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  • 351.
    Thörn, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    En bostad för hemmet: idéhistoriska studier i bostadsfrågan 1889-19291997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to examine the placing of the housing question on the agenda of social policy, the implications of housing for society, and the possibilities for simple shelter to be transformed into real family homes. The debate emphasizing the dwelling as the smallest social component and the home as the most important place for the raising of citizens has been studied.

    The dissertation consists of four essays, each of which can be seen as a separate study yet at the same time as interrelated due to the overall theme of the dissertation, housing and the home. The period under investigation is 1889-1929 and the place is Stockholm.

    The first section deals with philanthropic building activities, described through four representative examples: Föreningen för Välgörenhetens Ordnande, Stockholms Arbetarehem, Govenii Minne and Ella Heckscher's home for tubercular female workers. This section opens with two introductory chapters treating the philanthropic attitude toward housing and the relation of the family to the housing question, respectively.

    The theme of the second section is the significance of aesthetics for the home. This section also opens with two introductory chapters, whereof the first describes the aesthetic ideals of the epoch and the second presents the so-called "aesthetic educators". A number of pamphlets written about the home are discussed, as well as a selection from the home exhibitions of the day. In a closing chapter, the entrance of the architects into the housing-question arena is presented.

    The third study deals with politics in the broad sense of the term. The interest of social reformers for the housing question is traced by examining organizations like Studenter och Arbetare and Centralförbundet för Socialt Arbete. The second chapter deals with the contributions of academics to the housing question. The social democratic women belonging to the Stockholm's Women's Club are heard from, and the engagement of women in this question is further delineated through studying periodicals like Morgonbris and Tidevarvet. In the closing chapter, the establishment and treatment of the housing question within the municipal council of Stockholm is discussed.

    The fourth and final section treats the HSB. First, the origins of the HSB in 1923 via the tenant's movement and guild socialism are discussed. Thereafter the organization and membership of the HSB is described. A brief biography of Sven Wallander, the leading figure of the HSB is provided, followed by a chapter on the periodical Vår Bostad. The final two chapters discuss the materialized ideas themselves: the buildings built by the HSB and the homes which were set up in them, stimulated by the actual physical buildings and discussions about the right way of living in them.

    The story of the home has solid empirical grounding. This study has been conducted from different perspectives in order that a more nuanced knowledge might be acquired. Vision and practice have proven to be so closely interwoven that it is not always possible to distinguish between them.

  • 352.
    Thörn, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Hemkunskap: om vetenskapliggörandet av boendet före folkhemmet2006In: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, p. 113-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 353.
    Wangefelt Ström, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för idé- och lärdomshistoria.
    Heligt, hotfullt, historiskt : kulturarvifieringen av det katolska i 1600-talets Sverige2011In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, p. 29-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heligt – Hotfullt – Historiskt: Kulturarvifieringen av det katolska i 1600-talets Sverige

    Helena Wangefelt Ström

    Abstract

    This article aims at bringing together two concepts with many similarities, heritage and sacredness, using theories presently under construction in an international and interdisciplinary research field dealing with heritage production, politics and power. Focus is on the process and the agenda more than the product, and particularly on the transvaluation taking place when something is given a heritage status: the form is intact, but the content is new and different. These theories are applied on a 17th century Swedish national inquiry for historical remains or ”antiquities”, ordered by the King and performed by the local clergy, an inquiry where not only the expected and specifically requested runic stones, pre-historic graves or famous battle fields were listed, but in many cases also far more recent Catholic items and memories, thus transformed from sacred objects to a part of the national heritage. The hypothesis presented and argued for is that this listing and, in fact, heritage production also worked as an act of control and domestication of the potentially dangerous: the threatening, former sacred, was made harmless when – literally or figuratively – locked up in a museum case.

  • 354.
    Wasniowski, Andréaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Den korrekta avvikelsen: vetenskapsanvändning, normalitetssträvan och exkluderande praktiker hos RFSL, 1950-19702007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Correct Deviation: The Use of Science, the Striving for Normality and Excluding Practices of RFSL, 1950-1970

    The thesis focuses on the organisation today known as the Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights (RFSL) and its activities from the founding year 1950 to around 1970. RFSL was the first Swedish organisation that worked for non-heterosexual persons. The aim was to achieve what was called sexual equality, by which was understood that a person should be able to live without social obstacles in accordance with his or her sexual orientation. It should be noted that even though RFSL was a member organisation, it was never member orientated, and the political ambition was considered more important than the everyday problems of the members. Anyway, sexual equality included both juridical and a social aspects. In its analysis RFSL defined the main problem as intolerance due to lack of knowledge and concluded thereby that the solution lay in enlightenment; the spread of scientific and objective information about both homosexuals and the nature of homosexuality. As the thesis shows, RFSL’s method and activities can be characterised as a strategy of assimilation, which was manifested in two ways. First, RFSL argued that the represented group did not deviate too much from the norms of society, i.e. in a way that would be regarded as unacceptable. Consequently certain forms of deviations were excluded. For instance, RFSL tried to distance itself from sadism, masochism and transvestism but also from pornography and prostitution. The ideal homosexual was well-behaved and conformed in every way to the norms of society, not least gender norms. But there was a discrepancy between what was publicly shown and what was internally tolerated and accepted. Hence it appears plausible to interpret RFSL as pragmatically oriented and acting in accordance with tactical deliberations and not always from real beliefs. Second, RFSL argued, often with references to different scientific sources, that there was no essential difference between hetero- and homosexuality. Instead all people were regarded as positioned on a scale, with sexual orientation being a matter of degree rather than essence. This recognition also holds a critique of the notion that a two-sex model has replaced an earlier one-sex model. Instead the thesis argues for a continuity of some underlying figures of thoughts. These are not only present in the expressions of RFSL but also in the early 20th century scientific discourse and in the sources to which RFSL referred. Besides RFSL’s view on the nature of homosexuality and the normative and excluding practices, the thesis also places the organisation in an international context. Around 1950 the first political gay right organisations took shape not only in Sweden but also in other countries. As a member of the International Committee for Sexual Equality (ICSE), RFSL had an active international exchange with organisations from Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands and also from US. In its publication RFSL also reported news from abroad that where considered relevant to the members.

  • 355.
    Webb, Lewis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. University of Gothenburg.
    Inter imperium sine fine: Thule and Hyperborea in Roman literature2018In: Visions of North in premodern Europe / [ed] Dolly Jørgensen and Virginia Langum, Brepols, 2018, p. 35-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 356.
    Wedin, Tomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    The Rise of the Knowledge School and Its Relation to the Resurrection of Bildung2015In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, ISSN 2001-7766, E-ISSN 2001-9076, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the historical background to the reactivation of the concept of Bildung in the Swedish school debate during 1980s is presented. The article argues that the resurrection of this concept is intimately related to the foundation of the discourse of the Knowledge School (Kunskapsskolan), and shows how these two terms were central in school political program developed by the Knowledge Movement (Kunskapsrörelsen) in the early 1980s. The article shows how the concept of Bildung since it was resurrected not only has been highly contested, but that it was actually reactivated within the same movement that helped pave the way for the manifest economic-instrumentalist school discourse that dominates the current curriculum.

  • 357.
    Wendt, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Rasbiologisk upplysning: En analys av svenska läroböcker 1930-19502015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 358.
    Winninge, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Religious Studies.
    Judendom och kristendom i konflikt och dialog: inåt, utåt, då och nu2004In: Dialoger: islam, judendom, kristendom och samhälle / [ed] Per-Inge Planefors, Umeå: Stiftelsen för Samtidskultur , 2004, 1, p. 82-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 359.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ”Forskningen om individ och samhälle måste internationaliseras”: Alva Myrdals samhällsvetenskapliga internationalism 1950–19552018In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, ISSN 0076-1648, p. 235-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early post-World War II international social science was marked by paradoxical tendencies. On the one hand it experienced a rapid expansion underblown by a new optimistic internationalism. On the other hand, many of the initiatives taken were increasingly affected by emerging Cold War tensions. Embedded in these cross-currents of internationalism and geopolitics, UNESCO’s Department of Social Sciences (SSD) played a key role. The aim of this article is to analyze Alva Myrdal’s social scientific internationalism during her term as Director of UNESCO’s SSD, 1950–1955, in the context of other contemporary ideas on international social science. Empirically centred around fifteen key texts by Myrdal, the article argues: first, that a relatively distinct core in Myrdal’s view on international social science can be discerned; second, that her social scientific internationalism by large were in line with the previous and dominating views within UNESCO’s SSD, but also that Myrdal introduced and advocated a more interdisciplinary, applied and polycentric approach to international social science; third, that some discrete but important displacements can be discerned – in spite of the short period – over time.

  • 360.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Kollektivhuset och villa Myrdal: om samhällsvetenskapens rum i folkhemmet2006In: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, p. 130-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 361.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Reforming the science-policy boundary: the Myrdals and the Swedish tradition of Governmental Commissions2008In: Academics as public intellectuals / [ed] Sven Eliaeson and Ragnvald Kalleberg, Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008, p. 173-195Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per Wisselgren's chapter on academics as public intellectuals, is concerned with the role of extra-academic social research and the relationship between social science and social policy in the Swedish interwar period. It focuses on the intersection between, on the one hand, the long domestic tradition of governmental commissions and, on the other, Gunnar and Alva Myrdal’s trajectories as public intellectuals. Special attention is paid to the so-called Population Commission (1935-38), which was one of the Alva and Gunnar Myrdal’s earliest and most important works but also one of the largest and most influential commissions in the history of Swedish social policy. By analyzing the Population Commission in terms of a historically situated “trading zone” or “boundary organization”, i.e. a place where different knowledge cultures have met and spheres of action for social expertise have been negotiated and stabilized, Wisselgren argues that the Myrdals both conceptualized and re-formulated the science-policy boundary in a new way on the discursive level and practically and institutionally widened the sphere of action for social researchers.

  • 362.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vetenskap och /eller politik?: Om gränsteorier och utredningsväsendets vetenskapshistoria2008In: Mångsysslare och gränsöverskridare: 13 uppsatser i idéhistoria, Umeå: Institutionen för Idé- och samhällsstudier, Umeå universitet , 2008, p. 103-119Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 363.
    Ņkerberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Knowledge and pleasure at Regent's Park: the gardens of the Zoological Society of London during the nineteenth century2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this dissertation is the Zoological Gardens of the Zoological Society of London (f. 1826) in the nineteenth century. Located in Regent s Park, it was the express purpose of the Gardens (f. 1828) to function as a testing-ground for acclimatisation and to demonstrate the scientific impor­tance of various animal species.

    The aim is to analyse what the Gardens signified as a recreational, educational and scientific institution in nineteenth-century London by considering them from four different perspectives: as a pan of a newly-founded society, as a part of the leisure culture of mid-Victorian London, as a medi­ator of popular zoology and as a constituent of the Zoological Society's scientific ambitions.

    After an introduction which describes the devlopment of European zoos, Chapter two recapitu­lates the early years of the Society and the Gardens. The original aims of the Society—science and acclimatisation located in a museum and zoological garden—as stated in various prospectuses, are examined. The implications of acclimatisation, it being a problematic practice, are outlined and the connections between acclimatisation, the Society, the Gardens and the British Empire are also briefly considered. The founding of the Gardens is extensively described as well as how the animals were obtained and how exhibits were arranged.

    Chapter three is based primarily on the popular response to the Gardens in the 1850s when, after a period of decline, the institution once again became a common London visiting-place. The most important questions of this chapter concern the public and how it reacted to the Gardens of this period. The financial problems preceding the five years between 1850 and 1855 ^ described as well as how the Society managed to regain its popularity. This process was closely linked to the decision in 1847to let non-members of the Society enter the Gardens, and the implications of this resolution are discussed. As a background to the Gardens' popularity, two other London recreations are also described: the Colosseum Panorama and the Surrey Zoological Garden. The Surrey Zoological Gar­den especially is interesting, as it was a rival of the Society's Gardens, and the different attractions of these establishments are considered.

    Chapter four focuses on the official and non-official guidebooks to the Gardens and the implica­tions of these as mediators of popular zoology. The historical and cultural connection between the guidebooks and travel handbooks is oudined and also how the genre as a whole is constructed. The progress and development of the Society's guidebooks during the nineteenth century is described and the differences between these guidebooks and the non-official ones are examined. Finally, with the aid of Victorian children's books, I argue that the guidebooks can literally be considered as travel handbooks since a visit to the Gardens may be regarded as a journey of knowledge.

    Chapter five is an in-depth study of the zoological science of the Gardens. The scientific work of the Society is briefly described, starting with the Committee of Science and Correspondence, and the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. The Proceedings reports that base their findings on animals in the Gardens are then described together with minor detours into the history of taxonomy and morphology.

  • 364.
    Åkerberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Undervattensvärldar i miniatyr: akvarier som rationell rekreation under brittiskt 1800-tal2006In: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, p. 30-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 365.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Tortyr och pinligt förhör - våld och tvång i äldre svensk rätt2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Torture in the past is the subject of this dissertation. The aim of the study is to discuss one of the grand narratives of Swedish history. In an evolutionary frame Sweden has been put forward as a country which early developed judicial security for citizens. This dissertation contains a critique against an objectivistic view of the concept of knowledge. It proposes instead an evolutionary concept. In the discussion of sources I argue that although historians have been skilful in their evaluation of sources important problems still remains.

    The phenomenon of torture is here investigated at three different levels, as discourse, as norm and as practice. A point of departure is an overview of the discourse of torture and the use of torture in the past, from ancient times to the beginning of the early modern period in Europe. The purpose of that study is to gain some general insight concerning torture to which the main study, with focus on the phenomenon of torture in Sweden, could be related. The presentation of the history of torture starts in ancient Greece. The ability to use torture was regulated in Greek society. An important element in the discourse concerns a social regulation of torture; another is the connection with different concepts of truth.

    The conditions for the use of torture have changed over time. In early Middle Ages the practice of ordeals was common in Europe. In difficult cases tribes decided guilt with help from God. When the Christian church during the High Middle Ages rose to power it prohibited the use of ordeals. The obvious consequence of this act was that people had to make decisions by themselves, when they no longer could turn to God’s will when making decisions in severe judicial cases. In this context torture became important and was put into use. The existence of ordeals has been an obstacle to the use of torture. Torture had a strong position at the end of the medieval era, and this dissertation discusses whether the legislation is to be understood as implementation of torture or as regulation of an already existing practice.

    The first study of torture in a Swedish context deals with the discourse concerning the concept of torture. It is found that accusations of use of torture were used in propaganda and that torture in this context was understood as something unswedish and shameful.

    Next part focuses on the Old Swedish legislation prior to 1614. It is found that there is a prohibition against torture in the legislation from the fourteenth century, which must be regarded as a first attempt in Swedish law to regulate the use of torture. The study also focuses on the fact that the plaintiff had such extensive rights, that these could enable use of torture.

    The last part of the dissertation deals with the legal practice in Stockholm between 1474 and 1614. It identifies places for torture, actors and the judicial context in which the use of torture was practised.

5678 351 - 365 of 365
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