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  • 351. Adnan, Muhammad
    et al.
    Iqbal, Javed
    Bibi, Shamsa
    Hussain, Riaz
    Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem
    Rashid, Muhammad Abid
    Eliasson, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ayub, Khurshid
    Fine Tuning the Optoelectronic Properties of Triphenylamine Based Donor Molecules for Organic Solar Cells2017In: Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie (Munchen. 1991), ISSN 0942-9352, Vol. 231, no 6, p. 1127-1139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical parameters, electronic structures and photophysical properties of three new triphenylamine (TPA) and diphenylamine (DPA) based electron donor materials M1-M3 (for organic solar cells) have been investigated through density functional theory (DFT) methods at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the theory. TPA and DPA are used as donor moieties due to their electron donating ability while benzothiazole, cyanide and cyanomethylacetate (CMA) moieties have been taken as acceptor moieties. The time dependent-DFT (TD-DFT) method has been employed [TD-B3LYP/6-31G (d)] for the computation of excited state properties in the gas phase and in solvent (chloroform). The polarization continuum model is applied for calculations in the solvent phase. The designed molecules exhibited broad absorption in the visible and near infra-red region of spectrum with respect to a reference molecule "R" of a similar class of compounds. Based on reorganization energies calculations, these materials could act as excellent hole transport materials.

  • 352.
    Adner, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Axelsson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy i arbetet med barn och ungdomar: Behandlares erfarenheter och upplevelser av att anpassa och utöva metoden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined therapists’ adjustments of ACT with children and adolescents and experiences of practicing the method with said group. Interviews were conducted with seven psychologists and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results showed general child-therapeutic adjustments, combining ACT with tCBT and modifications of the ACT principles. Challenges were working with a context with a different agenda, to be flexible and daring to be active and weird. Another challenge was working with a method that isn’t implemented in the workplace and has an uncertain future. Possibilities included using ACT for oneself, working towards positive goals and having fun. Additionally, a view of ACT as a philosophy of life was presented. Dilemmas concerning the use of a method lacking evidence were also presented. Future research can examine the impact of the different ACT principles on psychological flexibility in youths and how challenges in treatment can be overcome.

  • 353. Adolf, Carole
    et al.
    Wunderle, Stefan
    Colombaroli, Daniele
    Weber, Helga
    Gobet, Erika
    Heiri, Oliver
    van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Connor, Simon E.
    Galka, Mariusz
    La Mantia, Tommaso
    Makhortykh, Sergey
    Svitavska-Svobodova, Helena
    Vanniere, Boris
    Tinner, Willy
    The sedimentary and remote-sensing reflection of biomass burning in Europe2018In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 199-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We provide the first European-scale geospatial training set relating the charcoal signal in surface lake sediments to fire parameters (number, intensity and area) recorded by satellite moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Our calibration is intended for quantitative reconstructions of key fire-regime parameters by using sediment sequences of microscopic (MIC from pollen slides, particles 10-500 mu m) and macroscopic charcoal (MAC from sieves, particles > 100 mu m). Location: North-south and east-west transects across Europe, covering the mediterranean, temperate, alpine, boreal and steppe biomes. Time period: Lake sediments and MODIS active fire and burned area products were collected for the years 2012-2015. Methods: Cylinder sediment traps were installed in lakes to annually collect charcoal particles in sediments. We quantitatively assessed the relationships between MIC and MAC influx (particles/cm(2)/year) and the MODIS-derived products to identify source areas of charcoal and the extent to which lake-sediment charcoal is linked to fire parameters across the continent. Results: Source area of sedimentary charcoal was estimated to a 40-km radius around sites for both MIC and MAC particles. Fires occurred in grasslands and in forests, with grass morphotypes of MAC accurately reflecting the burned fuel-type. Despite the lack of local fires around the sites, MAC influx levels reached those reported for local fires. Both MIC and MAC showed strong and highly significant relationships with the MODIS-derived fire parameters, as well as with climatic variation along a latitudinal temperature gradient. Main conclusions: MIC and MAC are suited to quantitatively reconstructing fire number and fire intensity on a regional scale. However, burned area may only be estimated using MAC. Local fires may be identified by using several lines of evidence, e.g. analysis of large particles (> 600 mu m), magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological data. Our results offer new insights and applications to quantitatively reconstruct fires and to interpret available sedimentary charcoal records.

  • 354. Adolf, Katja
    et al.
    Wagner, Ludwig
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Ottosen, Peter
    Borre, Michael
    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin
    Orntoft, Torben Falck
    Tørring, Niels
    Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate.2007In: Prostate, ISSN 0270-4137, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 472-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 355.
    Adolfsson, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Assisterad befruktning. Den ofrivilligt barnlösas rätt att bli förälder eller barnets bästa?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 356.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jonsén, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Local participation and the urban poor2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 357.
    Adolfsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    En polisutbildning med hänsyn till det intersektionella?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 358.
    Adolfsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Claesson, Tom
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Estimation methods for Asian Quanto Basket options2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All financial institutions that provide options to counterparties will in most cases get involved withMonte Carlo simulations. Options with a payoff function that depends on asset’s value at differenttime points over its lifespan are so called path dependent options. This path dependency impli-cates that there exists no parametric solution and the price must hence be estimated, it is hereMonte Carlo methods come into the picture. The problem though with this fundamental optionpricing method is the computational time. Prices fluctuate continuously on the open market withrespect to different risk factors and since it’s impossible to re-evaluate the option for all shifts dueto its computing intensive nature, estimations of the option price must be used. Estimating theprice from known points will of course never produce the same result as a full re-evaluation but anestimation method that produces reliable results and greatly reduces computing time is desirable.This thesis will evaluate different approaches and try to minimize the estimation error with respectto a certain number of risk factors.This is the background for our master thesis at Swedbank. The goal is to create multiple estima-tion methods and compare them to Swedbank’s current estimation model. By doing this we couldpotentially provide Swedbank with improvement ideas regarding some of its option products andrisk measurements. This thesis is primarily based on two estimation methods that estimate optionprices with respect to two variable risk factors, the value of the underlying assets and volatility.The first method is a grid that uses a second order Taylor expansion and the sensitivities delta,gamma and vega. The other method uses a grid of pre-simulated option prices for different shiftsin risk factors. The interpolation technique that is used in this method is calledPiecewise CubicHermiteinterpolation. The methods (or referred to as approaches in the report) are implementedto handle a relative change of 50 percent in the underlying asset’s index value, which is the firstrisk factor. Concerning the second risk factor, volatility, both methods estimate prices for a 50percent relative downward change and an upward change of 400 percent from the initial volatility.Should there emerge even more extreme market conditions both methods use linear extrapolationto estimate a new option price.

  • 359.
    Adolfsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wickström, Freddy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Why buy green?: An exploration of drivers and barriers related to sustainable purchasing in the Swedish food sector2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability has become a subject of much interest in recent years, due to the deterioration of the natural environment. In response there has been increasing public pressure on businesses to provide environmentally friendly product alternatives for consumers. However, the demand for said products is surprisingly low, which constitutes a challenge for marketers; how can the demand for sustainable products be increased? In order to answer this question, a deeper understanding of the green consumer profile is needed. As such, the purpose of this study is to:

    Increase the understanding of the green consumer profile by exploring drivers of, and barriers to, green purchasing behaviour.

    In order to fulfil this purpose within the chosen context of sustainable foods, the subsequent main research questions were formulated:

    1. What do consumers perceive to be drivers motivating them to purchase sustainable foods?
    2. What do consumers perceive to be barriers preventing them from purchasing sustainable foods?

    The study adopts a qualitative and exploratory approach and utilizes semi-structured focus groups to accumulate empirical material. The questions for these focus groups stem from an integrative model created through synthesis of existing theory related to marketing of sustainable products, while adopting a consumer perspective.

    Three focus groups were subsequently held, with a total of 12 participants. Data display and analysis was used to produce insights related to the purpose and research questions of the study. Among these, the most important insights include the lack of specific knowledge relating to the benefits of sustainable food products, and the social factors that influence consumers’ purchasing behaviour of sustainable foods. Moreover, the findings suggest that the confusion regarding the definition of sustainable foods has implications that call into question contemporary theory on the matter.

     

  • 360. Adolfsson, Jan
    et al.
    Garmo, Hans
    Varenhorst, Eberhard
    Ahlgren, Göran
    Ahlstrand, Christer
    Andrén, Ove
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Bratt, Ola
    Damber, Jan-Erik
    Hellström, Karin
    Hellström, Magnus
    Holmberg, Erik
    Holmberg, Lars
    Hugosson, Jonas
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Petterson, Bill
    Törnblom, Magnus
    Widmark, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Clinical characteristics and primary treatment of prostate cancer in Sweden between 1996 and 2005.2007In: Scand J Urol Nephrol, ISSN 0036-5599, Vol. 41, p. 456-477Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 361.
    Adolfsson, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindström, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Aktiv samverkan i Estetisk kommunikation: En undersökning av förhållningssätt till Skolverkets direktiv bland lärare på Estetiska programmet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats berör ämnet Estetisk kommunikation 1 och mer precist ett av kursens huvudmoment – Aktiv samverkan mellan olika konstformer för framställning av ett verk. Det framgår klart av det centrala innehållet för kursen att eleverna bland annat ska jobba med samverkan mellan olika konstformer. I studien har sju gymnasieskolor på två orter i Norrland undersökts, både friskolor och kommunala skolor. De metoder som använts för att samla in data i studien är frågeformulär och intervjuer. Frågeformulär har distribuerats till femton lärare och 293 elever. Därefter har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med fyra lärare vid fyra av de sju skolorna. Dessa undersökningar har lett till en så kallad triangulering, vilken inringar resultatet på ett mer precist sätt. Resultatet, som framgår av studien, visar på att lärarna i större utsträckning upplever att de arbetar aktivt med samverkan mellan konstformer än vad eleverna upplever sker. I resultatet framträder hur de olika skolorna arbetar aktivt med samverkan mellan konstformer, i större eller mindre utsträckning. I huvudsak följer undervisningen, på de skolor som deltagit i studien, Skolverkets styrdokument som finns för kursen Estetisk kommunikation 1. Det framkommer också att samarbete mellan lärare med olika estetiska kompetenser förekommer i stor utsträckning på de skolor som ingår i studien.

  • 362.
    Adolfsson, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Att ge och känna för andra: En studie om emotionellt arbete i förhållande till kvinnors möjlighet att vara chef2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnor innehar idag färre chefspositioner på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. För att öka förståelsen kring varför färre kvinnor jämfört med män är chefer syftar uppsatsen till att förstå om emotionellt arbete är relaterat till möjligheten för kvinnor att vara chef i Sverige. Det emotionella arbetet i uppsatsen handlar om ett omhändertagande känsloarbete som sker till förmån för andras välmående. I uppsatsen definieras emotionellt arbete med hjälp av två dimensioner. Den första dimensionen handlar om att ge emotionellt stöd och den andra om viljan att ge emotionellt stöd. Data från ESS år 2012 studeras med hjälp av beskrivande analyser och logistisk regression. Resultaten visar att kvinnor som är chefer har en lägre nivå av emotionellt arbete jämfört med kvinnor som inte är chefer. Den lägre nivån av emotionellt arbete bland kvinnor i ledande positioner kan antingen tolkas som att kvinnor i chefspositioner anpassar nivån av emotionellt arbete eller att de är kvinnor med en låg nivå av emotionellt arbete som blir chefer. Den manliga normens primat, glastaket och genusskapandet diskuteras vara faktorer som bidrar till att kvinnor i ledande positioner begränsas, vilket skulle kunna vara en anledning till att kvinnor i chefspositioner har en lägre nivå av emotionellt arbete. En eventuell anpassning av den emotionella arbetsnivån bland kvinnor i ledande positioner diskuteras även vara en potentiell faktor till en reproducering av den vertikala könssegregerade arbetsmarknaden i Sverige. För att minska den vertikala könssegregeringen på den svenska arbetsmarknaden kan det därför finnas en poäng i att uppmärksamma att kvinnor i ledande positioner har en lägre nivå av emotionella arbete.

  • 363.
    Adolfsson, Julius
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Barkström, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Modes of cooperation in times of disaster: A case study of NGOs in Haiti during the aftermath of the earthquake 20102013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 364.
    Adolfsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Berggren Nylund, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Upplevelser av primärvården hos vuxna med Neurofibromatos typ 12015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe how adults with Neurofibromatosis type 1 experience their encounter with primary care

    Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant condition including café au lait spots on the skin and multiple benign tumours that grow from peripheral nerves. The severity of the condition varies. Pains and the unpredictability of the disease may cause concern and result in repeated visits to health centres. Nursing patients with NF1 can be a challenge. 

    The presence of multiple symptoms can cause difficulties in creating a holistic approach towards the patient. Despite the fact that one of 3000 has the condition it is relatively unknown. Few studies describe how people with NF1 experience primary care.  

    Design: A quantitative cross sectional study

    Method:  In 2015, 30 participants took part in a survey with multiple choice questions and space for comments about their experiences of primary care. 

    Results: Half of the participants perceived primary care generally as good or very good. However, 93 % perceived health professionals’ knowledge about NF1 as poor or very poor.  

    Conclusion: Many professions in primary care had insufficient knowledge and understanding of NF1. This study indicates the need of improved care and a deeper insight into patients’ problems. The authors suggest establishing more centres for rare diseases. Also care planning programmes for NF1 may result in improved care at health centres. More nursing research is needed on providing information about rare diseases.     

  • 365.
    Adolfsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Attityder till naturvetenskap: Förändringar av flickors och pojkars attityder till biologi, fysik och kemi 1995 till 20072011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the change over time of high-and low-performing girls' and boys' attitudes towards biology, physics and chemistry. Data from the TIMSS studies for grade 8 in Sweden is used to investigate how the attitudes have changed between 1995 and 2007. In order to define high- and low performing pupils the results from the mathematic test in the TIMSS studies are used. The attitude is measured by four questions from the student questionnaire in the TIMSS studies. The results are discussed from various perspectives that can contribute to the understanding of the complex picture of the importance of different factors on students' attitudes towards science.

    The first result, boys are more positive to physics and chemistry and girls to biology, is discussed from the subjects association with gender. On a symbolic level physics and chemistry are more associated with masculinity than biology.

    The second result, high-performing students especially the boys have a less positive attitude toward the three subjects in 2007 than in 1995. That result is discussed from youth identity and identity construction. It seems that young people today do not think that education and work within the field of science and technology will give them opportunities to use their talents, creativity and self-fulfillment. These results are also discussed based on changes in teaching methods that have taken place in the Swedish school where the individual work has increased and teacher-controlled tuition   has been reduced. Is it possible that these changes have affected the high-performing students so they have become less stimulated and have met fewer challenges and therefore have become less positive towards science in school?

    The third result, both high- and low-performing boys think that the three science subjects are more boring 2007 compared to 1995, is discussed from the discourses of "effortless achievment” and "uncool to work". Is it possible that this result indicates that it is more important for boys in 2007 to have an “uncool to work”-attitude and that this attitude also affects the attitudes towards science in school in a negative direction?

    Finally, the result showing that the low-achieving students think that they are performing better in all three subjects 2007 compared to 1995, are discussed in the light of changes in the Swedish school. During this period the teaching methods have changed. More time is spent on individual work perhaps implying that the low-performing pupils choose not to work with more difficult tasks and therefore feel that they are performing better.

    The thesis is concluded with my own reflections on the teaching of science subjects in primary education, on the changes of girls' and boys' attitudes towards science based on the results of this study and on my experience as a teacher in these subjects.

  • 366.
    Adolfsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Flickor, pojkar, fysik och matematik: skillnader i inställning mellan hög- och lågpresterande i TIMSS 19952005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study uses results from TIMSS 1995 to examine the attitudes of Swedish girls and boys to physics and mathematics more closely. To be more precise, the attitude to mathematics and physics among girls and boys at different achievement levels are compared. At the time of testing the students were in the 7th grade. In TIMSS 1995 each student completed an achievement test and a questionnaire. In this study the results from the achievement test are used to divide the students into achievement levels – high and low. A number of statements about mathematics and physics were selected from the questionnaire and used to examine the differences in attitudes.

    It turns out that the high-achieving boys and girls have a similar attitude when statements concerning mathematics are compared but not the statements concerning physics. The high-achieving girls’ attitude to physics is more similar to that of low-achieving boys. The statements that most clearly reveal this pattern can be divided into two categories: statements concerning the student’s attitude to physics and statements about the importance of physics to the student’s future studies and work.

  • 367.
    Adolfsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Benckert, Sylvia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Gapet har minskat: skillnader mellan hög- och lågpresterande flickors och pojkars attityder till biologi, fysik och kemi 1995 och 20072011In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the change over time of boys’ and girls’ attitudes towards biology, physics and chemistry. We use data from the TIMSS studies for grade 8 in Sweden to investigate how the attitudes for high- and low performing pupils have changed between 1995 and 2007. The attitude is measured by four questions from the student questionnaire in the TIMSS study. The results indicate that there have been some changes in attitudes between 1995 and 2007. High-achieving pupils and especially boys have a more negative attitude towards all three subjects, biology, physics and chemistry, in 2007 compared to 1995. The low-achieving students think that they are performing better in all three subjects 2007 compared to 1995. The difference between the group that are most positive to physics and chemistry and the least positive group has diminished between the two years. The results are discussed in relation to the changes in Swedish schools during the period.

  • 368.
    Adolfsson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Hansson, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Vesterberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nyckelfaktorer för en designs slutskede2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The final stage of a designers work is always a bit tricky. Design is an abstract phenomenon and no one can tell when a design is really finished. The design process that designers work within has been thoroughly studied but cannot be truly mapped with strict constraints which the designer can follow to succeed. Therefore, in this paper we take a look at the final stage in the design process. The main goal is to get more knowledge and highlight key factors about what designers face when they are about finish their design or what forces them to leave a project that can stay in development for eternity. Together with theories from a literature research and real life experience from people in the design profession we have looked at the issue. The results show that the key elements that are common in the final stage of the design process include evaluation, limitation and trusting your own judgment.

  • 369.
    Adolfsson, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ”I princip svensk”: En kvalitativ studie om hur fem unga med utländsk bakgrund upplever och hanterar rasifiering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker hur unga med utländsk bakgrund upplever rasifiering och vilka strategier de använder sig av för att hantera rasifieringen. Fokus föreligger på hur rasifiering “görs” samt vilka strategier som används av dem som utsätts för rasifiering i förhållande till samhällets dominerande diskurser. Genom kvalitativa intervjuer med fem unga med utländsk bakgrund har material samlats in. Av intervjuerna framgår att samtliga respondenter upplever att de tillskrivs annorlunda egenskaper och förväntningar än vad som följer av den dominerande vithetsnormen. Rasifiering “görs” genom att rasifierade bedöms som avvikande utifrån vithetsnormen och föreställningen om en svensk kulturell homogenitet. Föreställningar om annorlundaskap skapar förväntningar om att rasifierade personer ska uppträda på ett annat sätt än vad som ryms inom föreställningen om svenskhet. Därigenom utsätts de för vardagsrasism och strukturell rasism i samhället. De strategier respondenterna använde sig av för att hantera rasifieringen delas in i offensiva respektive defensiva strategier. De förstnämnda är exempelvis att motbevisa stereotyper eller att på olika sätt bekämpa strukturen. Exempel på defensiva strategier är att förneka att man är utsatt för rasifiering. Med utgångspunkt i studien föreslås fortsatt forskning för att fördjupa kunskapen om hur svenskhet konstrueras och reproduceras inom olika domäner av samhället, från samspelet mellan individer till strukturell nivå inom samhälleliga institutioner. Vidare behövs forskning om hur offensiva och defensiva strategier påverkar olika gruppers möjligheter till likabehandling.

  • 370.
    Adolfsson, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lundmark, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    FIXED-TERM CONTRACTS, TRADE UNION REPRESENTATION AND EMPLOYER-PAID TRAINING: A Comparative Multilevel Analysis Across 35 European Countries2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the moderating role of trade union representation in addressing the gap in employer-provided training between permanent workers and workers with fixed-term contracts (FTCs) from a cross-country, comparative perspective. The impact of trade union representation is measured on two different levels: (1) access to trade union representation at the workplace at the individual-level (2) average trade union representation at the country-level, measured as trade union power. The statistical analyses are performed using data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) and multilevel modelling. Our result suggests that, across the European countries, workers with FTCs receive less employer-paid training than permanent workers. Regarding the impact of trade union representation, statistically significant result is found only at the individual-level, where access to trade union representation increases employer-paid training regardless of employment contract. For the interaction between access to trade union representation at the individual-level and FTC, no significant relationship is found. However, the models with the cross-level interaction between trade union power and FTC indicate that employer-paid training increases for permanent workers only. Our findings suggest that trade union representation at the workplace could operate as an equalizer between permanent workers and FTC workers, while at the country-level, their lobbying effect is beneficial for permanent workers only

  • 371.
    Adolfsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Söderlund, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Varför vill ni inte delta?: En kvantitativ studie om orsaker till låg svarsfrekvens på en medarbetarundersökning.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Runt om i landet lägger företag och organisationer stora summor på medarbetarundersökningar varje år. För att dessa undersökningar ska bidra till verksamheten krävs en hög svarsfrekvens. Företaget hade på sin medarbetarundersökning 2014 förlorat ungefär 30 % av sin svarsfrekvens jämfört med tidigare år. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkat de medarbetare som valt att inte delta. Studien baserade sig på en enkät med ett totalurval av alla medarbetare på företaget. Resultatet av undersökningen visade att de faktorer som mest troligt har påverkat medarbetarnas till att inte delta är deras upplevelse av att inte känna sig anonyma på medarbetarundersökningen, att förutsättningar upplevdes olika för det som deltog och inte deltog, samt att, ett försämrat förtroende till företagets ledning ka ha haft inverkan på svarsfrekvensen.

  • 372.
    Adolfsson, Märta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Ebba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    HR i den artificiella intelligensens tid.: En intervjustudie om användningsområden, möjligheter och utmatningar med artificiell intelligens inom HR.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den nuvarande utvecklingen inom artificiell intelligens kommer att påverka hela arbetsmarknaden, likaså HR-arbetet. Denna kvalitativa studie syftar till att undersöka HR-medarbetares uppfattningar om utvecklingen. Hur kommer artificiell intelligens att kunna användas inom HR och vilka möjligheter och utmaningar för det med sig? Sju semistrukturerade intervjuer med HR-medarbetare inom olika branscher, med olika roller och med viss förförståelse för begreppet artificiell intelligens, har legat till grund för resultatet i studien. Artificiell intelligens kommer enligt informanterna att kunna nyttjas inom de flesta områden inom HR. I dagsläget är det mest aktuellt inom rekrytering, HR-administration och för att besvara HRfrågor av enklare karaktär. Detta öppnar upp möjligheter för mer tids- och kostnadseffektivt HR-arbete, starkare arbetsgivarvarumärke och högre kvalitet på arbetet. Samtidigt möts utvecklingen av utmaningar gällande etik, kompetens och kunskapsbrist samt det mänskliga värdet. Gällande HR-funktionens värde i organisationen finns både chans till ett ökat värde och risk för ett minskat värde. HRmedarbetare kommer i framtiden att tillåtas arbeta mer strategiskt och med mer komplexa frågor till följd av minskat manuellt arbete, något som kommer att gynna organisationen på olika sätt i längden. Om robotar ersätter den mänskliga arbetskraften riskerar HR-funktionen dock att tappa sitt värde, däremot kommer nya arbetsuppgifter som efterfrågar HR-kompetens växa fram. Trots utmaningarna ses utvecklingen som spännande och är något som HR-medarbetarna är nyfikna på och ser fram emot.

  • 373.
    Adolfsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Nyrén, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Kontakten mellan polis och ungdomar2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Polisen träffar på mycket ungdomar i det dagliga arbetet. Vi har genom intervjuer undersökt hur polisen i Gävle och Borlänge arbetar med ungdomar. Vi har även tittat på genom enkäter vad ungdomar i två niondeklasser tycker om polisen. Lagstiftning som kan vara aktuell i ämnet berörs. Vår tanke med detta arbete var att försöka komma fram till några bra enkla arbetsmetoder polisen kan arbeta efter. Trots resursbrist på många håll i landet så finns det enkla saker polisen kan göra i sitt dagliga arbete med ungdomar.Varmt välkomna till en trevlig halvtimme där vi hoppas att vårt arbete skall intressera, om inte så bjuder vi på saft och bullar.

  • 374.
    Adolfsson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Om homoadoptioner: En ideologianalys av Kristdemokraterna och Christian Coalition2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 375.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kaljevic, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    DIGITALA SYSTEM INOM PRESTATIONSLEDNING: En fallstudie om digitala systems återspegling av medarbetares arbetsprestation och påverkan på motivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations are in need of systems and methods to evaluate their performances.Performance management systems are used to gather information about theorganizational performance, in order to give management increased control. This paperexamines digital applications within performance management systems and the wayindividuals regard the applications to reflect their performance as well as how theyaffect their work motivation. Our study focuses on one company in the contact centerbusiness, referred in this paper as Service AB. In this paper, we aim to find out howindividuals´ work motivation is affected and what they think of digital applications’representation of their work performance on a general level. To collect data, we conducta survey and group interviews with workers from Service AB. The results from thisstudy show that there are three main factors - fairness, relevance and understanding -that affect the individual’s perception of how well their work is digitally represented.Furthermore, this study shows that digital applications within a performancemanagement system have an impact on the workers motivation. The paper also showsthat workers think that the digital data doesn´t fully represent their work performance.

  • 376.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Clinical studies and chemical pathology in normal aging and dementia of Alzheimer type1980Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 377.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Engel, Jörgen
    Forssberg, Hans
    Heilig, Markus
    Humble, Mats
    Ingvar, Martin
    Levander, Sten
    Oreland, Lars
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Asberg, Marie
    Ohman, Arne
    [Researchers and psychiatrists defending Gillberg's research on ADDH: Karfve's campaign is a form of personal persecution and scientific basis is missing]2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, no 8, p. 636-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 378.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Eriksson, M
    [Psychiatry must offer a qualified ambulatory care to the elderly]1990In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 87, no 47, p. 3962, 3967-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 379.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Gustafson, L
    Skoog, I
    Viitanen, M
    Wallin, A
    [A check list for diagnosis and basic investigation of dementia in primary health care]1990In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 87, no 48, p. 4098-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 380.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Holmberg, B
    [Anxiety depressions among the elderly--symptoms, diagnosis and treatment]1991In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 88, no 32-33, p. 2586, 2590-1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 381.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Linge, E
    [Cognitive psychotherapy in the elderly with anxiety depressive disorders is effective]1992In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 291-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 382.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Linge, E
    [Psychiatric clinics for the elderly need sufficient resources for ambulatory care]1991In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 491-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 383.
    Adolfsson, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Expanding operation ranges using active flow control in Francis turbines2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains an investigation of fluid injection techniques used in the purpose of reducing deleterious flow effects occurring in the draft tube of Francis turbines when operating outside nominal load. There is a focus on implement ability at Jämtkrafts hydroelectric power plants and two power plants were investigated, located in series with each other named Lövhöjden and Ålviken. The only profitable scenario found with some degree of certainty was an increase in the operating range upwards to allow overload operation.

    Findings show that both air and water can be introduced in various locations to improve hydraulic efficiency around the turbine parts as well as reduce pressure pulsations in harmful operating regions. Investments in such systems have proven useful and profitable at several facilities with poorly adapted operating conditions. But due to losses in efficiency when operating injection systems, it turns out unprofitable in situations where it does not improve the operating range in a way that is resulting in increased annual or peak production.

  • 384.
    Adolfsson, Teodor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Domellöf, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Factor Investing on the Swedish Stock Market: A Quantitative Study of a Model Based on Quality and Value2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investors and fund managers have, since the start of financial markets, always been on the lookout for new ways of beating the market. However, researchers of the Efficient Market Hypothesis have shown that markets are usually highly efficient, implying that there are few possibilities of earning returns that are higher than the market returns, on a risk adjusted basis. Prevailing theories, such as the Capital Asset Pricing Model, has shown that increased return must stem from taking on higher risk. Though, this model’s explanatory power has been challenged by numerous researchers who propose different factors, other than market risk, which could hold explanatory power when it comes to returns in the stock market. This area of research is called factor investing, and has shown that factors such as momentum, size, and value, all can lead to outperforming the market.This study examines how a model based on two common factors, quality and value, would have performed on the Swedish stock market. The study is based on five portfolios chosen by the quality and value factors, each one held for 5 years, examined over a 25-year time span and uses the capital asset pricing model as a tool to measure whether or not the selected factors outperform the market. The study has taken a quantitative approach to examining the research question, using a positivistic and objectivistic view.The results of the study show evidence that the quality and value factors can lead to significant outperformance relative to the market index. Both total returns and risk adjusted returns were higher than the market index for some of the portfolios created using the quality and value factors. Furthermore, statistical evidence was found of that CAPM not fully explains all returns, and thus, that the returns are in part explained by the quality and value factors. The findings led to the conclusion that the quality and value factors does, in fact, hold explanatory power beyond that of CAPM. Purchasing quality companies at a reasonable price is shown to be a sound investment strategy, and that a portfolio created using the quality and value factors has good chances of outperforming the market index.

  • 385.
    Adolfsson, Tony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Skogsmo, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    En likvärdig medborgare - utvecklingsstörning i samhället: Övergången mellan gymnasiesärskolan och integreringen på den öppna arbetsmarknaden2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om personer med en utvecklingsstörning, närmare bestämt deras övergång från gymnasieärskolan till den öppna arbetsmarknaden i Umeås kommun. Den beskriver skolans förberedande insatser samt vilka svårigheter som finns i övergången till- och i arbetslivet. Syftet är att få en förståelse och att kartlägga hur man arbetar och ser på personer med en utvecklingsstörning och deras situation. Genom intervjuer med studie- och yrkesvägledare och en rektor på en lokal gymnasiesärskola samt en arbetsförmedlare på arbetsförmedlingen. Det ger en inblick i hur yrkesprofessionella arbetar och vad de anser behöver göras för att underlätta integreringen. Resultatet visar på en svår situation för målgruppen ute i arbetslivet. Många individer har inte en sysselsättning men dem som har det har ingen lätt uppgift att behålla det. En kombination av individuella bekymmer i form av bristande kompetens och samhällets syn på personer med en utvecklingsstörning utgör en tuff verklighet. De slutsatser som kan dras är att man från skolhåll, men främst från arbetsmarknaden, måste fortsätta att stärka sitt samarbete och tillsammans underlätta integreringen till den öppna arbetsmarknaden för målgruppen. Nya siffor visar upp en oroväckande framtid om inte någonting drastiskt förändras.

  • 386.
    Adolfsson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jämställdhet: En fråga om tillväxt2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 387.
    Adolfssson, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Åström, Marie
    Development Finance Institutions’ Effect on The Fund Manager’s Investment Decisions: Balancing Financial Performance Goals and Development Impact Objectives2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) have played a crucial role in moving socially responsibility considerations up on the private equity industry’s agenda. DFIs add a development impact criterion to traditional financial performance goals in the investment industry and play a catalytic role by mobilizing other investors. The gap in research regarding DFIs implications and significance in the investment community from a SRI perspective is evident. The development impact objective introduced by the DFIs is examined to understand its effects on fund managers’ decision-making and if it exists a trade-off between this objective and financial performance. An understanding of how DFIs control fund managers to act in accordance to their objective as well as how they determine compensation schemes to incentivize them to pursue high return on investments, is discussed in relation to the agency theory. Furthermore, stakeholder/shareholder consideration is examined in relation to the subject. The aim of this study is to examine how the behavior of fund managers is affected by the involvement of a DFI investor and try to add to the understanding of their significance as institutional investors in developing markets. Previous studies have been more focused on determining the financial performance of socially responsible investments by using very similar quantitative data collection methods. This thesis undertakes an in-depth approach with the purpose to understand the fund manager’s drives as well as how a DFI involvement affects the behavior and decision-making process.

     

    This thesis undertook a qualitative research strategy and semi-structured interviews were used as the tool to understand the fund managers’ personals beliefs and perceptions of how the relationship with DFIs affect them. The selection criteria for the fund managers was that they needed to work in a fund in which a DFIs has invested. We also included DFI investors in order to understand their point of view. The interview was recorded, transcribed and later divided into themes in accordance with the thematic approach, following six steps. Our findings show that Development Finance Institutions plays an important role in emerging markets and affect fund manager behavior to a certain extent. They did not perceive a trade-off between financial performance goals and development impact objectives. We conclude that DFIs increase fund manager focus on ESG/SEE elements in the investment process. DFIs requirements and reporting obligations is used as a tool to ensure that the fund manager act in accordance to DFI objective. The fund managers were neither willing to sacrifice commercial return in favor of development impact. Lastly, the interest among the DFIs and commercial investors is fairly similar, hence reducing the conflict of interest between investors.

  • 388.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, p. 248-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 389. Adrian, L.
    et al.
    Svanes, C.
    Johannessen, A.
    Lodge, C.
    Bertelsen, R.
    Dratva, J.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gislason, T.
    Benedikstdottir, B.
    Holm, M.
    Jogi, R.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Norback, D.
    Omenaas, E.
    Real, F.
    Schlunssen, V
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Skorge, T.
    Timm, S.
    Wieslander, G.
    Janson, C.
    Dharmage, S.
    Early life parental exposure to cats and dogs reduces the risk of allergic disease in their children: possible intergenerational effect2014In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 69, no Supplement: 99, p. 577-578Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 390.
    Adrian, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Independent but dependent: An empirical study of the car modification market2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A brand can be a valuable asset for a company in two ways: On the one hand the brand can have an influence on the perceptions and preferences of the consumer and therebypositively influence the performance and success of a product, which can lead to acompetitive advantage. On the other hand, a brand can even be an asset of significantfinancial value. For the actual building of a strong brand, several theoretical modelsexist. Car modification companies offer modifications for and modified versions of cars ofother brands. The thereof resulting connection between the two brands and itsconsequences for the brand of the modification company cannot be depicted with theexisting theoretical brand and brand building models. In addition to that, carmodification companies touch upon the field of luxury cars. This factor has to be takeninto consideration when dealing with the brand building of car modification companies. In addition to the lack of applicability of existing brand building models for the carmodification industry, this special industry has not been covered by research yet ingeneral. In this thesis, a theoretical framework for brand building, the model of customer basedbrand equity as well as the characteristics of luxury branding will be lined out. In orderto examine how the special factors of the car modification industry, namely theconnection between the modification company and the base brand and luxury brandingcan be integrated into this model, six representatives from the car modification industryhave been interviewed. The results and analysis of these interviews show that through the assessment of thecustomer based brand equity of the base brand, the modification company can identifystrong and favorable aspects of the base brand that it can build upon, emphasize and/orexpand with the modification as well as weaknesses and flaws of the base brand that itcan make up for with the modification. Furthermore, the examination shows that byassessing the model of customer based brand equity of the modification brand and arelevant special brand factor, in the case of this thesis luxury branding, for commonfeatures and similarities, this special factor can also be integrated into the theoreticalmodel. Through these findings, the thesis is able to present a revised model of customer basedbrand equity that incorporates both the connection between the modification brand andthe base brand as well as the special factor luxury branding.

  • 391.
    Adriansson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Larsson, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Hedersmord: Hur kan en far mörda sin egen dotter för hederns skull?2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att försöka förstå hur ett hedersmord kan begås. Vi har försökt att se vilka möjligheter och metoder det finns för svenska polisen att upptäcka den utsatta flickan/kvinnan i tid innan det går så långt att ett hedersmord begås. För att förstå begreppet hedersmord så måste man gå långt tillbaka i tiden. I patriarkaliska samhällen så ses kvinnan och hennes sexualitet som en handelsvara. Kvinnans föräktenskapliga eller den gifta kvinnans utomäktenskapliga sexuella förbindelser ses som ett allvarligt hot mot männen och familjens heder. Det allra flesta hedersmord begås i muslimska länder. Dessa mord har dock inget stöd i koranen eller islam. En förklaring, till att unga flickor mördas, är mötet mellan den invandrande familjens patriarkaliska syn på samhället kontra den svenska moderna synen där. När familjer kommer till ett nytt land kan man urskilja tre olika sätt att anpassa familjestrukturerna på. Ett sätt är att behålla den traditionella och patriarkala familjestrukturen. Ett annat är att integrera sig i det nya samhället och ett tredje är att skapa en ny familjestruktur, liknande den som finns i det nya landet. I hederskulturer finns begreppet heder i hela samhället. Det är männens plikt att återupprätta hedern, gör man inte detta så förlorar man omvärldens respekt. Tar en man däremot saken i egna händer och mördar sin egen dotter så hyllas han som en hjälte. Det finns länder som medger strafflindring om gärningsmännen hänvisar till hedern.

  • 392.
    Adriansson, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Blomberg, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Matchningen mellan arbetsvärderingar och arbetsförhållanden i Sverige: En kvantitativ studie av hur arbete värderas, realiseras samt relaterar till arbetstillfredsställelse och organisatoriskt engagemang2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats kartläggs svenska arbetstagares arbetsvärderingar och arbetsförhållanden samt matchningen mellan dessa två komponenter över tid vid tre mättillfällen. Detta för att se hur värderingar och de upplevda förhållandena relaterar till varandra under denna period och ifall detta har förändrats. Datamaterialet är hämtat från ISSP work orientations modul (1997,2005 och 2015). De dimensioner av arbetet som undersökts är; inkomst, karriärmöjligheter, intressant jobb samt autonomi i arbetet där de två senare är inre dimensioner av arbetet medan inkomst och karriärmöjligheter är yttre dimensioner. Vidare undersöks ifall matchningarna har någon påverkan på arbetstillfredsställelse samt organisatoriskt engagemang för att se huruvida kombinationen av att både värdera något samt få dessa värderingar uppfyllda ger någon extra effekt på dessa två arbetsattityder. För att kartlägga utvecklingen i Sverige har vi undersökt andelen som värderar samt andelen som upplever att de får värderingarna realiserade i arbetet samt kombinationen av dessa. Vidare har vi använt oss av multipel linjär regression för att undersöka matchningarnas påverkan på arbetstillfredsställelse och organisatoriskt engagemang. Resultaten visar att de faktiska upplevda arbetsförhållandena har gått i en positiv riktning där fler tycks få sina värderingar uppfyllda i arbetet. Vidare visar resultaten att matchningarna tycks ha betydelse för arbetstillfredsställelse där de som både värderar en dimension högt samt får denna dimension realiserad har högre arbetstillfredsställelse än övriga matchningar med en extra hög effekt när det kommer till inre dimensioner av arbetet. Matchningarna har även betydelse för organisatoriskt engagemang där den andelen som både värderar en dimension högt samt får den realiserad har högre engagemang.

  • 393.
    Adrià, Carbonell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture.
    Rethinking the urban: ecology, infrastructure, urbanization2015In: ASA15 Symbiotic anthropologies: theoretical commensalities and methodological mutualisms, University of Exeter , 2015, p. 64-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore a new notion of urbanity in the context of planetary urbanisation, through the investigation and analysis of the following themes: urban-ecology, urban-infrastructure, and new processes of urbanisation.

  • 394.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Alagidede, Paul
    Wits Business School, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Stock return distribution in the BRICS2015In: Review of Development Finance, ISSN 1879-9337, E-ISSN 1879-9337, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stock returns in emerging market economies exhibit patterns that are distinctively different from developed countries: returns are noted to be highly volatile and autocorrelated, and long horizon returns are predictable. While these stylized facts are well established, the assumption underlying the distribution of returns is less understood. In particular, the empirical literature continues to rely on the normality assumption as a starting point, and most asset pricing models tend to overstretch this point. This paper questions the rationale behind this supposition and proceeds to test more formally for normality using multivariate joint test for skewness and kurtosis. Additionally, the paper extends the literature by examining a number of empirical regularities for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (the BRICS for short). Our main findings are that the distributionof stock returns for the BRICS exhibits peakedness with fatter and longer tails, and this is invariant to both the unit of measurement and the time horizon of returns. Volatility clustering is prevalent in all markets, and this decays exponentially for all but Brazil. The relationship between risk and return is found to be significant and risk premiums are prevalent in our sample.

  • 395.
    Aegerter Alvarez, Juan Felipe
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Pustina, Aferdita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Escalating commitment in the death zone: new insights from the 1996 Mount Everest disaster2011In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 971-985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The procession of people and organisations that pour resources into evidently failing causes is surprising and seemingly never-ending. This phenomenon, which is called “escalating commitment” (Staw, 1976), refers to situations in which people are incapable of turning future disasters into sound current decisions. The purpose of this paper is to use the, in project management literature (Kloppenborg and Opfer, 2002), non-traditional case of the 1996 Mt Everest disaster to explain and analyse escalating commitment determinants and processes. Not only does the paper identify and add a determinant to escalation but it also treats determinants and processes in a novel and intertwined fashion. The conceptual developments and findings suggest that escalating commitment strives on conditions that are inherent to any project, which consequently project managers should be aware of. Based on the results project failures could be better explained and understood by examining several explanatory levels simultaneously.

  • 396. Aeinehband, Shahin
    et al.
    Brenner, Philip
    Stahl, Sara
    Bhat, Maria
    Fidock, Mark D.
    Khademi, Mohsen
    Olsson, Tomas
    Engberg, Goran
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenines in multiple sclerosis: relation to disease course and neurocognitive symptoms2016In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 51, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, with a high rate of neurocognitive symptoms for which the molecular background is still uncertain. There is accumulating evidence for dysregulation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in different psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. We here report the first comprehensive analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) kynurenine metabolites in MS patients of different disease stages and in relation to neurocognitive symptoms. Levels of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) were determined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in cell-free CSF. At the group level MS patients (cohort 1; n = 71) did not differ in absolute levels of TRP, KYN, KYNA or QUIN as compared to non-inflammatory neurological disease controls (n = 20). Stratification of patients into different disease courses revealed that both absolute QUIN levels and the QUIN/KYN ratio were increased in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients in relapse. Interestingly, secondary progressive MS (SPMS) displayed a trend for lower TRP and KYNA, while primary progressive (PPMS) patients displayed increased levels of all metabolites, similar to a group of inflammatory neurological disease controls (n = 13). In the second cohort (n = 48), MS patients with active disease and short disease duration were prospectively evaluated for neuropsychiatric symptoms. In a supervised multivariate analysis using orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS-DA) depressed patients displayed higher KYNA/TRP and KYN/TRP ratios, mainly due to low TRP levels. Still, this model had low predictive value and could not completely separate the clinically depressed patients from the non-depressed MS patients. No correlation was evident for other neurocognitive measures. Taken together these results demonstrate that clinical disease activity and differences in disease courses are reflected by changes in KP metabolites. Increased QUIN levels of RRMS patients in relapse and generally decreased levels of TRP in SPMS may relate to neurotoxicity and failure of remyelination, respectively. In contrast, PPMS patients displayed a more divergent pattern more resembling inflammatory conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus. The pattern of KP metabolites in RRMS patients could not predict neurocognitive symptoms.

  • 397. Aeppli, Christoph
    et al.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Bastviken, David
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Investigating formation and degradation of polychlorinated phenols in the environment using chlorine and carbon stable isotope fractionation2011In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 242, p. 214-ENVR-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 398. Aeppli, Christoph
    et al.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Use of Cl and C Isotopic Fractionation to Identify Degradation and Sources of Polychlorinated Phenols: Mechanistic Study and Field Application2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 790-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of chlorinated phenols (CPs) as a wood preservative has led to numerous contaminated sawmill sites. However, it remains challenging to assess the extent of in situ degradation of CPs. We evaluated the use of compound-specific chlorine and carbon isotope analysis (Cl- and C-CSIA) to assess CP biotransformation. In a laboratory system, we measured isotopic fractionation during oxidative 2,4,6-trichlorophenol dechlorination by representative soil enzymes (C. fumago chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and laccase from T. versicolor). Using a mathematical model, the validity of the Rayleigh approach to evaluate apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) was confirmed. A small but significant Cl-AKIE of 1.0022 ± 0.0006 was observed for all three enzymes, consistent with a reaction pathway via a cationic radical species. For carbon, a slight inverse isotope effect was observed (C-AKIE = 0.9945 ± 0.0019). This fractionation behavior is clearly distinguishable from reported reductive dechlorination mechanisms. Based on these results we then assessed degradation and apportioned different types of technical CP mixtures used at two former sawmill sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study that makes use of two-element CSIA to study sources and transformation of CPs in the environment.

  • 399. Aerts, R.
    et al.
    Callaghan, T. V.
    Dorrepaal, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Systems Ecology, Department of Ecological Science, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van Logtestijn, R. S. P.
    Cornelissen, J. H. C.
    Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 170, no 3, p. 809-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis < Betula < Rubus. After 4 years, overall mass loss in the climate-treatment plots was 10 % higher compared to the ambient incubation environment. Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  • 400.
    af Bjerkén, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Åslund, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Anestesisjuksköterskors erfarenheter av vård av patienter med missbruksproblem: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe anaesthetic nurses' strategies for the nursing of patients with misuse dependency within anaesthetic care.Background Anaesthetic nurses daily meet patients with different backgrounds, conditions and needs. There are often different physiological and psychological factors that affect the anaesthesia and the anaesthetic care for persons with misuse problems than for persons without similar problems. These factors could be for example increased tolerance for drugs, impaired ability to digest drugs, increased bleeding tendency, stress and anxiety. The anaesthetic nurses' knowledge and understanding for earlier mentioned factors are of utmost importance for them to be able to perform a good and optimum anaesthetic care.Design The study was made with qualitative research design with semi-structured interviews.Methods The participants were chosen on a representative basis. The data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews with anaesthetic nurses in five hospitals in Sweden. The interviews were written down and analyzed using a qualitative content method.Results Twelve interviews were made during the autumn 2016. The analysis of the material resulted in three categories titled ”Having preparedness for action”, ”Communicating with the patient” and ”Being security conscious”. The categories consisted of eight subcategories that were titled ”Being prepared to adjust the doses”, ”Choosing the adequate medicine”, ”Managing bleeding tendency”, ”Handling difficulties with giving injections”, ”Establishing trust”, ”Being explicit”, ”Ensuring safety for the staff” and ”Ensuring safety for the patient”.Conclusion Anaesthetic nurses are aware of the physiological and psychological factors that affect the anaesthesia of patients with misuse dependency. They have conceived strategies for planning the anaesthesia and for preventing the emerging of problems. The predominant strategies contain drug related measures such as dose adjustment and selection of drugs. There are different opinions whether a PM or a general routine would increase the safety and improve the handling of patients with misuse dependency.Keywords: Anaesthetic nurse; Misuse; Strategies; Experiences

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