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  • 351.
    Blom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perlinski, Marek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Morén, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Organisational structure as barrier or support in the personal social services?: Results from a client survey2009In: Dilemmas for human services 2009 : Papers presented at: the 13th International Research Conference “Breaking Down the Barriers”, Staffordshire University, 10 - 11 September 2009 (revised version October 2009), 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 352.
    Blom Bringlöv, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ”Det handlar om att ge och ta”: En kvalitativ studie om betydelsen faktorer kopplade till schemaläggning har för upplevelse av delaktighet och inflytande2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka betydelsen faktorer kopplade till schemaläggning har för upplevelse av delaktighet och inflytande. De faktorer som undersökts är schemaläggningssystem, organisatoriska aspekter, samarbete, och flexibilitet. De teorier som används är Job demand-control model, Social exchange theory och Structural empowerment theory. Det är en kvalitativ intervjustudie med fem informanter som jobbar hel- eller deltid inom äldrevård eller funktionshinderomsorg i Umeå kommun. Informanterna har tre olika schemasystem med det gemensamma att samtliga informanter får ge önskemål på hur de vill att deras schema för kommande schemaperiod ska se ut. Resultatet visar att informanterna upplever olika grad av delaktighet och inflytande i sitt schemaläggningssystem. Centralt schemastöd är den funktion som minskar upplevelsen av delaktighet och inflytande för majoriteten av informanterna. Ökad utbildning, avsatt tid för schemaläggning, stöd för att öka samarbete på arbetsplatsen och kontakt med Centralt schemastöd är faktorer som sammanfattningsvis föreslås kan öka de anställdas delaktighet och inflytande i schemaläggning.

  • 353.
    Blom Bringlöv, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ”Var dig själv, men…”: En kvalitativ studie av könsnormer så som de uttrycks i tips inför arbetsintervjuer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här kvalitativa netnografiska studien analyseras råd och tips inför arbetsintervjuer riktade till män respektive kvinnor. Datamaterialet kommer från online-forumen Flashback och Familjeliv men även från artiklar med tips från bemanningsföretagen Poolia och Monster, Arbetsförmedlingen, tidningen Karriär och fackförbundet Unionen. Den teoretiska grunden är baserad på Goffmans teori om “impression management”, Hirdmans genusteori, Heiders attributionsteori och Zimmerman och West ”doing gender”. Resultatet visar att kvinnor får fler råd om utseende än män och råden som ges är även mer specifika. Typiskt manliga egenskaper är de mest åtråvärda och präglar därför en majoritet av intervjutipsen, även de som är riktade till kvinnor. Kvinnor uppmanas till att agera typiskt maskulint, och att inte vara för feminina då det kan minska deras jobbchanser. Män uppmanas till att vara sig själva medan kvinnor får mer tydliga direktiv om hur de ska bete sig, hur de ska klä sig och vad de ska säga. Feminina egenskaper anses vara dåliga och manliga/diskreta egenskaper är önskvärda. Kvinnor uppmanas även till återhållsamt uppförande medan män uppmanas till att framhäva sig. Ett beroendeförhållande där arbetsgivaren har övertaget framkommer också. Detta upprätthålls genom att den arbetssökande uppmuntras anpassa sig efter arbetsgivarens behov. Även arbetsgivare deltar i nätmaterialet och bidrar till att reproducera de observerade normerna.

  • 354.
    Blom Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Chassler, Deborah
    Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University School of Social Work, 264 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Factors associated with work and taking prescribed methadone or buprenorphine among Swedish opiate addicts2015In: Evaluation and Program Planning, ISSN 0149-7189, E-ISSN 1873-7870, Vol. 49, p. 172-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims: Using national register data from 2002 to 2008, this exploratory study examines for opiate addicts (n = 2638) whether there is an association between predisposing, enabling and need factors and working and taking methadone or buprenorphine prescribed by a physician for a year or more.

    Methods: Chi-square analyses and One-way ANOVA were used to determine significant relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable. A binomial logistic regression model, with variables entered as a single block, measured statistical associations between the independent variables and the dichotomous dependent variable.

    Results: Men and those with greater number of years of education (7%) and those with children were 7.08 times more likely to be working and taking prescription methadone or buprenorphine. Those who had more inpatient drug treatment episodes (5%), those who had been charged with crime 3.23 times, and those who had used psychiatric medications were 8.43 times more likely to be working and to have taken prescription methadone or buprenorphine one year or more.

    Conclusion: This study highlights that clients in treatment for opiate addiction who are working and have received methadone or buprenorphine treatment may have better treatment retention and be more integrated socially than their counterparts even though they have a higher level of problem severity and treatment needs.

  • 355.
    Blomberg, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social Welfare.
    Inklusion en illusion?: Om delaktighet i samhället för vuxna personer med utvecklingsstörning2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this thesis lies in the great changes that have occurred in the disability field during the last threes decades. The purpose of this thesis is to describe, analyze and try to understand how these changes impact on life conditions for adult persons with mild intellectual disabilities. The main focus in this study is to listen to the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities themselves. The questions addressed in the study are; how do people with intellectual disabilities experience participation, citizen-ship, social exclusion and social inclusion in society? Where are their daily arenas and what characterizes those arenas in terms of citizenship, exclusion and inclusion? What type of experiences do they have from encountering people in the community, from encountering the organisations and staff that provide support and service and from the consequences of disability policies in practise? How do staff close to them work to reach the goals of participation? What role can professionals play in supporting participation? Which possibilities and barriers do the staff experience?

    Empirical data for the study has been gathered by qualitative methods, mainly participant observations and interviews but also from document analysis of local authority documents, official guidelines, laws and national and international disability policy documents.

    The theoretical framework is based on theories about citizenship and participation. Social exclusion and social inclusion are the sensitizing concepts in this study. For the interpretation and analysis theories about citizenship, participation and categorization were used.

    In the light of the empirical findings the results of the study show that three main themes were promi-nent. The first theme concerned the daily arenas, were there were both excluded arenas and included are-nas with various forms of interaction with the society. The arenas for support and service in housing and daily activities are described as excluded arenas with mainly internal social interaction. On the other hand the new arenas such as daily activity centres, located in the community, such as cafés, shops run by peo-ple with intellectual disabilities together with staff had frequent interaction with other people in the soci-ety. The second theme concerned the content in the encounters between respondents with intellectual disabilities and different actors in the community. The informants had both positive and negative experi-ences of these encounters. The encounter with the disability policy was, according to this dissertation, that the user informants hade many experiences of lacking social citizenship but also that they experienced structural inclusion when politicians listen to them and answered their questions. The third theme con-cerned how the staff works to reach the goals of participation where both possibilities and barriers exist on structural and individual levels. This study illustrates the user informants’ many experiences of citi-zenship and social exclusion but also examples of social inclusion.

    In the concluding chapter the results are discussed and analyzed in relation to the theoretical frame-work, where the concept of categorisation was very important. Finally, the description of the process clearly illustrates the difficulties for disability service organisations to develop support and services that are adapted to the actual disability policy. The results shed light on the gap between theory and practise.

    Some of the most positive changes towards inclusion in society for people with intellectual disabilities come from services run by users and staff close to them. Final conclusions and reflections of the results in the study are that support and service also can be discussed in terms of universalism in order to reduce the process of categorisation.

  • 356.
    Blomberg, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindberg, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Jämställdhet vart tredje år: En diskursanalys av svenska myndigheters jämställdhetsplaner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Diskrimineringslagstiftningen ska arbetsgivare utforma jämställdhetsplaner med mål och åtgärder för att öka möjligheterna för kvinnor och män att verka på lika villkor. Svenska myndigheter har därutöver ett särskilt ansvar för att arbeta med jämställdhetsfrågor. I denna uppsats undersöks hur problem och lösningar framställs i svenska myndigheters jämställdhetsplaner samt vilka möjliga konsekvenser dessa beskrivningar får för föreställningar om jämställdhet i organisationerna. Genom en diskursanalys har tio myndigheters jämställdhetsplaner analyserats utifrån en analysmall inspirerad av Carol Bacchis modell What’s the problem represented to be? Totalt identifierades fyra teman; information, motiv, normer och ansvar. Resultaten visar att myndigheterna ofta motiverar åtgärder genom nyttoperspektiv där ökad jämställdhet väntas bidra till förbättringar i verksamheten. En stor andel av åtgärderna är formulerade som informations- och utbildningsinsatser. Myndigheterna ämnar således öka jämställdheten genom ökad kunskap. Vidare bygger flera åtgärder på skillnader mellan kvinnor och män vilket innebär att stereotypa föreställningar om kön återskapas i organisationerna. Slutligen uttrycker myndigheterna att de ska bidra till ökad jämställdhet och har anpassat mål och åtgärder för att uppnå lagens krav. Därigenom förefaller myndigheternas ansvar för allas lika rättigheter, möjligheter och skyldigheter utelämnas.   

  • 357.
    Blomkvist, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Engström, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Det åldersbestämda föräldraskapet: En studie om hur unga föräldrar blir bemötta i samhället2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 358.
    Blommendahl, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skolkuratorers förebyggande arbete: hinder och möjligheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 359.
    Blommendahl, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skolkuratorers förebyggande arbete: möjligheter och hinder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 360.
    Blom-Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    McCarty, Dennis
    OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. University of AQ2 Denver Graduate School of Social Work, Denver, USA.
    Sexual Abuse and Future Mental Health Hospitalization ina Swedish National Sample of Men Who Use Opioids2019In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Experiences of trauma, specifically sexual abuse, have been linked to both mental health and substance use disorders. This study used 14 years of Swedish health registry data to select a sample of adult men who reported frequent opioid use and assessed if those with a self-reported history of sexual abuse had a higher likelihood of hospitalization for a mental health disorder.

    Methods: A Swedish longitudinal (2003–2017) registry study linked Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessments completed with individuals who sought treatment for substance use disorders with data on hospitalizations for mental health disorders, and assessed associations with self-reported histories of sexual abuse among men who reported sustained and frequent use of opioids (n¼1862). Cox regression methods tested associations and controlled for age, and the7 ASI composite scores: family and social relationships, employment, alcohol use, drug use, legal, physical health, and mental health.

    Results: The ASI composite score for mental health (hazard ratio[HR] 16.6, P<0.001) and a history of sexual abuse (HR 1.93,P<0.001) were associated with an elevated risk of future mental health hospitalization.

    Conclusion: Both the ASI composite scores for mental health andself-reported history of sexual abuse reflected complex needs amongmen who used opioids and increased risk for mental health hospitalization.Treatment providers should strive to provide integrated careand address the negative aspects of victimization.

  • 361.
    Blomqvist, Lovisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nyström, Maia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Äventyr och vänner: En undersökning av Facebookgruppen On Edge - En mötesplats för tjejer som söker äventyr2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to investigate how a functional and committed online community was established. We have analyzed a Facebook group named "On Edge - a community for girls who seeks adventures" to explore how On Edge is communicating to create dedication and identification amongst its members in their online community. The study has combined theories such as social identity theory, prosumption, participatory culture and mediatization theory. We have used a multimodal analysis to analyze the administrators and the members posts on Facebook, an online survey for On Edge’s members to answer and an interview with the founder of the community, Ebba Cronqvist. The result of the multimodal analysis showed that On Edge uses text and images to create a united language within the group that leads to dedication and identification to the community. The survey showed that most of the members felt a need of a place where adventurous women could meet other women who are alike. They help each other because of the friendly atmosphere and by the meaningful exchange of thoughts and minds. We also found that there are some fundamental forces that shapes On Edge to such a well working community: the group is driven by a strong “why”, and by using a language appropriate for the target group together with images, it creates a friendly atmosphere amongst the members in the group.

  • 362.
    Bodin, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Corporate Social Responsibility – ett samtidsfenomen: Uttryck, intryck och avtryck2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CSR is a far reaching concept and practice, whose popularity and diffusion has increased rapidly in recent years. Research indicates that CSR has made an evolutionary journey from primarily being characterized by reactiveness to develop into a risk minimizing and proactive competitive advantage and should be looked upon as an answer to heightened societal pressure and awareness. Based on a review regarding different relevant theoretical perspectives, this master thesis discusses CSR as a concept and practical matter in relation to various strategically chosen representatives of a selection of professions.

    Moreover, the data were collected through in-depth semi structured interviews. The findings show that CSR is a contemporary and highly context dependent phenomenon whose inherent multiplicity brings a distinct aspect of uncertainty to it, in terms of both meaning and practice. And in some parts there is a reluctance to communicate CSR due to a fear of missing out of important aspects. Furthermore, additionally findings tell us that profitability in a CSR context is a wide continuum of meaning. Moreover, in terms of future research it would be of interest to see more comparative studies between specific businesses and/or cultures to examine how CSR as a management idea is perceived and implemented.

  • 363.
    Bohlin, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bergqvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Alla har vi lika värde, förhoppningsvis”: – en genusbetonad studie av klientmötet vid bedömning av försörjningsstöd2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige befinner sig i framkanten vad gäller utvecklingen av sociala system som avser motverka fattigdom. Socialbidraget är en av de skyddsnät som det svenska välfärdssystemet erbjuder befolkningen i just detta ändamål. Individer som nyttjar detta system är beroende av myndighetspersonerna som fattar besluten. Syftet med studien är att undersöka om klientens genus har någon betydelse när socialsekreteraren möter klienten vid prövning av försörjningsstöd och i så fall hur klientens genus har betydelse? Området har inte undersökts i så stor utsträckning men tidigare studier visar att män och kvinnor erbjuds olika typer av hjälp. En kvalitativ studie har genomförts där Individ- och familjeomsorgen i en medelstor kommun i Sverige undersökts. Studien har en abduktiv ansats, ett bekvämlighetsurval och tre datainsamlingsmetoder i form av intervjuer, observationer och case. Empirin visade att socialsekreterarna har olika syn på genus vilket medför att klienterna bemöts och behandlas olika utifrån könstillhörighet. Detta orsakas av outtalade föreställningar om klienten på arbetsplatsen. Respondenterna visar en viss motvillighet till förändring även om man menar att det är prioriterat. Diskussionen berör de könsroller som formas och reproduceras av samhället och i organisationen samt vikten av att skapa medvetenhet om dessa konstruktioner inom socialt arbete.

  • 364.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Vasa Faculty of Education, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    "He just has to like ham": the centrality of meat in home and consumer studies2015In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 95, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe Discourses on meat in the school subject Home and Consumer Studies in five different northern Swedish schools. Fifty-nine students and five teachers from five different schools were recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons. Results indicate that meat was seen as central to nutritional health, sensory experience, culture and social relationships. This positive view was challenged by an alternative Discourse where meat was threatening to health, sensory experience and psychological comfort, but this was not strong enough to affect centrality. Even when participants sought to promote the health advantages of reducing meat consumption, the dominant centrality Discourse was strengthened. This implies that the possible tension between physical and psychosocial/emotional health can make the benefits of a reduction difficult both to convey and accept. A form of critical food literacy may help teachers deconstruct the arbitrary power of the centrality Discourse, but it may also strengthen meat-eater identities because the social norms that guide food choice become salient. A redesign of Discourses might facilitate a reduction in meat consumption, but such a paradigm shift is dependent on the development of society as a whole, and can only be briefly touched upon within the limited timeframes and resources of Home and Consumer Studies.

  • 365.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Anti-immigrant attitudes in context: The role of rhetoric, religion and political representation2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. This thesis directs attention to how attitudes towards immigrants evolve under different contextual circumstances. Unlike previous research that primarily focuses on contextual factors related to the availability of material resources, the included studies explore the influence of less tangible aspects of our surroundings, brought together under the term immaterial contexts. Three kinds of immaterial contexts are in focus: political representatives’ use of nationalistic rhetoric, the parliamentary presence of the extreme right, and the religious context. The studies examine the direct effects of these contexts, but also how individuals’ beliefs, loyalties, and experiences interact with the contextual factors to shape peoples’ attitudes.

    Methods. The thesis takes a comparative approach where countries serve as the main contextual unit. Data on attitudes and other individual features are gathered from the European Social Survey 2002-2012. To be able to analyze these data in the same model as used for country-level data, the thesis applies multi-level models.

    Results. The findings support a theoretical expectation that immaterial contexts influence anti-immigrant attitudes. How people perceive immigrants and immigration can be traced to political and religious aspects of their surroundings. Also, it is found that individuals are not passive recipients of contextual influences as their reactions depend on their preferences and experiences. While political representatives influence anti-immigrant attitudes, these effects are strongly conditional both on features of the representatives themselves, and on characteristics and experiences of individuals. For example, individuals respond to political rhetoric by traditional political parties but are not influenced by the same kind of message if conveyed by a party belonging to the extreme right.

    Conclusion. The thesis is an attempt to widen the very notion of contexts in empirical research, and as such, it is a contribution to the literature on anti-immigrant attitudes. It shows that anti-immigrant attitudes depend not only on material circumstances, but also on immaterial circumstances tied to the political and religious arena. Further, the thesis demonstrates how combining the theoretical perspectives of group threat theory and framing theory implies greater possibilities to conceive of the link between contexts and attitudes, as well as improved theoretical tools to understand when and why such effects do not occur. It signals that research on immaterial contexts is necessary to further advance the comparative scholarship on anti-immigrant attitudes and reach a deeper understanding of how such attitudes emerge and evolve.

  • 366.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Articulated antipathies: political influence on anti-immigrant attitudes2011In: International Journal of Comparative Sociology, ISSN 0020-7152, E-ISSN 1745-2554, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 457-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how political factors influence anti-immigrant attitudes by focusing on political articulation performed by political parties active at the national level in 26 European countries. Multi-level analysis reveals a significant positive association between general party articulation and anti-immigrant attitudes. In particular, it seems to be when traditional right- or left-wing parties articulate that attitudes towards immigrants turn increasingly negative. Left-leaning individuals are particularly influenced when parties belonging to the political left raise these issues, which indicates that the ideological position of the individual functions as a mediating factor in this regard. The results contribute to a broader understanding of the role of political factors and underscore the importance of their inclusion in cross-national studies of anti-immigrant attitudes.

  • 367.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    It’s who you know: political influence on anti-immigrant attitudes and the moderating role of intergroup contact2015In: Sociological research online, ISSN 1360-7804, E-ISSN 1360-7804, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether political frames influence anti-immigrant attitudes among native populations in 21 European countries, and if this relationship is somehow moderated by personal experiences of intergroup contact. Using data from the Comparative Manifesto Project and European Social Survey, two indicators of intergroup contact are tested: immigrant friends and immigrant colleagues, to see whether they can counter the effectof nationalistic political framing. The analysis reveals a positive relationship between nationalistic frames and anti-immigrant attitudes that is moderated by experiences of intergroup contact. In this sense, extensive contact with immigrants seems to inoculate individuals against political influences. The results contribute to a better understanding of both the role of political contexts and of the consequences of intergroup contact.

  • 368.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Who's Welcome and Who's Not?: Opposition towards Immigration in the Nordic Countries, 2002–20142018In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 283-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article demonstrates the analytical advantages of studying not only the degree to which people oppose immigration in a country, but also the character of their opposition. Using Latent Class Analysis and data from the European Social Survey, Nordic patterns and trends are examined with the aim of identifying different kinds of immigration attitudes and how they develop in different national contexts. The Nordic countries are interesting to compare as, while they are similar in many respects, they also diverge significantly from each other in areas theoretically considered important to the formation of attitudes towards immigration. Studying the character of immigration opposition reveals five different types of immigration attitudes. These are differently distributed between the Nordic countries as well as over time, and include nativist opposition (opposition only towards immigrants of ethnic/racial groups other than that of the majority population) and economic opposition (opposition that entails a separation between immigrants considered to be an economic resource and an economic burden). By demonstrating how immigration opposition in the Nordic countries varies not only in degree but also in character, the article contributes to a deeper understanding of the nature of immigration opposition as well as of how different attitudinal profiles evolve under different contextual circumstances.

  • 369.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    En attitydfråga2013In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 5, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 370.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Europa tycker olika2013In: Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 5, p. 50-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 371.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    How the religious context affects the relationship between religiosity and attitudes towards immigration2014In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 937-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article approaches two shortcomings in previous research on religiosity and prejudice: (1) the lack of cross-country comparative studies; and (2) a failure to consider any moderating effects of religious contexts. We examine whether the relationship between religiosity and anti-immigration attitudes varies depending on religious contexts in Europe, and we find two things. First, strongly religious people are on average less likely to oppose immigration than non-religious people. Second, different religious contexts moderate the religiosity–attitude relationship in that religious people in Protestant countries and in countries with a low proportion of majority adherents are more tolerant than religious people in Catholic countries and in religiously homogenous countries. State policies also matter in that religious people are more negative where the government favours the majority religion. This calls into question the taken-for-granted understanding of religiosity and out-group attitudes found in the USA.

  • 372.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In the wake of extreme right electoral success: A cross-country comparative study of anti-immigration attitudes over timeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tests a theoretically assumed relationship between the parliamentary presence of extreme right parties (ERP) and anti-immigration attitudes over time. Data come from six rounds of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2012 and cover the 16 European countries that participated in all rounds during this time. Using multi-level models with applications for repeated cross-sectional data, the study examines the implications of changes tied to the political advancements of the extreme right with a focus on three possible scenarios: people’s attitudes about immigration have generally become more negative, opposition towards immigration has become more dependent on immigrants’ ethnicity, and attitudes towards immigration have become more polarized. Contrary to expectations, it is found that neither the presence, the representational strength, nor the nationalistic framing of an ERP affect opposition towards immigration over time. Thus, the conclusion is that the ERPs, so far, have not driven anti-immigration attitudes in Europe. Possible explanations for these results are discussed in the concluding section.

  • 373.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In the wake of radical right electoral success: a cross-country comparative study of anti-immigration attitudes over time2016In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 11, no 42, p. 1729-1747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tests the theoretically assumed relationship between the parliamentary presence of radical right parties (RRPs) and anti-immigration attitudes over time. Data come from six rounds of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2012. Using multi-level models with applications for repeated cross-sectional data, the study examines the implications of changes tied to the political advancements of the radical right with a focus on three possible scenarios: people's attitudes about immigration have generally become more negative, opposition towards immigration has become more dependent on immigrants' ethnicity, and attitudes towards immigration have become more polarised. Contrary to expectations, it is found that neither the presence, the representational strength, nor the nationalistic framing of an RRP affect opposition towards immigration over time. Thus, the conclusion is that the RRPs, so far, have not driven anti-immigration attitudes in Europe. Possible explanations for these results are discussed in the concluding section.

  • 374.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Radikala högerpartier och attityder till invandring: Europa under 2000-talet2014Report (Other academic)
  • 375.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Trots extrempartier ökar inte främlingsfientligheten2014In: DN-debattArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 376.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Politics and prejudice: How political discussion with peers is related to attitudes about immigrants during adolescence2019In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on prejudice has shown that with whom we surround ourselves matters for intergroup attitudes, but these studies have paid little attention to the content of those interactions. Studies on political socialization and deliberation have focused on the content of interaction by examining the transmission of norms as well as the direct consequences of political discussion on attitudes and behavior. However, this literature has not focused on prejudice as a potential consequence. In this study, we combine these approaches to examine if political discussions with peers during adolescence matter for prejudice. We rely on five waves of a Swedish panel of adolescents, ages 13-22. Results show an association between political discussion and prejudice over time, and that this relationship increases as adolescents grow older. Results also demonstrate that the effect of political discussions depends on the level of prejudice in one’s peer network. Discussion with low prejudice friends is associated with lower levels of prejudice over time, while political discussion with high prejudice peers is not significantly related to attitudes.

  • 377.
    Bohman, Erica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Anmälningsplikten - ett barns yttersta skydd: En kvalitativ studie om lågstadielärares upplevelser av att omfattas av anmälningsskyldighet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Det här en kvalitativ studie om lågstadielärares uppfattning om att omfattas av anmälningsplikten vid en grundskola i en mindre kommun i mellersta Sverige. Socialtjänsten är den myndighet som har det yttersta ansvaret för barn som far illa. Eftersom myndigheten inte har några naturliga kontaktfält med dessa barn, är en förutsättning för att de ska få sådan kännedom att pedagoger känner till att de som professionella har en skyldighet att anmäla oro. Studiens frågeställningar ville besvara vilka rutiner som fanns för anmälningsplikten på skolan, vilken kännedom lärarna hade om dessa rutiner och den ansvarsfördelning som fanns samt vilken upplevelse lärarna hade av att omfattas av anmälningsplikt. Empirin samlades in via intervjuer med rektor och lärare genom en fallstudie vid en lågstadieskola. Resultatet visade på att det fanns en god kännedom om de rutiner och ansvarsfördelningen kring anmälningsförfarandet på skolan. Som pedagog ville man gärna känna sig säker på sin misstanke, innan man gick vidare med att göra en anmälan, trots att det är socialtjänstens uppgift att utreda detta.

  • 378.
    Bokstrand, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Robé, Nelly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Hur ska jag tänka? Hur ska jag göra?": En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares upplevelser av handledning och medarbetarstöd.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta som socialsekreterare anses vara utmanade, krävande och stressigt. Vad är det egentligen socialsekreterarna anser vara påfrestande och vad behöver de för stöd i sitt arbete? Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur socialsekreterare i individ- och familjeomsorgen upplever tillgången och/eller bristen på handledning och medarbetarstöd. Men även vad det stödet i form av handledning och medarbetare hade för betydelse för dem i arbetet och om det fanns någon skillnad gällande behovet av stöd beroende på arbetslivserfarenhet. Denna studie bygger på en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi där empirin samlades in via semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex socialsekreterare från två mindre kommuner i Sverige. Studien visade att arbetsbelastning, tidsbrist och delaktighet i svåraklientprocesser var något som socialsekreterarna periodvis upplevde vara påfrestande i arbetet. Att uppnå de kompetenskrav som behövdes i arbetet var också något som kunde upplevas påfrestande. Att ha tillgång till handledning och medarbetarstöd var något som samtliga socialsekreterare ansåg kunde gynna deras professionella utveckling men även underlätta arbetsutförandet. De socialsekreterarna med kortare arbetslivserfarenhet uttryckte ett större behov av extern handledning för en arbetsmässig vidareutveckling. Medan de som hade längre erfarenhet inom arbetsplatsen uttryckte ett mindre behov, då de ansåg sig komma långt med tidigare erfarenhet och stöd via medarbetare. Det visade sig inte finnas någon skillnad i behovet av stöd via medarbetare.

  • 379.
    Boldis, Beáta Vivien
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Unsafe and unequal: a decomposition analysis of income inequalities in fear of crime in northern Sweden2018In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is not solely an individual concern, but as a social determinant of health structured by gender it also poses a threat to public health. Social inequalities are thought to represent a breeding ground for fear of crime, which subsequently may contribute to social inequalities in health. However, little research has focused on social inequalities in fear of crime, particularly in Sweden where the level of fear of crime and income and gender inequalities are comparatively low. With a conceptual model as a point of departure, the present study aimed to estimate and decompose income-related inequalities and explore gender differences in fear of crime in northern Sweden.

    METHODS: Participants (N = 22,140; 10,220 men and 11,920 women aged 16 to 84 years) came from the Health on Equal Terms cross-sectional survey with linked register data, carried out in the four northernmost counties of Sweden in 2014. Disposable income was used as the socio-economic indicator, fear of crime as the binary outcome variable, and sociodemographic characteristics, residential context, socio-economic and material conditions and psychosocial conditions as explanatory factors. Concentration curve and concentration index were used to estimate the income inequality in fear of crime, and decomposition analysis to identify the key determinants of the inequalities, in collapsed and gender-stratified analyses.

    RESULTS: Substantial gender differences were found in the prevalence of fear of crime (20.8% in women and 3.5% and men) and among the contributing factors to fear of crime. Additionally, the analyses revealed considerable income inequalities in fear of crime in the northern Swedish context (C = - 0.219). Gender, socio-economic and material, and psychosocial conditions explained the most in income inequalities of fear of crime in the total population.

    CONCLUSIONS: The existing gender and socio-economic inequities need to be approached as a greater structural problem to mitigate inequalities in fear of crime. Further research is needed to reveal more aspects of income inequalities in fear of crime and to develop efforts to create safe environments for all.

  • 380.
    Bolin, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Exploring the organizational framework of psychosocial working conditionsManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 381.
    Bolin, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The importance of organizational characteristics for psychosocial working conditions and health2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of organizations for understanding differences in the working conditions and health of employees is often emphasized but rarely explored empirically. The general aim of this thesis is to describe organizational characteristics of workplaces, and to assess their impact on the psychosocial working conditions and health of employees. In modern working life, it is assumed that employees' working conditions and health are affected by a general transformation of workplaces from bureaucracy to post-bureaucracy.

     The organizational data used are based on structured interviews with managers at workplaces in different types of operations in mid-Sweden, whereas the individual data consist of a questionnaire to all employees working in the participating workplaces, resulting in a dataset of 90 workplaces and 4306 individuals. Descriptive analysis was carried out for comparison of organizational characteristics in different types of operations, while multilevel analysis was applied to investigate the magnitude of the organizational impact on psychosocial working conditions, and to analyze associations between organizational characteristics, psychosocial working conditions and health.

    The results showed that the workplaces were mainly displayed by a combination of bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic characteristics, and these were unequally distributed between types of operations. A systematic variation in the psychosocial working conditions and health of employees was found between workplaces, and the variation in psychosocial working conditions was attributed to several organizational levels. The variation between workplaces was explained by both organizational characteristics of the workplaces and individual characteristics of the employees. Formalization, centralization, job enrichment, individual responsibility, soft control systems, and performance control were associated with psychosocial working conditions when controlled for occupational class, gender and age of employees, and a high degree of customer adaptation was associated with increased sickness absence of employees.  

    It is concluded that bureaucracy and post-bureaucracy should not be regarded as dichotomies. Organizational characteristics of workplaces have an impact on the psychosocial working conditions and health of employees beyond occupational class. This has implications for both the theory and the practice of occupational health research. 

  • 382.
    Bolin, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    An empirical study of bureaucratic and post-bureaucratic characteristics in 90 workplaces2008In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 541-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore bureaucratic and post- bureaucraticcharacteristics of organizational structure. A further aim was to investigate whether differences were related to types of industries. Eight organizational characteristics were measured, based on interviews with local managers at 90 workplaces in a broad sample of industries in mid-Sweden. The study showed that post-bureaucratic as well as bureaucratic characte ristics coexisted in most workplaces. The results are not in accordance with the rhetoric that considers bureaucracy obsolete in contemporary organizations. Significant differences were revealed between industries in seven of the eight characteristics.

  • 383.
    Bolin, Malin
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Bliese, Paul
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington DC, USA.
    Organizational impact on psychosocial working conditions2008In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 451-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a multilevel approach, this study explores how job demands and control are dependent on the organizational context in which work is performed. The data set consisted of 3,485 employees at 51 establishments divided into 141 sub-units and belonging to 10 parent organizations. Data were collected by means of a survey answered by the employees and structured interviews conducted with operative managers at participating establishments. The results showed that a significant proportion of the variance in job demands and control was attributed to the organization, and that the three organizational levels varied in terms of their impact on the two psychosocial dimensions. More specifically, job demands were mostly affected by the establishment level, while the sub-unit level seemed to be the most important for job control. It is concluded that in studies of working conditions, the organizational context should be considered.

  • 384.
    Boll, Karen
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Brehm Johansen, Mette
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Tax Governance: Corporate experiences with Cooperative Compliance in Denmark2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program. The working paper shows as a general stance that the corporations are supporting the ideas behind Tax Governance and are generally satisfied with their participation. However, the working paper also shows that most of them explain to be stretched between this willingness to participate and the different challenges and contradictions they told to experience in the everyday work practices related to the Tax Governance program. The working paper zooms in at these various everyday experiences from the corporations. Yet, it also zooms out and shows that the Tax Governance program in different ways relate to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model for a collaborative regulatory relationship between Skat and large corporations comes with both possibilities and challenges.

  • 385. Bongard, René
    et al.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hur mår företagaren?: En rapport om välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse2019Report (Other academic)
  • 386. Borgnäs, Kajsa
    et al.
    Örestig, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kris och kapitalism2014In: Fronesis, ISSN 1404-2614, no 46-47, p. 8-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 387.
    Borgsten, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Holmgren, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Jag har inte bara mått bra när jag drogat utan jag har mått BÄST": En studie av narkomaners upplevelser av läkemedelsassisterad rehabilitering vid opiatberoende.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att låta deltagare i LARO-programmet (Läkemedelsassisterad Rehabilitering vid Opiatberoende) berätta om samt ge uttryck för sin syn på den begandlingsform som programmet erbjuder. Bakgrunden till att vi valt att fokusera på LARO-programmet är att användandet av substitutionsbehandling har ökat i Sverige och en statlig utredning föreslår att mer resurser skall satsas denna typ av behandling. Själva ansatsen är deduktiv och innebär att vi utgår ifrån en tidigare etablerad teori, nämlingen Prochaska och DiClementes teori om förändringsprocessen, den så kallade "Stages of Change". Som metod för att samla in den empiriska materialet har vi lämnat ut färdiga frågeformulär som programdeltagarna fått besvara på egen hand och därefter returnerat till oss. Vi har i sin tur valt ut de svar och som vi anser vara av betydelse eftersom vi vill lyfta fram deltagarnas livsberättelser. Uppsatsen kommer fram till att felra av deltagarna i LARO-programmet har en positiv bild av programmet och upplever att det hjälper dem i deras strävan att förändra sitt beteende. Uppsatsen visar också på att flera av LARO-deltagarna befinner si i, eller har befunnit sig i, de förändringsfaser som skildras av Prochaska och DiClemente.

  • 388.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Health problems during childhood and school achievement: Exploring associations between hospitalization exposures, gender, timing, and compulsory school grades2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, p. 1-14, article id e0208116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    To investigate while accounting for health at birth 1) associations between health problems during childhood, measured as hospitalizations, and school achievement in the final year of compulsory school, measured as overall grade points and eligibility for upper secondary education, 2) if and how gender moderates the association between health problems and school achievement, 3) if and how the timing of a health problem during childhood is associated with later school achievement.

    METHODS:

    Analyzes were performed on a population-based cohort (n = 115 196) born in 1990 in Sweden (51.3% boys, 48.7% girls) using data from several national registries. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between study variables.

    RESULTS:

    Overall grade points and eligibility for continuation to upper secondary school were lower for individuals exposed to hospitalizations. Only the association between hospitalizations and overall grade points was moderated by gender and only for ages 13-16 years. Exposure close to actual grading had worst outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Health problems, measured through hospitalizations, was significantly associated with lower school achievements among Swedish children. Girls exposed to health problems requiring hospitalizations had relatively poorer school achievements as compared to boys. Health problems requiring hospitalization during junior high school had the greatest negative association with final achievement at compulsory school.

  • 389.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Is the effect of ill health on school achievement among Swedish adolescents gendered?2019In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 8, article id 100408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates why the relationship between health problems requiring hospitalization between the ages of 13 and 16 and school achievement (school grades in 9th grade) in Sweden was stronger for girls than for boys. We reviewed previous research on gender differences in subjective health, health care utilization and medical drug treatment to identify mechanisms responsible for this gendered effect. The relationship was analysed using retrospective observational data from several national full-population registers of individuals born in 1990 in Sweden (n = 115 196), and ordinary least squares techniques were used to test hypotheses. We found that girls had longer stays when hospitalized, which mediated 15% of the interaction effect. Variability in drug treatment between boys and girls did not explain the gendered effect of hospitalization. The main mediator of the gendered effect was instead differences in diagnoses between boys and girls. Girls’ hospitalizations were more commonly related to mental and behavioural diagnoses, which have particularly detrimental effects on school achievement.

  • 390.
    Borén, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kvinnor, kriminalitet och psykisk ohälsa: Lider kvinnliga brottslingar vanligen av psykisk ohälsa?2014Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 391.
    Bostedt, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Självkänsla och självpresentation online: En studie kring några individers självpresentationer i form av träningsbilder på Instagram och hur den upplevda självkänslan påverkar/påverkas av detta.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through the birth and arise of the Internet people has been given great opportunities to make selective selfpresentations online, which in the long run has resulted in an easier retaining of the self- esteem than in the offline world. Simultaneously, the self- esteem has been viewed as a cause for both success and failure since it plays a vital role regarding our attitudes, emotional reactions and behavior. On this basis I wanted to study the relation between self- esteem and self-presentations closer. The purpose of the study is to describe and analyze how some users who publish training photos of themselves on Instagram experience how they present themselves within this forum and how these presentations affect/ are affected by their perceived self-esteem in their everyday life. The study is based on theories regarding self- esteem through Maslows’ hierarchy of needs, the inner and outer self-esteem, and social comparisons. Theories about self-presentation are also used through Goffman’s dramaturgical metaphor, impression management and self-enhancement. Previous researches emphasize users’ opportunities to selective self-presentation online, how the use may affect the self- esteem and how the self- esteem can affect the users’ self-presentations. Four semi-structured interviews have been conducted with women within a 21-27 year old span. The results showed that the respondents’ perceived outer self- esteem tended to rise by positive feedback such as “like”-notifications, comments and followers to their training photos. The respondents’ experienced that their outer self-esteem tended to decline by upward comparisons with users who also publish training images. Finally, the results show that the respondents want to present their most positive sides in the field of training in the photographs to present a desirable image of themselves towards their audiences, while they tend to avoid showing negative sides which could harm the audiences’ impression of them.

  • 392.
    Bostedt, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ”En människa är så mycket mer än bara en psykiatrisk diagnos”: Betydelsen av erfarenheter gällande psykisk ohälsa, ett lönearbete och socialt stöd/bemötande för en människas identitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A person’s identity in relation to mental illness, employment and the social environment is a complex social construction. A construction which is characterized by the view that a human develop its sense of the self in relation to other people in the social interaction, as the tradition for interaction theory suggests. In this study I relate to Erwing Goffman’s theory about ´Stigma´ and to Anselm L. Strauss’ theory about ´Identity´, with a special focus on ´turningpoints´ and ‘transitions in social positions´. The previous research shows that prejudice, stigma and discrimination associated with the phenomenon of mental illness are frequent in everyday life. Furthermore, there are negative attitudes toward sick-listed people and welfare recipients. This may in turn influence whether people who have or have had experience of mental illness succeed in getting and keeping a job in the Swedish Labour Market. The purpose of this paper is to examine how one’s subjective experience of identity is changing when getting an employment, when the person has experience of some kind of mental illness. It is therefore necessary to understand the importance as an employment may have for certain individuals. It is also necessary to understand the importance of social support and the responses from the social environment in the process of ´getting back´. The study’s empirical base is gathered through four semi-structured interviews of people who have had experiences of mental illness but also have kept an employment during a longer time. The method of Grounded Theory was used to analyze the empirical data. The interviews revealed that one’s subjective experience of identity changed in a way that these individuals realized that a human is so much more than just a psychiatric diagnosis. The change was made possible by the importance of an employment, which meant that a door was opened to find a new role and a new meaning in life. The importance of the social support and the social treatment was about such as having a coordinating role, giving courage and hope. The change of one’s experience of identity was in line with the recovery process and that they gradually recovered, developed strategies and regained a valued role in their own and other’s eyes.

  • 393.
    Bostedt, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ”En människa är så mycket mer än bara enpsykiatrisk diagnos”: Betydelsen averfarenheter gällandepsykisk ohälsa,ett lönearbeteoch socialt stöd/bemötande för en människas identitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A person’s identity in relation to mental illness, employment and the social environmentis a complex social construction. A construction which is characterized by the viewthat a human develop its sense of the self in relation to other people in the social interaction, as the tradition for interaction theory suggests. In this study I relate to Erwing Goffman’s theory about ́Stigma ́and to Anselm L. Strauss’theory about ́Identity ́, with a special focus on ́turningpoints ́ and ‘transitions in social positions ́. The previous research shows that prejudice, stigma and discrimination associated with the phenomenon of mentalillness are frequent in everyday life. Furthermore, there are negative attitudes toward sick-listed people and welfare recipients. This may in turn influence whether people who have or have had experience of mental illness succeed in getting and keeping a job in the Swedish Labour Market. The purpose of this paper is to examine how one’s subjective experience of identity is changing when getting an employment, when the person has experience of some kind of mental illness. It is therefore necessary to understand the importance as an employment may have for certain individuals. It is also necessary to understand the importance of social support and theresponses from thesocialenvironmentin the process of ́getting back ́. The study’s empirical base is gathered through four semi-structured interviews of people who have had experiences of mental illness but also have kept an employment during a longer time.The method of Grounded Theory was used to analyze the empirical data. The interviews revealed that one’s subjective experience of identity changed in a way that these individuals realized that a human is so much more than just a psychiatric diagnosis. The change wasmade possible by the importance of an employment, which meant that a door was opened to find a new role and a new meaning in life. The importance of the social support and the social treatment was about such as having a coordinating role, giving courage and hope. The change of one’s experience of identity was in line with the recovery process and that they gradually recovered, developed strategies and regained a valued role in their own and other’s eyes.

  • 394.
    Boström, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Forsmark, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hortell, Zandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Den populära bilderboken ur ett genusperspektiv: Flicka eller pojke. Könets betydelse hos karaktärerna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnlitteraturen är en av barnets första massmediala kontakter. Den tillsammans med annan media påverkar individen i samhället stor som liten. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur barn och vuxna gestaltas i bilderboken, sett ur ett genusperspektiv. Vår ambition var att se hur flickor och pojkar, kvinnor och män presenteras, både med egenskaper och till utseende i bilderboken, då det i resterande samhälle och kultur existerar en könsmaktsordning som bland annat polariserar könen genom att tillskriva dem olika egenskaper, beteenden och utseenden.

    Vi har gjort en kvalitativ studie och använt oss utav bibliotekets topplistor, under augusti och september månad 2012 i Umeå regionen. Dessa böcker granskades för att sen sammanställas med hjälp utav tematisk analys.

    Ur empirin gick det att utläsa att i majoriteten av böckerna finns ett tydligt isärhållande av kön och de traditionella könsrollerna lever på så sätt kvar. I vissa av de nyare böckerna kunde man dock ana ett spår av genusmedvetenhet och viljan att frånskrida tydliga könsmönster.

    Den slutsatsen tillsammans med tidigare kunskap från både teori och forskning, tyder på att bilderboken har en inverkan på barnen i deras beteende, hur de bör se ut och hur de förväntas visa känslor.

  • 395.
    Boström, Jimmi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lindberg, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vägen tillbaka: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av KRIS-medlemmars upplevelser av kriminalvården2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2010 dömdes ungefär 9700 personer runt om i Sverige till att avtjäna ett fängelsestraff, och inom tre år beräknas cirka 40 procent av dessa ha återfallit i någon form av kriminalitet. Under samma år genomgick cirka 60 procent av de intagna olika brottsförebyggande program (BRÅ 2011:11). I genomsnitt beräknas en kriminell person kosta samhället cirka en miljon kronor om året, något som medför stora ekonomiska kostnader för samhället (Riksrevisionen, 2009).

    Undersökningen genomfördes genom att intervjua sex stycken före detta kriminella, detta för att ta reda på deras upplevelser av kriminalvården och vilka faktorer som bidragit till att de inte återfallit i kriminalitet. Utöver de sex intevjuerna med före detta kriminella gjordes en intervju med en högt uppsatt person inom kriminalvården. Intervjuerna analyserades med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys och resultaten av den visar att respondenterna anser att kriminalvårdens återfallsprevention inte fungerar särskilt bra. Dock anser de som genomgått olika program att dessa varit övervägande bra. En stor bidragande orsak till att respondenterna till slut tagit sig ur sin kriminella livsstil visade sig vara motivation.

  • 396.
    Boström, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wikén, Isis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    VEM KÄNNER ANSVAR FÖR KLIMATET?: En kvantitativ studie om sociala och politiska skiljelinjer i känslan av personligt ansvar för klimatförändringar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringar och vems ansvar det är att göra något åt dem är en ständig debatt i dagens samhälle. Jordens medeltemperatur stiger, klimatpaneler rapporterar om allt högre halter av föroreningar, och de stigande havsnivåerna är bara några av de klimatförändringar som sker globalt just nu. Detta är förändringar som de allra flesta är medvetna om på ett eller annat sätt, vilket sätter press både på politiker och medborgare. Tidigare studier har undersökt vad politiker gör för att försöka minska de klimatförändringar som sker, men färre undersöker på ren individnivå vad det är som påverkar känslan av personligt ansvar för att minska klimatförändringar. Denna uppsats kommer att fokusera på att undersöka vad som får individer att känna ett personligt ansvar för att minska klimatförändringar, och som metod för detta har vi gjort en kvantitativ undersökning, där fokus har legat på faktorer som kan påverka individers känsla av ansvar kopplat till klimatet. Övergripande faktorer som vi har utgått ifrån är socioekonomiska faktorer, politisk ideologi, attityder och inställning till klimatförändringar, samt individuellt och kollektivt handlande. Uppsatsen har använt data från European Social Survey, ESS, samt tidigare forskning, och vi har använt oss utav enkla samt multipla regressionsanalyser med våra variabler för att få fram ett resultat utifrån de frågeställningar som framställts. Det centrala resultat som kommit fram av våra analyser visar på att utifrån de faktorer vi valde att analysera hade individens grad av oro för klimatförändringar samt känslan av att ens egna handlingar kan påverka klimatet störst påverkan på individens känsla av personligt ansvar för att minska klimatförändringar.

  • 397.
    Boter, Aster
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Personligt ombud ”Jag har trivts jättebra att få jobba nära människor, att få stå på deras sida eftersom jag tror på människor och inte samhällen”: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av att vara ett personligt ombud2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det personliga ombudets uppdrag kommer ifrån klienten själv, vilket medför ett större brukarinflytande och delaktighet i beslut som berör individen. Denna studie genomförs med en kvalitativ metodansats och har syftet att undersöka hur personliga ombud upplever sin roll i arbetet med personer med psykiska funktionshinder. Fenomenologiska analysmetoden används i studien. Resultatet visar på att upplevelsen i rollen som personligt ombud är det viktigt att jobba för klienten, på dennes uppdrag och vilja, vara följsam och lyhörd för önskemål. Att visa för klienten på vilka alternativ och möjligheter till insatser som finns i samhället utan att ta makten ifrån klienterna är viktigt. De personliga ombuden poängterar att klientens behov ska vara det centrala, och dennes syn på sin tillvaro ska stå i fokus och representeras. Det personliga ombudet tar klientens sida, stöttar i detta, och främjar till det goda och leder klienten framåt. Begränsning i arbetet som personligt ombud upplevs komma från klienterna själva utifrån insatser, den komplexa livssituation klienterna befinner sig i och av samhället. Det finns en komplexitet i att som personligt ombud inte verka för någon myndighet. Fördelarna är att det skapar mer handlingsutrymme, nackdel att se problemen för individen men inte vara kapabel att fatta beslut eller bistå med direkta insatser. 

  • 398.
    Brandt, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Föräldraskap i ”Nya Vi Föräldrar”: En kvalitativ analys av en tidnings framställning av småbarnsföräldrar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur tidningen ”Nya Vi Föräldrar” framställer småbarnsföräldrar i utvalda reportage. Metoden för arbetet är kvalitativ innehållsanalys och visuell metod eftersom reportagen består av både text och bild. Analysen grundar sig på teorier från Anthony Giddens, Yvonne Hirdman och Erving Goffman. I analysarbetet har det vuxit fram olika teman som sedan har blivit mina specifika avsnitt. Det första avsnittet i analysen heter ”Vardagens organisering” och handlar främst om hur familjerna talar om rutiner och planering, det andra avsnittet ”Arbetsfördelning” beskriver hur föräldrarna talar om hushållssysslor och omsorg av barnen. Vidare behandlar avsnittet ”Framställningen av mammor och pappor” hur framför allt tidningen har valt att framställa könen i reportagens bilder och slutligen beskrivs exempel på hur bilderna är komponerade under avsnittet ”Bildkomponering”. Analysen visar framförallt att föräldraskapets traditionella könsroller som manligt och kvinnligt fortfarande är en central del i föräldrarnas vardag. Det synliggörs också genom hur föräldrarna ser på sig själva och hur tidningen väljer att framställa dem. I analysen kan man se att viljan till jämställdhet är något som eftersträvas av både familjerna och tidningen genom tankar och framställningar.

  • 399.
    Branegård, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jag vill inte flytta härifrån: en undersökning av kommuners rätt att flytta tillbaka utplacerade ensamkommande barn till anvisningskommunen.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ensamkommande barn som placerats ut i andra kommuner än sin anvisningskommun, ska efter beslut i kammarrätten flyttas tillbaka till anvisningskommunen mot sin vilja. Syftet är att förstå de olika parternas sätt att argumentera i sakfrågan och sätta dessa argument i relation tillkommunplacering och mottagandet av ensamkommande barn ur ett övergripande samhällsperspektiv. Undersökningen är gjord med konventionell innehållsanalys av två domslutoch ett interimistiskt beslut från kammarrätt samt en textanalys av fyra dokument som beskriver aktuella politiska åtgärder i frågan om kommunplacering och mottagande av ensamkommandebarn. Resultatet visar att argument som legat till grund för kammarrättens avgörande är av generell karaktär gällande vad som är bäst för ensamkommande barn i relation till kommunplacering och mottagande. Myndighetsutövningen gentemot de enskilda barnen förklaras utifrån generella argument snarare än ur ett individuellt perspektiv. Dessa argumenthärleds till den situation som uppstod kring ökningen av ensamkommande barn som uppstodhösten 2015. Det finns därför ett behov av att fortsätta undersöka området då risken att en normativ förståelse av rättsprincipen barnets bästa när det gäller kommunplacering och mottagande för ensamkommande barn inte tar tillräcklig hänsyn till individuella behov. Dettaskulle försvåra möjligheten till individuella lösningar, samt i längden riskera att påverka rättsäkerheten för ensamkommande barn och därmed även rättens legitimitet när det gäller att flytta tillbaka utplacerade ensamkommande barn.

  • 400.
    Bredberg, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hedlund, Jenni
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Tilltro till sin egen kompetens på en utmanande arbetsplats: -En kvalitativ intervjustudie om socialsekreterares framgångsfaktorer i samtal med barn2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att identifiera socialsekreterarens framgångsfaktorer i samtal med barn. Studien tar utgångspunkt i socialsekreteraren perspektiv kring vad de tycker är det som får det att fungera isamtal med barn inom socialtjänsten. För att identifiera framgångsfaktorer i samtalet så blir det nödvändigt att även belysa när det fungerar mindre bra i samtal med barn.Studien är en kvalitativ intervjustudie där sex yrkesverksamma socialsekreterare intervjuats. Samtliga jobbar med barnsamtal på socialtjänsten inom Umeå kommun. Studien har tillämpat en semistrukturerad intervjuform och studiens data har bearbetats enligt konventionell innehållsanalys för att identifiera vad som möjliggör och vad som försvårar samtal med barn. Inledningsvis utgick inte studien från någon vetenskapsteoretisk grund men efter att resultatet bearbetats ansågs utvecklingspsykologisk teori tillämplig för att få en bättre förståelse för studiens resultat. De identifierade framgångsfaktorerna i samtal med barn utmynnade i vikten för socialsekreteraren att kunna känna tilltro för sin kompetens även när det finns organisatoriska utmaningar. Exempel på identifierade framgångsfaktorer är flexibilitet, trygghet i yrkesrollen, kunna skapa allians, nyfikenhet, förförståelse för barnets utveckling, att inte vara dömande i yrkesrollen samt att se till barnets bästa. Studiens slutsats belyser att socialsekreteraren blir det viktigaste verktyget i samtal med barn.

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