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  • 351.
    Gaida, James Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Bagge, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Purdam, Craig
    Cook, Jill
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Evidence of the TNF-α system in the human Achilles tendon: expression of TNF-α and TNF receptor at both protein and mRNA levels in the tenocytes2012In: Cells Tissues Organs, ISSN 1422-6405, E-ISSN 1422-6421, Vol. 196, no 4, p. 339-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding adaption to load is essential for prevention and treatment of tendinopathy/tendinosis. Cytokine release in response to load is one mechanism involved in mechanotransduction. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is implicated in tendinosis and can induce apoptotic effects via tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). The complete absence of information concerning the TNF-α system in Achilles tendon is a limitation as mid-portion Achilles tendinosis is very frequent. Purpose: To examine expression patterns of TNF-α and its two receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2) in human Achilles tendinosis and control tissue and to biochemically confirm the presence of TNF-α in tendinosis tissue. Methods: TNF-α and TNFR1 mRNA were detected via in situ hybridization. TNF-α, TNFR1, and TNFR2 were demonstrated immunohistochemically. Apoptosis markers were utilized. ELISA was used to detect TNF-α. Results: TNF-α and TNFR1 mRNA was detected in tenocytes of both tendinosis and control tendons. Tenocytes from both groups displayed specific immunoreactions for TNF-α, TNFR1, and TNFR2. The widened/rounded tenocytes of tendinosis samples exhibited the most intense immunoreactions. Apoptosis was detected in only a subpopulation of the tenocytes in tendinosis tissue. TNF-α was measurable in tendinosis tissue. Inflammatory cells were not seen. Conclusion: This is the first evidence of the existence of the TNF-α system in the human Achilles tendon. Findings are confirmed at mRNA and protein levels as well as biochemically. The TNF-α system was in principle confined to the tenocytes. The connection between tenocyte morphology and the expression pattern of TNF-α, TNFR1, and TNFR2 suggests that the TNF-α system may be involved in tenocyte activation in Achilles tendinosis.

  • 352. Gardai, Shyra J
    et al.
    McPhillips, Kathleen A
    Frasch, S Courtney
    Janssen, William J
    Starefeldt, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E
    Bratton, Donna L
    Oldenborg, Per-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Michalak, Marek
    Henson, Peter M
    Cell-surface calreticulin initiates clearance of viable or apoptotic cells through trans-activation of LRP on the phagocyte2005In: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 321-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apoptotic-cell removal is critical for development, tissue homeostasis, and resolution of inflammation. Although many candidate systems exist, only phosphatidylserine has been identified as a general recognition ligand on apoptotic cells. We demonstrate here that calreticulin acts as a second general recognition ligand by binding and activating LDL-receptor-related protein (LRP) on the engulfing cell. Since surface calreticulin is also found on viable cells, a mechanism preventing inadvertent uptake was sought. Disruption of interactions between CD47 (integrin-associated protein) on the target cell and SIRPalpha (SHPS-1), a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein on the engulfing cell, permitted uptake of viable cells in a calreticulin/LRP-dependent manner. On apoptotic cells, CD47 was altered and/or lost and no longer activated SIRPalpha. These changes on the apoptotic cell create an environment where "don't eat me" signals are rendered inactive and "eat me" signals, including calreticulin and phosphatidylserine, congregate together and signal for removal.

  • 353. Garrett, Douglas D.
    et al.
    Nagel, Irene E.
    Preuschhof, Claudia
    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.
    Marchner, Janina
    Wiegert, Steffen
    Jungehuelsing, Gerhard J.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Villringer, Arno
    Li, Shu-Chen
    Heekeren, Hauke R.
    Baeckman, Lars
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Amphetamine modulates brain signal variability and working memory in younger and older adults2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 24, p. 7593-7598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Better-performing younger adults typically express greater brain signal variability relative to older, poorer performers. Mechanisms for age and performance-graded differences in brain dynamics have, however, not yet been uncovered. Given the age-related decline of the dopamine (DA) system in normal cognitive aging, DA neuromodulation is one plausible mechanism. Hence, agents that boost systemic DA [such as d-amphetamine (AMPH)] may help to restore deficient signal variability levels. Furthermore, despite the standard practice of counterbalancing drug session order (AMPH first vs. placebo first), it remains understudied how AMPH may interact with practice effects, possibly influencing whether DA up-regulation is functional. We examined the effects of AMPH on functional-MRI-based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability (SDBOLD) in younger and older adults during a working memory task (letter n-back). Older adults expressed lower brain signal variability at placebo, but met or exceeded young adult SDBOLD levels in the presence of AMPH. Drug session order greatly moderated change-change relations between AMPH-driven SDBOLD and reaction time means (RTmean) and SDs (RTSD). Older adults who received AMPH in the first session tended to improve in RTmean and RTSD when SDBOLD was boosted on AMPH, whereas younger and older adults who received AMPH in the second session showed either a performance improvement when SDBOLD decreased (for RTmean) or no effect at all (for RTSD). The present findings support the hypothesis that age differences in brain signal variability reflect aging-induced changes in dopaminergic neuromodulation. The observed interactions among AMPH, age, and session order highlight the state-and practice-dependent neurochemical basis of human brain dynamics.

  • 354. Geh, Katharina J.
    et al.
    Hubert, Madlen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Winter, Gerhard
    Progress in formulation development and sterilisation of freeze-dried oligodeoxynucleotide-loaded gelatine nanoparticles2018In: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, ISSN 0939-6411, E-ISSN 1873-3441, Vol. 129, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)-loaded gelatine nanoparticles (GNPs) have proven their outstanding potential in the treatment of allergic diseases such as equine asthma and canine atopic dermatitis, which are appropriate models for the corresponding human diseases. To encourage the development of a marketable product, long term stability and sterility needs to be ensured. In this work, we aimed to advance freeze-drying options to stabilise ODN-loaded GNPs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry time-of-flight was implemented as a versatile tool to assess ODN stability. With this method long-term storage stability of lyophilised ODN-loaded GNPs formulated in sucrose or trehalose was achieved. Controlled nucleation was further introduced to optimise the lyophilisation approach. This allowed shortening of the process in comparison to standard freeze-drying procedures. Particle sizes, polydispersity indices, ODN stability, residual moisture and glass transition temperature were maintained upon storage. Excipient portfolio was enlarged by novel amino acid containing formulations for lyophilisates. His emerged as an excellent excipient in stabilising lyophilised ODN-loaded GNPs, whereas addition of Arg and Gly revealed to be inadequate at accelerated conditions. Lastly, gamma irradiation was evaluated as a suitable sterilisation method of ODN-loaded GNPs.

  • 355. Georgiou, M.
    et al.
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Bunting, S. C.
    Golding, J. P.
    Loughlin, A. J.
    Phillips, J. B.
    A nerve repair conduit containing differentiated adipose-derived stem cells within engineered neural tissue can support and guide neuronal growth in vitro and in vivo2012In: Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, Vol. 6, no Suppl. 1, p. 259-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 356. Georgiou, Melanie
    et al.
    Golding, Jon P.
    Loughlin, Alison J.
    Kingham, Paul J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Phillips, James B.
    Engineered neural tissue with aligned, differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promotes peripheral nerve regeneration across a critical sized defect in rat sciatic nerve2015In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 37, p. 242-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from rats and differentiated to a Schwann cell-like phenotype in vitro. The differentiated cells (dADSCs) underwent self-alignment in a tethered type-1 collagen gel, followed by stabilisation to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT-dADSC). The pro-regenerative phenotype of dADSCs was enhanced by this process, and the columns of aligned dADSCs in the aligned collagen matrix supported and guided neurite extension in vitro. EngNT-dADSC sheets were rolled to form peripheral nerve repair constructs that were implanted within NeuraWrap conduits to bridge a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve. After 8 weeks regeneration was assessed using immunofluorescence imaging and transmission electron microscopy and compared to empty conduit and nerve graft controls. The proportion of axons detected in the distal stump was 3.5 fold greater in constructs containing EngNT-dADSC than empty tube controls. Our novel combination of technologies that can organise autologous therapeutic cells-within an artificial tissue construct provides a promising new cellular biomaterial for peripheral nerve repair. 

  • 357. Giddaluru, Sudheer
    et al.
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westlye, Lars T
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Christoforou, Andrea
    Cichon, Sven
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Steen, Vidar M
    Reinvang, Ivar
    Nilsson, Lars Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). ARC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Le Hellard, Stéphanie
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Genetics of structural connectivity and information processing in the brain2016In: Brain Structure and Function, ISSN 1863-2653, E-ISSN 1863-2661, Vol. 221, no 9, p. 4643-4661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the genetic factors underlying brain structural connectivity is a major challenge in imaging genetics. Here, we present results from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of whole-brain white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural coherence measured using diffusion tensor imaging. Data from independent GWASs of 355 Swedish and 250 Norwegian healthy adults were integrated by meta-analysis to enhance power. Complementary GWASs on behavioral data reflecting processing speed, which is related to microstructural properties of WM pathways, were performed and integrated with WM FA results via multimodal analysis to identify shared genetic associations. One locus on chromosome 17 (rs145994492) showed genome-wide significant association with WM FA (meta P value = 1.87 × 10(-08)). Suggestive associations (Meta P value <1 × 10(-06)) were observed for 12 loci, including one containing ZFPM2 (lowest meta P value = 7.44 × 10(-08)). This locus was also implicated in multimodal analysis of WM FA and processing speed (lowest Fisher P value = 8.56 × 10(-07)). ZFPM2 is relevant in specification of corticothalamic neurons during brain development. Analysis of SNPs associated with processing speed revealed association with a locus that included SSPO (lowest meta P value = 4.37 × 10(-08)), which has been linked to commissural axon growth. An intergenic SNP (rs183854424) 14 kb downstream of CSMD1, which is implicated in schizophrenia, showed suggestive evidence of association in the WM FA meta-analysis (meta P value = 1.43 × 10(-07)) and the multimodal analysis (Fisher P value = 1 × 10(-07)). These findings provide novel data on the genetics of WM pathways and processing speed, and highlight a role of ZFPM2 and CSMD1 in information processing in the brain.

  • 358.
    Gitik, Miri
    et al.
    Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem.
    Liraz Zaltsman, Sigal
    Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem.
    Oldenborg, Per-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Reichert, Fanny
    Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem.
    Rotshenker, Shlomo
    Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem.
    Myelin down-regulates myelin phagocytosis by microglia and macrophages through interactions between CD47 on myelin and SIRPalpha (signal regulatory protein-alpha) on phagocytes2011In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, ISSN 1742-2094, E-ISSN 1742-2094, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 24-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury to axons produces breakdown of axons and myelin at the site of the lesion and then further distal to this where Wallerian degeneration develops. The rapid removal of degenerated myelin by phagocytosis is advantageous for repair since molecules in myelin impede regeneration of severed axons. Thus, revealing mechanisms that regulate myelin phagocytosis by macrophages and microglia is important. We hypothesize that myelin regulates its own phagocytosis by simultaneous activation and down-regulation of microglial and macrophage responses. Activation follows myelin binding to receptors that mediate its phagocytosis (e.g. complement receptor-3), which has been previously studied. Down-regulation, which we test here, follows binding of myelin CD47 to the immune inhibitory receptor SIRPalpha (signal regulatory protein-alpha) on macrophages and microglia.

    METHODS: CD47 and SIRPalpha expression was studied by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and myelin phagocytosis by ELISA.

    RESULTS: We first document that myelin, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells express CD47 without SIRPalpha and further confirm that microglia and macrophages express both CD47 and SIRPalpha. Thus, CD47 on myelin can bind to and subsequently activate SIRPalpha on phagocytes, a prerequisite for CD47/SIRPalpha-dependent down-regulation of CD47+/+ myelin phagocytosis by itself. We then demonstrate that phagocytosis of CD47+/+ myelin is augmented when binding between myelin CD47 and SIRPalpha on phagocytes is blocked by mAbs against CD47 and SIRPalpha, indicating that down-regulation of phagocytosis indeed depends on CD47-SIRPalpha binding. Further, phagocytosis in serum-free medium of CD47+/+ myelin is augmented after knocking down SIRPalpha levels (SIRPalpha-KD) in phagocytes by lentiviral infection with SIRPalpha-shRNA, whereas phagocytosis of myelin that lacks CD47 (CD47-/-) is not. Thus, myelin CD47 produces SIRPalpha-dependent down-regulation of CD47+/+ myelin phagocytosis in phagocytes. Unexpectedly, phagocytosis of CD47-/- myelin by SIRPalpha-KD phagocytes, which is not altered from normal when tested in serum-free medium, is augmented when serum is present. Therefore, both myelin CD47 and serum may each promote SIRPalpha-dependent down-regulation of myelin phagocytosis irrespective of the other.

    CONCLUSIONS: Myelin down-regulates its own phagocytosis through CD47-SIRPalpha interactions. It may further be argued that CD47 functions normally as a marker of "self" that helps protect intact myelin and myelin-forming oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells from activated microglia and macrophages. However, the very same mechanism that impedes phagocytosis may turn disadvantageous when rapid clearance of degenerated myelin is helpful.

  • 359.
    Gorbach, Tetiana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    A Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Modeling Approach for Analysis of Resting-State Functional Brain Connectivity: An Alternative to ThresholdingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 360.
    Gorbach, Tetiana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bayesian mixture modeling for longitudinal fMRI connectivity studies with dropoutManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 361.
    Gorbach, Tetiana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Orädd, Greger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline2017In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 51, p. 167-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. 

  • 362.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nording, Malin L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gaida, Jamie E.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Alfredson, Hakan
    Fowler, Christopher J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Serum Levels of Oxylipins in Achilles Tendinopathy: An Exploratory Study2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0123114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Linoleic acid-derived oxidation products are found in experimental pain models. However, little is known about the levels of such oxylipins in human pain. In consequence, in the present study, we have undertaken a lipidomic profiling of oxylipins in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy and controls.

    Methodology/Principal findings: A total of 34 oxylipins were analysed in the serum samples. At a significance level of P<0.00147 (<0.05/34), two linoleic acid-derived oxylipins, 13-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic (13-HODE) and 12(13)-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DiHOME) were present at significantly higher levels in the Achilles tendinopathy samples. This difference remained significant when the dataset was controlled for age, gender and body-mass index. In contrast, 0/21 of the arachidonic acid- and 0/4 of the dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahenaenoic acid-derived oxylipins were higher in the patient samples at this level of significance. The area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve for 12,13-DiHOME was 0.91 (P<0.0001). Levels of four N-acylethanolamines were also analysed and found not to be significantly different between the controls and the patients at the level of P<0.0125 (<0.05/4).

    Conclusions/Significance: It is concluded from this exploratory study that abnormal levels of linoleic acid-derived oxylipins are seen in blood serum from patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Given the ability of two of these, 9- and 13-HODE to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, it is possible that these changes may contribute to the symptoms seen in Achilles tendinopathy.

  • 363.
    Granberg, I
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lindell, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Capillary supply in relation to myosin heavy chain fibre composition of human intrinsic tongue muscles2010In: Cells Tissues Organs, ISSN 1422-6405, E-ISSN 1422-6421, Vol. 192, no 5, p. 303-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capillary supply and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of three different intrinsic tongue muscles was analysed in the anterior and posterior regions of the human tongue with biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Mean capillary density for the whole tongue was 796 ± 82 cap/mm², without regional differences. The overall number of capillaries around each fibre (CAF) was higher in the posterior than in the anterior region (2.5 vs. 2.1, p = 0.009). However, correcting for regional differences in fibre size, CAF per fibre area was higher in the anterior region (4.3 vs. 3.0, p < 0.001). Muscle fibres containing fast MyHCs predominated in the anterior region (78.7%), consisting of MyHCIIa (58.5%), MyHCIIx (1.0%), MyHCIIa+MyHCIIx (11.3%) and MyHCI+MyHCIIa (7.9%). Fibres containing slow MyHC predominated in the posterior region (65.2%), consisting of MyHCI (45.5%) and MyHCI+MyHCIIa (19.7%). A minor fibre population (<2%) contained unusual MyHC isoforms, namely MyHC foetal, MyHC slow-tonic, MyHC α-cardiac or MyHC embryonic. The microvascularization of the human tongue was twice as high as in human limb muscles. Regional similarities in capillary supply, but differences in fibre phenotype composition, suggest that human tongue muscle fibres are fatigue resistant independently of MyHC content. High frequency of hybrid fibres, that is fibres co-expressing two or more MyHC isoforms, indicates a wider spectrum of fibre contractile properties than in limb muscles. In conclusion, human intrinsic tongue muscles showed internal specialization in distribution of MyHC isoforms and capillary supply, but not in the expression of unusual MyHCs.

  • 364.
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Mechanisms of alloxan diabetogenicity1981Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspensions of pancreatic islet cells from ob/ob-mice were incubated with Trypan Blue. Microscope photometry showed that apparently viable cells excluded the dye completely, whereas the nuclei of non-viable cells accumulated Trypan Blue by a saturable process. Alloxan rapidly increased the permeability of the plasma membrane in mouse 3-cells; the exclusion of Trypan Blue is a valid and useful measure of islet cell viability following alloxan exposure.

    The diabetogenic action of alloxan may be mediated by hydroxyl radicals. In several biological systems hydroxyl radicals are formed by an iron-catalyzed reaction between superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide. To test whether this applies to alloxan diabetogenicity, the effects of superoxide dismutase, catalase, scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, and metal ion chelators were tested (a) in a cell-free radical-generating system and (b) on islets and islet-cells exposed to alloxan In vitro. The effect of longtime-circulating superoxide dismutase injected prior to alloxan was tested on mice in vivo.

    Luminol chemiluminescence was used to monitor alloxan-dependent radical production. Accumulation of 8^Rb+ and exclusion of Trypan Blue were used as cell viability criteria in isolated mouse islets and islet-cells. Blood glucose was determined to monitor the development of diabetes in living animals.

    Superoxide dismutase, catalase, scavengers of hydroxyl radicals, and metal ion chelators inhibited the alloxan-dependent chemiluminescence and decreased the toxic effects on Rb+ accumulation or Trypan Blue exclusion in islets and islet-cells. Superoxide dismutase, linked to polyethylene glycol and injected 12 hours before alloxan, largely prevented the development of alloxan diabetes.

    Alloxan toxicity _in vitro and in vivo seems to depend on the formation of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide which in turn form the noxious hydroxyl radical via an iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction.

    As free radicals and hydrogen peroxide can be formed by other chemicals and during inflammation, and inflammation may accompany the outbreak of human diabetes, studies on the beneficiary effects of superoxide dismutase and other scavengers of free radicals in other forms of diabetes seem warranted.

  • 365.
    Granström, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells towards Tenocyte Phenotype.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 366. Grigoriadis, A
    et al.
    Johansson, Roland S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Trulsson, M
    Temporal profile and amplitude of human masseter muscle activity is adapted to food properties during individual chewing cycles2014In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 367-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jaw actions adapt to the changing properties of food that occur during a masticatory sequence. In the present study, we investigated how the time-varying activation profile of the masseter muscle changes during natural chewing in humans and how food hardness affects the profile. We recorded surface electromyography (EMG) of the masseter muscle together with the movement of the lower jaw in 14 healthy young adults (mean age 22) when chewing gelatin-based model food of two different hardness. The muscle activity and the jaw kinematics were analysed for different phases of the chewing cycles. The increase in the excitatory drive of the masseter muscle was biphasic during the jaw-closing phase showing early and late components. The transition between these components occurred approximately at the time of tooth-food contact. During the masticatory sequence, when the food was particularised, the size of the early component as well as the peak amplitude of the EMG significantly decreased along with a reduction in the duration of the jaw-closing phase. Except for amplitude scaling, food hardness did not appreciably affect the muscle's activation profile. In conclusion, when chewing food during natural conditions, masseter muscle activation adapted throughout the masticatory sequence, principally during the jaw-closing phase and influenced both early and late muscle activation components. Furthermore, the adaptation of jaw actions to food hardness was affected by amplitude scaling of the magnitude of the muscle activity throughout the masticatory sequence.

  • 367.
    Grigoriadis, Anastasios
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Roland S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Trulsson, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Adaptability of mastication in people with implant-supported bridges2011In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 395-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We aimed to determine whether people with implant-supported bridges in both jaws, thus lacking periodontal receptors, adjust jaw muscle activity to food hardness during mastication.

    Materials and Methods: Thirteen participants with implant-supported bridges in both jaws and 13 with natural dentition chewed and swallowed soft and hard gelatine-based model foods, while electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and temporal muscles was recorded bilaterally together with the position of the mandible. Data were compared by using a mixed-design anova model and a P-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results: The number of chewing cycles and the duration of the masticatory sequence increased with food hardness in both groups, whereas vertical and lateral amplitude of the jaw movements, and the jaw-opening velocity, increased significantly with food hardness only for the dentate group. Although both groups adapted the EMG activity to the hardness of the food, the implant participants showed a significantly weaker increase in EMG activity with increased food hardness early during the masticatory sequence than the dentate participants did. In addition, the implant group showed significantly less reduction of muscle activity during the progression of the masticatory sequence than the dentate group.

    Conclusions: People with implant-supported bridges show an impaired adaptation of the muscle activity to food hardness during mastication. We suggest that a lack of sensory signals from periodontal mechanoreceptors accounts for the impairment.

  • 368.
    Grimsholm, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology.
    Neuropeptides and neurotrophins in arthritis: studies on the human and mouse knee joint2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP) and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (BN/GRP), and neurotrophins are involved in neuro-immunomodulatory processes and have marked trophic, growth-promoting and inflammation-modulating properties. The impact of these modulators in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is, however, unclear. An involvement of the innervation, including the peptidergic innervation, is frequently proposed as an important factor for arthritic disease. Many patients with RA, but not all, benefit from treatment with anti-TNF medications.

    The studies presented here aimed to investigate the roles of neuropeptides, with an emphasis on BN/GRP and SP, and neurotrophins, especially with attention to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in human and murine knee joint tissue. The expression patterns of these substances and their receptors in synovial tissue from patients with either RA or osteoarthritis (OA) were studied in parallel with the levels of these factors in blood and synovial fluid from patients with RA and from healthy controls. Correlation studies were also performed comparing the levels of neuropeptides with those of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. Furthermore, the impact of anti-TNF treatment on the levels of BDNF in blood was investigated. In a murine model of RA, the expression of these substances on articular chondrocytes along with their expression in synovial tissue was investigated.

    The expression of BN/GRP in human synovial tissue was confined to fibroblast-like and mononuclear-like cells whereas SP was detected in nerve-related structures. Receptors for these neuropeptides (GRP-R and NK-1R) were frequently present in blood vessel walls, and on fibroblast-like and mononuclear-like cells. The expression of BDNF and its receptors, p75 neurotrophin receptor and TrkB, was mainly confined to nerve structures. The levels of SP, and particularly those of BN/GRP, in synovial fluid and peripheral blood correlated with the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There were clearly more correlations between SP-BN/GRP and inflammatory parameters than between BDNF and these factors. Plasma levels of BDNF were decreased following anti-TNF-treatment. In the joints of the murine model, there was a marked expression of neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and NK-1R/GRP-R in the articular chondrocytes. The expression was down-regulated in the arthritic animals. A neurotrophin system was found to develop in the inflammatory infiltrates of the synovium in the arthritic mice.

    The results presented suggest that there is a local, and not nerve-related, supply of BN/GRP in the human synovial tissue. Furthermore, BN/GRP and SP have marked effects in the synovial tissue of patients with RA, i.e., there were abundant receptor expressions, and these neuropeptides are, together with cytokines, likely to be involved in the neuro-immunomodulation that occurs in arthritis. The observations do on the whole suggest that the neuropeptides, rather than BDNF, are related to inflammatory processes in the human knee joint. A new effect of anti-TNF treatment; i.e., lowering plasma levels of BDNF, was observed. Severe arthritis, as in the murine model, lead to a decrease in the levels of neurotrophin, and neurotrophin and neuropeptide receptor expressions in the articular cartilage. This fact might be a drawback for the function of the chondrocytes. Certain differences between the expression patterns in the synovial tissue of the murine model and those of human arthritic synovial tissue were noted. It is obvious that local productions in the synovial tissue, nerve-related supply in this tissue and productions in chondrocytes to different extents occur for the investigated substances.

  • 369.
    Grimsholm, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Guo, Yongzhi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ny, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Expression patterns of neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in articular chondrocytes and inflammatory infiltrates in knee joint arthritis.2008In: Cells, tissues, organs, ISSN 1422-6421, Vol. 188, no 3, p. 299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is likely that neurotrophins (NTs) are of great importance for the articular cartilage and the inflammation process in arthritis. METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of the NTs nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the associated receptors p75, TrkA and TrkB was examined in the knee joint of arthritic and healthy mice. RESULTS: Immunoreactions for NGF and BDNF were detected in cells and nerve fiber varicosities in the inflammatory infiltrates of the synovial tissue of arthritic joints but not in synovial tissue of controls. p75-immunoreactive nerve fiber-like strands were detected in inflammatory infiltrates. Immunostaining for NGF, BDNF, p75, TrkA and TrkB was noted in articular chondrocytes. There was a statistically significant decrease in reactions for NGF (p < 0.001), TrkA (p = 0.001) and p75 (p < 0.001) in articular chondrocytes in joints exhibiting severe arthritis. CONCLUSION: The findings show that an NT system develops in inflammatory infiltrates of the synovial tissue. Furthermore, most interestingly, autocrine/paracrine effects appear to exist concerning NTs for the articular chondrocytes. The downregulated expression of NGF and NT receptors in articular chondrocytes in arthritis is a new aspect concerning the involvement of NTs in cartilage.

  • 370.
    Grimsholm, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Guo, Yongzhi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ny, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Are neuropeptides important in arthritis? Studies on the importance of bombesin/GRP and substance P in a murine arthritis model.2007In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1110, p. 525-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interference with the effects of neuropeptides may be of potential therapeutic value for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two neuropeptides that can be discussed in this context are bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (BN/GRP) and substance P (SP). In order to obtain new information on the possible importance of these two peptides, the patterns of immunohistochemical expression of BN/GRP and SP and their related receptors in the mouse knee joint from healthy and arthritic mice were examined. Positive staining for GRP receptor and the SP preferred receptor (the neurokinin-1 receptor [NK-1 R]) was observed in articular chondrocytes. On the whole, there was a decrease in immunoreactions for both the GRP- and the NK-1 receptors in the articular chondrocytes in joints exhibiting severe arthritis. Staining for BN/GRP and GRP receptor was seen in the inflammatory infiltrates of the arthritic joints. New evidence for the occurrence of marked effects of BN/GRP concerning both the articular chondrocytes and the inflammatory process is obtained in this study. With these findings and previous observations of neuropeptide expression patterns and functions we discuss the possibility that interventions with the effects of BN/GRP, SP, and other neuropeptides might be worthwhile in RA.

  • 371.
    Grimsholm, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Anatomi.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology. Reumatologi.
    Dalén, Tore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics. Ortopedi.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    BDNF in RA: Downregulated in plasma following anti-TNF treatment but no correlation with inflammatory parameters.2008In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1289-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is largely unknown. The distribution of BDNF and its associated receptors, TrkB and p75, in the synovial tissue of patients with RA was examined and contrasted with that in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Additionally, levels of BDNF in both synovial tissue and synovial fluid were measured. Furthermore, the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF; infliximab) treatment on BDNF levels in the plasma of RA patients were analysed. Cells in the synovium showed immunoreactivity for BDNF and BDNF-, p75- and TrkB-receptor immunoreactions were seen in nerve fibres of nerve fascicles and in association with sensory corpuscles. The levels of BDNF in synovial tissue were not correlated with the number of inflammatory cells observed microscopically or with levels of TNFα. Nor did the BDNF levels in synovial fluid correlate with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or white blood cell counts. Anti-TNF treatment lead to a decrease in plasma levels of BDNF 14 weeks after the initiation of anti-TNF therapy, i.e., 8 weeks after the last infusion. Higher levels of BDNF were observed in RA patients at baseline compared with those for healthy individuals. However, the levels of BDNF in plasma of patients treated with anti-TNF did not correlate with the changes in ESR or a disease activity score. The clinical significance of this study is that anti-TNF treatment influences plasma levels of BDNF although there was no evidence that BDNF levels correlate with inflammatory parameters in either infliximab-treated or non-infliximab-treated patients with RA. Instead it is likely that sources other than inflammatory cells, including nerve structures, are important sources of BDNF and that the effects of anti-TNF treatment on BDNF levels may be related to effects on circulating and various local cells and/or BDNF-containing neurons.

  • 372.
    Grimsholm, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Dalén, Tore
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Unexpected finding of a marked non-neuronal cholinergic system in human knee joint synovial tissue.2008In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 442, no 2, p. 128-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a newly discovered pathway. Another recent concept is the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system that has, so far, been defined for human tendons, intestine, airways and urinary bladder. The existence of such a system in joint synovial tissue is yet to be described. We therefore aimed to investigate the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) at both the protein and mRNA level using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation, in human knee synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The biopsy samples were collected from patients undergoing knee prosthetic surgery. Our results show that both ChAT protein and mRNA is expressed in fibroblast-like and mononuclear-like cells, and to some extent in blood vessel walls in the synovial tissue. The mononuclear-like cells showing ChAT expression were scattered throughout the synovial tissue or located in association with lymphoid aggregates. Thus, we present the first evidence of the existence of a marked non-neuronal cholinergic system in human synovial tissue. The existence of this system could lead to the development of alternative medications to those currently in use. The system might function as a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in synovial tissue. Our observations show that synovial tissue of patients with marked RA or OA, a tissue in which cholinergic innervation is not proven to exist, is supplied with acetylcholine via production in non-neuronal cells within the tissue.

  • 373.
    Grimsholm, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Levels of gastrin-releasing peptide and substance P in synovial fluid and serum correlate with levels of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis.2005In: Arthritis research & therapy, ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 7, no 3, p. R416-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that cytokines are highly involved in the disease process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, targeting of neuropeptides has been suggested to have potential therapeutic effects in RA. The aim of this study was to investigate possible interrelations between five neuropeptides (bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (BN/GRP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin-gene-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y) and the three cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in synovial fluid of patients with RA. We also investigated possible interrelations between these neuropeptides and soluble TNF receptor 1 in serum from RA patients. Synovial fluid and sera were collected and assayed with ELISA or RIA. The most interesting findings were correlations between BN/GRP and SP and the cytokines. Thus, in synovial fluid, the concentrations of BN/GRP and SP grouped together with IL-6, and SP also grouped together with TNF-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. BN/GRP and SP concentrations in synovial fluid also grouped together with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In the sera, BN/GRP concentrations and soluble TNF receptor 1 concentrations were correlated. These results are of interest because blocking of SP effects has long been discussed in relation to RA treatment and because BN/GRP is known to have trophic and growth-promoting effects and to play a role in inflammation and wound healing. Furthermore, the observations strengthen a suggestion that combination treatment with agents interfering with neuropeptides and cytokines would be efficacious in the treatment of RA. In conclusion, BN/GRP and SP are involved together with cytokines in the neuroimmunomodulation that occurs in the arthritic joint.

  • 374.
    Grimsholm, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Dalén, Tore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Observations favouring the occurrence of local production and marked effects of bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide in the synovial tissue of the human knee joint: comparisons with substance P and the NK-1 receptor.2008In: Neuropeptides, ISSN 0143-4179, E-ISSN 1532-2785, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 133-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (BN/GRP) in blood and synovial fluid correlate with levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is well-established that SP is present in nerve endings in the synovium whilst the source of BN/GRP in human joints is completely unknown. Nor is it known whether GRP-receptors (GRP-R) are present in human synovial tissue. This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of SP, BN/GRP and their receptors (NK-1R and GRP-R) in synovial tissue. Synovial tissue specimens from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA) were processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation and ELISA. The results show the presence of BN/GRP, but not SP, in cells in the synovial tissue at both the protein and mRNA level. We did not find immunoreactive BN/GRP in nerve structures. NK-1R and GRP-R were also expressed at both protein and mRNA levels in cells associated with blood vessels and cells in the interstitial tissue. ELISA analyses revealed both SP and BN/GRP to be present in synovial tissue extracts and that synovial levels of SP were higher in RA patients than those with OA. Our results indicate that BN/GRP is produced by non-neuronal cells in the synovial tissue. Furthermore, both BN/GRP and SP may exert their effects on the synovial tissue through the respective receptors. These results suggest that BN/GRP and SP may modulate inflammation and vascular events, and possibly healing processes in the synovium. Finally, nerves should not be considered as the source of BN/GRP in synovial tissue although this peptide is presumably intimately involved functionally in synovial tissue, a previously unrecognised fact.

  • 375.
    Guo, Xiong
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PR of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China .
    Zhang, Feng
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PR of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China .
    Wang, Xi
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PR of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China .
    Wu, Cuiyan
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PR of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China .
    Ning, Yujie
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PR of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China .
    Yu, Fangfang
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PR of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China .
    Younus, Mohammad Imran
    Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PR of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China .
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission of PR of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China .
    Yu, Jun
    Institute of Kashin-Beck Disease, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, China.
    Liu, Hui
    Institute of Kashin-Beck Disease, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, China.
    Cao, Yanhong
    Institute of Kashin-Beck Disease, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin, China.
    Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD)2017In: Endemic disease in China / [ed] Dianjun Sun, Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House , 2017, p. 150-211Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 376. Guo, Yijie
    et al.
    Zhou, Yuan
    Yan, Siqi
    Qu, Chengjuan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Wang, Liyun
    Guo, Xiong
    Han, Jing
    Decreased expression of CHST-12, CHST-13, and UST in the proximal interphalangeal joint cartilage of school-age children with Kashin-Beck disease: an endemic osteoarthritis in China caused by selenium deficiency2019In: Biological Trace Element Research, ISSN 0163-4984, E-ISSN 1559-0720, Vol. 191, no 2, p. 276-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to investigate changes in the expression of enzymes involved in chondroitin sulfate (CS) sulfation in distal articular surface of proximal interphalangeal joint isolated from school-age children patients with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), using normal children as controls. Articular cartilage samples were collected from four normal and four KBD children (7-12 years old), and these children were assigned to control and KBD groups. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), toluidine blue (TB), and immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings were utilized to evaluate changes in joint pathology and expression of enzymes involved in CS sulfation, including carbohydrate sulfotransferase 12 (CHST-12), carbohydrate sulfotransferase 13 (CHST-13), and uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase (UST). The correspondence results were examined by semi-quantitative analysis. Compared with the control group, the KBD group showed the following: a significant decrease of total chondrocytes in superficial, middle, and deep layers and deposition of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in extracellular matrix of KBD cartilage were observed; positive staining chondrocytes of CHST-12, CHST-13, and UST were significantly less in superficial zone of KBD cartilage; and CHST-13 positive staining chondrocytes was reduced in deep zone of KBD cartilage. In contrast, the positive staining rates of CHST-12, CHST-13, and UST in KBD were significantly higher than those in the control group. The decreased expression of these enzymes and the physiologic compensatory reaction may be the signs of early-stage KBD. The alterations of CS structure modifying sulfotransferases in finger articular cartilage might play an important role in the onset and pathogenesis of school-age KBD children.

  • 377.
    Gustafsson, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    A model for investigating microcircuit changes underlying functional recovery after brain lesion in vivo2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 378.
    Gustafsson, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Salivary gland neoplasms: studies on the cytoskeleton, the secretory apparatus and the nuclear DNA content1986Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The heterogeneity of salivary gland neoplasms have made classification and prognostication of these tumours sometimes difficult, and the in­troduction of techniques, such as enzyme and carbohydrate histochemis­try and electron microscopy have only to a certain extent increased our knowledge in these respects. In the present study immunohistochemical methods have been used to identify intermediate filament proteins (IFP) in normal fetal and adult parotid glands, as well as in salivary neo­plasms. The intermediate filaments (IF) make up the cytoskeleton in eucaryotic cells. Epithelial tissue contains IF composed of different cytokeratins (CK 1-19) whilst mesenchymal tissue generally contains IF composed of vimentin, and the IFP pattern is very stable even during cell transformation. It would thus be possible to further clarify the histogenesis of salivary neoplasms by identifying IFP, in addition the IFP pattern would probably be useful in tumour typing. Furthermore, ultrastructural cytochemical studies, microspectorphotometry on nuclear DNA as well as enzyme secretory studies of certain tumour types were carried out, in order to further characterize the biology of salivary neoplasms.

    The immunohistochemical investigations showed that in normal parotid tissue, the different cell types differed in IFP expression: acinar cells express mainly CK 18 and myoepithelial cells mainly CK 17 and 19, whilst duct cells contained a broad range of CK. Vimentin could in ad­dition to CK be detected in myoepithelial cells and basal cells of ex­cretory ducts. Fetal parotid cells showed a similar CK pattern as mature duct cells. In addition, vimentin could be found in some basal cells of the terminal tubules of the fetal glands. Salivary neoplasms could be divided into three types with regard to their IFP pattern:

    1.  Acinic cell carcinomas showed a CK-pattern similar to normal acinar cells but a co-expression of CK and vimentin was present in some cells.
    2.  Adenoid cystic carcinomas, mixed tumours and basal cell adenomas showed a CK-pattern of normal duct or myoepithelial cells. The peri­pheral cells were also vimentin positive. 3. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas and adenocarcinomas had a similar CK-pattern as duct cells, and no tu­mour cells contained vimentin. This indicates that typing of IFP may be useful for subgrouping of salivary neoplasms.

    By stereological measurements, the cells of acinic cell carcinomas were found to be very similar to normal parotid acinar cells. Furthermore, they contained amylase and after stimulation by norepiphrine a secre­tory response was induced, with a rise in intracellular cAMP as well as a release of amylase. By single cell measurements of nuclear DNA con­tent, no difference was found between acinic cell carcinomas with de­finite metastasis and those without recurrence, both in paraffin sec­tions and cytological smears.

  • 379.
    Gustavsson, Natalia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Histology and Cell Biology.
    Cell-Specific Ca2+ Response in Pancreatic ß-cells2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic ß-cells are heterogeneous in their secretory responsiveness, glucose sensitivity and metabolic rate. A diminished and delayed first-phase insulin release is an early sign of failing ß-cells in diabetes. Mechanisms controlling functional characteristics, such as lag time for insulin release or magnitude of the response in each individual cell are unknown. To find out whether the heterogeneity represents a random phenomenon in ß-cell or is a manifestation of reproducible characteristics, we compared parameters of Ca2+ response in Fura-2 labelled ob/ob mouse ß-cells during two consecutive stimulations with glucose. Lag times, as well as peak heights and nadirs of initial lowering showed a strong correlation between the first and second stimulation. Thus, timing and magnitude of the early Ca2+ response were specific for each cell. ß-Cells from lean mice, diabetic db/db mice and rats also showed cell-specific responses characteristics. This indicates that a cell-specific Ca2+ response to glucose is common in rodent ß-cells, both normal and diabetic. Another question was whether aggregated ß-cells show cell-specific responses. Using the same protocol as for dispersed ß-cells, we analysed Ca2+ responses in clusters of different size and in intact islets from ob/ob and lean mice. Correlations were found between the first and second stimulation for timing and magnitude of [Ca2+]i rise, and for the initial lowering.

    Next, we tested if the ß-cell response is cell-specific, when induced at different steps of the stimulus-secretion coupling. The glycolytic intermediate glyceraldehyde, the mitochondrial substrate KIC, the KATP-channel blocker tolbutamide and arginine were used as tools. [Ca2+]i changes were studied in dispersed ß-cells from lean, ob/ob and db/db mice. NADH responses to glucose and KIC were analyzed as a measure of metabolic flux. The correlation between Ca2+ and insulin response from individual ß-cells was tested using Fluo-3 and Fluozin-3.

    Both timing and magnitude of calcium responses were cell-specific in lean mouse ß-cells with all tested secretagogues. ß-Cells from ob/ob and db/db mice showed cell-specific timing of Ca2+ responses to glyceraldehyde but not to KIC, tolbutamide or arginine. However, ob/ob mouse ß-cells within intact islets showed cell-specific timing of tolbutamide-induced response. NADH responses to glucose were cell-specific in all three mouse models, but the timing of NADH responses to KIC was cell-specific only in lean mice. Thus, a cell-specific response can be induced in normal ß-cells at several steps of stimulus-secretion coupling for nutrient-stimulated insulin release. Cell-specific properties of ß-cell ion channels and the mitochondrial metabolism are affected in db/db and ob/ob mice.

    The relation between mitochondrial mass and parameters of Ca2+ responses were investigated in Mitotracker Red and Fluo-3 labelled ß-cells using confocal microscopy. Data show that ß-cell mitochondrial state may play an important role in determining the timing of [Ca2+]i changes.

    In summary, the early Ca2+ response pattern in ß-cells, including the lag time, the nadir of initial lowering and the height of the first peak response is cell-specific. Isolated and functionally coupled ß-cells show cell-specific timing of Ca2+ responses when stimulated with metabolic and non-metabolic agents. This may be a robust mechanism of importance for the adequate function of ß-cells and a basis for the pacemaker function of some cells. A disturbed cell specificity of the mitochondrial metabolism and ion channel function appears to be a marker of ß-cell dysfunction in hyperglycemia and diabetes and may explain the delayed insulin release in ß-cells from diabetic subjects.

  • 380.
    Gustavsson, Natalia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Abedi, Golbarg
    Larsson-Nyrén, Gerd
    Lindström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Timing of Ca2+ response in pancreatic ß-cells is related to mitochondrial massManuscript (Other academic)
  • 381.
    Gustavsson, Natalia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Larsson-Nyrén, Gerd
    Lindström, Per
    Cell specificity of Ca2+ response to tolbutamide is impaired in ß-cells from hyperglycemic mice2006In: Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0022-0795, E-ISSN 1479-6805, Vol. 190, no 2, p. 461-470Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 382.
    Gustavsson, Natalia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Larsson-Nyrén, Gerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Lindström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Pancreatic beta cells from db/db mice show cell-specific [Ca2+]i and NADH responses to glucose but not to alpha-ketoisocaproic acid.2005In: Pancreas, ISSN 0885-3177, E-ISSN 1536-4828, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 242-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that timing and magnitude of the glucose-induced cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]i response are reproducible and specific for the individual beta cell. We now wanted to identify which step(s) of stimulus-secretion coupling determine the cell specificity of the [Ca2+]i response and whether cell specificity is lost in beta-cells from diabetic animals. Besides glucose, we studied the effects of glyceraldehyde, a glycolytic intermediate, and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), a mitochondrial substrate. METHODS: Early [Ca2+]i changes were studied stimulations in fura-2-labeled dispersed beta cells from lean, ob/ob, and db/db mice. Lag time and peak height were compared during 2 consecutive stimulations with the same stimulator. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) responses to glucose and KIC were studied as a measure of metabolic flux. RESULTS: Both glyceraldehyde and KIC induced cell-specific temporal responses in lean mouse beta cells with a correlation between lag times for [Ca2+]i rise during the first and second stimulation. Beta cells from ob/ob and db/db mice showed cell-specific temporal [Ca2+]i responses to glucose and glyceraldehyde but not to KIC. Glucose induced cell-specific NADH responses in all 3 models, but KIC did so only in lean mouse [beta] cells. CONCLUSIONS: A cell-specific response may be induced at several steps of beta-cell stimulus-secretion coupling. Mitochondrial metabolism generates a cell-specific response in normal beta cells but not in db/db and ob/ob mouse beta cells.

  • 383.
    Gylfe, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Studies on free amino acids in the pancreatic β-cells.1974Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 384.
    Gåfvels, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Blood flow and metabolism in the corpus luteum of the rat: in vivo and in vitro studies on the ovarian luteal and follicular compartment of the rat1987Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ovary undergoes cyclic changes in follicular growth and luteogenesis due to the action of gonadotropins and steroids. The ovary and especially the corpus luteum has an exteremely high blood flow. There is a gap in our knowledge about the physiological role of the high blood flow of the corpus luteum.

    The production of lactate, progesterone and cyclic AMP of follicles and corpora lutea incubated in vitro was analyzed and related to the tissue content of ATP to elucidate possible connections between oxygen and substrate levels and energy consumption, steroid output and LH responsiveness in vitro. It was also considered of interest to investigate if the oxygen tensions needed for ATP and progesterone production of the follicle and the corpus luteum differed. A corpus luteum model using adult pseudopregnant rats was developed and characterized according to criteria for identification of corpora lutea as well as levels of plasma steroids and gonadotropins. In vitro progesterone production was compared to plasma progesterone levels. The absolute blood flow of corpora lutea of different ages and the response to injection of hCG, noradrenaline and antidiuretic hormone was investigated with the microsphere technique. Relative blood flow changes of follicles and corpora lutea during follicular growth and luteogenesis in vivo were studied by injecting radiolabelled microspheres to anaesthetized immature rats at different time periods after injection of an ovulatory dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. This approach was chosen to investigate the possible relation between follicular/luteal blood flow, steroid output and morphology in relation to the endogenous gonadotropin surge, ovulation and luteogenesis.

    Hormonal stimulation by injection of hCG and noradrenaline increased total ovarian blood flow but no evidence was found for a parallelism between luteotropism and blood flow. The increasing effect of hCG on ovarian blood flow was partly due to a shunting of blood from the uterus towards the ovary. The antidiuretic hormone potently decreased ovarian and uterine blood flow by 80-90% while blood flow of some other organs (e.g. kidney and spleen) were hardly affected. The corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy was found to produce 15“ 20 times more progesterone in vitro as compared to the preovulatory follicle. The steroidogenesis and energy production of corpora lutea was found to be more sensitive to decreases in oxygen tension in terms of tissue ATP levels and LH responsiveness of progesterone production while the follicle could compensate by increasing glycolysis. A parallelism between follicular/luteal blood flow and progesterone production in vivo was found. It was shown that the formation, growth and progesterone production of the corpus luteum was accompanied by an increase in blood flow as well as vascularization as seen under the light microscope. The endogenous gonadotropin surge did not change follicular blood flow due to the development of a follicular oedema. We hypothesize that the corpus luteum function in vivo and in vitro is dependent on higher energy levels than the preovulatory follicle and that the transformation of the follicle to a corpus luteum is supported by a high nutritive blood flow possibly to support a high demand for energy-rich substrates.

  • 385.
    Haage, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Interaction between allopregnanolone and pregnenolone sulfate in modulating GABA-mediated synaptic currents in neurons from the rat medial preoptic nucleus.2005In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, Vol. 1033, no 1, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two neurosteroids 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one (allopregnanolone; AlloP) and pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) affect neuronal GABA(A) receptors differently. While AlloP mainly potentiates the currents through GABA(A) receptors, PregS reduces such currents. The present study aimed at clarifying the interaction of AlloP and PregS at GABA(A) receptors in neurons from the medial preoptic nucleus of male rat. AlloP has previously been shown to dramatically prolong GABA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in these neurons. Here, by recording sIPSCs under voltage-clamp conditions with the perforated-patch technique, it was shown that PregS by itself did not significantly affect the amplitude or time course of such currents. However, PregS, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced the AlloP-evoked prolongation of sIPSC decay when the two neurosteroids were applied together. In contrast to sIPSC amplitude and time course, sIPSC frequency was significantly reduced by 10 microM PregS alone. Further, although 1.0 microM AlloP alone induced a clear increase in sIPSC frequency, the frequency was not significantly different from control when 1.0 microM AlloP was applied in combination with 10 microM PregS. In addition to the effects on sIPSC parameters, PregS reduced the baseline current evoked by 1.0 microM AlloP in the absence of GABA application or synaptic activity. PregS by itself did not significantly affect the baseline current. The main effects of AlloP and PregS on the sIPSC time course were mimicked by a simplified model with AlloP assumed to reduce the rate of GABA unbinding from the receptor and PregS assumed to increase the rate of desensitization.

  • 386.
    Haage, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Druzin, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Laboratory of Ionic Channels of Cell Membranes, Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Allopregnanolone modulates spontaneous GABA release via presynaptic Cl- permeability in rat preoptic nerve terminals2002In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 958, no 2, p. 405-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The endogenous neurosteroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one (allopregnanolone) affects presynaptic nerve terminals and thereby increases the frequency of spontaneous GABA release. The present study aimed at clarifying the mechanisms underlying this presynaptic neurosteroid action, by recording the frequency of spontaneous GABA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in neurons from the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of rat. Acutely dissociated neurons with functional adhering nerve terminals were studied by perforated-patch recording under voltage-clamp conditions. It was shown that the sIPSC frequency increased with the external K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)). Further, the effect of allopregnanolone on the sIPSC frequency was strongly dependent on [K(+)](o). In a [K(+)](o) of 5 mM, 2.0 microM allopregnanolone caused a clear increase in sIPSC frequency. However, the effect declined rapidly with increased [K(+)](o) and at high [K(+)](o) allopregnanolone reduced the sIPSC frequency. The effect of allopregnanolone was also strongly dependent on the external Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)](o)). In a reduced [Cl(-)](o) (40 mM, but with a standard [K(+)](o) of 5 mM), the effect on sIPSC frequency was larger than that in the standard [Cl(-)](o) of 146 mM. The dependence of the effect of allopregnanolone on [K(+)](o) and on estimated presynaptic membrane potential was also altered by the reduction in [Cl(-)](o). As in standard [Cl(-)](o), the effect in low [Cl(-)](o) declined when [K(+)](o) was raised, but reversed at a higher [K(+)](o). The GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol also potentiated the sIPSC frequency. Altogether, the results suggest that allopregnanolone exerts its presynaptic effect by increasing the presynaptic Cl(-) permeability, most likely via GABA(A) receptors.

  • 387. Habib, Reza
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Neural Correlates of Availability and Accessibility in Memory2008In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 1720-1726Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure to remember can be due to not having information available in memory or to an inability to access information that is available. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain responses during encoding and successive cued recall and associative recognition tests of paired associates. Items were classified into 3 categories based on performance on the 2 retrieval tests: 1) successfully remembered (both recalled and recognized), 2) inaccessible (not recalled but later recognized), and 3) forgotten (neither recalled nor recognized). During cued recall, availability in memory was signaled in a network of regions including bilateral medial temporal lobe, left middle temporal cortex, and the parietal cortex. Memory access resulted in heightened activity in these regions as well as in left inferior frontal cortex. Encoding-related activity in hippocampus and inferior temporal cortex predicted subsequent availability and left inferior frontal activity predicted subsequent access. These results suggest that failure to access information that is available in memory may reflect weaker memory representations.

  • 388.
    Hadrevi, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kieselbach, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Protein differences between human trapezius and vastus lateralis muscles determined with a proteomic approach2011In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 12, no 181, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The trapezius muscle is a neck muscle that is susceptible to chronic pain conditions associated with repetitive tasks, commonly referred to as chronic work-related myalgia, hence making the trapezius a muscle of clinical interest. To provide a basis for further investigations of the proteomic traits of the trapezius muscle in disease, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was performed on the healthy trapezius using vastus lateralis as a reference. To obtain as much information as possible from the vast proteomic data set, both one-way ANOVA, with and without false discovery rate (FDR) correlation, and partial least square projection to latent structures with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were combined to compare the outcome of the analysis.

    Results: The trapezius and vastus lateralis showed significant differences in metabolic, contractile and regulatory proteins, with different results depending on choice of statistical approach and pre-processing technique. Using the standard method, FDR correlated one-way ANOVA, 42 protein spots differed significantly in abundance between the two muscles. Complementary analysis using immunohistochemistry and western blot confirmed the results from the 2D-DIGE analysis.

    Conclusions: The proteomic approach used in the present study combining 2D-DIGE and multivariate modelling provided a more comprehensive comparison of the protein profiles of the human trapezius and vastus lateralis muscle, than previously possible to obtain with immunohistochemistry or SDS-PAGE alone. Although 2D-DIGE has inherent limitations it is particularly useful to comprehensively screen for important structural and metabolic proteins, and appears to be a promising tool for future studies of patients suffering from chronic work related myalgia or other muscle diseases.

  • 389.
    Hadrévi, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Applying proteomics and metabolomics for studying human skeletal muscle with a focus on chronic trapezius myalgia2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders are the dominating causes of reported ill-health in industrialized countries. These chronic pain conditions are one of the most costly public health problems in Europe and North America. When work related musculoskeletal disorders are considered to be of muscular origin and the trapezius muscle is affected, the common appellation is trapezius myalgia. Since little is known about the genesis or how it is maintained, it is of great importance to better understand the pathophysiology of trapezius myalgia; doing so will better enable recommendations for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Several hypotheses have been presented based on biochemical alterations in the muscle, suggesting increased signaling of inflammatory substances and altered metabolism. Previous research has not been able to present the comprehensive picture of the muscle in pain. Thus there is a demand for more comprehensive research regarding the biochemical milleu of the chronic trapezius muscle.

    Proteomic and metabolomic methods allow non-targeted simultaneous analyses of a large number of proteins and metabolites. The main emphasis in this thesis is on a proteomic method, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The method is validated to human skeletal muscle biopsy research with laboratory specific settings. In the baseline study, there were 14 metabolic, contractile, structural and regulatory proteins that differed significantly in abundance when trapezius and vastus lateralis muscles were compared. Using the validated 2D-DIGE method and the baseline study, a comparison between healthy and myalgic muscles was made. Biopsies from female cleaners with and without myalgia were compared to obtain results from women with the same type of work exposure. In the multivariate model, 28 identified unique proteins separated healthy and myalgic muscle and were grouped according to function: metabolic (n=10), contractile (n=9), regulatory (n=3), structural (n=4), and other (n=2). Finally, a second screening method, metabolomics, was introduced to analyze differences in metabolite content as a complement to and verification of the proteomic results. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed on muscle interstitial fluid samples obtained with microdialysis, and differences in the abundance of extracellular metabolites were revealed.

     The 2D-DIGE method is a reliable method to analyze human skeletal muscle. The outcomes of the proteomic analyses were dependant on the statistical approach. Systematic differences in protein and metabolite content were detected using a multivariate approach. Univariate analyses were used to analyze individual proteins for their significance. The significant proteins in the baseline study were predominately related to muscle fiber type which correlated with the differences in fiber type content between trapezius and vastus lateralis. The proteomic and metabolomics studies where myalgic and healthy muscles were compared provide us with new clues and new aspects regarding the pathophysiology of the myalgic muscle.

    Technically advanced methods employed in the thesis enabled an explorative screening of proteins of relevance for the pathophysiology of the myalgic muscle. The results of these analyses may contribute to the formulation of future hypothesis that need to be further evaluated.

  • 390.
    Hadrévi, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University and Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Britt
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies , University of Gävle, Umeå, Sweden.
    Multivariate Modeling of Proteins Related to Trapezius Myalgia, a Comparative Study of Female Cleaners with or without Pain2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e73285-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of chronic trapezius myalgia is high in women with high exposure to awkward working positions, repetitive movements and movements with high precision demands. The mechanisms behind chronic trapezius myalgia are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in protein content between healthy and myalgic trapezius muscle using proteomics. Muscle biopsies from 12 female cleaners with work-related trapezius myalgia and 12 pain free female cleaners were obtained from the descending part of the trapezius. Proteins were separated with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and selected proteins were identified with mass spectrometry. In order to discriminate the two groups, quantified proteins were fitted to a multivariate analysis: partial least square discriminate analysis. The model separated 28 unique proteins which were related to glycolysis, the tricaboxylic acid cycle, to the contractile apparatus, the cytoskeleton and to acute response proteins. The results suggest altered metabolism, a higher abundance of proteins related to inflammation in myalgic cleaners compared to healthy, and a possible alteration of the contractile apparatus. This explorative proteomic screening of proteins related to chronic pain in the trapezius muscle provides new important aspects of the pathophysiology behind chronic trapezius myalgia.

  • 391.
    Hadrévi, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University and Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University and Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden; Institute of Stress Medicine, Carl Skottsbergs gata 22B, SE 41319 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, Britt
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University and Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, A. G.
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies , University of Gävle, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University and Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, SE 581 85 Linköping, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies , University of Gävle, Umeå, Sweden.
    Comparative metabolomics of muscle interstitium fluid in human trapezius myalgia: an in vivo microdialysis study2013In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, no 12, p. 2977-2989Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms behind trapezius myalgia are unclear. Many hypotheses have been presented suggesting an altered metabolism in the muscle. Here, muscle microdialysate from healthy and myalgic muscle is analysed using metabolomics. Metabolomics analyse a vast number of metabolites, enabling a comprehensive explorative screening of the cellular processes in the muscle.

    Microdialysate samples were obtained from the shoulder muscle of healthy and myalgic subjects that performed a work and stress test. Samples from the baseline period and from the recovery period were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) together with multivariate analysis to detect differences in extracellular content of metabolites between groups. Systematic differences in metabolites between groups were identified using multivariate analysis and orthogonal partial least square discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). A complementary Mann-Whitney U test of group difference in individual metabolites was also performed.

    A large number of metabolites were detected and identified in this screening study. At baseline, no systematic differences between groups were observed according to the OPLS-DA. However, two metabolites, l-leucine and pyroglutamic acid, were significantly more abundant in the myalgic muscle compared to the healthy muscle. In the recovery period, systematic difference in metabolites between the groups was observed according to the OPLS-DA. The groups differed in amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates. Myristic acid and putrescine were significantly more abundant and beta-d-glucopyranose was significantly less abundant in the myalgic muscle.

    This study provides important information regarding the metabolite content, thereby presenting new clues regarding the pathophysiology of the myalgic muscle.

  • 392. Hagert, Elisabet
    et al.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Anatomy.
    Ljung, Björn-Ove
    Differences in the presence of mechanoreceptors and nerve structures between wrist ligaments may imply differential roles in wrist stabilization.2005In: Journal of Orthopaedic Research, ISSN 0736-0266, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 757-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze human wrist ligaments with regard to presence of general innervation and mechanoreceptors. The ligaments studied were: dorsal radiocarpal (DRC), dorsal intercarpal (DIC), long radiolunate (LRL), radioscaphocapitate (RSC), ulnocarpal (UC), scapholunate interosseous (SLI) and lunotriquetral interosseous (LTI) ligaments. Specific immunohistochemical markers were used to target neural/perineurial structures. Both Ruffini and Pacini-like mechanoreceptors (sensory corpuscles) as well as nerve fascicles/free nerve fibers were identified. Ruffini corpuscles were primarily identified via their dendritic intracapsular nerve endings, whereas the Pacini-like corpuscles were identified through their thick perineurial capsules with marked p75 immunoreaction. The wrist ligaments were found to vary in innervation, the DIC, DRC and SLI being richly innervated, whereas the LRL being almost without innervation. The difference in innervation between the ligaments might reflect differential function. Ligaments without innervation might act as structures of passive restraint, whereas ligaments with rich innervation are proposed to also provide proprioceptive information. Wrist ligament injuries should, therefore, be regarded as a disturbance not only of the intrinsic carpal kinematics, but also of the coordination and proprioception of the entire wrist joint.

  • 393. Hagert, Elisabet
    et al.
    Garcia-Elias, Marc
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Anatomy.
    Ljung, Björn-Ove
    Immunohistochemical analysis of wrist ligament innervation in relation to their structural composition.2007In: Journal of Hand Surgery-American volume, ISSN 0363-5023, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 30-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To analyze ligament innervation and the structural composition of wrist ligaments to investigate the potential differences in sensory and biomechanical functions. METHODS: The ligaments analyzed were the dorsal radiocarpal, dorsal intercarpal, scaphotriquetral, dorsal scapholunate interosseous, scaphotrapeziotrapezoid, radioscaphoid, scaphocapitate, radioscaphocapitate, long radiolunate, short radiolunate, ulnolunate, palmar lunotriquetral interosseous, triquetrocapitate, and triquetrohamate ligaments. The ligaments were harvested from 5 cadaveric, fresh-frozen specimens. By using the immunohistochemical markers p75, Protein Gene Product 9.5, and S-100 protein, the mechanoreceptors and nerve fibers could be identified. RESULTS: The innervation pattern in the ligaments was found to vary distinctly, with a pronounced innervation in the dorsal wrist ligaments (dorsal radiocarpal, dorsal intercarpal, scaphotriquetral, dorsal scapholunate interosseous), an intermediate innervation in the volar triquetral ligaments (palmar lunotriquetral interosseous, triquetrocapitate, triquetrohamate), and only limited/occasional innervation in the remaining volar wrist ligaments. The innervation pattern also was reflected in the structural differences between the ligaments. When present, mechanoreceptors and nerve fibers were consistently found in the loose connective tissue in the outer region (epifascicular region) of the ligament. Hence, ligaments with abundant innervation had a large epifascicular region, as compared with the ligaments with limited innervation, which consisted mostly of densely packed collagen fibers. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that wrist ligaments vary with regard to sensory and biomechanical functions. Rather, based on the differences found in structural composition and innervation, wrist ligaments are regarded as either mechanically important ligaments or sensory important ligaments. The mechanically important ligaments are ligaments with densely packed collagen bundles and limited innervation. They are located primarily in the radial, force-bearing column of the wrist. The sensory important ligaments, by contrast, are richly innervated although less dense in connective tissue composition and are related to the triquetrum. The triquetrum and its ligamentous attachments are regarded as key elements in the generation of the proprioceptive information necessary for adequate neuromuscular wrist stabilization.

  • 394. Hagert, Elisabet
    et al.
    Ljung, Björn-Ove
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Anatomy.
    General innervation pattern and sensory corpuscles in the scapholunate interosseous ligament.2004In: Cells Tissues Organs, ISSN 1422-6405, Vol. 177, no 1, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) is biomechanically important in maintaining wrist motion and grip strength in the hand, but its possible sensory role in the dynamic muscular stability of the wrist joint has not been examined. The aim of this study was to use immunohistochemical methods to analyze the general innervation and the possible existence of sensory corpuscles in the SLIL. The ligament was excised in its entirety from 9 patients. Antibodies against the low-affinity p75 neurotrophic receptor (p75) were used to reveal sensory corpuscles as well as general innervation. Furthermore, antibodies against the general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and the glial marker S-100 were used to additionally depict innervation and corpuscular structures. Blood vessels occurred in areas interspersed throughout the homogeneous collagenous structure. In these vascularized areas, the SLIL was found to be supplied with nerve fascicles and sensory corpuscles of both the Ruffini and lamellated type. p75 immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in association with the nerve fascicles and the corpuscles, particularly in their capsule. S-100 IR was found in the Schwann cells in the central regions of the corpuscle, and PGP 9.5 IR marked the axonal structures in the corpuscles. New information on neurotrophin receptor distribution in ligaments has been obtained here. The presence of nerve fascicles and particularly sensory corpuscles in the SLIL suggests that the ligament has a proprioceptive role in the stability of the wrist. The marked p75 IR further indicates that neurotrophins play a part in a proprioceptive system in the ligament, given the importance of neurotrophins in maintaining sensory function.

  • 395. Hagg, S.
    et al.
    Zhan, Y.
    Karlsson, R.
    Gerritsen, L.
    Ploner, A.
    van der Lee, S. J.
    Broer, L.
    Deelen, J.
    Marioni, R. E.
    Wong, A.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Zhu, G.
    Hansell, N. K.
    Sillanpaa, E.
    Fedko, I. O.
    Amin, N. A.
    Beekman, M.
    de Craen, A. J. M.
    Degerman, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Harris, S. E.
    Kan, K-J
    Martin-Ruiz, C. M.
    Montgomery, G. W.
    Adolfsson, Annelie N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Reynolds, C. A.
    Samani, N. J.
    Suchiman, H. E. D.
    Viljanen, A.
    von Zglinicki, T.
    Wright, M. J.
    Hottenga, J-J
    Boomsma, D. I.
    Rantanen, T.
    Kaprio, J. A.
    Nyholt, D. R.
    Martin, N. G.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Kuh, D.
    Starr, J. M.
    Deary, I. J.
    Slagboom, P. E.
    van Duijn, C. M.
    Codd, V.
    Pedersen, N. L.
    Short telomere length is associated with impaired cognitive performance in European ancestry cohorts2017In: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 7, article id e1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR) framework. Twelve European cohorts (N = 17 052; mean age = 59.2 +/- 8.8 years) provided results for associations between qPCR-measuredTL (T/S-ratio scale) and general cognitive function, mini-mental state exam (MMSE), processing speed by digit symbol substitution test (DSST), visuospatial functioning, memory and executive functioning (STROOP). In addition, a genetic risk score (GRS) for TL including seven known genetic variants for TL was calculated, and used in associations with cognitive traits as outcomes in all cohorts. Observational analyses showed that longer telomeres were associated with better scores on DSST (beta = 0.051 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.024, 0.077; P = 0.0002), and MMSE (beta = 0.025; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.047; P = 0.03), and faster STROOP (beta = -0.053; 95% CI: -0.087, -0.018; P = 0.003). Effects for DSST were stronger in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers (beta = 0.081; 95% CI: 0.045, 0.117; P = 1.0 x 10(-5)), whereas carriers performed better in STROOP (beta = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.140, -0.009; P = 0.03). Causal associations were found for STROOP only (beta = -0.598 per s. d.-increase of TL; 95% CI: -1.125, -0.072; P = 0.026), with a larger effect in epsilon 4-carriers (beta = -0.699; 95% CI: -1.330, -0.069; P = 0.03). Two-sample replication analyses using CHARGE summary statistics showed causal effects between TL and general cognitive function and DSST, but not with STROOP. In conclusion, we suggest causal effects from longer TL on better cognitive performance, where APOE epsilon 4-carriers might be at differential risk.

  • 396.
    Hagnerud, Sven
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Histology and Cell Biology.
    Manna, Partha Pratim
    Cella, Marina
    Stenberg, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Histology and Cell Biology.
    Frazier, William A
    Colonna, Marco
    Oldenborg, Per-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Histology and Cell Biology.
    Deficit of CD47 results in a defect of marginal zone dendritic cells, blunted immune response to particulate antigen and impairment of skin dendritic cell migration.2006In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, Vol. 176, no 10, p. 5772-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface glycoprotein that associates with integrins and regulates chemotaxis, migration, and activation of leukocytes. CD47 is also a ligand for signal regulatory protein alpha, a cell surface receptor expressed on monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, and dendritic cell (DC) subsets that regulates cell activation, adhesion, and migration. Although the function of CD47 in macrophages and granulocytes has been studied in detail, little is known about the role of CD47 in DC biology in vivo. In this study we demonstrate that CD47(-/-) mice exhibit a selective reduction of splenic CD11c(high)CD11b(high)CD8alpha(-)CD4(+) DCs. These DCs correspond to marginal zone DCs and express signal regulatory protein alpha, possibly explaining their selective deficiency in CD47(-/-) mice. Deficiency of marginal zone DCs resulted in impairment of IgG responses to corpusculate T cell-independent Ags. Although epidermal DCs were present in normal numbers in CD47(-/-) mice, their migration to draining lymph nodes in response to contact sensitization was impaired, while their maturation was intact. In vitro, CD47(-/-) mature DCs showed normal CCR7 expression but impaired migration to CCL-19, whereas immature DC response to CCL-5 was only slightly impaired. These results demonstrate a fundamental role of CD47 in DC migration in vivo and in vitro and in the function of marginal zone DCs.

  • 397. Halje, Par
    et al.
    Brys, Ivani
    Mariman, Juan J.
    da Cunha, Claudio
    Fuentes, Romulo
    Petersson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Oscillations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits: implications for Parkinson's disease and other neurologic and psychiatric conditions2019In: Journal of Neurophysiology, ISSN 0022-3077, E-ISSN 1522-1598, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 203-231Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cortico-basal ganglia circuits are thought to play a crucial role in the selection and control of motor behaviors and have also been implicated in the processing of motivational content and in higher cognitive functions. During the last two decades, electro-physiological recordings in basal ganglia circuits have shown that several disease conditions are associated with specific changes in the temporal patterns of neuronal activity. In particular, synchronized oscillations have been a frequent finding suggesting that excessive synchronization of neuronal activity may be a pathophysiological mechanism involved in a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric conditions. We here review the experimental support for this hypothesis primarily in relation to Parkinson's disease but also in relation to dystonia, essential tremor, epilepsy, and psychosis/schizophrenia.

  • 398.
    Hammarsten, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Winther, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Rudolfsson, Stina H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Häggström, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Karalija, Amar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Egevad, Lars
    Department of Pathology and Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Granfors, Torvald
    Department of Urology, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden.
    Fowler, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    ErbB2 Receptor Immunoreactivity in Prostate Cancer: Relationship to the Androgen Receptor, Disease Severity at Diagnosis and Disease Outcome2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e105063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: ErbB2 is a member of the epidermal growth factor family of tyrosine kinases that is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and several studies have reported that a high expression of this protein has prognostic value. In the present study, we have investigated whether tumour ErbB2 immunoreactivity (ErbB2-IR) has clinically useful prognostic value, i.e. that it provides additional prognostic information to that provided by routine clinical tests (Gleason score, tumour stage).

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ErbB2-IR was measured in a well-characterised tissue microarray of tumour and non-malignant samples obtained at diagnosis. Additionally, mRNA levels of ErbB2-IR in the prostate were determined in the rat following manipulation of circulating androgen levels. Tumour ErbB2-IR was significantly associated with the downstream signalling molecule phosphorylated-Akt and with the cell proliferation marker Ki-67. The significant association of tumour ErbB2-IR with the Gleason score at diagnosis was lost when controlled for the association of both parameters with Ki-67. In the rat prostate, mRNA for ErbB2 was inversely associated with circulating androgen levels. There was no association between ErbB2-IR and the androgen receptor (AR)-IR in the tumours, but an interaction between the two parameters was seen with respect to their association with the tumour stage. Tumour ErbB2-IR was confirmed to be a prognostic marker for disease-specific survival, but it did not provide significant additive information to the Gleason score or to Ki-67.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that tumour ErbB2-IR is of limited clinical value as a prognostic marker to aid treatment decisions, but could be of pathophysiological importance in prostate cancer.

  • 399. Hamodeh, Salah
    et al.
    Bozkurt, Ayse
    Mao, Haian
    Sultan, Fahad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Department of Cognitive Neurology, HIH for Clinical Brain Research, Otfried-Müller-Str. 27, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Uncovering specific changes in network wiring underlying the primate cerebrotype2017In: Brain Structure and Function, ISSN 1863-2653, E-ISSN 1863-2661, Vol. 222, no 7, p. 3255-3266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular scaling of brain networks during evolution has been proposed to be the major process leading to enlarged brains. Alternative views, however, suggest that deviations from regular scaling were crucial to the evolution of the primate brain and the emergence of different cerebrotypes. Here, we examined the scaling within the major link between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex by studying the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). We compared the major axonal and dendritic wiring in the DCN of rodents and monkeys in search of regular scaling. We were able to confirm regular scaling within the density of neurons, the general dendritic length per neuron and the Purkinje cell axon length. However, we also observed specific modification of the scaling rules within the primates' largest and phylogenetically newest DCN, the dentate nucleus (LN/dentate). Our analysis shows a deviation from regular scaling in the predicted dendritic length per neuron in the LN/dentate. This reduction in the dendritic length is also associated with a smaller dendritic region-of-influence of these neurons. We also detected specific changes in the dendritic diameter distribution, supporting the theory that there is a shift in the neuronal population of the LN/dentate towards neurons that exhibit spatially restricted, clustered branching trees. The smaller dendritic fields would enable a larger number of network modules to be accommodated in the primate LN/dentate and would provide an explanation for the unique folded structure of the primate LN/dentate. Our results show that, in some brain regions, connectivity maximization (i.e., an increase of dendritic fields) is not the sole optimum and that increases in the number of network modules may be important for the emergence of a divergent primate cerebrotype.

  • 400.
    Han, Jing
    et al.
    School of public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    Guo, Xiong
    School of public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    Wang, Liyun
    School of public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    Chilufya, Mumba Mulutula
    School of public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    Lim, Poon Nian
    Department of Mechanical Enginnering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Qu, Chengjuan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Selenium deficiency and selenium supplements: biological effects on fibrosisin chronic diseases, from animal to human studies2017In: Handbook of famine, starvation, and nutrient deprivation: from biology to policy / [ed] Preedy V.R., Patel V.B., Springer, 2017, p. 1-20Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selenium is a trace element, which is required for normal growth and development of animals and humans. It works by incorporating into proteins to make selenoproteins. These selenoproteins help to prevent free radicals from causing cellular damage, which may in turn lead to the development of various chronic diseases. Selenium deficiency, although is rare, can happen when the body does not have enough selenium. This chapter will review systematically the effects of selenium deficiency on fibrosis in various chronic diseases, such as cardiac fibrosis, liver fibrosis, kidney fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, thyroid fibrosis, oral submucous fibrosis, and pancreatic fibrosis in both animal and human studies. Moreover, their prevention and treatment with selenium supplement will be evaluated as well.

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