHS) in which the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is measured from an acidified sample and the partial pressure (pCO(2)) is calculated from DIC using pH and water temperature. We include information on practical sampling, accuracy, and precision of the DIC/pCO(2) determination and a storage test of samples. The pCO(2) determined from the AHS method is compared to that obtained from the more widely used direct headspace method (DHS) in which CO2 is equilibrated between the water and gas phases at ambient pH. The method was tested under both controlled laboratory conditions as well as wintertime field sampling. The accuracy of the DIC detection was on average 99% based on prepared standard solutions. The pCO(2) determination in lab, using the DHS method as a reference, showed no significant difference, although the discrepancy between the methods was larger in samples with <1000 mu atm. The precision of the pCO(2) determination was on average +/- 4.3%, which was slightly better than the DHS method (+/- 6.7%). In the field, the AHS method determined on average 10% higher pCO(2) than the DHS method, which was explained by the extreme winter conditions (below -20 degrees C) at sampling that affected the sampling procedure of the DHS method. Although samples were acidified to pH 2, respiration processes were still occurring (at a low rate), and we recommend that analyses are conducted within 3 days from sampling. The AHS method was found to be a robust method to determine DIC and pCO(2) in acidic to pH-neutral freshwater systems. The simple and quick sampling procedure makes the method suitable for time-limited sampling campaigns and sampling in cold climate.

  • 3410.
    åberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lögdeälven inför ökad turism: Finns det sårbara arter och naturtyper i området som riskerar att drabbas negativt av ett ökat turisttryck?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 3411.
    Åberg, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Avfall på förskolor i Umeå kommun: Vilka faktorer påverkar mängden brännbart avfall, matavfall samt källsorterat material?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It is of major importance with proper waste management to reduce the risk for toxic substances to affect environment and reducing the need for natural resources. Umeå municipality has developed a waste plan to reduce the impact on environment and human health. One of the goals was to fraction all garbage disposals until 2016 at the different administration in the municipality including the preschools. This study investigated pre-conditions and the personals attitude for separate waste, awareness of the waste plane content and if either of these parameters may affect the amount of separated materials at nine selected pre-schools. Web-based surveys were distributed to the personal and observational studies were done at all included preschools. There were significant differences between preschools according to combustible waste, food waste and source-sorted material. It was no significant association between the amount of sorted garbage disposal and the attitude to fractionate, practical conditions and knowledge about the waste plan. Although, the study does not provide a general picture of all preschools in the municipality, the results indicate that better knowledge and information about the importance of separating waste and the waste plan are needed. It´s also necessary to clarify the responsibility between the various actors in order to improve the results over time.

  • 3412.
    Ågren, A.
    et al.
    Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Haei, Mahsa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kohler, S. J.
    Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bishop, K.
    Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Laudon, H.
    Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Regulation of stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations during snowmelt: the role of discharge, winter climate and memory effects2010Inngår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 7, nr 9, s. 2901-2913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a 15 year stream record from a northern boreal catchment, we demonstrate that the inter-annual variation in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations during snowmelt was related to discharge, winter climate and previous DOC export. A short and intense snowmelt gave higher stream water DOC concentrations, as did long winters, while a high previous DOC export during the antecedent summer and autumn resulted in lower concentrations during the following spring. By removing the effect of discharge we could detect that the length of winter affected the modeled soil water DOC concentrations during the following snowmelt period, which in turn affected the concentrations in the stream. Winter climate explained more of the stream water DOC variations than previous DOC export during the antecedent summer and autumn.

  • 3413.
    Ågren, Anneli
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Seasonal variation and landscape regulation of dissolved organic carbon concentrations and character in Swedish boreal streams2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal variation and landscape regulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in streams have been studied in two watersheds in the boreal zone. The seasonal variation was found to be highly correlated to variations in runoff. An increase in runoff was always accompanied with an increase in DOC concentration. However, there were indications that the TOC concentration was restricted by the soil TOC pool during snowmelt.

    The main factors affecting DOC exports varied between seasons. During winter baseflow the spatial variation in DOC exports was strongly influenced by wetland coverage, during snowmelt the exports were correlated to factors describing the size and location of the catchment, and during the snow-free season they were heavily affected by the proportions of wetlands and forests in the catchments. Small headwaters had the highest terrestrial DOC export, per unit area.

    The properties of the DOC changed during spring flood, towards lower molecular weight and more aliphatic compounds. These changes affected the bioavailability of the DOC, which increased during spring flood. There were also differences in the DOC properties between wetlands and forest soils; the forested soils yielded DOC with lower molecular weight (measured as 254 nm/365 nm light absorbance ratios), largely from superficial layers that were activated during high flow events, while wetland soils generally provided a more constant carbon source with higher molecular weight. The majority of the DOC was exported by wetlands, but most of the short-term bioavailable DOC (BP7) was derived from the forests, during the spring flood period, indicating that bacterial production in streams and lakes is likely to be almost entirely based on DOC exported from forested areas during, and some time after, the spring flood event.

  • 3414.
    Ågren, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Terrestrial export of highly bioavailable carbon from small boreal catchments in spring floods2008Inngår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 53, nr 5, s. 964-972Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. We assessed the terrestrial export of organic carbon, which effectively supported aquatic bacterial production (BP), from small boreal catchments during spring flood. We analysed stream runoff from nine small catchments with different proportions of peat mires and coniferous forests by monitoring the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux in combination with conducting bacterial bioassays.

    2. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that BP during 7-day-dark bioassays (BP7; μg C L-1day-1) was explained by both the quantity and quality (low-molecular weight fractions) of the DOC. BP7 can be used as a measure of export of terrestrial organic carbon that is highly bioavailable.

    3. Total export of DOC during spring flood from the different catchments ranged from 20 to 27 kg ha-1 and was negatively correlated to forest cover (%). However, the export of BP7 carbon was positively correlated to forest cover and varied from about 0.1 kg ha-1 in mire-dominated streams to about 0.2 kg ha-1 in forest-dominated streams.

    4. The high bioavailability of forest carbon suggests that forests are the main contributors of BP-supporting carbon in boreal streams although mires have higher area-specific export of DOC.

  • 3415.
    Ågren, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Buffam, I.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bishop, K.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dissolved organic carbon characteristics in boreal streams in a forest-wetland gradient during the transition between winter and summer2008Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, s. G03031-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The character and quantity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were studied in nine small boreal streams and adjacent soils during two years, with focus on the spring snowmelt period. The streams cover a forest-wetland gradient, spanning from 0% to 69% wetland coverage. Lower values of the absorbance ratio measured at 254 nm and 365 nm (A254/A365), in both soil plots and streams, indicated that wetland-derived DOC had higher average molecular weight than forest DOC. Higher SUVA254 (DOC specific ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm) in wetland runoff indicated more aromatic DOC from wetlands than forests. During low flow, the stream DOC character was sensitive to the forest-wetland proportion of the catchment, and when wetland coverage exceeded 10%, the streams appeared to be dominated by wetland-derived DOC. During the spring snowmelt period, the character changed to lower molecular weight and more aliphatic DOC, particularly in streams with a high proportion of forest in the catchment. The forested soil solutions had higher A254/A365 in the surface horizons that were hydrologically activated during the high flow events, while wetland soil solution had relatively low A254/A365 at all depths. Consequently forest soils contributed more to stream DOC concentration during snowmelt that during winter low flow.

  • 3416.
    Ågren, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ivarsson, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bishop, K.
    Siebert, J.
    Seasonal and runoff-related changes in dissolved organic carbon concentrations in the River Öre, Northern Sweden2008Inngår i: Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 21-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of runoff on allochthonous organic carbon was studied in the River Öre, Northern Sweden, using extensive TOC (total organic carbon) and runoff measurements. No relationship existed between TOC concentration and runoff on an annual basis. However, positive correlations between TOC concentration and runoff were found when observations were divided into three different seasons (winter, spring and summer/autumn). During these seasons runoff explained 62-70% of the TOC variation. Differences in these seasonal relationships indicated that the TOC concentration was restricted by the soil TOC pool during snowmelt, while the pool of TOC in the soil or its availability never limited the TOC export during the rest of the year. Two sets of data were used, a detailed study over 2 years and a long-term study over 14 years. Both showed similar results which indicated that the seasonal variation in the relationship between TOC and runoff is similar from year to year. The chemical variation usually decreases downstream in large rivers due to mixing of water from different sources. Our study, however, showed a strong correlation between TOC and runoff even in a large river like the River Öre. This result indicated that the general pattern of the TOC concentrations was to a large extent determined by the hydrology and climate conditions.

  • 3417.
    Ågren, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Buffam, I
    Skogsekologi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Umeå.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Importance of seasonality and small streams for the landscape regulation of dissolved organic carbon export2007Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 112, s. Art. No. G03003-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulation of the spatial and seasonal variation in terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports was studied in a 68 km2 boreal stream system in northern Sweden. A total of 1213 DOC samples were collected in 15 subcatchments over a 3 year period (2003–2005). The mean annual DOC exports from the 15 subcatchments (0.03–21.72 km2) ranged from 14.8 to 99.1 kg ha−1 yr−1. Many catchment characteristics determined the spatial variation in DOC exports. The relative importance of the different catchment characteristics varied greatly between seasons because of differing hydrological conditions. During winter base flow the spatial variation was linked to patterns in wetland coverage. During snowmelt in spring the spatial variation was connected to characteristics describing size and location, i.e., median stream size, silty sediment distribution, stream order, altitude, and proportion of catchment above highest postglacial coastline (HC). During the snow-free season the spatial variation in DOC exports was regulated by the amount of wetlands and forests, particularly forests made up of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Median stream size also influenced the exports during this season. A striking result in this study was the effect of size implying that small headwaters may be the largest contributor to the terrestrial DOC export, per unit area.

  • 3418.
    Ågren, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Juridiskt forum.
    Giles, Barbara
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Akademiska bedömningsuppdrag - ännu en jämställdhetsfälla?: Slutrapport av projektet Kompensation av tid för uppdrag2012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3419.
    Åhlén, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fingerprints of planktivory: paleolimnological evidence of past fish community structure and dynamics2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Planktivorous fish affect the species composition, size and morphology of their zooplankton prey by size selective predation. Remains of cladocerans are deposited in the lake sediments and this microfossil community hence reflects the historical changes in the planktivore fish community. Most earlier work on quantitatively inferring past planktivory deals with ephippia (resting eggs) of Daphnia, however these remains are very scarce in northern Swedish lakes. In these lakes, often dominated by fish that are not obligate planktivores, such as perch (Perca fluviatilis), the individual size to a large degree determines the type of resource consumed. Therefore, in these lakes, the size distribution as well as the density of the fish community determines the overall planktivoryThis thesis deals with evaluating the use of Bosmina remains in the sediment as indicators of past planktivory. I developed a transfer function based on Bosmina remains to be used in oligotrophic lakes with omnivorous species to reconstruct past planktivory. I test the transfer function in a lake where the history is to a large extent known. Furthermore, in this thesis a novel quantitative measure of planktivore pressure, the PCC (Planktivore Community Capacity) was developed. It was also possible to compare the morphology measurements of carapace length and mucro length of contemporary Bosmina sampled in the lake, with the same measurements on microfossils of Bosmina sedimented during the corresponding time period. By using the resurrection approach this thesis also evaluates the use of Ceriodaphnia clones as indicators of micro-evolutionary responses to past planktivory.From the studies in this thesis I can draw some major conclusions; the morphological measurements carapace length and mucro length of Bosmina can be used to infer past planktivory in northern Swedish lakes. PCC has a higher explanatory power than CPUE in these lakes dominated by omnivorous fish. The morphology of the contemporary Bosmina corresponds well with the remains found in the sediment dating from the same time period. Both the contemporary and microfossil Bosmina changes in body size characteristics was in turn strongly related to PPC. Finally, the hatching of Ceriodaphnia ephippia is promising for studying past planktivory, both because of the high viability of the ephippia and the relationship between eye area and inferred PCC.

  • 3420.
    Åhlén, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Korsman, Tom
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reinikainen, Marko
    Tvärminne Zoological Station, Hanko, Finland.
    Planktivore population dynamics affect body size characteristics of Bosmina: evidence from sediment archive and contemporary lake samplesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Planktivorous fish affect the species composition, morphology and size of their zooplankton prey species by size selective predation. Microfossils of cladocerans are preserved in the lake sediment and hence cladoceran fossil characteristics may be used to reconstruct historical variation of planktivory in lakes. In lakes dominated by fish that are not obligate planktivores (e.g. perch, Perca fluviatilis), the individual size determines to large extent the type of resources consumed. Therefore the size distribution and density of such fish populations determine overall planktivory impact in these lakes.In a Northern Swedish lake over a 9-year period, we compared the carapace length and mucro length of the cladoceran Bosmina spp. from the contemporary samples with the sediment archive. We estimated the temporal variation in overall planktivory pressure on Bosmina by calculating a population planktivore capacity (PPC) measure on zooplankton using the population density and size structure of the perch population together with size dependent attack rate functions on Bosmina.Our results show that temporal changes in body size characteristics of Bosmina in the contemporary and fossil remains were strongly correlated. Contemporary lake samples and fossil remains of Bosmina showed similar responses in body size characteristics to changes in estimated PPC. Initially, when PPC was low in the lake, both size of carapace and mucro were large. As PPC increased due to strong recruitment of perch during the middle of the study period both carapace and mucro size were small, to increase again towards the end of the study when PPC decreased again. Small perch, mainly young-of-the-year (YOY) perch contribution to PPC was high, more than 80% of to the total PPC in most years. This suggests that the contribution of the smallest size classes of fish to PPC can be high and needs to be taken into account when trying to relate changes in zooplankton community characteristics to variation in planktivore densities.The similar response in body size characteristics of Bosmina in contemporary and sediment samples to changes in planktivory pressure strongly suggests the body size characteristics of Bosmina microfossils, i.e. the carapace and mucro length can be used to reconstruct historical changes in planktivory in lakes.

  • 3421.
    Åhlén, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Korsman, Tom
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reinikainen, Marko
    Tvärminne Zoological Station, Hanko, Finland.
    Relationships between planktivore community capacity (PCC) and cladoceran microfossils in northern Swedish lakes2011Inngår i: Fundamental and Applied Limnology, ISSN 1863-9135, Vol. 178, nr 4, s. 315-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Planktivorous fish are known to affect the zooplankton community both in terms of species composition and species specific morphological traits. Remains of cladocerans are deposited as microfossils in lake sediments, and the microfossil assembly hence reflects the historical impact of the planktivore community in the lake. The microfossils of cladocerans can therefore be used to reconstruct historical changes in the planktivore fish community in lakes. Catch per unit effort in numbers (CPUEn) and weight (CPUEw) have previously been used as proxies for planktivory. Although these standard measurements are useful in lakes dominated by obligate planktivorous fish, they have limits in their predictive power, particularly in lakes dominated by fish that are not planktivorous throughout their entire lifespan. In this study, we suggest a novel way of estimating the extent of planktivory in lakes, the Planktivore Community Capacity (PCC). PCC takes into account the size and species specific foraging efficiency of fish on zooplankton which gives a more accurate estimate of the intensity of planktivory, especially in lakes dominated by fish that undergo ontogenetic niche shifts from zooplankton to other prey as they grow. Such fish include, for instance, perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). To analyze the relationship between surface sediment cladoceran remains and planktivory intensity, 39 lakes were sampled regarding the fish community and microfossil assembly. We focused on Bosmina, which is a dominant zooplankton genus in the study area. Bosmina is well preserved in the sediment, and also known to exhibit changes in density and morphology depending on the planktivore predation pressure. We analyzed both the density of two Bosmina species in the sediment and morphological traits in relation to estimates of planktivory intensities. Among the variables measured, morphological traits and relationship between Bosmina longispina and Bosmina longirostris were highly correlated to PCC. PCC had a higher explanatory power than both CPUEn and CPUEw for observed patterns in microfossil characteristics in lakes. We suggest that estimates of Planktivore Community Capacity (PCC) is a powerful approach for reconstructing historical changes in planktivory in lakes.

  • 3422.
    Åhlén, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Korsman, Tom
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reinikainen, Marko
    Tvärminne Zoological Station, Hanko, Finland.
    Remains of Bosmina in sediments reflects historical changes in fish populations in a northern Swedish lakeManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on morphological measurements on Bosmina in a sediment core from a boreal lake we estimated 60 years back in time historical changes in Planktivore Community Capacity (PCC), a recent derived approach to estimate past planktivore pressure in lakes. We then validated the PCC approach with available information on changes in the lake fish community based on historical knowledge and more recent fish population studies in the lake. Based on available data on fish density, size structure and size dependent attack rate functions on zooplankton we calculated a measure of planktivore pressure in the lake, the Planktivore Population Capacity (PPC). The reconstructed PCC development over the time from Bosmina remains in the sediment core correlated well with PPC estimates (r2 = 0.89 p<0.05) as well as qualitatively with historical information on the development of fish community in the lake. The results from our study suggest that the derived PCC function based on morphological measurements on Bosmina remains in sediments can successfully be used to track historical changes in planktivore communities in lakes.

  • 3423.
    Åkerlund, Elisabet
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Which is the costlier sex?: Sexual dimorphism and resource allocation in a dioecious herb, Silene dioica2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Life-history theory proposes that different activities, such as growth, maintenance and reproduction compete for limited resources and therefore, life-history traits are bound together by physiological trade-offs. In dioecious species, females are assumed to invest a higher amount of resources in reproduction in comparison with males and this higher investment in reproduction is then assumed to have numerous consequences for the expression of other life-history traits. Some recent papers have, however, suggested that although common, this investment pattern may not be the case in all dioecious plant species. One notable exception is Silene latifolia. Therefore, I examined whether the male sex could be investing more in reproduction than females in a closely related Silene species, Silene dioica. This study was carried out on three islands in the Skeppsvik Archipelago, Umeå, where I examined possible differences between the sexes in different life history traits. On each island, 20 patches were laid out in two different successional zones. In each patch, flowering date was recorded and stem diameter, length and width of cauline leaves, flower diameter, and number of open flowers on male and female plants was measured. At the end of the study, flowering stems were collected and thereafter dried so they could be weighed to estimate biomass allocated to male and female vegetative and reproductive structures. The hypothesis that males of S. dioica should have a higher reproductive cost seemed to be confirmed since males started flowering earlier, produced more and larger flowers, produced smaller and fewer leaves and thinner stems. The males also allocated a greater proportion of their total biomass to reproductive parts and as a consequence, had a higher sink to source ratio. This study has shown that there are exceptions to the "rule" of females having a higher cost of reproduction and when doing research on dioecious species, it is important not to assume that only one and the same sex has the higher investment in reproduction in all species. This higher cost may have consequences for survival and reproductive fitness and can select for differences in other ecological traits, such as phenology, growth, chemical composition and morphology, which could in turn affect the competitive ability and the susceptibility to herbivores and pathogens.

  • 3424.
    Åkerlund, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Why two sexes in separate individuals? The evolution of dioecy in plants.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 3425.
    Åkesson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Offpistskidåkning i svenska fjällen: - Om topptursutrustning och riskbeteende2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether ski tourers in the Swedish mountains have enough knowledge and experience to perform the activity safely. Adventure oriented activities that demands equipment has over the last years increased among outdoor practitioners in Sweden. Because of the growth, ski touring equipment have had a rapid development and made the activity more accessible. In the northern parts of Sweden a survey- and a field study, were examine risk behavior, avalanche equipment and techbindings. The results shows that ski touring has increased over the last years and that the activity is mainly performed by young men that are experienced downhill skiers. According to the result men seems to have a higher risk acceptance and many off-piste skiers are prepared to take risks to get good skiing/ski touring. Nearly everyone from the study are carrying avalanche equipment, but it seems like some are not sufficiently prepared in case of an accident. The results also indicates that some ski tourers dis-trust the retention function of techbindings and some manually lock out the release mechanism of the binding exposing themselves to a high risk of lower leg injury. 

  • 3426.
    Årdahl, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Invertebrate diversity and abundance in disturbed forest area: Comparing clear-cuttings, forest edges and interior forest at three sites in Umeå, Västerbotten2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 3427.
    Årdahl, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reindeer in the archipelago of Holmöarna: Abundance of habitats and how reindeer have utilized them during winter 2015-16 and summer 20162017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the winter 2015/2016, about 700 reindeer were winter grazing on the islands of Holmöarna. Since the islands had not been used for reindeer grazing for more than 100 years, this is a unique opportunity to study how reindeer influence the vegetation that has developed in the absence of reindeer. Moreover, it also means that all reindeer faeces depositions and grazing damages originate from the last year. Most of the reindeer grazing occurred on Ängesön and Grossgrunden, at least during winter, due to lichen rich habitats. To investigate which habitats were available for reindeer, the abundance of these habitats and which resources they provide, 239 randomly selected study sites were investigated. To find out reindeer utilization of resources and impact on vegetation, all faecal droppings from reindeer were counted. Also, lichen height, lichen cover, lichen volume, grazing damages of lichens and vegetation, trampling, and digging, were recorded at every study site. Old-grown spruce forest was the most abundant habitat, providing reindeer with ground lichens, bilberries and epiphytic lichens. Pine forest, rich in ground lichens, was the most preferred and used habitat based on lichen cover and lichen volume, lichen damage and trampling. NMSD ordination confirmed a strong relationship between lichen height and lichen cover, i.e. lichens were heavily grazed in every habitat where lichens were recorded. Reindeer depositions of dungs and pellets were found in all habitats, but were most abundant in spruce forest with ground lichens. Strong relationships between lichen damages, digging signs and reindeer pellets confirmed more activities where lichens were abundant. Grazing of bilberry shoots and trampling, both indications of summer activities by reindeer, were also closely associated, indicating that bilberry shoots was an important food resource in summer on these islands. In the light of my result, the islands of Holmöarna have good provision for reindeer, in winter by richness of ground lichens in pine forest and old spruce forest, and summer primarily by bilberries in old grown spruce forest, mixed forest and pine forest with Vaccinium ssp. Although almost all suitable habitats show signs of reindeer activities after only one year, there is still abundant winter and summer food resources available for future grazing. There is thus plenty of resources available for reindeer on the islands of Holmöarna and reindeer are able to utilize them. If they are suitable to use for reindeer grazing in the future is thus more dependent on logistic problems like difficulties in transporting the reindeer from mainland to the islands.

  • 3428.
    Åslund, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Toxicity of extracts from mercury contaminated sediments on the crustaceans Daphnia magna and Nitocra spinipes2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 3429.
    Åström, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Undersökning av Firmicutes i honungsbins tarmflora i Norra Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 3430.
    Åström, Linnéa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ansvar över djurskyddet under djurtransporter och på slakterier i Sverige2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Responsibility over animal welfare during transportation and in slaughter plants in Sweden

    Animal welfare is an important issue and supervision is carried out to enforce regulations and to assure that animal protection is maintained during transportation and in slaughter plants. At present there is some overlap in the regulations that concern animal protection and therefore the question about responsibility could be unclear. This study investigates how this responsibility over animal welfare is designated in the regulations. Three questions formed the basis of the study: 1) Which authorities are concerned with the animal welfare? 2) What actions are taken by the authorities in the case of a problem? 3) Which factors affect animal welfare and animal protection during transportation and in slaughter plants?  The delimitation was farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Only shorter transportation distances, i.e., under eight hours, en route to a slaughter plant in Sweden are considered. A study visit was made as were interviews with an official veterinary and a transporter. The County Administrative Boards have the overall responsibility for supervision over animal welfare. The National Food Administration, through the official veterinaries, is responsible for supervision in the continuous operation at slaughter plants. The Swedish Board of Agriculture co-ordinates the supervision and gives guidance and advice.  The County Administrative Boards decide in cases where deviations from existing regulations are discovered. The factors that foremost affect animal welfare are the animals’ condition, time of transportation, stocking density, behavior of the persons handling the animals and the facilities and equipment that are used.

  • 3431.
    Åström, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vad utgör en god arbetsmilljö?: En jämförelse mellan arbetsgivare och anställda vid kommunala bolag i Umeå2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    What constitutes a good working environment? - A comparison between employers and employees of municipal companies in Umeå

    Lovisa Åström

    Abstract

    The knowledge of the work environment´s importance has grown bigger by the years, especially the value of the psychosocial environment. According to the Swedish work environment law all workplaces today must attain a systematic working environment. However not all employers understand the importance of this working method. The purpose of this study was to compare the employer and the employees regarding their view of their working environment, and what a good working environment means. I interviewed the responsible environment manager and employees at four municipal companies in Umeå municipality. The results showed that only half of the employees were aware of the company method for the working environment. Despite this, six out of eight employers were satisfied with their working environment. The study showed that the employees who were assigned to work with the working environment and the employees who worked close to the environment manager, had the highest amount of knowledge regarding the environmental work. The biggest difference was beheld between the employer and the employees thoughts about their working environment. The employees meant that the social environment was highly important for their wellbeing. Besides that was trust, information, safety, participation, and empathy the most important factors for their working environment. The employer meant that the most important aspect were dedicated employees, knowledge, focus on safety, leadership and a committed and educated manager. Despite the differences every company have shown that the most rewarding and significant aspect of their work environment was their systematic environmental work.

    Keywords: Systematic work environment, work environment, psychosocial environment, environment working conditions.

  • 3432.
    Åström, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Aspects of heterogeneity: effects of clear-cutting and post-harvest extraction of bioenergy on plants in boreal forests2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The objectives of this thesis are to evaluate (1) the influence of slope aspect on boreal plant responses to clear-cutting and (2) the effects of post-harvest extraction of bioenergy (logging residues or slash) on plant composition, richness and performance in clear-cuts. Such insight is essential for understanding changes in species composition and richness in response to clear-cutting and application of intensified harvesting systems. The focus is on productive and managed spruce dominated forests and focal organisms are mosses, liverworts (i.e. bryophytes) and vascular plants.

    Space-for-time substitution studies were performed in south- and north-facing slopes located in 10 forests and 10 adjacent clear-cut stands in central Sweden. Differences between forests and clear-cuts were interpreted as effects of clear-cutting. The results show that the response of all three focal groups differed between aspects. More species were lost in south-facing slopes and clear-cutting reduced species richness of liverworts as well as of bryophytes and vascular plants associated with sheltered habitats. By contrast, clear-cutting caused no reduction in any group and more species were added in north-facing slopes. As a result north-facing clear-cuts generally had higher species richness than their forest counterparts. The disparate patterns in species’ response between aspects were most likely caused by initial microclimatic differences and a greater microclimatic change in south-facing slopes, in response to clear-cutting.

    A paired comparative study of conventionally harvested (i.e. slash left) and slash-harvested clear-cut stands was performed 5-10 years after clear-cutting in south-central Sweden. Both the species composition and the richness of mosses and liverworts were affected by slash harvest, whereas the composition of vascular plants was not. Slash harvest also reduced richness of mosses and liverworts associated with forests and organic substrates (e.g. dead wood and litter). Species richness of vascular plants and bryophytes associated with inorganic substrates (i.e. mineral soil) was unchanged. Differences between conventionally harvested stands and slash-harvested stands were most likely a result of reduced cover of organic material reducing substrate availability and shelter in the latter. Increased mechanical disturbance in slash-harvested stands that destroys remnant forest vegetation and favours pioneers may also play a role.

    A bryophyte transplant experiment was performed in seven clear-cuts in central Sweden and monitored over one vegetation period. The results show that logging residues (or slash) and forest edges may shelter ground-dwelling bryophytes by buffering the clear-cut microclimate.

    In conclusion, both slope aspect and extraction of forest bioenergy affect plant survival in clear-cut boreal forests. As surviving plant populations facilitate re-colonisation, north-facing slopes and conventionally harvested clear-cuts (i.e. slash left) may potentially recover faster than south-facing slopes and slash-harvested clear-cuts.

  • 3433.
    Åström, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effects of slash harvest on bryophytes and vascular plants in southern boreal forest clear-cuts2005Inngår i: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 1194-1202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3434.
    Åström, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Slope aspect modifies community responses to clear-cutting in boreal forests2007Inngår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 749-758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Slope aspect modifies microclimate and influences ecological processes and spatial distribution of species across forest landscapes, but the impact of slope aspect on community responses to disturbance is poorly understood. Such insight is necessary to understand landscape community dynamics and resilience. We compared bryophyte (liverworts and mosses) communities in matched 0.02-ha plots of four boreal stand types in central Sweden: recently clear-felled and mature stands dominated by Norway spruce in south-facing and north-facing slopes. Differences between forests and clear-cuts were interpreted as effects of clear-cutting, and differences between south- and north-facing slopes as effects of aspect. In response to clear-cutting, bryophyte cover and composition changed more in south-facing slopes. Only one out of ten significantly declining species in south-facing slopes also declined significantly in north-facing slopes. North-facing slopes lost fewer bryophyte species, and among those, fewer forest species and fewer species associated with wood and bark. In north-facing slopes, the average proportions of mosses and liverworts shared between the forest and the clear-cut plot were 88% and 74%, respectively. Corresponding numbers for south-facing slopes were 79% and 33%. In addition, more bryophyte species were added in north- than south-facing slopes after clear-cutting, somewhat reducing the difference in compositional change between aspects. South- and north-facing mature forests differed in species composition, mostly due to higher richness of mosses in south-facing slopes. The smaller changes in bryophyte communities on north-facing slopes in response to clear-cutting have implications for ecosystem dynamics and management as high local survival may enhance landscape-level resilience.

  • 3435.
    Åström, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Nilsson, Christer
    Logging residues and forest edges affect bryophyte vitality and growth in boreal forest clear-cutsManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3436.
    Åström, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Nilsson, Christer
    Responses of understorey vascular plants to clear-cutting of boreal forests in north- and south-facing slopesManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3437.
    Åström Ylivainio, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    En byggnads energibehov: En studie om energieffektivisering av en befintlig byggnad i södra Sverige2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use and losses of energy in an existing older building. Another purpose was also to look through various options for heating systems with renewable energy in the building. The aim was to reduce the use and losses of energy. The first step was to study the related electricity bills of the building and also perform measurements and calculations of the building envelope and ventilation. The next step was to find out the possible actions for energy saving by performing measurements and calculations. To calculate the loss of energy a u-value was used, which describes a materials ability to conduct heat. The results of the energy calculations show what is reasonable to do in the building considering the energy savings versus economy. The study shows that it is important to first analyze and adjust the building envelope and ventilation before a new heating system is installed. That is to reduce the risk of an over-sizing of the heating system. It is not optimal to correct the entire building at energy efficiency because it is not economically feasible. All necessary actions of energy saving should be taken as a package where the most profitable should be picked out and executed. An older building is often of great value and therefore its appearance should be safeguarded at energy efficiency.

  • 3438.
    Öberg, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Livsmedelsäkerhet i förskolan: Vilka rutiner har förskolan och finns det skillnad i livsmedelsäkerheten beroende på personalens utbildning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate which routines preschools had regarding food processing and if the routines were sufficient in order to the regulation. The aim was also to investigate if there were some difference in food processing depending on the employee´s education. The method used was an interview study of 20 preschools. The results indicated that the majority of the preschools had sufficient routines regarding temperature control of hot and cold lunches. Regarding measurement on deviant temperature, half of the preschools routines were sufficient. 55 % of the preschools had insufficient routines for temperature control in cold storage. Results indicate that it was differences in how often the employee´s control the temperature in food depended on the employee´s education. The conclusion is that a number of preschools had a capacity for improvement of their routines. The preschools have to work with prevention measures to create routines which is sufficient in order to the regulation.

  • 3439.
    Ödling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ljudnivån i förskola före och efter införandet av ljudnivåvakten soundear20002005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 3440.
    Ögren, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Is above- and belowground phenology of Eriophorum vaginatum in sync in a peatland underlain by permafrost?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The phenology of plants in northern ecosystems is currently changing. Roots have a key role in these ecosystems, though the phenology of roots is still poorly understood. The aim of this report was to investigate if above- and belowground phenology of the circumpolar sedge Eriophorum vaginatum was synchronized in a subarctic peatland underlain by permafrost, and to investigate which abiotic factors are limiting root growth. Additionally, the length of the belowground growing season was examined. The study was performed with a non-destructive in situ method (minirhizotrons and NDVI measurements) in the northernmost part of Sweden. Both above- and belowground phenology was measured biweekly during the whole growing season in 2016. The depth of the active layer, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured to investigate the determinants of root growth. Root growth and aboveground activity was asynchronous, as peak in root growth occurred on average 21 days before maximum NDVI was reached. Soil temperature and thaw depth seem to be important factors regulating root growth in this peatland. The result highlight that solely studying the aboveground parts of plants can give a misleading interpretation about the phenology of the entire plant and thus during which time periods important ecosystem processes take place. Hence, to more accurate forecast ecosystem responses to global warming, both aboveground and belowground phenology should be considered.

  • 3441.
    Ögren, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Restaurering för störda områden i kalfjällsmiljö: Utvärdering av pilotförsök för återvegetering av området kring den nedlagda underjordsgruvan i Stekenjokk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate restoration methods used in a revegetation project for the heavily disturbed area around the abandoned underground mine Stekenjokk, located in an alpine area in Västerbotten County, Sweden. The studies were initiated in 2013 by Enetjärn Natur AB on behalf of Boliden Mineral AB and several methods were adopted in the purpose of investigating the feasibility of different restoration methods. Seeding, plantation of adult plants and transplantation of vegetation turfs were performed in combination with addition of organic matter. In addition, ‘safe sites’ were created either by addition of cobbles to the surface, creation of holes in the ground or by putting out coconut mats. All plant material, e.g. seeds, plantation of adult plants and transplantation of vegetation turfs, resulted in new establishment of plants in the area. Spontaneous establishment of plants was also observed in several of the examined plots. Several of the methods used are probably suitable for restoration of the old industrial area in Stekenjokk. However, the success varied among different methods and there was a tendency for higher survival of plants in experimental plots to which soil had been added. A combination of addition of plant material (seeds or adult plants), addition of organic matter and creation of ‘safe sites’ seemed most effective in accelerating revegetation in the heavily degraded area in Stekenjokk. However, sample sizes were small and more studies should be conducted to confirm the generality of this conclusion.

  • 3442.
    Öhgren, Evelina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Projekt Nalovardo: Underlag till MKB för detaljplan samt ett förslag till resurshushållning i samband med byggandet av fritidshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report has two main aims; one purpose is to investigate the environmental implications of an exploitation of 75 holiday houses located in Nalovardo in northern Sweden. The other aim is to present suggestions on how the area and the holiday houses can be built and designed to conserve natural resources. To answer the first aim a base for an environmental impact assessment regarding the local plan for holiday houses in Nalovardo were established. A literature study was then made in order to present suggestions to conserve natural resources when constructing holiday houses in Nalovardo. The landscape image, water and sewer are interests that will be affected due to the exploitation of the area. The exploitations site is not located in an environmental protected area. The holiday houses would generate a greater interest in visiting nature reserves, tourism, ski resort and outdoor activities and this should be seen as something positive. To conserve natural resources in a building depends much on individual behavior and choice of products. What the constructer of the building in Nalovardo project can do is mainly to make demands on the resource measures concerning heat and cold in the houses.

  • 3443.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ecological and evolutionary effects of predation in environmental gradients2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding species interactions and how they affect densities and distributions of organisms is a central theme in ecological research. Studying such interactions in an ecosystem context is challenging as they often depend on species-specific characteristics and rates that not only change during the ontogeny of an organism, but also are affected by the surrounding environment. This thesis focuses on two separate questions and study systems that highlight different aspects of how effects of predation can depend on environmental conditions. In the first part of the thesis, we studied how temperature affects attack rate and handling time, two ecological rates with profound importance for predator-prey dynamics. Using a metaanalysis, we first show that the currently dominating model for temperature dependence in predator-prey interactions, i.e. the Arrhenius equation, has weak support in available empirical literature. This suggests that we need new rules for how and when we can generalize on the temperature-dependence of intake rates. We then use a simple model and a series of experiments to demonstrate that differences in the relative physiological capacity between predator and prey can impose strong non-linear effects on temperature-response curves of attack rate. In the second part of the thesis, we study the role of predation along a benthic-pelagic habitat gradient in promoting divergence and resource polymorphism among prey. We show that presence of a large piscivorous predator, the northern pike (Esox lucius), induces dwarfs, giants or divergence into both ecotypes in populations of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) depending on lake characteristics. Using dated introductions of whitefish as controlled natural experiments, we show that pike presence induces rapid life history divergence between pelagic and littoral habitat use strategies, and that this divergence can translate into partial reproductive isolation in a matter of decades. Our results demonstrate the potential for thresholds in a crucial ecological rate, setting the stage for tipping points with potentially far reaching implications for effects of warming on predator prey dynamics and ecosystem stability. Moreover, they illustrate the potentially drastic consequences of such tipping points by demonstrating the importance of a single predator species as a driving force behind the creation and maintenance of biodiversity in a natural system.  

  • 3444.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bodin, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, D-24302 Plön, Germany.
    Öhlund, Sven-Ola
    Peedu, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Predation drives rapid and repeated sympatric divergence in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3445.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Norman, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, nr 1799, artikkel-id 20142254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11 degrees C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5 degrees C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11 degrees C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming.

  • 3446.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Norman, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Temperature-dependence of predation depends on relative performance of predators and preyManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3447.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nordwall, F.
    Degerman, E.
    Eriksson, T.
    Life history and large-scale habitat use of brown trout (salmo trutta) and brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) - implications for species replacement patterns2008Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 65, s. 633-644Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple models of temperature-mediated interference competition have generally failed to explain salmonid species replacement patterns along altitudinal gradients, a fact that emphasizes the need to link individual features and their relation to habitat characteristics to population-level dynamics. We compared life history parameters in stream resident populations of brook trout (/Salvelinus fontinalis/) and brown trout (/Salmo trutta/) in eight boreal streams. By use of electro-fishing data from 1000 sites, we analyzed and related differences in life history traits to habitat- and interaction-related patterns of growth and densities of brook and brown trout, respectively. Brown trout were competitively dominant throughout the size span of sampled sympatric sites and lowered growth rates in sympatry were mainly caused by environmental factors, revealing a link between brook trout invasions and habitat-related limitations on brown trout performance. Still, the frequency of allopatric brook trout sites increased in the smallest watersheds, indicating that localities with a high degree of brook trout dominance rarely sustain brown trout over time. Brook trout populations had higher turn-over rates and proportions of mature females than brown trout populations. Our results suggest growth potential and its effect on population fecundity as a critical factor limiting competitive ability and distribution of brown trout in Swedish brook trout dominated headwaters.

  • 3448.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Peedu, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fallgren, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Magnusson, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Öhlund, Sven-Ola
    Bartels, Pia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bodin, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The chronology of incipient speciation in whitefishManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3449.
    Öhlund, Helen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Anmälan till Länsstyrelsens djurskyddsenhet: Kan anmälningsärenden effektiviseras?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Notification of animal welfare

    Author: Helen Öhlund

    The purpose of this study was to examine the routines of the county administrations in Sweden when it comes to receiving notification from the public about the welfare of animals. According to Jordbruksverket at least 50 % of the screening of animal welfare should be based on routine controls on existing farmers. Today the routine controls only reach a 43 % average for the whole country. A big part of today’s result depends on the amount of time it takes the administrators of animal welfare to process the notifications from the public. To examine why the notifications from the public take too long time, the county administrations were interviewed through phone and e-mail. The interviews were made to see what routines the county administrations had and if the routines could be made more efficient. Jordbruksverket have developed aid to the county administrations in form of simpler checklists for pets and control cards to ease the burden in notification controls. This study shows that a lot of work can be done when it comes to receiving the notification. When receiving notification the administrators can decide if the notification is severe or not. Too little information makes it difficult to determine the gravity of the notification.

     

    Key words: animal welfare, legislation, county administration, notification, Jordbruksverket.

  • 3450.
    Öhman, J
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Buffam, I
    Englund, G
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Blom, A
    Lindgren, E
    Laudon, H
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Associations between water chemistry and fish community composition: a comparison between isolated and connected lakes in northern Sweden2006Inngår i: Freshwater Biology, Vol. 51, s. 510-522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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