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  • 351.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Zetterdahl, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Hanes, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Loved ones matter: family effects and stock market participation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper new and detailed empirical evidence on the impact of family on individuals’ stock market participation decision is provided. Since influence is likely to vary systematically over different types of individuals the heterogeneous effect of social interaction, in a setting including both community as well as within-family effects, is further examined. The main results indicate that individuals’ likelihood for subsequent participation increases (decreases) following positive (negative) parental and partner stock market experiences. The effect of social interaction is further found to be of relatively greater importance for individuals with relatively lower levels of financial literacy and for individuals with an on average higher level of interpersonal trust. In terms of gender, both male and female participation is positively affected by family influence, while community effects mainly pertain to males.

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  • 352.
    Henriksson, Kajsa-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lika lön, oavsett kön?: En studie av kommunanställdas lönegap 2001-20132015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 353.
    Holmberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Crowdfunding and Economic Growth: Potential Effects on Investment Efficiency2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crowdfunding is an alternative form of finance that have emerged with the widespread adoption of the internet. With the increasing utilization of crowdfunding, this thesis sets out to theoretically investigate whether crowdfunding could affect economic growth. If the choice of investment allocation mechanism could have any effect on the efficiency of investments made in the economy. The results show that crowdfunding could have a potential effect on the leakage of investments in the economy. The relative accuracy of the screening process and the transaction costs coupled with the method used for conducting the investments could affect the socially optimal proportion of investments conducted using crowdfunding.

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  • 354.
    Holmberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The Relative Efficiency of Swedish Secondary Schools: An estimation using Stochastic Frontier Analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The question of public education is of importance for a society and its citizens as education is contributing to the stability of a democratic society and affects the expected future income levels for the individuals receiving it. A significant share of the Swedish GDP is devoted to the provision of educational services which raises the necessity of monitoring the use of these resources. This thesis endeavoured to estimate a production possibility frontier and the relative efficiency of Swedish upper secondary schools. To accomplish this then Stochastic Frontier Analysis was implemented. Data on student results, teacher ratio and students’ socioeconomic characteristics for individual schools during the scholastic years of 2006/2007 through 2015/2016 gathered from the Swedish National Agency for Education was used in this study. The effects of competition on school performance and the relative efficiency of public and independent schools were two factors of interest in the thesis. The results of the analysis point toward a possible positive relationship between local school competition and student results, that Swedish secondary schools could have high average levels of technical efficiency and that the type of the principal organiser might be of minor importance for school efficiency.

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  • 355.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Essays on credit markets and banking2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers related to banking, credit markets and financial stability.   

    Paper [I] presents a credit market model and finds, using an agent based modeling approach, that credit crunches have a tendency to occur; even when credit markets are almost entirely transparent in the absence of external shocks. We find evidence supporting the asset deterioration hypothesis and results that emphasize the importance of accurate firm quality estimates. In addition, we find that an increase in the debt’s time to maturity, homogenous expected default rates and a conservative lending approach, reduces the probability of a credit crunch. Thus, our results suggest some up till now partially overlooked components contributing to the financial stability of an economy.    

    Paper [II] derives an econometric disequilibrium model for time series data. This is done by error correcting the supply of some good. The model separates between a continuously clearing market and a clearing market in the long-run such that we are able to obtain a novel test of clearing markets. We apply the model to the Swedish market for short-term business loans, and find that this market is characterized by a long-run nonmarket clearing equilibrium.   

    Paper [III] studies the risk-return profile of centralized and decentralized banks. We address the conditions that favor a particular lending regime while acknowledging the effects on lending and returns caused by the course of the business cycle. To analyze these issues, we develop a model which incorporates two stylized facts; (i) banks in which lendingdecisions are decentralized tend to have a lower cost associated with screening potential borrowers and (ii) decentralized decision-making may generate inefficient outcomes because of lack of coordination. Simulations are used to compare the two banking regimes. Among the results, it is found that even though a bank group where decisions are decentralizedmay end up with a portfolio of loans which is (relatively) poorly diversified between regions, the ability to effectively screen potential borrowers may nevertheless give a decentralized bank a lower overall risk in the lending portfolio than when decisions are centralized.   

    In Paper [IV], we argue that the practice used in the valuation of a portfolio of assets is important for the calculation of the Value at Risk. In particular, a seller seeking to liquidate a large portfolio may not face horizontal demand curves. We propose a partially new approach for incorporating this fact in the Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall measures and in an empirical illustration, we compare it to a competing approach. We find substantial differences.

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  • 356.
    Holmberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lönnbark, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lundström, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Assessing the profitability of intraday opening range breakout strategies2013In: Finance Research Letters, ISSN 1544-6123, E-ISSN 1544-6131, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it possible to beat the market by mechanical trading rules based on historical and publicly known information? Such rules have long been used by investors and in this paper, we test the success rate of trades and profitability of the Open Range Breakout (ORB) strategy. An investor that trades on the ORB strategy seeks to identify large intraday price movements and trades only when the price moves beyond some predetermined threshold. We present an ORB strategy based on normally distributed returns to identify such days and find that our ORB trading strategy result in significantly higher returns than zero as well as an increased success rate in relation to a fair game. The characteristics of such an approach over conventional statistical tests is that it involves the joint distribution of low, high, open and close over a given time horizon.

  • 357.
    Hornbrinck, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Olausson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Foreign Direct Investments in Europe: Testing European Union membership as a Determinant for FDI2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 358.
    Huiwen, Tay
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: A study of Singapore and Hong Kong.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    FDI has played a critical role in helping Asian economies achieve rapid economicdevelopment as more countries begin to open their economies. Although, there are manyresearches done on FDI in the developing Asian economies, few studies focuses ondeveloped Asian countries such as Hong Kong and Singapore. Hence, the objectives of thisthesis are to study the significance and the similarities and differences of the determinantsthat could possibly drive these high levels of inward FDI in Singapore and its closecompetitor, Hong Kong. The study will also examine the significance of the growth rates ofthese determinants in relation to the growth of FDI inflow into both countries.

    The determinants that are examined are exchange rate, market size, inflation rate,infrastructure and trade openness together with a dummy variable to account for the impactof Hong Kong’s return to China. The determinants are examined at level with a time trendand at growth. Data is collected over the period of 1975-2014 for Singapore and 1980-2014for Hong Kong. Using the Ordinary Least Square regression (OLS) at level with a time trendincluded, we found that market size and trade openness have a significant impact on FDIinflow into Singapore while in the case of Hong Kong, none of the determinants showed highlevel of significance in attracting FDI inflow. However, for the OLS regression on the growthrates, only Singapore displayed significance for the determinant of trade openness, whileHong Kong did not show any significance on the selected determinants. Based on the results,all variables displayed the expected relationship with FDI, except for the determinant ofinfrastructure (at level) for Hong Kong.

  • 359.
    Humavindu, Michael N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Estimating national economic parameters for Namibia using the shadow pricing approach2013In: Development Southern Africa, ISSN 0376-835X, E-ISSN 1470-3637, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 211-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates national economic parameters to be used for project appraisal in Namibia. The shadow prices of capital, labour, and foreign exchange are derived. The results suggest that the economic opportunity cost of capital is 7.2%. The economic costs of Namibian labour as a share of financial costs are 32% for urban semi-skilled and unskilled labour, and 54% for rural semi-skilled and unskilled labour. The economic costs of foreign labour as a share of financial costs are 59%. The shadow exchange rate factor is estimated to be 4% for the Namibian economy.

  • 360.
    Humavindu, Michael N.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stage, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Hedonic pricing in Windhoek townships2003In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 391-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies the hedonic pricing model to property sales in the township areas in Windhoek, the capital city of Namibia, where municipal authorities have pursued a programme of selling plots of land to settlers in order to encourage them into a formalized economic situation. We find that, apart from house quality, access to the central business district, access to marketplaces and access to transportation, environmental quality also has a large impact on property prices. Properties located close to a garbage dump sell at considerable discounts, while properties located close to a combined conservation and recreation area sell at premium prices. The results thus suggest that the hedonic pricing method can be useful for studying townships in developing countries, and that this can help to clarify the importance of environmental factors which are otherwise frequently neglected in town planning for township settlements.

  • 361.
    Hyytinen, Ari
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Toivonen, Otto
    Aalto University & KU Leuven, Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE); CEPR.
    Design of public procurement auctions: evidence from cleaning contracts2018In: The Rand Journal of Economics, ISSN 0741-6261, E-ISSN 1756-2171, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 398-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze a regime change from beauty contests to first‐price sealed‐bid and scoring auctions, using Swedish data on public procurement of cleaning services. In beauty contests, the lowest bid often lost, leaving substantial money on the table. The procurement costs were similar before and after the regime change: (i) Entry strongly decreases the procurement cost but did not change. Entry would have decreased had the municipalities not adjusted the objects of auctions. (ii) Municipalities favored in‐house suppliers in the old regime, leading to more aggressive bidding by others. With favoritism reduced, these changes balanced each other out.

  • 362.
    Häggström, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    An Empirical Analysis of Soft Drink Addiction2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 363.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH.
    Östberg, Katarina
    SLU.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Estimating Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy in Swedish Coastal Environments: A Walk along different Socio-economic Dimensions2016In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 49-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies distributional effects of environmental policies in Swedish coastal environments, in monetary and environmental quality terms, for different dimensions: income, gender, age, non-users vs. users, distance, familiarity, and origin (if people have a Swedish background or not). The study area is widely used for different recreational activities and has a mix of different visitors. The data come from a choice experiment study. The results indicate that latent class modelling can be used to identify how monetary preferences vary between different groups of respondents, and largely confirm the limited existing knowledge from the previous research on distributional effects of environmental policies. However, the previous literature on distributional effects related to background is very limited, making it hard to draw comparisons. The results in our paper also show that the distributional effects differ depending on the environmental amenity. These results are of policy relevance since coastal environments are important for people's well-being and associated with positive health effects.

  • 364.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Division for Environmental Strategies Research, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Östberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Estimating distributional effects of environmental policy in Swedish coastal environments: A walk along different socio-economic dimensions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies distributional effects of environmental policies in Swedish coastal environments, in monetary and environmental quality terms, for different socio-economic groups. The study area is widely used for different recreational activities and has a mix of different visitors. Data comes from a choice experiment study. Some results confirm limited existing knowledge from previous research, although the ethnical dimension to a certain extent contradicts conventional perceptions. Based on previous research from other countries, the hypothesis would be that native Swedes would benefit more from environmental improvements than respondents with a non-Swedish background. Interestingly results differ, depending on the environmental amenity. For example, respondents with a non-Swedish origin benefit more, both in monetary and environmental quality terms, from reduced noise and littering compared to respondents with a Swedish origin. Also, independent of ethnical background, people use the area in a similar manner.

  • 365.
    Högvall, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Arbetslöshetsersättning och löner: En studie av medlemsavgiftsdifferentieringens effekter på lönebildningen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetslöshetsförsäkringen är ett område med omfattande forskning från både svenskt och internationellt håll. Ofta undersöks sysselsättningseffekter, men mindre är känt om effekter på lönesättningen. I den här studien utgår jag från teorier om lönesättningsprocesser i ekonomier med starka fackliga organisationer som vill optimera medlemmarnas totala nytta. Det innebär att avvägningar görs mellan lönenivå och sysselsättning. Avvägningarna kan då göras mot löneökningar i större grad om arbetslöshetsförsäkringen minskar kostnaden av arbetslöshet. År 2007-2008 genomfördes omfattande reformer i arbetslöshetsförsäkringen som minskade dess möjlighet att kompensera för låg sysselsättning. Däribland en generell höjning av medlemsavgifterna och en starkare koppling av avgiften till arbetslösheten i a-kassan.

    Uppsatsen granskar sambandet mellan lön och arbetslöshet empiriskt med utgångspunkt i höjningen och differentieringen av medlemsavgifterna år 2007-2008. Jag testar för skillnader i sambandet före och efter reformernas genomförande. Metoden som används är linjär regression med utgångspunkt i en panel av yrkesgrupper, under åren 2004-2010.

    I enlighet med teorin finner jag ett negativt samband mellan a-kassors arbetslöshet och lön under perioden med differentierade medlemsavgifter, men inte före. En ökning av arbetslösheten med 1 procentenhet innebar en minskning av löneökningen med ca 88,4 kronor. Skattningens säkerhet är dock svag då den inte i tillräcklig grad tar hänsyn till andra orsaker som kan ha påverkat löneutvecklingen i tidsperioden.

  • 366.
    Högvall, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Simulating changes in Swedish wood supply from increased forest certification: An area-based matrix model approach using National Forest Inventory data and EFDM software2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The first law regarding the protection of Swedish forests was implemented in 1903 and the scope has only ever increased since then. By the 1990s a new method of forest protection was founded in the form of FSC and later also PEFC certification programs. These provide a market-based approach to forest protection by through the use of price premiums incentivize forest owners to participate in voluntary forest conservation. 63% of Swedish productive forests was certified in 2017 and this number has potential to increase which can have significant implications for future forest supply. In this study I use an area-based matrix model on NFI data within the EFDM software to simulate forest supply in the next 100 years in two management scenarios: Current practices and if all forest is managed according to the FSC and PEFC standard. The timber stock is simulated to grow faster when all forest is certified and reach a stable level that is 101 mill. m3sk greater than if forests are managed as today. Harvests are simulated to grow in a similar way but remain lower when all forests are certified than if managed according to current practices. The difference does however decrease slightly as the simulation progresses. The levels of harvest are simulated at substantially lower levels in both scenarios than actual levels due to insufficient information on management in NFI data, indicating a necessity for external information to compliment the NFI.

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    Simulating changes in Swedish wood supply from increased forest certification
  • 367.
    Hörlén, August
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Löfgren, Victoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Priset av rädsla: En studie om priset för män och kvinnors rädsla2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats beräknar ett skuggpris för rädslan att gå ensam i mörkret i individens hemmakvarter samt undersöker skillnader mellan män och kvinnors skuggpriser för att vara mindre rädd. Tidigare studier som har använts sig av skuggpris för att beräkna rädsla har studerats och analyserats för att på bästa sätt kunna genomföra denna uppsats. Datamaterialet som använts i uppsatsen kommer från European Social Survey och består av 1791 observationer. Respondenterna fick i undersökningen svara på en skala mellan 1 till 4, där 1 var ’’mycket säker’’ och 4 var ’’mycket osäker’’ angående individens rädsla vid mörker. Skuggpriset motsvarar den summa av hushållets nettoinkomst som individen är villig att offra för att känna sig en enhet mindre rädd. Skuggpriset för att gå ensam i mörkret jämförs med män och kvinnors separata skuggpriser.

    Skuggpriset för att gå ensam i mörkret beräknades till 15 744 kronor. I uppsatsen skattades männens skuggpris till 12 881 kronor medan kvinnornas skuggpris blev 27 956 kronor. Därmed kan kvinnorna i Sverige tänka sig offra mer av sin månadsinkomst för att vara mindre rädd än männen i Sverige.

    Skillnaderna mellan män och kvinnors skuggpriser kan bero på att könen har separata psykologiska kostnader samt olika sociala roller i samhället. En kvinna tenderar att känna mer rädsla i vardagen än vad en man gör. Skillnaden mellan män och kvinnors skuggpriser skulle eventuellt kunna förklaras med att samhället kanske inte anser att en man ska känna rädsla och detta skulle kunna leda till att männen är villiga att betala mindre för att minska sin rädsla.

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  • 368.
    Indén, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Lindström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Erixon, Olof (Contributor)
    Svenskt Näringsliv.
    Frödén, Dan (Contributor)
    Tenders Sverige AB.
    Nilsson, Magnus (Contributor)
    Peak Procurement AB.
    Spånberg, Emma (Contributor)
    SNS.
    Cope, Malin (Contributor)
    Konkurrensverket.
    Wallenklint, Joakim (Contributor)
    Konkurrensverket.
    Överprövningar av offentliga upphandlingar: En intervjustudie om skillnader mellan LOU och LUF2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att analysera möjliga förklaringar till att upphandlingarsom görs enligt Lagen (2007:1092) om offentlig upphandling inom områdenavatten, energi, transporter och posttjänster (LUF) tycks föranleda en mindre andelöverprövningar än upphandlingar som görs enligt Lagen (2007:1091) om offentligupphandling (LOU). Den senare lagstiftningen är tillämplig på offentliga upphandlingarav tjänster, varor och byggentreprenader som inte faller under de områdensom anges i LUF (se ovan).Tillgänglig statistik visar att överprövning är mer vanligt förekommande blandupphandlingar som regleras av LOU. Detta förhållande kvarstår med hänsyn tagentill att det är mer vanligt att upphandla enligt LOU än LUF. För att belysa möjligaförklaringar till detta har 28 intervjuer genomförts med beställare/upphandlare frånstatliga och kommunala organ samt med företrädare för leverantörer från olikabranscher.Utgångspunkterna för intervjuerna har varit frågor relaterade till upphandlingssituationen(t.ex. organisation och kompetens), juridiska faktorer (t.ex. förhandlingsmöjligheter)samt leverantörernas syn på upphandling (t.ex. överprövningsom affärsstrategi).Intervjuerna ger vid handen att en avgörande anledning till att upphandlingarenligt LUF överprövas i mindre utsträckning än upphandlingar enligt LOU är detmer omfattande förhandlingsutrymme som till skillnad från LOU finns i LUF. Frånupphandlarsidan menar de intervjuade att förhandling förebygger och ger möjlighetatt hantera missförstånd och felaktigheter under upphandlingens gång. Dettaanses minska risken för att en leverantör upplever sig felbehandlad eller upphandlingensom illa genomförd. En annan intressant iakttagelse är att de intervjuadeupphandlarna beskriver att de branscher som upphandlas enligt LOU i högreutsträckning präglas av en ”överprövningskultur”. Av de intervjuade nämner fleraatt LUF-upphandlingar ofta är mer komplexa och att myndigheter som upphandlarunder LUF därför håller sig med upphandlare med hög marknadsspecifikkompetens. En sådan lösning är något som skulle vara mer resurskrävande förkommunala organ, då de ofta förfogar över en i högre grad diversifieradupphandlingsportfölj.

  • 369.
    Ingman, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Transmission mellan prisindex: Kan KPI prognostiseras med ITPI?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 370. Jacquemet, Nicolas
    et al.
    Joule, Robert-Vincent
    Luchini, Stephane
    Shogren, Jason F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071-3985, United States.
    Earned wealth, engaged bidders? Evidence from a second-price auction.2009In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 105, no 1, p. 36-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers whether earned wealth affects bidding behavior in an induced-value second-price auction. We find people bid more sincerely in the auction with earned wealth given monetary incentives; earned wealth did not induce sincere bidding in hypothetical auctions.

  • 371.
    Jansson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Lund University School of Economics and Management, Box 7080, SE-220 07 Lund, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Mannberg, Andrea
    UiT the Arctic University of Norway, School of Business and Economics, Postboks 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsø, Norway.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Adoption of alternative fuel vehicles: Influence from neighbors, family and coworkers2017In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 54, p. 61-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years, many governments have set targets for increasing the share of biofuels in the transportation sector. Understanding consumer behavior is essential in designing policies that efficiently increase the uptake of cleaner technologies. In this paper we analyze adopters and non-adopters of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). We use diffusion of innovation theory and the established notion that the social system and interpersonal influence play important roles in adoption. Based on a nationwide database of car owners we analyze interpersonal influence on adoption from three social domains: neighbors, family and coworkers. The results point primarily at a neighbor effect in that AFV adoption is more likely if neighbors also have adopted. The results also point at significant effects of interpersonal influence from coworkers and family members but these effects weaken or disappear when income, education level, marriage, age, gender and green party votes are controlled for. The results extend the diffusion of innovation and AFV literature with empirical support for interpersonal influence based on objective data where response bias is not a factor. Implications for further research, environmental and transport policy, and practitioners are discussed.

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  • 372.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Andrius, Kazukauskas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The profitability of electricity generating firms and policies promoting renewable energy2013In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 40, p. 858-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a cross-country firm-level dataset this study empirically analyses how the implemented renewable electricity promotion systems Tradable Green Certificates vs. Feed-in-Tariffs affected the profitability of the electricity production sector in Europe during the 2002-2010 period. In particular, it tests the hypothesis that due to market imperfections, namely because of higher investment risk, higher capital constraints and higher transaction costs, TGC schemes will be associated with excess profits for renewable electricity generating firms. The results somewhat support this hypothesis, showing that electricity generating firms, operating in EU countries that implemented TGC, were more profitable compared to FIT firms. 

  • 373.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Di Maria, Corrado
    Did the EU ETS Make a Difference?: An Empirical Assessment Using Lithuanian Firm-Level Data2016In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a panel dataset of about 5,000 Lithuanian firms between 2003 and 2010, to assess the impact of the EU ETS on the environmental and economic perfor­mance of participating firms. Using a matching methodology, we are able to estimate the causal impact of EU ETS participation on C02 emissions, C02 in­tensity, investment behaviour and profitability of participating firms. Our results show that ETS participation did not lead to a reduction in C02 emissions, while we identify a slight improvement in C02 intensity. ETS participants are shown to have retired part of their less efficient capital stock, and to have made modest additional investments from 2010. We also show that the EU ETS did not rep­resent a drag on the profitability of participating firms.

  • 374.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Di Maria, Corrado
    University of Birmingham, Department of Economics.
    Efficiency, productivity and environmental policy: A case study of power generation in the EU2012In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1557-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the EU public power generating sector as a case study to investigate the environmental efficiency and productivity enhancing performance of the European Union's CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) in its first phase. Using Data Envelopment Analysis methods, we measure the environmental efficiency and the productivity growth registered in public power generation across the EU over the 1996–2007 period. In the second stage of our analysis we attempt to explain changes in productivity and efficiency over time using econometric techniques. Our analysis suggests two conclusions: carbon pricing led to an increase in environmental efficiency and to a shift outwards of the technological frontier; and, the overly generous allocation of emission permits had a negative impact on both measures. These results are shown to be robust to changes in controls and specifications.

  • 375.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Andrius, Kazukauskas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kazukauskas, Paulius
    Renewable energy policy, economic growth and employment in EU countries: gain without pain?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the intensifying debates whether governments should use industrial policies to promote particular renewable energy technologies, the main objective of this study is to investigate the long-run effects of renewable energy support policies on economic growth and employment in 15 European Union (EU) member states for the 1990-2012 time period by using panel-data time-series econometric techniques. The first hypothesis is that the EU’s renewable energy support policies lead to technological advancement, followed by economy growth, in the long-run. The second hypothesis states that these policies at least generate an increase in output and employment in the short-run. In summary, our results provide some evidence in support of the second hypothesis, but, in contrary to the similar studies, our findings do not support the first hypothesis that these policies promote growth in the long-run.

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  • 376.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Policy-induced expansion of solar and wind power capacity: economic growth and employment in EU countries2017In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 197-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the intensifying debates on whether governments should promote particular renewable energy technologies, the main objective of this study is to investigate the long-and short-run effects of policy-induced expansion of renewable solar and wind technologies on economic growth and employment in 15 European Union (EU) member states during 1990-2013 by using panel-data time-series econometric techniques. Instead of relying on renewable energy consumption or generation as commonly done in the literature, we focus on the capacity for solar and wind power generation, which is largely a consequence of the EU's renewable energy policies. In summary, we find that, to date, renewable energy policy-induced wind and solar power capacity promotes growth and/or employment in the short run, but these capacity increases do not stimulate economic growth in the long run in the EU-15 region. In fact, our results tend to support the opposite relationship: increases in wind and solar power capacity are associated with negative economic growth, at least at the total economy level.

  • 377.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The Effect of Mandatory Agro-Environmental Policy on Farm Fertiliser and Pesticide Expenditure2012In: Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0021-857X, E-ISSN 1477-9552, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 656-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EU farmers are subject to mandatory cross-compliance measures, requiring them to meet environmental conditions to be eligible for public support. These obligations reinforce incentives for farmers to change their behaviour towards the environment. We apply quasi-experimental methods to measure the causal relationship between cross-compliance and some specific farm environmental performance. We find that cross-compliance reduced farm fertiliser and pesticide expenditure. This result also holds for farmers who participated in other voluntary agro-environmental schemes. However, the results do not support our expectations that farmers who relied on larger shares of public payments had a stronger motivation to improve their environmental performance.

  • 378.
    Jaraite-Kazukauske, Jurate
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Do transaction costs influence firm trading behaviourin the European emissions trading system?2015In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 583-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is one of the first to empirically investigate firm trading behaviour and the importance of permit trading transaction costs, such as information costs and search costs, in the first phase of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). The signs and significance of our constructed transaction costs proxy variables indicate for a presence of these costs in the initial years of the EU ETS. In particular, this paper shows that ETS firms with the smaller number of installations and with less trading experience were less likely to participate in the European emissions trading market and traded the lower quantities of permits. Furthermore, these firms chose to trade permits indirectly via third parties. This study also supports the concerns that transaction costs could be excessive for smaller participants and firms operating in the new EU member states.

  • 379.
    Jedborn, Alice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Inverkan på elpriset av EU:s utsläppshandelssystem: En ekonometrisk analys av den svenska elmarknaden2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av många viktiga förutsättningar till en fungerande vardag är tillgången till el. Det finns flera faktorer som påverkar priset på el såsom vattenmagasinens nivå, temperatur och priset på utsläppsrätter. Denna studie ämnar i första hand att ta reda på hur priset på utsläppsrätter påverkar det slutgiltiga elpriset samt se hur andra variabler påverkar elpriset. I min studie har jag valt att avgränsa mig till vad som styr elpriset i Sverige även om vi kommer se att hela Norden har en gemensam elmarknad. Månatliga data har använts och resultatet visar att 2 av 5 oberoende variabler visade sig vara signifikanta - priset på utsläppsrätter och kolpriset.

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    Inverkan på elpriset av EU:sutsläppshandelssystem
  • 380.
    Jenderny, Katharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Bartels, Charlotte
    Freie Universität Berlin, Department of Economics.
    The Role of Capital Income for Top Income Shares in Germany2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large literature has documented top income share series based on income tax statistics using the common methodology established by Piketty (2001, 2003). The widespread disappearance of capital income from the income tax base poses a major challenge to the comparability of these series both over time and between countries. In Germany, capital income was gradually excluded from the income tax base between 2001 and 2009. Using a rich data set containing all income taxpayers' les we provide a homogeneous top income share series including full capital incomes from 2001 to 2010. Missing capital income since 2009 is extrapolated using a composite measure of stock dividends and interest income tax ows. We nd that up to the top percentile the drop displayed in the German raw-data series in 2009 is largely attributable to the disappearance of capital income from the income tax base and not to the crisis. However, the very top of the income distribution is disproportionately hit by the crisis.

  • 381.
    Johansson, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Sorting out a Profitable Strategy from IPO's: A quantitative study about underpricing and different Buy-and-Hold strategies for IPO's on the Swedish Stock Exchange2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative way to invest on the stock market is to invest in IPO’s. An IPO (InitialPublic Offering) is the first time a company goes public on a stock market, giving outshares to private investors and financial institutions. However, there might be someuncertainties about the share price as it never has been traded on the stock exchangebefore and it could therefore be difficult to determine a reasonable value for the shareprice. Consequently, if the offering price for the investor is significantly lower thanthe “correct valued” price it will generate positive initial return during the first tradingday and this phenomenon is labelled as underpricing, generating more “money on thetable”. Still, previous researches display an underperformance among IPO’s during alonger period after the introduction compared to already established companies withinthe same sector, arguing that investors should sell their shares early after the firsttrading day.The objective of this study is therefore to determine if underpricing exists for IPO’son the Swedish stock exchange and if there are any differentiations amongst sectors,and also to investigate two different Buy-and-Hold strategies. A final objective for thestudy is to determine if the level of underpricing is affected by some explanatoryvariables.With a quantitative study and a longitudinal approach, the results confirm the effect ofunderpricing for IPO’s on the Swedish stock exchange, generating an averageunderpricing of 5.56%. Additionally, this study cannot display any different medianunderpricing between industry sectors. However, it contradicts with theunderperformance phenomenon, indicating an overperformance for longer Buy-and-Hold strategies. Lastly, a regression of explanatory variables trying to explain thelevel of underpricing demonstrates no statistically significant results.

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  • 382.
    Johansson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Competetive Tendering of Public Transport: Estimating Effects of Competition2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 383.
    Johansson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    En jämförande studie av efterfrågan på kollektivtrafik: Empiriska bevis från Stockholms och Västra Götalands län2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    En jämförande studie av efterfrågan på kollektivtrafik
  • 384.
    Johansson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    How to Decide on Airport Location from a Welfare Perspective: A Theoretical approach using Spatial Economic Theory2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 385.
    Johansson, Jonathan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Income Inequality and Higher Education: A Review of the Empirical Evidence2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Income inequality is considered one of the most pressing issues of our time, which has prompted a large body of scientific research. Education is often mentioned as one of the main factors to decrease inequality. Tertiary education plays a specific role with regard to inequality since it is associated with higher returns than lower levels of education which is thought of as an initial driver of inequality but a means of combating inequality in the long run. Yet the literature seems inconclusive on the matter as research find varying results. This review examines the empirical evidence in order to determine the effect of higher education on income inequality. The findings are still ambiguous since the direction of the effect of an increase in higher education on income differs across studies.

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    Income Inequality and Higher Education
  • 386. Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Is Human Fear Affecting Public Willingness to Pay for the Management and Conservation of Large Carnivores?2012In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 610-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an interdisciplinary approach, this study aims at analyzing self-reported animal fear, specifically large carnivore fear, in relation to public willingness to pay to fulfill a governmental policy on large carnivore-induced costs. In a survey in Sweden involving more than 2,000 respondents, it was found that people whose animal fear was directed particularly toward large carnivores were less likely to be willing to pay these costs, or were likely to be willing to pay a lower amount of money. In the prediction of willingness to pay (WTP), the contribution of the fear variable was as equally important as previously addressed socioeconomic factors.

  • 387. Johansson, P.
    et al.
    Brännäs, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    A household model for work absence1998In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 1493-1503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic incentives of work absence are empirically studied using a panel of Swedish blue collar workers, both men and women, that either are married or living with a spouse as married. A model for the daily absence decision is derived from standard economic utility theory. An estimable form for the annual number of absence days is obtained by considering the data generating process in some detail. The model is estimated, using the first two moments, with a generalized method of moment estimator. The panel structure of the data is explicity considered and a positive dependence between the number of days absent in the two time periods is found for females. A 1% increase in the cost will lead to a decrease in the mean number of days absent by 1.8 and 2.7% for females and males, respectively.

  • 388.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Economics, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. CERE, SLU.
    A blueprint for a cost-benefit analysis of a water use conflict: hydroelectricity versus other uses2011In: Modern Cost-benefit Analysis of Hydropower Conflicts / [ed] Per-Olov Johansson and Bengt Kriström, CHELTENHAM: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 35-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 389.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Economics, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. CERE, SLU.
    Introduction2011In: Modern Cost-benefit Analysis of Hydropower Conflicts / [ed] Per-Olov Johansson and Bengt Kriström, CHELTENHAM: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 390.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Centre for Environmental & Resource Economics (CERE), SLU.
    The New Economics of Evaluating Water Projects2011In: Annual Review of Resource Economics, Vol 3, Annual Reviews , 2011, p. 231-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We review key developments in the cost-benefit analysis of water projects, including conceptual and empirical issues. We emphasize general equilibrium and dynamics, in particular the links between economic and ecological systems.

  • 391.
    Jonasson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Pettersson, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lågkonjunktur - Gynnsamt för antalet offer i trafiken?: En tidsserieanalys över antalet omkomna i trafiken i Sverige2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Lågkonjunktur - Gynnsamt för antalet offer i trafiken?
  • 392.
    Jonsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Effekter av sänkta arbetsgivaravgifter för unga: Har regeringens sänkningar av arbetsgivaravgiften påverkat sysselsättningen?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 393.
    Jonsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    En jämförelse mellan nordiska hedgefonder och OMX Nordic 40: Presterar hedgefonder bättre än index under hög volatilitet?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 394.
    Joshi, Santosh R.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vielle, Marc
    Babonneau, Frédéric
    Edwards, Neil R.
    Holden, Philip B.
    Physical and Economic Consequences of Sea-Level Rise: A Coupled GIS and CGE Analysis Under Uncertainties2016In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 813-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a modelling framework that links GEMINI-E3, a multi-regional, multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model with a cost-benefit analysis approach at local level using geographical information system tools to assess the physical and economic consequences of sea-level rise (SLR) in the twenty first century. A set of future scenarios is developed spanning the uncertainties related to global warming, the parameters of semi-empirical SLR estimates, and coastal developments (cropland, urban areas and population). The importance of incorporating uncertainties regarding coastal development is highlighted. The simulation results suggest that the potential development of future coastal areas is a greater source of uncertainty than the parameters of SLR itself in terms of the economic consequences of SLR. At global level, the economic impact of SLR could be significant when loss of productive land along with loss of capital and forced displacement of populations are considered. Furthermore, highly urbanised and densely populated coastal areas of South East Asia, Australia and New Zealand are likely to suffer significantly if no protective measures are taken. Hence, it is suggested that coastal areas needs to be protected to ameliorate the overall welfare cost across various regions.

  • 395.
    Järvenson, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Tillväxt och konvergens inom Sverige, 1996 - 20162019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom tillväxtteori finns begreppet konvergens. Konvergens innebär att länder och regioner konvergerar mot gemensamma ekonomiska nivåer. Om konvergens existerar finns ett negativt samband mellan den initiala storleken på landets ekonomi samt dess tillväxttakt. Detta innebär att länder och regioner med till exempel initialt låga BNP-nivåer uppvisar en högre tillväxttakt än redan starka regioner. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om det går att urskilja någon form av ekonomisk konvergens mellan Sveriges län åren 1996 – 2016. För att undersöka detta estimeras en regressionsmodell där samtliga län inkluderas. Den beroende variabeln är BRP-tillväxt och den huvudsakliga förklarande variabeln är BRP-nivå. Resultatet uppvisar ett negativt samband mellan BRP-tillväxt och BRP-nivå för den studerade tidsperioden. Detta innebär att det finns belägg för att det mellan åren 1996 och 2016 fanns en ekonomisk konvergens mellan Sveriges 21 olika län. Resultatet ligger i linje med tidigare studier samt den teori som finns på området.

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    Tillväxt och konvergens inom Sverige, 1996 - 2016
  • 396.
    Kallberg, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Industrial productivity and the role of environmental management2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 397.
    Kallberg, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Limit comparison-shopping?: The effect of new establishments of independent upper-secondary schools on public school costs2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1990s, an educational reform changed the Swedish school market. The reform allows anyone with permission from the Swedish Schools Inspectorate to establish an independent school. The main objective of this paper is to examine how new establishments of independent upper-secondary schools affect the public school’s costs per student during the time period 2005 to 2014. Using application data, we can separate municipalities in which independent schools have been established and where they have not. This data allows us to estimate a Difference in Difference model where the treatment is a new establishment. The results reveal three key findings: first, on average, municipalities experience a cost decrease if new independent schools are established. Second, a common trend exists in the pre-period between the two types of municipalities. Third, decomposing the total public school cost per student, the establishment of new upper-secondary schools reduces teaching, equipment and healthcare costs. Further research should examine the political objectives on the municipality level for new establishments. In the future it may be important, from a policy perspective, that if municipalities are given a veto right in the establishment process, market competition will be determined based on political preferences.

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  • 398.
    Kalén, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Globaliseringens effekt på Phillipskurvan: - Det utländska produktionsgapets betydelse för den svenska inflationsprocessen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Globalisering definieras som den ökade integrationen mellan ekonomier runt om i världen, främst genom handel med varor, tjänster och kapital över landsgränser. Intresset för hur globaliseringen påverkar inflationsprocessen och om globaliseringen utmanar det samband mellan inflation och arbetslöshet som Phillipskurvan beskriver har intresserat forskare. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka det utländska produktionsgapets roll i förhållandet mellan arbetslöshet och inflation i Sverige. Detta analyseras med tidsseriedata över det svenska produktionsgapet, det importviktade utländska produktionsgapet samt inhemsk inflation för åren 1970–2017. Studiens resultat tyder på att det utländska produktionsgapet har en förväntad positivt ‒ men icke-signifikant ‒ effekt på den inhemska inflationen.

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    Globaliseringens effekt på Phillipskurvan: - Det utländska produktionsgapets betydelse för den svenska inflationsprocessen
  • 399.
    Kalén, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Greenest kid on the block: A latent class analysis of social nudges and electricity conservation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines nudges that via peer comparisons of domestic electricity use aims at motivating households to conserve energy. Nudges are generally acknowledged to be cost effective and able to induce a positive behavioral change. However, some researchers argue that there is an often overlooked cost associated with nudges in terms of psychological benefits or costs for the individual. The main objective is to study if the potential utility loss, or discomfort, associated with sharing information about household consumption of electricity varies within the population. Statistical methods make it possible to explicitly estimate the compensations needed for households to provide private information regarding their energy use. A latent class analysis is used to examine taste heterogeneity, whether preferences differ between different groups of electricity consumers and how socioeconomic factors relate to possible taste heterogeneity.

    In general, the results are expected and overall predict that sharing information is associated with a cost for the consumer. Turning to the distribution of preferences, the results predict that there are groups within the population that are affected differently by nudges. These results pinpoint the importance of taking the cost incurred on the individual, by the nudge itself, into account and provide a key aspect for policy makers to consider when implementing nudge programs.

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    Greenest kid on the block
  • 400.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Cooking fuel preferences among Ghanaian Households: an empirical analysis2015In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 27, p. 10-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated the key factors influencing the choice of cooking fuels in Ghana. Results from the study indicated that education, income, urban location and access to infrastructure were the key factors influencing household's choice of the main cooking fuels (fuelwood, charcoal and liquefied petroleum gas). The study also found that, in addition to household demographics and urbanization, the supply (availability) of the fuels influenced household choice for the various fuels. Increase in household income was likely to increase the probability of choosing modern fuel (liquefied petroleum gas and electricity) relative to solid (crop residue and fuelwood) and transition fuel (kerosene and charcoal). I therefore proposed that poverty reduction policies, provision of education and modern infrastructure, as well as provision of reliable supply of modern fuels should be part of the policy framework in promoting the use of modern fuels in Ghana, especially for urban dwellers, while for rural dwellers the focus should be on how to efficiently use traditional fuels in a more environmentally friendly and sustainable way.

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