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  • 351.
    Hamde, Kiflemariam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Constructing cultural identity for the 'Good' Life: The case of Blin Culture Community in Stockholm2009In: Sustainable Cities: Diversity, economic growth and social cohesion / [ed] Maddy Janssens, Dino Pinelli, Dafne C. Reymen, Sandra Wallman, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009, p. 77-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 352.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Annandale, Ellen
    A Conceptual Muddle: An Empirical Analysis of the Use of 'Sex' and 'Gender' in 'Gender-Specific Medicine' Journals2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e34193-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: At the same time as there is increasing awareness in medicine of the risks of exaggerating differences between men and women, there is a growing professional movement of 'gender-specific medicine' which is directed towards analysing 'sex' and 'gender' differences. The aim of this article is to empirically explore how the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' are used in the new field of 'gender-specific medicine', as reflected in two medical journals which are foundational to this relatively new field. Method and Principal Findings: The data consist of all articles from the first issue of each journal in 2004 and an issue published three years later (n = 43). In addition, all editorials over this period were included (n = 61). Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were undertaken by the authors. Less than half of the 104 papers used the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender'. Less than 1 in 10 papers attempted any definition of the concepts. Overall, the given definitions were simple, unspecific and created dualisms between men and women. Almost all papers which used the two concepts did so interchangeably, with any possible interplay between 'sex' and gender' referred to only in six of the papers. Conclusion: The use of the concepts of 'sex' and gender' in 'gender-specific medicine' is conceptually muddled. The simple, dualistic and individualised use of these concepts increases the risk of essentialism and reductivist thinking. It therefore highlights the need to clarify the use of the terms 'sex' and 'gender' in medical research and to develop more effective ways of conceptualising the interplay between 'sex' and 'gender' in relation to different diseases.

  • 353.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.
    Haukenes, Inger
    Department of Public Mental Health, Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health; Research Unit for General Practice, Uni Research Health, Kalfarveien 31, Bergen, Norway.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Developing a Tool for Increasing the Awareness about Gendered and Intersectional Processes in the Clinical Assessment of Patients: A Study of Pain Rehabilitation2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, article id e0152735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: There is a need for tools addressing gender inequality in the everyday clinical work in health care. The aim of our paper was to develop a tool for increasing the awareness of gendered and intersectional processes in clinical assessment of patients, based on a study of pain rehabilitation.

    METHODS: In the overarching project named "Equal care in rehabilitation" we used multiple methods (both quantitative and qualitative) in five sub studies. With a novel approach we used Grounded Theory in order to synthesize the results from our sub studies, in order to develop the gender equality tool. The gender equality tool described and developed in this article is thus based on results from sub studies about the processes of assessment and selection of patients in pain rehabilitation. Inspired by some questions in earlier tools, we posed open ended questions and inductively searched for findings and concepts relating to gendered and social selection processes in pain rehabilitation, in each of our sub studies. Through this process, the actual gender equality tool was developed as 15 questions about the process of assessing and selecting patients to pain rehabilitation. As a more comprehensive way of understanding the tool, we performed a final step of the GT analyses. Here we synthesized the results of the tool into a comprehensive model with two dimensions in relation to several possible discrimination axes.

    RESULTS: The process of assessing and selecting patients was visualized as a funnel, a top down process governed by gendered attitudes, rules and structures. We found that the clinicians judged inner and outer characteristics and status of patients in a gendered and intersectional way in the process of clinical decision-making which thus can be regarded as (potentially) biased with regard to gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity and age.

    IMPLICATIONS: The clinical implications of our tool are that the tool can be included in the systematic routine of clinical assessment of patients for both awareness raising and as a base for avoiding gender bias in clinical decision-making. The tool could also be used in team education for health professionals as an instrument for critical reflection on gender bias.

    CONCLUSIONS: Thus, tools for clinical assessment can be developed from empirical studies in various clinical settings. However, such a micro-level approach must be understood from a broader societal perspective including gender relations on both the macro- and the meso-level.

  • 354.
    Hamreby, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    [D]elusive equality: gendered structures in the social work profession2013In: Tracing the women-friendly welfare state: gendered politics of everyday life in Sweden / [ed] Åsa Gunnarsson, Göteborg: Makadam , 2013, p. 125-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 355.
    Hamrin, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jonsson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    En kvalitativ studie om missbruk, föräldraskap och det sociala arvets betydelse2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studie baseras på intervjuer med tre mammor som missbrukat alkohol och droger men som numer är drogfri. Syftet var att undersöka dessa föräldrars upplevelse av hur deras barndom och sociala arv samt tidigare missbruk påverkat föräldraskapet och deras barn. Resultatet analyseras med stöd av tidigare forskning samt Bowlbys anknytningsteori. Mam-morna beskrev att missbruket fyllde funktionen att fylla ett hål som uppkommit på grund av olika typer av obearbetade trauman under barndomen. Graviditeten blev en vändning mot drogfrihet, men alla mammor återföll i missbruk några år senare. Barnen var dock en drivkraft som behövdes för att åter komma till insikt om att leva drogfritt. Konsekvenser för barnen var otrygghet, separationer, att föräldrarna inte finns där känslomässigt, en kaotisk hemmiljö, ogynnsamma föräldraattityder i form av ilska samt psykiska problem, vilket bekräftas av tidi-gare forskning. Insikten om missbrukets konsekvenser var dålig under tiden för missbruk men samtliga har efter behandling lyckats leva ett drogfritt liv, vilket gynnat barnens anknytning och relationen till föräldrarna. Det sociala arvet är ständigt närvarande i dessa personers liv. Att som barn vara utsatt för försummelse är sammankopplat med att utsätta sina egna barn för samma sak enligt tidigare forskning. Detta bekräftas i viss mån av mammorna men det finns även en strävan efter att vara den perfekta föräldern och att motverka det sociala arvet. Resul-tatet visar att det finns annat än missbruk som påverkar föräldraskapet och relationen till bar-nen, så som det sociala arvet, psykisk ohälsa, ekonomiska svårigheter, skilsmässor och sepa-rationer.

  • 356.
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Democratic caring evaluation for refugee children in Sweden2018In: Evaluation for a caring society / [ed] Merel Visse, Tineke A. Abma, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2018, p. 105-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is a democratic caring (DC) evaluator and what does it mean to be one, especially in terms of practicing responsibility for the stakeholders one works with in evaluation contexts? This chapter discusses the challenging issue of the responsibilities of evaluators, citing an evaluation of the reception of unaccompanied and separated children (UASC) in Umeå, a northern-Swedish community of over 100,000 residents. DC evaluation does not refer to a new evaluation approach. The notions of DC evaluation and the DC evaluator are used here in discussing what it means to be an evaluator who develops evaluation within a democratic and caring society. The discussion builds on both democratic evaluation and care theory. It is suggested that an enlightened DC evaluator is informed both by democratic evaluation and by research into good care, applying this knowledge reflectively during the evaluation process. This chapter discusses what is involved in developing a DC evaluation with a special focus on the evaluator's respon-sibilities and good care.

    The chapter continues with a brief presentation of the case: a democratic evaluation of care for a group of refugee children in Sweden. Subsequently, the theoretical underpinnings of democratic evaluation are presented. The next section discusses what DC awareness means and the responsibilities of a DC evaluator, illustrating this with examples from the case. The chapter concludes by considering what DC evaluation implies for the good care of refugee children.

  • 357.
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Evaluation of local sustainable development: approaches and use2011In: Evaluation for participation and sustainability in planning / [ed] Angela Hull, E.R. Alexander, Abdul Khakee and Johan Woltjer, London and New York: Routledge, 2011, p. 268-287Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in the evaluation of sustainable development has increased due to a growth in environmental policies and programmes. Another reason is that we live in a time when evaluation is common practice, something that rational actors and organisations should do. The EU undertakes evaluations of policies and programmes for sustainable development for the purpose of policy improvement and accountability, for example. Policy-makers at different levels of government also initiate evaluations in this field for different purposes, including learning and knowledge generation. At present there are many approaches to the evaluation of (local) sustainable development reported in the literature. There is a need to discuss the different approaches and highlight the advantages and disadvantages for local development practice. We know that many evaluations are not used and there is also a need to learn more about this. The concept sustainable development is ambiguous and when it comes to evaluation there is a need to recognise and take into account different understandings and perspectives of sustainable development (Eckerberg, 2007; Baker and Eckerberg, 2008; Baker, 1997; Fischer and Hajer, 1999). A presumption in the discourse on sustainable development is that today's society is unsustainable. Whether or not a current situation is unstable is also an empirical question. There is no consensus as to what can be interpreted as steps towards a sustainable future. Hence, we need to find ways to inter-subjectively describe the current situation and then examine how the situation has changed during the course of a policy or programme. How prevailing approaches to sustainable development evaluation capture the notion of sustainable development is not only an academic question. If the approaches are not considered relevant and useful by practitioners in the first place, one should not expect that the evaluation will be used in practice. Because more and more evaluations are initiated there is a need to discuss the different approaches' validity and usefulness together with the question of use in local practice. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of and discuss different approaches to evaluate policy and programmes for (local) sustainable development and to look into their usefulness for practice. Special attention is paid to how socio-economic and environmental indicators can be used in evaluation and how to assess environmental and socio-economic conditions and change. Lately, a number of sustainable development indicator systems have been developed to assist planning and evaluation for sustainable development. But how useful are such indicator systems and what can we learn from using indicators to describe local conditions and evaluate the impact of programmes? An evaluation should be sensitive to local conditions and, as illustrated in this chapter, official statistics can be used for describing local conditions and problems. There is also a need to discuss environmental and socio-economic indicators per se. Indicators can be used in many ways, e.g. to identify problems, set goals, monitor programme implementation and as one tool in evaluation. Whether a set of indicators is relevant and useful depends on "for whom" and "for what" they are developed and if they have face validity. This chapter pays special attention to indicators that are open, free and easy to access, and that make sense to different stakeholders, including decisionmakers, practitioners and engaged citizens, and to the question of local use of indicators. These issues will be discussed with examples borrowed from an evaluation of a project for sustainable development in a small municipality in the North of Sweden. A lot is written about indicators and monitoring systems on a "design level", but not much about the practical problems involved in using indicators and evaluation. This case is used to illustrate and discuss how to account for and interpret change over time, and to assess programme effects. Based on one external and one internal evaluation of the project, the problems of choosing and using evaluation are also discussed. Evaluations are sometimes initiated and used for strategic, symbolic or legitimisation purposes (Power, 1997; Chelimsky, 2006; Hanberger and Gisselberg, 2008; Vedung, 1997) and one must always be aware of the political nature of evaluation (Chelimsky, 2006; Weiss, 1998). I will discuss my own experience of how the evaluation tool was managed and used in this case. First, the chapter presents a brief overview of prevailing approaches to the evaluation of sustainable development followed by a discussion about sustainable development indicators developed at the local level in Sweden. Then, challenges involved in evaluating sustainable evaluation in practice will be discussed in relation to the project Sustainable Robertsfors.

  • 358.
    Hanberger, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Akut och katastrofmedicinskt centrum, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå.
    Metodologiska utgångspunkter för forskningsprogrammet ”Säkerhetsarbetets relevans och effekter”2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten har utvecklat och sammanfattat programmets metodologiska utgångspunkter. Centrala begrepp har definierats och motiverats. Principiella frågor kring utvärdering av relevans och effekter av säkerhetsarbeten och säkerhetsprogram har också diskuterats. De överväganden som diskuteras och de ställningstaganden som gjorts i rapporten kommer att vägleda arbetet och konkretiseras i forskningsprocessen. Utgångspunkterna kommer att vid behov anpassas till de utmaningar som forskarna ställs inför. I slutrapporten kommer programmets metodologiska lärdomar att redovisas och diskuteras.

  • 359.
    Hanberger, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Lindgren, Lena
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Evaluation of Swedish eldercare: a local perspective2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries institutionalize evaluation systems at different levels of governance to enhance quality in eldercare. In Sweden, which is the focus of this paper, the Health and Social Care Inspectorate (IVO) (www.iwo.se) is responsible for improving quality in eldercare through state supervision, and the National Board of Health and Welfare (www.socialstyrelsen.se) and the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) run a national indicator-based benchmarking evaluation system for improving eldercare. In addition, local evaluation systems are set up to monitor and evaluate eldercare. Although evaluation systems are built to support public policy and governance in different ways (Hanberger, 2011; Hood, 1991; Pollitt and Boukaert, 2011; Kusek and Rist, 2004; Radin, 2006; Van Dooren et al, 2010), ultimately they are aimed to improve quality of care but the ways to achieve this differ.

    Researchers are concerned about the growing accountability pressure that professionals are subjected to (Ubels, 2015), and if external supervision is doing more harm than good (Beddoe, 2012; Furness, 2009). Disputes concern the value of hard evaluation systems (e.g. state supervision) and soft forms (e.g. benchmarking systems), for improving quality in eldercare, and that performance measures do not reflect care provided to concrete persons in concrete situations (Jerak-Zuiderent 2015). Braithwaite et al (2007) demonstrate that external inspection of nursing homes often fails because of “a variety of kinds of regulatory ritualism” (p.11). Inspections tend to prioritize paper-work, to fill in forms on outputs and other required information instead of 'pick important problems and fix them'.

    While policy makers generally convey high expectations to external evaluation professionals convey lower expectations or even resistance. This reflects a tension between political (hierarchical) accountability (Behn, 2001), which implies that performance of social services is monitored against politically and administratively predefined standards, and professional accountability, where good performance is based on trust in the professional agent being qualified to make situated judgment and improve practice (Evans, 2011; Evetts, 2009). While evaluation for political accountability conveys an inbuilt distrust in professionals, it relies on professionals to improve the performance of services (Van Dooren et al, 2010). 

    Although evaluation systems are key components in eldercare governance (Clarkson & Challis, 2006; Johansson et al, 2015; Munro, 2004; Szebehely and Trydegård 2012) they have been scarcely researched, particularly how different systems operate in practice. If and how national and local evaluation systems, one by one and together, contribute to improve quality in eldercare is here further explored.

    This paper scrutinizes how two national evaluation systems and one local system operate in a Swedish municipality. National evaluation systems are the same for all communities whereas local evaluation systems vary (Lindgren, 2015). The three evaluation systems are all intended to support and maintain quality in eldercare. The focus is on the accountability and quality improvement functions, and the evaluation systems’ consequences for key-actors. A close look at one case, a Swedish municipality, allows for analyzing and comparing how the accountability and quality improvement function of three radically different evaluation system evolve and interplay at different local levels.

  • 360.
    Hanberger, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Mårald, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Utvärdering av Kärnavfallsrådets genomlysningsprogram2009Report (Other academic)
  • 361.
    Hansson, Heidi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Selina Bunbury, the Pope and Locational Feminism2008In: Irish Literature: Feminist Perspectives / [ed] Patricia Coughlan and Tina O’Toole, Dublin: Carysfort Press, 2008, p. 59-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 362.
    Hansson, Heidi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing Volumes IV and V: Women's Writing and Traditions2003In: Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 0348-8365, no 2, p. 100-104Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 363.
    Hansson, Isabelle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lång, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Frånvaron av barns perspektiv: En dokumentstudie om icke processbehöriga barns rätt att komma till tals i LVU-domar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barns rätt till delaktighet i ärenden som rör dem själva är en av grunderna i FN:s barnkonvention som ratificerades av Sverige år 1990. Tidigare forskning visar dock på brister dels när det gäller att föra fram barns åsikter och barns perspektiv, dels när det gäller att tillskriva barns åsikter betydelse i beslut som påtagligt berör deras tillvaro. I denna kvalitativa studie granskas tio förvaltningsrättsliga domar enligt Lag (1990:53) med särskilda bestämmelser om vård av unga rörande icke-processbehöriga barn. Genom en innehållsanalys undersöks de skriftliga domarnas innehåll utifrån teorier om barns perspektiv, barnperspektiv och maktbegrepp. Studiens resultat visar att vuxnas tolkning och tillskrivning av barns åsikter och behov dominerar över det utrymme barnen själva uttryckligen tillåts ta. Detta har tolkats via kategorier av subjektpositioner och objektpositioner, där domarnas olika aktörer uttryckt sig om barnet som objekt 384 gånger kontra uttryck om barn som subjekt som bara framträdde 55 gånger. Vidare fick barn ur barns perspektiv ett begränsat utrymme i de skriftliga domarna, där barnets representant i rättsprocessen också intog en tillbakadragen roll. I det analyserade materialet dominerade vuxna som intog ett vuxet barnperspektiv eller ett samhälleligt barnperspektiv. Ofta fick vårdnadshavarna ta plats på bekostnad av barnets utrymme. Det är de vuxna som bestämmer vilket utrymme barn tillåts ta vilket ofrånkomligen leder till frågan om barns perspektiv överhuvudtaget existerar i LVU-domar för ickeprocessbehöriga barn, där vuxna aktörer för talan för barnet

  • 364.
    Hansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Utvärdering av Jobba friskt: delrapport 20062006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten behandlar arbetsmiljösatsningen Jobba friskts förutsättningar och relevans för att bidra till ett hållbart arbetsliv med bättre livskvalitet och hög produktivitet inom åtta myndigheter. Jobba friskts målsättning är att inom två år kunna redovisa resultat som visar att en positiv trendförskjutning har uppnåtts på de arbetsplatser som deltar i projektet. Inom ramen för tre utbildningsmoduler erbjuds deltagarna i Jobba friskt praktiska verktyg och konkreta åtgärdspaket för att åstadkomma förändringar på sina arbetsplatser. Två av utbildningsmodulerna kan beskrivas som inriktade mot förebyggande och hälsofrämjande insatser. Inom dessa prioriteras faktorer som ska inspirera till att utveckla ett förebyggande och hälsofrämjande arbetsmiljöarbete. Den tredje modulen kretsar kring efterhjälpande åtgärder genom rehabilitering av långtidssjukskrivna. I rapporten rekonstrueras projektets underliggande antaganden och satsningen relateras till aktuell forskning och erfarenhet inom området. Med utbildningsinsatser i projektform framstår satsningens förutsättningar som goda. Utbildningsinnehållets generella nedtoning av verksamheternas specifika mål och krav riskerar att försämra förutsättningarna för hur man vid respektive arbetsplats inom de olika myndigheterna ska lösa den grundläggande samordningsfrågan med exempelvis kvalitets- och ekonomifrågor på grupp- och organisationsnivå. Bland slutsatserna framhålls att resultatet kan medföra ett ökat behov av partsgemensamma insatser för att underlätta överföringen och anpassningen av deltagarnas kunskap till de ordinarie verksamheternas krav.

  • 365.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Cross your arms2010In: The Leadership Challenge activites book / [ed] Elaine Biech, San Fransisco: Pfeiffer , 2010, p. 593-595Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 366.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Positive bombing2010In: The Leadership Challenge activites book / [ed] Elaine Biech, San Fransisco: Pfeiffer , 2010, p. 434-436Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 367.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Traditions in Basic Police Training Programs: An Interview Study among Swedish Police Students2015In: Economic Development, Crime, and Policing: Global Perspectives / [ed] Frederic Lemieux, Garth den Heyer and Dilip K. Das, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2015, p. 151-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 368.
    Hansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The Swedish Police Service's deportations of unaccompanied, asylum-seeking refugee children: The role of coping and general mental health2017In: Cogent Psychology, ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 1355629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of unaccompanied, asylum-seeking refugee children (UARC) coming to Sweden has increased 100 times during the last ten years. If children do not voluntarily return, the police are responsible for deportation. This study aims to describe police officers’ coping in the deportation of UARC and to investigate the associations between coping and general mental health in relation to the deportation of UARC among police officers by considering sociodemographic variables. Validity and reliability analyses were conducted for the use of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOCQ) in the context of UARC. Mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). The GHQ-12 was the outcome (dependent variable), and the experience of deportations of UARC, the WOCQ and sociodemographic variables were the independent variables. A 5-factor structure with some important similarities and differences to the original version was confirmed. This study shows that the police officers utilize different coping strategies in the same complex situations during the deportation of UARC. The use of escape-avoidance and self-control increased the likelihood of psychological disturbance, whereas positive reappraisal had a protective effect. This research also demonstrates that coping strategies have a moderating effect on general mental health in police officers’ work with the deportations of UARC. 

  • 369.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kaptelinin, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Interrupting or not: exploring the effect of social context on interrupters' decision making2012In: Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Making Sense Through Design / [ed] Lone Malmborg, IT University of Copenhagen, och Thomas Pederson, IT University of Copenhage, New York: ACM Press, 2012, p. 707-710Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades technology-induced interruptions emerged as a key object of study in HCI and CSCW research, but until recently the social dimension of interruptions has been relatively neglected. The focus of existing research on interruptions has been mostly on their direct effects on the persons whose activities are interrupted. Arguably, however, it is also necessary to take into account the “ripple effect” of interruptions, that is, indirect consequences of interruptions within the social context of an activity, to properly understand interrupting behavior and provide advanced technological support for handling interruptions. This paper reports an empirical study, in which we examine a set of facets of the social context of interruptions, which we identified in a previous conceptual analysis. The results suggest that people do take into account various facets of the social context when making decisions about whether or not it is appropriate to interrupt another person.

  • 370. Harrison, Katherine
    et al.
    Olofsson, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Becoming-a-firefighter: On the intra-active relationship between firefighters and their tools2016In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 158-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the relationship between the members of a local fire brigade in Sweden and their tools, as well as the organisational dynamics that forge this relation. Drawing on the work of Karen Barad [2007. Meeting the universe halfway. Quantum physics and the entanglement of matter and meaning. Durham: Duke University Press], and particularly her notion of intra-action, the intention is to unpick the strong material and symbolic relationship between men, masculinity and tools seen in this profession. While Barad’s work has been useful within feminist theories, few attempts have been made to investigate how her work can benefit critical studies of men and masculinities, one exception being Ulf Mellström [2016. From a hegemonic politics of masculinity to an ontological politics of intimacy and vulnerability? Ways of imagining through Karen Barad's work. Rhizomes, 30. Retrieved from http://www.rhizomes.net/issue30/mellstrom.html] who explores how intimacy may be productive in developing more nuanced understandings of masculinities. Inspired by this approach, this article explores how using Barad’s notion of intra-action as an analytical tool can facilitate a deeper exploration of men’s intimate relationships with technologies. The intra-action between the members of the local fire brigade and their firefighting tools is not a one-off encounter, but takes place continuously. Hence, while a tool – in a specific situation – becomes an integral part of the body and the identity of a group of people, it requires constant maintenance in order to accomplish successful fire extinctions.

  • 371.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Genusforskninginom medicin: forsknings- och folkhälsopolitisk policy 2002-20122012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den medicinska genusforskningen i Sverige har sedan början av 1980-talet utvecklats från att befinna sig i periferin till att bli allt mer etablerad inom medicinen. Detta har bland annat medfört starkare fokus på maktanalyser, kritik mot uteslutande biologiska förklaringsmodeller och utveckling av teoribildning. Genusforskning inom medicin har bidragit till viktig kunskap om såväl kvinnors som mäns hälsa och sjukdom. Svensk genusforskning inom medicin är också på flera områden internationell föregångare både vad det gäller empiri- och teoriutvecklande forskning. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att synliggöra hur stöd till genusintegrerad medicinsk forskning har skett via tre centrala myndigheter med betydelse för forskning och politik inom området genus inom medicin. De centrala myndigheterna är Vetenskapsrådet (VR), Forskningsrådet för arbetsliv och socialvetenskap (Fas) och Statens folkhälsoinstitut (FHI). Rapporten belyser processen från propositioner och regleringsbrev till utlysning och finansiering av genusforskning inom medicin. Detta görs genom analys av de två senaste forskningspolitiska propositionerna från år 2004 och 2008, samt av de folkhälsopolitiska propositionerna från 2002 och 2007. Därefter analyseras regleringsbreven för Vetenskapsrådet, Forskningsrådet för arbetsliv och socialvetenskap sam Statens folkhälsoinstitut under dessa år och i nästa steg den särskilda swatsningen på kvinnors hälsa som genomfördes år 2007. Slutligen görs en sökning efter projektbeskrivningar för genusforskning inom medicin i databaserna vid VR och Fas. Rapporten visar att skrivningarna kring behovet av genusforskning inom medi-cinområdet kraftigt har försvagats inom både forskningspolitisk och folkhälsopo-litisk policy under de senaste tio åren. Betydelsen av och satsningar på genusforsk-ning har under denna tidsperiod smalnats av till att framförallt handla om kvinnor och kvinnors hälsa. Även om satsningar på kvinnors hälsa forskningsmässigt inte behöver stå i motsatsförhållande till genusforskning inom medicin, utan tvärtom rymmer stora möjligheter till den samma, visar analysen av den särskilda satsningen på kvinnors hälsa att den endast innebär ett svagt stöd för genusforskning inom medicin. Samtidigt har varken VR, Fas eller FHI idag något uppdrag som rör kvinnors hälsa. Av de tre myndigheterna är det endast VR som genom den forskningspolitiska propositionen har ett uppdrag att finansiera genusforskning, men myndigheten tilldelas inte några särskilda medel för det. Idag finns det inte några politiska riktlinjer för ett systematiskt arbete med genusperspektiv inom medicin, som följaktligen inte är en prioriterad forsknings- eller folkhälsopolitisk inriktning. Detta innebär att möjligheterna att vidareutveckla genusforskning inom medicin begränsas, liksom kunskapen om hur ojämlikheter i hälsa kan förbyggas. Svensk genusforskning inom medicin är å ena sidan är en internationell konkurrenskraftig forskningsinriktning med hög kvalitet, men samtidigt ett ungt och tvärvetenskapligt ämne utan säker förankring i akademin å den andra. I ljuset av detta är det särskilt anmärkningsvärt att regeringens forsknings- och folkhälsopolitiska satsningar på genusforskning inom medicin har prioriterats bort.

  • 372.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Husligt arbejde, ligestilling og sundhed i en dansk kontekst: teoretiske perspektiver, empiriske analyser og metodologiske refleksioner2016In: Ulighed i sundhed: nye humanistiske og samfundsvidenskabelige perspektiver / [ed] Sine Lehn-Christiansen, Anne Liveng, Betina Dybbroe, Mari Holen, Nicole Thualagant, Iben Charlotte Aamann og Birgitta Nordenhof, Fredriksberg: Frydenlund Academic , 2016, 1, p. 229-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [da]

    Ligesom i det øvrige Norden har kvinder og mænd i Danmark erhvervsarbejde i næsten samme omfang, men befinder sig i forskellige jobtyper og i forskellige positioner på arbejdsmarkedet (Fagan & Burchell, 2012). Samtidig er det kvinderne, der udfører hovedparten af det ulønnede arbejde i hjemmet (Harryson et al., 2012; Craig & Mullan, 2010). Uligheder på disse områder betyder, at kvinder og mænd udsættes for forskellige arbejdsmiljøer og ansvar på jobbet såvel som i hjemmet, hvilket igen kan medføre kønnede konsekvenser for sundhedstilstanden (Elwér et al., 2013, Harryson et al., 2012). I dette kapitel undersøger jeg relationerne mellem husligt arbejde, ligestilling og sundhed ud fra et folkesundhedsperspektiv og ved hjælp af kønsmagtteorier. Kapitlet består af tre overordnede dele. I den første del beskrives de teoretiske perspektiver, som bruges til at forstå, hvordan ulønnet arbejde i hjemmet kan være relateret til god eller dårlig sundhed. Denne del beskriver folkesundhedsperspektivet, kønsmagtteorier og sundhedsdefinitioner. Den anden del inkluderer en empirisk undersøgelse, som bygger på spørgeskemaundersøgelser, som kvinder og mænd i Danmark har besvaret. Her beskrives de analysemetoder, som er blevet anvendt, og de resultater, man har fundet frem til, bliver diskuteret. Kapitlet afsluttes med metodologiske refleksioner over, hvordan kønsmagtteorier og socialepidemiologiske metoder kan bidrage til at forstå betydningen af ulønnet arbejde i hjemmet ud fra et folkesundhedsperspektiv.

  • 373.
    Harryson, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Elwér, Sofia
    Västerbottens läns landsting.
    Mer jämställt mindre sjukskriving? En epidemiologisk studie om jämställdhet och sjukskrivning på arbetsplatser.2017In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 38, no 1-2, p. 99-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses how sick leave among women and men are related to patterns of gender equality at the workplace. The study is based on register data from the  Longitudinal integration database for health insurance and labor studies (LISA), and includes 520 workplaces for 134 450 people. Indicators of gender equality at the workplace consist of women to men ratio in terms of number of employees, salaries, education and parental leave. Cluster analysis is used to identify patterns of gender equality. Differences in women’s and men’s sick leave are analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses.

    The analysis compares sick leave between six clusters of workplaces with different patterns of gender equality: 1) unequal with higher scores for men, 2) majority of women and equal salary, 3) equal salary and more parental leave for men, 4) unequal with equal representation, 5) equal in divergent spheres, 6) traditionally unequal. None of the clusters were completely gender equal, but the result of the analysis shows that the most gender equal workplaces have the lowest level of sick leave. For both women and men, the odds for sick leave are higher in workplaces with a majority of women that otherwise are relatively gender equal. For men, the odds for sick leave were higher at traditionally gender unequal workplaces.

    An equal representation of women and men at the workplace does not necessarily imply gender equality in other aspects such as salary, education and parental leave. More gender equal workplaces yet have lower risk of sick leave for both women and men, even though women consistently have higher rates of sick leave. A multidimensional approach to gender inequality at the workplace is important for understanding the skewed distribution of sickness absence between women and men in the general population.

  • 374.
    Hatje, Ann-Katrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Historiens mångfald: presentation av pågående forskning vid Institutionen för historiska studier, Umeå universitet2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 375.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    'Not a Problem Until it Becomes a Problem': A Qualitative Study of Values and Risks of In-house Family Ties in Swedish Workplaces2016In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 67-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-house family ties at workplaces occur in most contexts, and are associated with both advantages and disadvantages. On the basis of 40 interviews with human resource managers at Swedish workplaces, the values and risks of in-house family ties and their importance within the workplace are analyzed jointly, thus allowing for a holistic perspective. The interviews reveal values and risks on a strategic level, for day-to-day operations, for the social work environment, and on the level of individuals. Crucially, even when in-house family ties are perceived as uncomplicated, there is a latent risk that problems might arise. The interpretation of the role of in-house family ties is also strongly related to whether they are paired with asymmetrical (vertical) power relations. It also depends heavily on the chosen perspective-that of the organization, the social work environment, the individual, or the broader society-and the perceived advantages tend to come with corresponding inverted disadvantages.

  • 376.
    Hedback, René
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Skogsberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Närpolisverksamhet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportens syfte är att undersöka om det går att se någon förändring gällande antalet anmälda mängdbrott efter 1993, då genomförandet av närpolisreformen påbörjades, inom polismyndigheten i Stockholm län och polismyndigheten i Västernorrlands län. Vidare är syftet att undersöka om det finns likheter med närpolisreformens grundtanke och polisens nya värdegrund. I bakgrunden ges en återblick över polisens organisationsförändring och en kort beskrivning om närpolisreformen, närpolisverksamhet idag samt polisens nya värdegrund. Under teorikapitlet redogörs kort för Community policing, som är Steven P. Labs teori om närpolisverksamhet. Det ges även en definition av begreppet mängdbrottslighet. Under resultatdelen redovisas antalet anmälda mängdbrott mellan åren 1989-2009, aktuell population och geografisk yta inom de två ovan nämnda polismyndigheterna. Vidare redovisas ord som korresponderar med varandra, hämtade ur förarbeten till närpolisreformen och ur rapporten ”Så här tog vi fram polisens värdegrund”. Slutligen diskuteras om det går att se om närpolisreformen haft någon tydlig inverkan på mängdbrottsligheten gällande antalet anmälningar. Diskussion förs även kring de likheter som kan ses mellan polisens nya värdegrund och förarbetena till närpolisreformen. De slutsatser vi drar är att närpolisreformen har haft större genomslagskraft i Stockholms län än i Västernorrland. Begrepp som engagemang och tillgänglighet, vilket värdegrunden innefattar, kan således inte efterlevas fullt ut i Västernorrland.

  • 377.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    'Doing gender' in the wild berry industry: transforming the role of Thai women in rural Sweden 1980–20122016In: The European Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 1350-5068, E-ISSN 1461-7420, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 169-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Doing gender' has often been used as the theoretical entrance for research on gender issues in the social sciences. However, research has been accused of using the concept in a 'ceremonial' way, treating gendered structures as static. In response to this claim, this article investigates the process of 'hierarchization', or how gendered and racial hierarchies occur through everyday practices and political and economic contexts in the rural, wild berry industry in contemporary Sweden. The industry has gone through a thorough transformation, from irregular and small-scale production to regularized and large-scale production, which has affected the intersection of gender and racial structures. In particular, Thai women have gone from being active participants both as entrepreneurs and as workers, to working under native men, or being passive receivers of men's remittances. The mechanisms behind the intersection of gender and racial structures are a complex interplay of economic, social and institutional factors, which act on nested global, national and translocal scales.

  • 378. Hedberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Axelsson, Linn
    Abella, Manolo
    Thai berry pickers in Sweden: A migration corridor to a low-wage sector2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, around 5000 berry pickers travel from Thailand to Sweden to pick wild berries. This report describes the system and regulatory framework that surrounds the berry pickers, and analyses their costs and earnings. The report has a comparative approach, and compares the Thai berry pickers with other types of international labour migration and with their alternative earnings in Thailand. It also describes the workers demographic background and their use of the earnings from berry picking. The report is uniquely based on 165 standardized interviews with Thai berry pickers, which were performed in Thailand on behalf of this study. The main conclusion is that the costs surrounding berry picking are relatively high, as seen against the background of the short berry picking season and the time that the workers are spending in Sweden. On average, a berry picker pays around 4000 USD to work in Sweden for a period of 70 days. This means that, for the average worker, it takes 1,6 months to earn enough money to cover these costs, and thereafter remains only a limited time window to earn enough money to bring back to Thailand. Around 50 percent of the costs incurred are paid to Thai staffing agencies, and the other half is paid to Swedish berry companies as a daily fee for accommodation, food and access to a car. After the deduction of all costs, the average berry picker returns to Thailand with around 2000 USD from one season in Sweden. This figure is roughly three times that of what the average worker would normally earn in Thailand during the same amount of time. The worker with the highest net earnings from berry picking in Sweden, however, could make as much as 12 times more than what he or she would make in Thailand. The report also shows that the berry pickers, who often are men working as farmers in north-eastern Thailand where they also have their families, are travelling to Sweden repeatedly. A majority of the workers in the study had travelled to Sweden seven times or more, whereas the most frequent worker had travelled as much as 26 times. According to the study, there is no positive relationship between the frequency of work in Sweden and the size of vi the earnings. The earnings from berry picking are being used for daily consumption and investments in farming, housing and children’s’ education. In the report we discuss the motives behind the perpetuation of the migration system despite the relatively high costs. One explanation could be that the workers are being paid on a piece rate, meaning that they are aspiring, and believing that they can achieve, the same high earnings as the most successful workers. However, the payment system also implies that the workers are at high risk, since almost 50 percent note that they have earned less than the guaranteed wage that they are entitled to according to Swedish collective agreements. Another reason why berry pickers travel to Sweden repeatedly could be that it’s associated with relatively low social costs. The berry season in Sweden occurs at a suitable time in the Thai growing season, and the berry pickers are spending a relatively short time away from their families. The system surrounding berry picking can be seen both as it’s solution and it’s problem. On the one hand, Thai staffing agencies and Swedish berry companies are providing the infrastructure that sustains the system across time, thus enabling the workers to invest in their children’s futures, etc. On the other hand, the report shows a lack of transparency in relation to the costs, which might be excessive, while the costs and risks are put on the individual worker. The practice of using staffing agencies has been enacted as a way to avoid taxes and social responsibility in Sweden. As an alternative, it is possible that experienced berry pickers could use their own social networks to travel to Sweden, while starting up a cooperative and in that way, reduce the costs.

  • 379.
    Hedestig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Made in China: Översikt av Kinas digitala strategier Internet Plus och Made in China 20252017Report (Other academic)
  • 380.
    Hedestig, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Söderström, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    User Centred Design of Learning Spaces2012In: 7th EDEN Research Workshop: Book of Abstracts & Workshop Programme / [ed] Morten Flate Paulsen and András Szûcs, Budapest: The European Distance and E-learning Network (EDEN) , 2012, p. 119-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of learning spaces has to correspond to users’ needs and goals, how current and future practices evolve in them and users’ appropriation of new technologies. Financial constraints, increased diversity among students, more and more students taking part-time and flexible learning options, etc. have created new challenges for the design of learning spaces in higher education. In this new context innovative technologies are also emerging and the ways people communicate, coordinate and collaborate are continuously transforming and changing, which affect learning space design.

    Our empirical data consist of focus group interviews with students and directors of studies. Students preferred learning spaces that integrate formal learning activities with more informal and leisure activities. Directors favoured spaces that integrate their roles as teachers, researchers and administrators. Based on the results of the focus group interviews we designed three different learning spaces supporting classroom teaching as well as more informal learning, which allow students to perform both individual and group activities. The learning spaces described are not yet evaluated. We believe that the appropriation of a learning space is a complex process. Hence, when evaluating the use of learning spaces it is essential to understand users’ practices, their needs and goals and their use of learning resources.

  • 381.
    Heiel Ekeborg, Randi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Könsblandning är bra - men kön spelar ingen roll: Hur ungdomar ser på könsblandade respektive könsuppdelade arbetsgrupper.2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studie- och yrkesvägledare har till uppgift att motverka ungdomars könssegregerade val till gymnasieskolan. Bakgrunden till den här studien är en statlig utredning där hälften av ungdomarna tycker att det är viktigt med män och kvinnor i yrket medan den andra hälften inte tycker det spelar någon roll. Syftet är att ytterligare belysa hur ungdomar tänker och talar om kön och könsblandade grupper.

        Vilken betydelse tycker ungdomar att det har att både män och kvinnor arbetar inom ett yrke? Vilka är deras egna erfarenheter, och har könsfördelningen i olika yrken påverkat deras gymnasieval?

       Genom en diskursanalys av hur en grupp ungdomar i kvalitativa intervjuer talar om kön och könsblandade arbetsgrupper framkommer att ungdomarna har tillgång till en mängd olika diskurser om kön. 

       Analysen visar att ungdomarna har fått goda kunskaper om genus- och jämställdhetsfrågor i skolan, och är positiva till jämställda arbetsgrupper på en strukturell nivå. Ett könsblandat arbetsliv är viktigt eftersom könen kompletterar varandra. Men kunskaperna påverkar inte deras eget yrkes- och gymnasieval: för deras personliga del spelar könsfördelningen ingen större roll. Det är vilka individerna är som har betydelse för arbetet.

       Den könsblandade gruppen framträder som normativ, vidare uppvärderas manliga enkönade grupper medan kvinnliga nedvärderas, av både flickor och pojkar.  Det som upplevs som mest problematiskt är att vara ensam i grupper med det motsatta könet. Könsbrytare vill ingen i den här studien vara, då spelar könsskillnaderna stor roll.   

       Slutligen diskuteras hur lärare och studie- och yrkesvägledare genom att tona ner genusteorin och istället framhålla normbrytande praktiker kan förändra diskurserna eleverna har tillgång till, och på så vis påverka eleverna att göra fler könsöverskridande val till gymnasiet.  

  • 382.
    Heith, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages.
    Den avslöjande slöjdebatten: visar en fördomsfull bild av muslimska kvinnor som offer och förtryckta2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 383.
    Heith, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages.
    Gömda. En sann historia: romantik, spänning, melodram och populärorientalism2006In: Svenskläraren: Tidskrift för svenskundervisning, ISSN 0346-2412, no 4, p. 20-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 384.
    Heith, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages. litteraturvetenskap.
    Jenny Fossum Grönn ed., Nordic Voices. Literature from the Nordic Countries2007In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 163-166Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 385.
    Hellman, Samuel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Interferens i kända och okända nätverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I experimentella studier och observationsstudier så antar vi ofta att behandlingen en försöksperson får inte påverkar utfallet för någon annan försöksperson. Detta samspel mellan försökspersoner kallas interferens. I den här uppsatsen undersöktes interferens med hjälp av simulering, och de konsekvenser det kan få att inte ta hänsyn till det. För att göra detta skapades ett antal grupper där varje individ tilldelades ett antal kontakter inom gruppen, vilket vi kallar ett socialt nätverk. I dessa nätverk delades behandlingar ut slumpmässigt. Utifrån fördefinierade effekter för direkt och indirekt exponering av en behandling analyserades hur olika metoders skattningar av behandlingarnas effekt presterar, samt för- och nackdelar med varje metod. Genom att göra detta har vi visat hur felaktiga skattningar kan bli, om man inte tar hänsyn till interferens.

  • 386.
    Hellqvist, Adrian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Cognitive load in smartphone calendar applications2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of smartphone applications has increased dramatically in the last decade. With the technology being ubiquitous around us it is important to reduce the required cognitive demand for interacting with the technology. A common use of smartphones is calendar applications. This paper investigates if cognitive load can be lowered by using a calendar application specifically designed with cognitive load in mind compared to the widely used Google Calendar. The hypothesis is that the application will generate a lower cognitive load in comparison. An experiment was conducted where participants were instructed to perform a primary task by following given instructions of what to do in the calendar application while also performing a secondary task. There were no significant differences in performance except for two tasks where the new app performed worse. Participants also reported a higher level of frustration for the new app which could mean that their cognitive load was slightly higher. 

  • 387.
    Hene, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    "Den dyrkade Lasse och stackars lilla Lotta": en syntaktisk-semantisk studie av personbeskrivande adjektiv och adverb i populära ungdomsböcker1984Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to examine how characterizations of persons in books for children and adolescents relate to traditional sex role patterns and to determine if there is any difference in this respect between books for girls and books for boys as well as between popular books and quality books.Eight books for girls, eight books for boys, and four books for both girls and boys are examined. From these books 8,268 adjectives, adverbs, and participles which characterize persons or aspects of persons were excerpted. These excerpts have been categorized with regard to syntactic function into attributive adjectives, predicative adjectives, and adverbials, and with regard to meaning as to membership in semantic fields on different levels.The most frequent syntactic category in the material is "predicative" (42.8%), followed by "attributive" (33.4%). Female characters are more often described by predicative adjectives than are male characters, while the opposite is true of attributive adjectives. The choice of syntactic category seems to be determined more by what property or state the lexical item refers to, however, than by the sex of the character described.The semantic fields with the largest number of excerpts are MENTAL PROPERTIES AND STATES (32.9%), SOCIABILITY (15.0%), DRESS AND APPEARANCE (14.7%), and PACE AND MOVEMENTS (11.4%). These fields also dominate within the different categories of books and the descriptions of female and male characters respectively.Traditional sex role patterns are most obvious in characterizations of role characters with respect to their role in society and their relation to other people. Female characters are, e.g., almost exclusively described with respect to their private lives, while male characters are described in terms of their position in society. In the books for boys male characters are attributed a negative or rejecting attitude to their environment, while female characters are attributed a more positive or accepting attitude.The most traditional impression of the opposite sex is conveyed by the books for boys-to the extent that any such impression is conveyed at all by these books. The books for boys have very few female characters and very few descriptions of them. In general, male characters dominate in the books and it is clearly shown that to be a boy or man is more highly regarded than to be a girl or woman.No general differences between popular books and quality literature emerged from the analyses performed. Traditional sex role patterns are equally pronounced in the two types of books, even if there are differences between individual books.

  • 388.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Physiological- and Socio-Cultural Conditions for Performance in Women's Ice Hockey2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ice hockey community is founded on masculine norms and values, and the hockey rink is often described as “the home of men’s ice hockey”. Despite a growing popularity, women’s ice hockey has low priority in comparison to the men’s game. On top of that, the women’s game does not allow body checking, which makes it deviant from what some see as “the real game of ice hockey”. The checking prohibition causes physiological requirements to differ from the men’s game, and since women are underrepresented in ice hockey research, not much is known regarding the physiological- and socio-cultural conditions of women’s ice hockey. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate physiological- and socio-cultural conditions important for performance in women’s ice hockey.

    Methods: This thesis is unique in terms of the interdisciplinary approach between physiology and gender science, and the inclusion of studies based on both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative thematic interviews with ice hockey coaches from Sweden, Canada, and the United States were used to explore socio-cultural conditions in relation to performance and sport development (Paper I). Relative age effect (RAE) in relation to maturity status was examined through anthropometric measurements and a player questionnaire (Paper II). Physiological field- and laboratory assessments were used to investigate physiological conditions and performance in female competitive ice hockey players from Sweden (Paper III-IV), and players from Canada (Paper IV).

    Results: The findings from Paper I suggest that coaches need to maintain a holistic approach to coaching to be able to coordinate and optimize the effects based on available conditions. Socio-cultural conditions, such as structural and financial support, are mentioned as important to support opportunities in women’s ice hockey. Furthermore, the results (Paper I) show that female players in Canada and the United States have superior opportunities compared to female players in Sweden. These advantages are mainly attributed to the support provided by the North American education systems. The findings from Paper II suggest that the relative age effect (RAEs) in women’s hockey are also influenced by socio-cultural conditions. Significant RAE (p<.05) was found for Swedish players born in the third quartile (Q3) and for Canadian player born in the second quartile (Q2). Players born in the fourth quartile (Q4) are significantly (p<.05) underrepresentated in both countries. Players tend to be average or late maturers, but no differences can be found by country or position. The findings from Paper III show that field-based assessments are comparable to laboratory assessments with the purpose of predicting skating performance. The Prediction models accounted for 13.6 % to 42 % (laboratory-based models) and 24.4 to 66.3 % (field-based models) of the variance in skating time. Regardless of assessment method, uni-lateral assessments are superior to bi-lateral assessments. The results support the use of field-based assessments in Paper IV. The findings from Paper IV show various physiological profiles for female Swedish and Canadian players. Swedish players had less body fat (p=.007), more lean mass (p=.005), and greater aerobic fitness measured with the20-meter shuttle run beep test (p=<.001). Canadian players had greater maximal isometric leg strength (p=.026), exhibit a greater running acceleration (p=<.001), performed better in single leg standing long jumps (right leg p=.002, left leg p=.030), and showed better anaerobic endurance (p=.029) on- ice. No significant differences can be found between forwards and defenders.

    Conclusion: The findings of this study show that physiological- and socio-cultural conditions should both be considered in relation to performance in women’s ice hockey. For example, the various physiological profiles are probably an effect of the different socio-cultural conditions in Sweden and Canada. The Canadian profile may be better adapted to performance in ice hockey, but further research is needed to establish a relationship. Since women’s ice hockey often has somewhat limited resources, this knowledge may help optimize the effect of the available resources, and thus improve performance. Improved performance may have a positive long-term effect on the symbolic view of women’s ice hockey. Women can probably further optimize their physical performance in relation to their current conditions. But for permanent changes to occur, power structures in sport must also change. Women themselves have limited opportunities to affect the dominating gender norms and values in ice hockey.

  • 389.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. The National Graduate School of Gender Studies.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Running a team is like laying a puzzle: Elite coaches' perspective on women's ice hockey2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 390.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Kunskapsprövningar i klassrummet - att bedöma elever2010In: Lärande skola bildning: Grundbok för lärare / [ed] Lundgren, U.P., Säljö, R., Liberg, C., Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2010, 1, p. 295-337Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 391.
    Henrysson, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lapp eller nybyggare?1988Report (Other academic)
  • 392.
    Hentschel, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Den könade sången: exempel från grundskolans musikundervisning2018In: Estetiska ämnen och genus / [ed] Eva Skåreus, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2018, p. 145-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 393. Hernandez, Alison
    et al.
    Lorena Ruano, Ana
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Flores, Walter
    Pathways to accountability in rural Guatemala: a qualitative comparative analysis of citizen-led initiatives for the right to health of indigenous populations2019In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 113, p. 392-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strengthening citizen-led accountability initiatives is a critical rights-based strategy for improving health services for indigenous and other marginalized populations. As these initiatives have gained prominence in health and other sectors, there is great interest in how they operate and what makes them effective. Scholarly focus is shifting from measuring the efficacy of their tools and tactics to deepening understanding of the context-sensitive pathways through which change occurs. This paper examines how citizen-led initiatives' actions to strengthen grassroots networks, monitor health services and engage with authorities interact with local sociopolitical conditions and contribute to accountability achievements for indigenous populations in rural Guatemala. We used qualitative comparative analysis to first systematize and score structured qualitative monitoring data gathered in 29 municipal-level initiatives, and then analyze patterns in the presence of different forms of citizen action, contextual conditions and accountability outcomes across cases. Our study identifies pathways of collective action through which citizen-led initiatives bolster their power to engage and negotiate with authorities and bring about solutions to some of the health system deficiencies that they face. While constructive engagement is widely advocated as the most effective approach to interaction with authorities, our study indicates that success depends on wider processes of community mobilization. To overcome the power asymmetries that marginalized groups face when engaging with authorities, iterative processes of network building and participatory monitoring as well as persistence in their demands are critical. These processes further provide an enabling environment for moving beyond the local and projecting indigenous voices to engage with authorities at higher governance levels. Initiatives also applied adversarial legal action as an alternative engagement strategy that contributed to bolster citizen power. Our findings indicate the potential of collective power generated by the actions of citizen-led initiatives to enable marginalized populations to hold authorities accountable for health system failures. 

  • 394.
    Hjortfors, Lis-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Laestadianismens importance for Sami identity in the Lule Sami area2016In: Gränser, mobilitet och mobilisering: Boundaries, mobility and mobilisation : Nationell konferens för genusforskning = Swedish conference for gender research / [ed] Silje Lundgren, Maja Lundqvist, Björn Pernrud, Göteborg: Nationella sekretariatet för genusforskning , 2016, p. 113-114Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 395. Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan
    et al.
    Colon, Celian
    Boza, Gergely
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne
    Pflug, Georg
    Poledna, Sebastian
    Rovenskaya, Elena
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Measuring, modeling, and managing systemic risk: the missing aspect of human agency2019In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is problematic to treat systemic risk as a merely technical problem that can be solved by natural-science methods and through biological and ecological analogies. There appears to be a discrepancy between understanding systemic risk from a natural-science perspective and the unresolved challenges that arise when humans with their initiatives and interactions are included in systemic-risk considerations. It is therefore necessary to investigate possible fundamental differences and similarities of systemic risk with and without accounting for human involvement. Focusing on applied and implementation aspects of measuring, modeling, and managing systemic risks, we identify three important and distinct features characterizing such fundamental differences: indetermination, indecision, and responsibility. We contend that, first, including human initiatives and interactions in systemic-risk considerations must emphasize a type of variability that is especially relevant in this context, namely the role of free will as a fundamental source of essential indetermination in human agency. Second, we postulate that collective indecision generated by mutual uncertainty often leads to the suspension or alteration of rules, procedures, scripts, and norms. Consequently, the associated systemic risks cannot be incorporated into explanatory models, as the new causal rules cannot be predicted and accounted for. Third, analogies from biology and ecology, especially the idea of ‘contagion,’ downplay human agency, and therefore human responsibility, promoting the false belief that systemic risk is a merely technical problem. For each of these three features, we provide recommendations for future directions and suggest how measuring, modeling, and managing approaches from the natural-science domain can best be applied in light of human agency.

  • 396.
    Hofverberg, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Selection of covariates used for identification when conducting control plans: A simulation study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the case where a causal structure between variables is known and can be represented by a directed acyclic graph, this thesis examines the procedure of conducting a control plan. A control plan is an operation where a treatment variable is set according to some function of other variables, with the goal of bringing the response variable close to a specic value, as well as to reduce its variance. Evaluating such control plans through trial and error however, can be a costly and time consuming task. Fortunately, it is possible to estimate the effects of conducting such a control plan prior to actually implementing it, through the use of observational data. Besides the variables used in the control plan, it is often necessary to account for other variables as well in order to achieve unbiased estimations. Focusing mainly on these variables, simulations will show how different sets of variables will affect the variance of the estimations, in terms of the effect of the control plan, both on the mean and on the variance of the response. Besides using normally distributed variables, an attempt will also be made to evaluate binary treatment variables. However, lacking theoretical results, no firm conclusions can be drawn.

  • 397.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Att lokalisera utbildning, sysselsättning och boende1984Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study methods are developed for locating places of education, employment opportunities and housing.The first model allocates places for upper secondary (Am. High School) education in space with the aid of a location-allocation model using capacity constraints and distance-dependent demand. The solution is obtained by an heuristic node-swapping method. For each line of study it sets down the number of locations that could offer such courses, their physical location, their capacities and their geographical catchment areas. The educational resources are allocated according to a criteria that minimizes a weighted sum of geographical distances between the schools and their potential pupils, their applicants and the labour market. In connection with applications of the model, analyses suggest that the location and dimensioning of upper secondary education are primarily steered by the local pupil demand, secondly by the desire for an even regional allocation and thirdly by the demand from the local labour market.In the second model, government employment programmes are allocated among sectors of the economy and sub-districts within a municipality over time. The aim is to offer a sufficient number of employment opportunities for the lowest possible level of public expenditure - irrespective of which support sectors happened to have resources at their disposal at the time of investigation. Given frequencies of persons employed are sought for various groups of people, e.g. men, women, or peripheral residents in the municipality. One general result is that the existing allocation of support resources on sectors only yields less than half as many employment opportunities as could be provided with the same resource input allocated in a different way. Even with a more efficent resource allocation, the amount of support needs to be at least doubled in order to produce national average levels of employment over the long term, within the studied municipality.The third model represents a local housing market with a varying housing stock and population. The changes of accommodation are described for the individual households, giving information on preferences and restrictions. A large proportion of home moves are due to changes in the household composition, changes which are explained internally within the model. The model shows how the new production of housing should be distributed by types of dwelling in different geographically delimited areas over time. The individual's welfare losses during the wait for a new place to live and the costs of empty accommodation are weighed against each other in the allocation algorithm of the model. The model is qualitatively different from traditional models using aggregated data. However models with data on individuals, individual decision processes, and interplay between different actors can probably be developed into usable bases for decision.

  • 398.
    Holm, Hampus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Maskuliniteter: En intervju- och observationsstudie av gymnasiepojkars konstruktion av maskulinitet2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om maskulinitetsbildning hos gymnasiepojkar i Sverige. Mitt syfte var att ta reda på vad maskulinitet kan vara och hur det uttrycks i skolan hos en grupp gymnasiepojkar. För att göra detta ville jag beskriva och analysera hur pojkarna i en gymnasieklass diskuterade begreppen manlighet, kvinnlighet, vänskap och kärlek och hur de agerade i skolan inom dessa teman. Jag ville även se om det i dessa sammanhang fanns en hegemonisk maskulinitet i pojkgruppen och vilka uttryck den i så fall tog sig i pojkarnas relation till varandra. Som sista forskningsfråga ville jag ta reda på om andra maskuliniteter än den hegemoniska visade sig, och om så var fallet, hur gruppen hanterade dessa. Jag använde mig av en poststrukturalistisk teori av Robert Connell som beskriver maskulinitet som en social konstruktion i en diskurs där olika maskuliniteter rangordnas och definieras av en hegemonisk maskulinitet. För att kunna observera maskulinitetsbildningen hos gymnasiepojkar använde jag en kvalitativ metod med deltagande observationer och intervjuer. Materialet analyserade jag med hjälp av Nigel Edleys diskursanalysapparat som innefattar nyckelbegreppen tolkningsrepertoarer, ideologiska dilemman och subjektens position. Resultatet visade att pojkarna uttrycker två olika tolkningsrepertoarer där den ena innebar en medveten och uttalad vilja att ifrågasätta och bryta mot traditionella heteronormativa mönster. Den andra tolkningsrepertoaren visade en mer traditionell heterosexuell könsroll med manlig överordning och en tydlig dikotomi mellan könen. Inom denna repertoar visade sig en hierarki med olika positioner där en pojkes brott mot den manliga normen genom att bete sig som en tjej medförde den lägsta positionen. Repertoaren hade en hegemonisk position då den kunde definiera och positionera andra subjekt. De två maskuliniteterna var tätt sammanflätade och även om vissa pojkar var mer benägna åt endera hållet så visade samtliga pojkar prov på båda.

  • 399.
    Holmberg Yamada, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Enjoying freedom or priced out of parenthood?: Attitudes to childlessness on Japanese Internet forums2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Declining birth rate in Japan has been acknowledged as a demographic crisis since the 1970s. Higher education and better jobs has given women freedom and alternatives to starting a family, and some say the value of marriage and children has decreased overall. This study explored attitudes towards childlessness on Japanese Internet forums in order to understand why Japan, a country with continually persistent and conservative gender roles, can experience such a drastic population decline. Especially since this phenomenon seems paradoxical in relation to women’s traditional roles in society. This paper has explored how people spoke about childlessness and two major discourses emerged. The attitudes were categorized into a modern versus a traditional discourse on childlessness. Money, conservative gender roles and relationships were identified as important reasons affecting the decision to have children or not. However, only money seemed as a rationale behind childlessness accepted in both discourses.

  • 400.
    Holmgren, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    De glömda barnen: En fallstudie över Umeå kommuns stödgruppsverksamheter för barn och unga i familjer med missbruksproblematik2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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