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  • 401.
    af Bjerkén, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Nevalainen, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    Lundblad, Martin
    Pomerleau, Francois
    Gerhardt, Greg A.
    Strömberg, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Histology and Cell Biology.
    L-DOPA conversion to dopamine in the rat dopamine-depleted striatumManuscript (Other academic)
  • 402.
    af Burén, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Does internal migration influence earnings following youth unemployment?: Evidence from the Swedish Labor Market2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of youth unemployment in Sweden has highlighted the need for more research investigating the effects of unemployment on future earnings. Earlier research suggests that youth unemployment will leave labor market scares on a person’s future income. Therefore, in this thesis I investigate the question if migration can increase an individual’s future earnings and hence work as a cure for scared individuals. My theoretical argument is that migration is an investment in human capital which will lead to higher future income and may heal scars. To test my argument, I use Swedish panel data from the ASTRID database, examining unemployed individuals born 1979-1983 after finishing their education in Sweden. A nearest-neighbor propensity score matching method is applied to estimate the casual effects. However, the results show only few significant results over time and age cohorts in the data. Therefore, my conclusion is that migration barley increases income of young unemployed individuals.

  • 403.
    af Klintberg, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Predictive Modeling of Emissions: Heavy Duty Vehicles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 404.
    af Klinteberg, Ingvar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Airway management and safety aspects during induction of anaesthesia. - A comparison between Rapid sequence induction and Target controlled infusion in non-cardiac surgery2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 405.
    Afaag, Ali
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Sandelin, Benjamin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Polymerization Shrinkage of Dental Composites Registered by a Video-imaging Device. A pilot study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of composite materials for dental fillings has become more common due to demands for more esthetic filling materials and a national ban against using mercury-containing products, among others dental amalgam. However, one of the drawbacks with composites is their polymerization shrinkage. Filler particles are incorporated into composites among other things to minimize the shrinkage. The sizes of the filler particles have in recent years become smaller and most composites have nano-particles incorporated.

    The aims of the study were to investigate if a) the filler load, b) the curing time and c) tested after "best-before date" will affect the polymerization shrinkage of commercial dental composites. The hypotheses are that high filler loads will result in low shrinkage, and that different curing times and tested after "best-before date" will not significantly affect the shrinkage.

    The polymerization shrinkage of ten commercial composites was studied and three different curing times were used. 150 specimens were manually formed and AcuVol was used to register the volumetric shrinkage.

    The mean volumetric polymerization shrinkage values of the composites ranged between 1.8% and 5.0% for the recommended curing times. The composite with the highest filler load (Kalore) had the lowest mean shrinkage, and the composite with the lowest filler load (SDR) had the highest mean shrinkage.

    The video-imaging device could be used to register the polymerization shrinkage of dental composites. The composites polymerization shrinkage was related to the filler loads when the composites were arranged in groups based on their type. No conclusion could be made about the effect of different curing times and "best-before date".

  • 406. Afari-Asiedu, Samuel
    et al.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Boamah-Kaali, Ellen
    Abdulai, Martha Ali
    Gyapong, Margaret
    Sankoh, Osman
    Hulscher, Marlies
    Asante, Kwaku Poku
    Wertheim, Heiman
    To sell or not to sell; the differences between regulatory and community demands regarding access to antibiotics in rural Ghana2018In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, E-ISSN 2052-3211, Vol. 11, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Ghana, there is extensive over-the-counter dispensing of antibiotics, resulting in high levels of inappropriate use, and an increase in antibiotic resistance. Regulations prevent Licenced Chemical Sellers (LCS, Over-the-Counter Medicine Sellers) from selling antibiotics other than Cotrimoxazole. In practice, however, these sellers sell a variety of antibiotics. This paper aims to provide insight into the differences between regulatory and community demands on the sale of antibiotics, and to explore how these differences in demand could be resolved to facilitate safe and appropriate use of antibiotics in rural Ghana.

    Methods: A total of 32 in-depth interviews were conducted in the Kintampo North and South Districts in Ghana; 16 among antibiotic suppliers, predominantly LCS, and 16 among community members. Six focus group discussions were also conducted among 40 community members. Data were coded using Nvivo 10 and thematically analyzed in line with study objectives. The results are presented as narratives with quotes to illustrate the findings.

    Results: Generally, antibiotic suppliers were aware that regulations prevent LCS from selling antibiotics except Cotrimoxazole. However, LCS sell all types of antibiotics because of community demand, economic motivations of LCS, and the poor implementation of regulations that are intended to prevent them from selling these medications. Factors that influence community demand for antibiotics include previous knowledge of effectiveness of some antibiotics, delays in seeking care at health facilities, financial constraints, and distance to health facilities. LCS suggested that they should be trained and allowed to sell some types of antibiotics instead of being prevented completely from selling. Community members also suggested that Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) compounds should be equipped to dispense antibiotics.

    Conclusion: The sale of antibiotics by LCS at the community level is influenced by both structural and individual contextual factors. There is a need to educate community members on the appropriate access and use of antibiotics in rural Ghana. In addition, rather than enforcing rules that go against practice, it may be more effective to regulate the sale of antibiotics by LCS and train them to make their dispensing more appropriate. CHPS compound could also be equipped to dispense some antibiotics to improve appropriate antibiotic access at the community level.

  • 407. Affognon, H.
    et al.
    Mburu, P.
    Hassan, Osama Ahmed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kingori, S.
    Ahlm, C.
    Sang, R.
    Evander, M.
    Sociocultural differences affect Rift Valley fever exposureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 408. Affognon, Hippolyte
    et al.
    Mburu, Peter
    Hassan, Osama Ahmed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Kingori, Sarah
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Sang, Rosemary
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Ethnic groups' knowledge, attitude and practices and Rift Valley fever exposure in Isiolo County of Kenya2017In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, ISSN 1935-2727, E-ISSN 1935-2735, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e0005405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting humans and livestock. For spread of infectious diseases, including RVF, knowledge, attitude and practices play an important role, and the understanding of the influence of behavior is crucial to improve prevention and control efforts. The objective of the study was to assess RVF exposure, in a multiethnic region in Kenya known to experience RVF outbreaks, from the behavior perspective. We investigated how communities in Isiolo County, Kenya were affected, in relation to their knowledge, attitude and practices, by the RVF outbreak of 2006/2007. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 698 households selected randomly from three different ethnic communities. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices that could affect the spread of RVF. In addition, information was collected from the communities regarding the number of humans and livestock affected during the RVF outbreak. This study found that better knowledge about a specific disease does not always translate to better practices to avoid exposure to the disease. However, the high knowledge, attitude and practice score measured as a single index of the Maasai community may explain why they were less affected, compared to other investigated communities (Borana and Turkana), by RVF during the 2006/2007 outbreak. We conclude that RVF exposure in Isiolo County, Kenya during the outbreak was likely determined by the behavioral differences of different resident community groups. We then recommend that strategies to combat RVF should take into consideration behavioral differences among communities.

  • 409. Afif, Haitham
    et al.
    Mukka, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics. Sundsvall Hospital.
    Sjödén, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics. Sundsvall Hospital.
    Sayed-Noor, Arkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics. Sundsvall Hospital.
    Do bisphosphonate-related atypical femoral fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw affect the same group of patients?: a pilot study2014In: Orthopedic Reviews, ISSN 2035-8237, E-ISSN 2035-8164, Vol. 6, article id 5067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are commonly used drugs in clinical practice. In this pilot study, we investigated whether bisphosphonate-related atypical femoral fractures (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) occurred simultaneously in the same group of patients. Six ONJ patients were examined by an orthopedic surgeon and 5 AFF patients were examined by a dentist to look for manifestations of simultaneous occurrence of AFF in ONJ patients and vice versa. The required radiological investigations and previous medical and dental records were available. No simultaneous occurrence of AFF and ONJ was found in the examined patients. In this pilot study with limited sample size, no manifestations of simultaneous occurrence of AFF and ONJ were found. This could be an indication that these complications have different pathophysiologies and affect different subgroups of patients on long-term BP treatment.

  • 410.
    Afrooz, Zakia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kruusman, Artur
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Effect of the ESG Score on Stock Price Jumps: A Quantitative Study on Nordic Countries2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability performance of a firm is gaining equal importance as the economic performance in today’s world. Sustainability scores or ESG ratings have successfully emerged to be popular sustainability performance measurements for firms across the globe. Therefore, many studies have been done focusing on relating the firms’ sustainability performance with the financial performance from different aspects in different regions. Other studies have also looked at the relationship between sustainability performance/CSR/ESG and the risks related to the firms. But no study has been found that consider the relationship between ESG/CSR and more extreme stock price movements, i.e., so called stock price jumps, which is an important part of the total risk. To fill this knowledge gap, this study aims to investigate the relationship between firms ESG score, as well as how separate E, S and G scores, relate to stock price jumps.The Nordic countries are chosen as the research area as the four Nordic countries, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway are ranked among the top five countries in terms of ESG ratings for the last two years. Logically, the investors in these countries should be interested in the firms ESG score as well. Data source for this study is mainly the Thomson Reuters Eikon database. In total 105 companies listed in the Nordic Stock Exchanges have been selected as the sample within the time frame 2008-2017. The findings of this study indicate that, there is no statistically proven significant relationship between firms’ overall sustainability performance or the ESG score and the number of stock price jumps. However, some significantresults have been found at the country levelandforindividual E, S and G scores however. Therefore, individual environmental, social and governance scores have been recommended to be studied by investors before taking any investment decision if they want to reduce the probable stock price jump risk.

  • 411. Afset, J. E.
    et al.
    Larssen, K. W.
    Bergh, K.
    Larkeryd, A.
    Sjodin, A.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Forsman, M.
    Phylogeographical pattern of Francisella tularensis in a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia in Norway, 20112015In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 20, no 19, p. 9-14, article id 21125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia occurred in Norway with 180 recorded cases. It was associated with the largest peak in lemming density seen in 40 years. Francisella tularensis was isolated from 18 patients. To study the geographical distribution of F. tularensis genotypes in Norway and correlate genotype with epidemiology and clinical presentation, we performed whole genome sequencing of patient isolates. All 18 genomes from the outbreak carried genetic signatures of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and were assigned to genetic clades using canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ten isolates were assigned to major genetic clade B.6 (subclade B.7), seven to clade B.12, and one to clade B.4. The B.6 subclade B.7 was most common in southern and central Norway, while clade B.12 was evenly distributed between the southern, central and northern parts of the country. There was no association between genotype and clinical presentation of tularaemia, time of year or specimen type. We found extensive sequence similarity with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genomes from high-endemic tularaemia areas in Sweden. Finding nearly identical genomes across large geographical distances in Norway and Sweden imply a life cycle of the bacterium without replication between the outbreaks and raise new questions about long-range migration mechanisms.

  • 412. Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Sur, Patrick
    Estep, Kara
    Lee, Alex
    Marczak, Laurie
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Vos, Theo
    Abate, Kalkidan H.
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Ahmed, Muktar B.
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Amegah, Adeladza K.
    Amini, Erfan
    Amrock, Stephen M.
    Anjana, Ranjit M.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Baye, Estifanos
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Beyene, Addisu S.
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Biryukov, Stan
    Bjertness, Espen
    Boneya, Dube J.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Cercy, Kelly
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Damtew, Solomon A.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Eshrati, Babak
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Furst, Thomas
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye T.
    Gold, Audra
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Goto, Atsushi
    Habtewold, Tesfa D.
    Hadush, Kokeb T.
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Hay, Simon I.
    Horino, Masako
    Islami, Farhad
    Kamal, Ritul
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.
    Khader, Yousef S.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Yun J.
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Ku, Tiffany
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Liu, Patrick
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malta, Deborah C.
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    McAlinden, Colm
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Mengistu, Desalegn T.
    Mensah, George A.
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Mezgebe, Haftay B.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Noubiap, Jean J.
    Obermeyer, Carla M.
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Patton, George C.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rai, Rajesh K.
    Ranabhat, Chhabi L.
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Safiri, Saeid
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    Schmidt, Maria I.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shamsizadeh, Moretza
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shiue, Ivy
    Roba, Hirbo S.
    Silva, Diego A. S.
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Stranges, Saverio
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tadese, Fentaw
    Tedla, Bemnet A.
    Tegegne, Balewgizie S.
    Terkawi, Abdullah S.
    Thakur, J. S.
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Vlassov, Vasiliy V.
    Vollset, Stein E.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wesana, Joshua
    Westerman, Ronny
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yonga, Gerald
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zenebe, Zerihun M.
    Zipkin, Ben
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years2017In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 377, no 1, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. 

  • 413. Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Sur, Patrick John
    Fay, Kairsten A.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Ferrara, Giannina
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Mullany, Erin C.
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abebe, Zegeye
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Aggarwal, Anju
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    Akinyemiju, Tomi
    Alahdab, Fares
    Bacha, Umar
    Bachman, Victoria F.
    Badali, Hamid
    Badawi, Alaa
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Biryukov, Stan H.
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu Kassa K.
    Cahill, Leah E.
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Cercy, Kelly M.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dang, Anh Kim
    Degefa, Meaza Girma
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Esteghamati, Sadaf
    Fanzo, Jessica
    Farinha, Carla Sofia E. Sa
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Flor, Luisa Sorio
    Foigt, Nataliya A.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Gillum, Richard F.
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Guessous, Idris
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Hay, Simon I.
    Hoang, Chi Linh
    Horino, Masako
    Islami, Farhad
    Jackson, Maria D.
    James, Spencer L.
    Johansson, Lars
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Lallukka, Tea
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Marz, Winfried
    Meier, Toni
    Melaku, Yohannes A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Micha, Renata
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Ong, Kanyin L.
    Pereira, David M.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Razo-Garcia, Christian
    Rehm, Colin D.
    Rivera, Juan A.
    Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Sanabria, Juan
    Sanchez-Pimienta, Tania G.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Springmann, Marco
    Szponar, Lucjan
    Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Touvier, Mathilde
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Ullah, Irfan
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Vos, Theo
    Vu, Giang Thu
    Vu, Linh Gia
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wu, Jason H.
    Xu, Gelin
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172019In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 393, no 10184, p. 1958-1972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suboptimal diet is an important preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however, its impact on the burden of NCDs has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of major foods and nutrients across 195 countries and to quantify the impact of their suboptimal intake on NCD mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: By use of a comparative risk assessment approach, we estimated the proportion of disease-specific burden attributable to each dietary risk factor (also referred to as population attributable fraction) among adults aged 25 years or older. The main inputs to this analysis included the intake of each dietary factor, the effect size of the dietary factor on disease endpoint, and the level of intake associated with the lowest risk of mortality. Then, by use of diseasespecific population attributable fractions, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), we calculated the number of deaths and DALYs attributable to diet for each disease outcome.

    Findings: In 2017, 11 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 10-12) deaths and 255 million (234-274) DALYs were attributable to dietary risk factors. High intake of sodium (3 million [1-5] deaths and 70 million [34-118] DALYs), low intake of whole grains (3 million [2-4] deaths and 82 million [59-109] DALYs), and low intake of fruits (2 million [1-4] deaths and 65 million [41-92] DALYs) were the leading dietary risk factors for deaths and DALYs globally and in many countries. Dietary data were from mixed sources and were not available for all countries, increasing the statistical uncertainty of our estimates.

    Interpretation: This study provides a comprehensive picture of the potential impact of suboptimal diet on NCD mortality and morbidity, highlighting the need for improving diet across nations. Our findings will inform implementation of evidence-based dietary interventions and provide a platform for evaluation of their impact on human health annually.

  • 414.
    Afvander, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Development of a working method for the study of a distillation process: Distillation of a multicomponent system2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 415.
    Afzaal, Qasim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ahmad, Usman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Audio Video Streaming Solution for Bambuser2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Audio/Video streaming has widely been used in different applications but the social communication applications have especially raised its usage. The aim of this thesis is to design and develop an improved Audio/Video streaming solution for a Swedish company Bambuser and can easily be extended with new features where necessary. Currently Bambuser is using the Flash Media Server (FMS) for streaming the media, but it is license based and adds the extra cost to the company's budget. It does not support a wide range of platforms (e.g. OpenBSD and various Linux distributions) and also has limited options for the streaming. There is no real time monitoring and controlling functionality, which can show the status of essential services to the user, needed for the streaming (for example if the camera is working, microphone is turned on, battery power status. etc.).

    In order to solve these issues the GStreamer is used, which is an Open source multimedia streaming framework. The GStreamer environment was tested on different Linux distributions. The research and implementation includes the creation of the streaming pipeline and analyzing which options (i.e. GStreamer elements and plugins) are required to stream the media. It also includes the testing of different pipeline parameters (for example video rate, audio rate etc.) and noting their effects in a real working environment. Python binding with GStreamer is used to have better control over the pipeline. Another requirement of this project was to add the functionality of monitoring and control that shows the status of essential services to the user. Implementation of this part is done by using server and client side coding. Further improvements and suggestions are also proposed in this report.

  • 416. Agardh, Anette
    et al.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Muriisa, Robert
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Social capital and sexual behavior among Ugandan university students2010In: Global health action, ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified the effect so that we can not assume that risky sexual behavior is automatically reduced by increasing social capital in a highly religious society. The findings indicate the importance of understanding the interplay between social capital, religious influence, and gender issues in HIV/AIDS preventive strategies in Uganda.

  • 417.
    Agarkova, Irina
    et al.
    ETH-Zurich Hoenggerberg.
    Schoenauer, Roman
    ETH-Zurich Hoenggerberg.
    Ehler, Elisabeth
    King×s College London,.
    Carlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Carlsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Perriard, Jean-Claude
    ETH-Zurich Hoenggerberg.
    The molecular composition of the sarcomeric M-band correlates with muscle fiber type2004In: European Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0171-9335, Vol. 83, no 5, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The M-band is the transverse structure that cross-links the thick filaments in the center and provides a perfect alignment of the A-band in the activated sarcomere. The molecular composition of the M-bands in adult mouse skeletal muscle is fiber-type dependent. All M-bands in fast fibers contain M-protein while M-bands in slow fibers contain a significant proportion of the EH-myomesin isoform, previously detected only in embryonic heart muscle. This fiber-type specificity develops during the first postnatal weeks. However, the ratio between the amounts of myosin and of myomesin, taken as sum of both isoforms, remains nearly constant in all studied muscles. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that some of the soleus fibers show a diffuse appearance of the M-band, resembling the situation in the embryonic heart. A model is proposed to explain the functional consequence of differential M-band composition for the physiological and morphological properties of sarcomeres in different muscle types.

  • 418.
    Agarwal, Sudha Rani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kalmár, Timea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Sustainability in Project Management: Eight principles in practice2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research studies the eight principles of sustainability applied in Project Management. To be more precise the research fulfils four objectives which are: firstly, to review and identify key principles of sustainability in project management from existing literature; secondly, to adopt a multiple case study method to assess the applicability of the principles in project management; thirdly, to determine the barriers that impede certain principles to be applied in projects and the resulting trade-offs; and lastly, to refine the concept of sustainability in project management.The study adopts a subjectivist ontological viewpoint and an interpretivist epistemological outlook. The paper deductively studies the research question and adopts a qualitative mono-method research design, with a multiple case study strategy. The project case studies analysed belong to six different industries namely Pharmaceutical, Information Technology (IT), Automotive, Transportation, Furniture and Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG). All case studies fulfil the criteria of being multinational organisations, operating in the private sector, having sustainability as a strategic pillar and projects executed in developed countries with a similar macroeconomic climate. The data has been collected through the semi-structured interview technique and examined using a thematic analysis. The results show that not all eight principles of sustainability are implemented in project management despite of multiple proactive endeavours of engaging in social and environmentally focused business practices. The two principles that show a limited applicability in project management are values and ethics as well as consuming income and not capital.The theoretical contribution of the research is realised through the first collective analysis of the eight principles of sustainability and their implementation in project management through empirical case studies. An additional contribution is through the selection of case studies from industries that have not been examined before. The practical implication of the research is to offer guidance to organisations on what principles they need to build their sustainability project management practices on and to point out the commonly faced barriers and trade-offs.

  • 419. Agarwala, Sanjiv S
    et al.
    Hellstrand, Kristoffer
    Gehlsen, Kurt
    Naredi, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Immunotherapy with histamine and interleukin 2 in malignant melanoma with liver metastasis.2004In: Cancer Immunol Immunother, ISSN 0340-7004, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 840-1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 420.
    Agbi, Anita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Social media platforms and travel destination choices among international students in umea.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media platforms have the potential to influence destination choice among potential travellers.Before potential travellers embark on a trip, they are faced with decision-making processes on whereto go, what to do, the best time to go, how to get there among other things. These pre-travel planning decisions can be influenced by their expectation of the experiences they will encounter at the destination and based on their perception of the destination. Their perception of destinations isusually informed by information found on social media platforms or passed on by family and friendswho have encountered similar travel experiences. Using Crompton’s model of destination choice set,this study explores the roles of social media platforms on destination choice among international students in the Umea university.

  • 421.
    Agbor, Jenet Manyi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    The relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality: a study of three service sectors in Umeå2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is obvious that customers are important stakeholders in organizations and their satisfaction is a priority to management. Customer satisfaction has been a subject of great interest to organizations and researchers alike. In recent years, organizations are obliged to render more services in addition to their offers. The quality of service has become an aspect of customer satisfaction. It has been proven by some researchers that service quality is related to customer satisfaction. Others used service quality dimensions to evaluate service quality. What about the relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality dimensions; the relationship between service quality and its dimensions?

     

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality in service sectors with respect to the service quality dimensions.

     

    Method: Convenience sampling technique was used to collect quantitative data from customers of Umeå University, ICA and Forex to get their satisfaction levels and meaning of service quality which were substituted in the SERVQUAL model. Chi-square test was used to test the hypotheses separately and in a group.

     

    Findings: The study showed distinctive results for the relationship between service quality dimensions and service quality/customer satisfaction.ICA and Forex had significant relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction; butUmeåUniversity had no significant relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. Meanwhile the group result showed that: ´responsiveness`, empathy´ and ´reliability´ were significantly related to service quality; ´reliability` and `empathy`, were significantly related to customer satisfaction but `responsiveness` was not significantly related to customer satisfaction; meanwhile service quality was significantly related to customer satisfaction.

     

    Implication/Contribution: The findings imply that service quality is not the only factors that could lead to customer satisfaction in service sectors; that service quality dimension varies in the different service sectors. The findings suggest that to provide quality service in order to satisfy customers, organizations in this kind of service sectors need to improve on the dimensions of service quality. Also, to provide total satisfaction to customers, the service sectors need to improve on the other factors that were given as reasons for satisfaction. This study contributes to existing theories by confirming or adding value to the relationships that are involved in customer satisfaction, service quality and SERVQUAL dimensions. It provides results that could be useful to managers in business organisations for strategic planning.

  • 422. Agborsangaya, Calypse
    et al.
    Toriola, Adetunji T
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Surcel, Heljia-Marja
    Holl, Katsiaryna
    Parkkila, Seppo
    Tuohimaa, Pentti
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Lehtinen, Matti
    The effects of storage time and sampling season on the stability of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and androstenedione2010In: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the stability of serum samples stored in large biobanks is pivotal for reliable assessment of hormone-dependent disease risks. We studied the effects of sample storage time and season of serum sampling on the stability of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and androstenedione in a stratified random sample of 402 women, using paired sera from the Finnish Maternity Cohort. Serum samples selected were donated between 6 and 24 yr ago. The storage time did not affect serum 25-OHD and androstenedione levels. However, there was a significant mean difference in the 25-OHD levels of sera withdrawn during winter (first sample) vs. during summer (second sample; -18.4 nmol/l, P ≤ 0.001). Also at the individual level, there were significant differences in average 25-OHD levels between individuals with the paired sera taken at winter–winter compared with other alternatives (summer–winter, winter–summer, and summer–summer). The androstenedione levels showed no such differences. Long-term storage does not affect serum 25-OHD and androstenedione levels, but sampling season is an important determinant of 25-OHD levels. Stored serum samples can be used to study disease associations with both hormones. However, sampling season needs to be taken into account for 25-OHD by considering matching and stratification and, if possible, serial sampling.

  • 423.
    Agby, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Liivrand, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Persson, Zandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Hedersmord, baserad på en verklig händelse2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Större delen av vårt arbete baseras på en vecka då vår lägenhet blev ett gömställe för Sara, efter att släktingar som hotat henne till livet, ännu en gång hittat henne. Idag är begreppet hedersmord något de flesta känner till. Dock har vi svårt att i den svenska kulturen sammankoppla hedern med mord. I vad grundar sig hedersmord, beror det på religion, kultur eller gamla seder? Vad är bakgrunden till att män dödar kvinnor för att upprätthålla en familjs heder? Vi vill belysa detta ämne och påvisa konsekvenser som drabbar de utsatta. Med våra egna erfarenheter har vi också stått öga mot öga med den problematik som uppstår när man försöker finna hjälp för någon som är utsatt. Vi vill reda ut vilken hjälp som faktiskt finns att få, och jämföra den med den hjälp som i vårat fall Sara har fått. Motivet bakom hedersmord är att återupprätta en familjs eller en hel släkts förlorade heder, männens heder. Männens heder har ett tydligt samband med kvinnornas frigörelse, beteende och sexualitet. Detta handlar om tusenåriga traditioner och normer som är kulturellt betingade.

  • 424. Agca, R.
    et al.
    Heslinga, S. C.
    Rollefstad, S.
    Heslinga, M.
    McInnes, B.
    Peters, M. J. L.
    Kvien, T. K.
    Dougados, M.
    Radner, H.
    Atzeni, F.
    Primdahl, J.
    Södergren, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Wållberg Jonsson, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    van Rompay, J.
    Zabalan, C.
    Pedersen, T. R.
    Jacobsson, L.
    de Vlam, K.
    Gonzalez-Gay, M. A.
    Semb, A. G.
    Kitas, G. D.
    Smulders, Y. M.
    Szekanecz, Z.
    Sattar, N.
    Symmons, D. P. M.
    Nurmohamed, M. T.
    EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disorders: 2015/2016 update2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 17-28Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint disorders (IJD) have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared with the general population. In 2009, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) taskforce recommended screening, identification of CVD risk factors and CVD risk management largely based on expert opinion. In view of substantial new evidence, an update was conducted with the aim of producing CVD risk management recommendations for patients with IJD that now incorporates an increasing evidence base. A multidisciplinary steering committee (representing 13 European countries) comprised 26 members including patient representatives, rheumatologists, cardiologists, internists, epidemiologists, a health professional and fellows. Systematic literature searches were performed and evidence was categorised according to standard guidelines. The evidence was discussed and summarised by the experts in the course of a consensus finding and voting process. Three overarching principles were defined. First, there is a higher risk for CVD in patients with RA, and this may also apply to ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Second, the rheumatologist is responsible for CVD risk management in patients with IJD. Third, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids should be in accordance with treatment-specific recommendations from EULAR and Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society. Ten recommendations were defined, of which one is new and six were changed compared with the 2009 recommendations. Each designated an appropriate evidence support level. The present update extends on the evidence that CVD risk in the whole spectrum of IJD is increased. This underscores the need for CVD risk management in these patients. These recommendations are defined to provide assistance in CVD risk management in IJD, based on expert opinion and scientific evidence.

  • 425.
    Agdahl, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Bröd till varje pris: spannmålsprisernas utveckling i Västerbotten 1805-1815 och det Finska krigets inverkan2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 426.
    Agdahl, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Krigets kugghjul.: En undersökning av den svenska militära resursstrategins mål, medel och resultat under perioden 1776-1810.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Gears of War

    The study of states, their expansion and interaction has always been an important part of political history and often involves military as well as economic perspectives. Relations between economic capital and means of coercion is according to Charles Tilly an integral part of the state and the security policies of early modern states included a high degree of resource mobilisation, preparation for and making of war. How were these problems meant to be solved and what really happened? These historical problems are brought together in this thesis to examine the Swedish government's intentions in the form of military and resource strategic objectives, how these were implemented in the form of rules and regulations and how this was followed by the armed forces in reality. By analysing strategical and operational plans, regulatory documents and muster-rolls with the help of Tillys statemaking theories as well as Lars Wedins strategical analysis model, the thesis sets out to define the swedish states' foreign  policy, military doctrine and strategy, compare regulations with reality and evaluate the ties between theory and practice.The study shows that geopolitical factors created demands for a new general military strategy that was based on warfare with higher mobility in the border provinces of the swedish realm. The security policy seems to have been an expression of the unity of the swedish state, however, the conflict between aristocratic and royal interests shows an interesting dynamic within the political system that is characteristic for the period. The resource strategy that supported the developing doctrine of mobile warfare in Sweden was based on a well equipped fleet, a smaller and more manageble baggage train for the infantry and a military storage system that together would enable faster responses, better transport and supply capability and a more agile defence that differed from the previous fortification doctine. The strategy for procuring and maintaining of outfitting and equipment of the infantry was decentralised during the early 1800's and the civil society became more involved in the resource mobilisation. This constituted a nationalisation of resource strategical means that aimed to alleviate the natural economic limitations in Sweden.The muster-rolls of Västerbottens' infantry regiment shows that the regulations were implemented in reality but that a deficient transport capability caused by disrupted supply lines and slow aquisition of new equipment led to a sometimes severe shortage of equipment and uniforms. Apart from the deficiencies there were substantial changes to more practical equipment in line with the mobile military doctrine and security policy of Sweden. In conclusion, a clear connection between political goals, regulatory documents and implemented changes are seen and an organic relationship between intention, regulation and reality. Further investigation of these historical problems, with ample source material and useful theoretic models in a swedish context, is encouraged. 

  • 427.
    Agdahl, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    THE INTEGRATION PROCESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING: DRAWING EXAMPLES FROM ÄLVSTADEN-GOTHENBURGBETWEEN 1999-20152017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change and natural variations in the hydrological cycle, global mean sea levels are increasing, causing the mean sea levels in different regions of the world to increase. In Sweden, coastal cities are facing rising water levels which is increasing flooding. The coastal community of Gothenburg, Sweden was identified the 18th most vulnerable city in the country both to flooding induced by water level rise and other climate change related impacts. Its location, in proximity of Lake Vänern, and in the mouth of the Göta River and its tributaries: Säveån, Mölndalsån and Lärjeån is heightening flood risk and vulnerability in the area. This thesis aims to contribute in comprehending the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden- central Gothenburg between 1999 and 2015. With the main objectives being” how the municipality of Gothenburg has applied the urban land use planning theory for the integration of natural hazard and climate change adaptation, with regards to adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden between 1999 and 2015? “What climate change adaptation policies for flood management have been implemented in Gothenburg within this time frame, and how the policies have been revised to match the reality of flood issues?” And “What improvements would be made in the integration process to better address adaptation for flood management?” A desk-based research and one case study approach was adopted for this study. The findings indicate that although the city has systematically used the steps involved in the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management, it does not link the policies and the measures applied to adaptation for flood management. Which is an issue as it has led to the exclusion of vital functions of the integration process. Suggestions on how the integration process could be improved are provided.

  • 428.
    Agebjörn, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Med humor i verktygslådan: - en studie av lärares humorkommunikation.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate teacher humor by critically examining it from an interpersonal- and humor communicative-perspective; and to discuss teacher interpersonal humor communication-skills in relation to the Swedish high school curriculum, collegial relationships and pedagogical aspects. The study’s empiric material consists of semi-structured interviews with six high school-teachers currently working at the same school, but of different age and gender. The interviews indicate that the informants all have developed humor competence, an interpersonal communicative-skill that allows them to use humor efficiently. Moreover, the result demonstrates that the teachers have various humor approaches but that they all use humor in the classroom for much of the same reasons. Overall they identify the social function of humor as most important; humor as an approach to facilitate relationship building in the classroom. Furthermore they use humor to inspire the subjects at hand, as a part of the actual subject teaching, and to interact with colleagues on different levels. In this study it is suggested that teachers´ humor competence embraces a purely pedagogical dimension; thus it can also be viewed from a strictly professional standpoint. It is implied that the professional/pedagogical dimension of their humor competence allows teachers to essentially control the classroom activity. In addition it is also suggested that teachers´ professional humor competence is an important factor for developing humor competence in students; something that can be viewed as an important part of curricular objectives to give students a rounded education and in doing so preparing them for working life.

  • 429.
    Agelund Lundberg, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    En fallbeskrivning av tre autistiska elevers matematikundervisning!2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning har främst varit att skapa mer kunskap om hurundervisningssituationen för elever inom autismspektrum fungerar i grundskolan medfokus på matematikämnet. Studien har även syftat till att beskriva specifika möjligheteroch hinder som finns för denna elevgrupp. Studiens resultat bygger på kvalitativaintervjuer med elever och lärare samt deltagande observationer och har genomförts påen grundskola i Norra Norrland. Mitt arbete har tagit sin utgångspunkt i enhermeneutisk-fenomenologisk ansats, då jag ville basera kunskapsbyggandet påinformanternas upplevelser och erfarenheter I de studerade fallen är elevernainkluderade i vanliga klasser, men i hög utsträckning exkluderade ur grupperna, bl.a. pågrund av bristande kommunikativ förmåga hos denna grupp elever. Problem med attförstå matematiska begrepp, svårigheter med tidsutnyttjande och nedsatta exekutivaförmågor, ställer också till problem för denna elevgrupp. En egenskap hos dessa eleversom skapar möjligheter är deras förmåga att fokusera på ett specialintresse.Sammantaget skapar elever inom autismspektrum en komplex situation för såväl läraresom elever.

  • 430.
    Agerberg, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Eriksson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Från data till kunskap: En kvalitativ studie om interaktiv visualisering av big data genom dashboards2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid growing volumes of data demands new solutions in terms of analysing and visualizing. The growing amount of data contains valuable information which organizations in a more digitized society need to manage. It is a major challenge to visualize data, both in a static and interactive way. Through visualization of big data follows several opportunities containing risk assessment and decision basis. Previous research indicates a lack of standards and guidelines considering the development of interactive dashboards. By studying factors of success from a user-centered perspective we proceeded with a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews. In addition to this we performed a thorough examination of existing literature in this particular field of research. A total of eight interviews were held, all eight respondents had experience from using or developing dashboards. The results indicates that user experience is an important yet not a sufficiently used principle. They also indicates challenges concerning the management of big data and particularly visualizing it. The results developed into a model which illustrates guidelines and vital components to orchestrate when developing a dashboard. A user-centered approach should pervade the entire developing process. Interactive functionalities are rather a necessity than a recommendation. With interactiveness comes drill-down functionalities which leads to a more intuitively practice. User experience is an essential component of the model, bringing light to individual customisations as well as it makes allowances to a large target group. The last component highlights the importance of early prototyping and an iterative approach to software development. The conclusion of the study is our complete model which brings opportunities to transform big data to great knowledge.

  • 431.
    Agerhäll, Britta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Söderqvist, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Energi- och näringsinnehåll i det faktiska intaget av skollunch: en jämförelse mellan pojkar och flickor i årskurs 52014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Establishing good eating habits during childhood are important since these lay the foundation for the future. Having a balanced and healthy diet is associated with a better learning ability. Research shows differences in intake of energy and nutrients between boys and girls.

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate possible differences between boys and girls referring intake of school lunch and to compare them to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) with a focus on content of energy and nutrients.

    Method This study was established through a partnership with ProMeal. Data was collected during five days through a weighed and photographed food record of school lunch among 29 children in the 5th grade. The participants’ portions of food were calculated concerning contents of energy and nutrients through the computer program DietistNet. Data was statistically analyzed in order to detect differences in intake of energy and nutrients between the sexes. A comparison between the participants’ energy and nutrient intake and the NNR was made.

    Results This research showed no statistical significant difference between boys’ and girls’ intake of energy (p=0,226). Regardless of sex the participants’ median intake of energy was lower than the estimated energy demand for the age group according to NNR. There was no statistical significant difference between boys and girls concerning the intake of energy from macronutrients. The share of energy from carbohydrates, protein and fat was relatively even distributed between the sexes. In comparison boys had a significantly higher intake of dietary fiber (p=0,008), iron (p=0,037) and vitamin C (p=0,034) than girls. 

    Conclusion Overall the participants had a noteworthy low intake of energy and micronutrients in relation to the estimated demands and recommendations of NNR. During five days there was no statistical significant difference between boys and girls concerning intake of energy. Further research is needed. 

  • 432.
    Agestam, Petter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Hanell, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Ledarcoachning: En arena för reflektion och utvecklande av Samvetsgrannhet2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När vi hör ordet coachning associerar vi det ofta med idrott. När vi tänker på en coach tänkervi ofta på en hockeytränare eller en fotbollstränare. Studien som du nu håller i din handkommer att redogöra för en aspekt av coachning som inte är lika välkänt i vidare kretsarnämligen ledarcoachning. Ledarcoachning syftar till att hjälpa den coachade ledaren attutvecklas och bli mer effektiv i sitt arbete genom aktiv coachning som karaktäriseras avfeedback och utveckling. Fokus ligger alltså på en relation mellan coachen och deltagaren ochinte på att coachen ska lära deltagaren om rätt och fel sätt att sköta saker.

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka effekter av coachning på ledare inom professionellaorganisationer och jämföra coachningeffekterna med förändrade personlighetsdrag hosdeltagarna, samt dra slutsatser om vilka coachningeffekter som kan kopplas till förändradepersonlighetsdrag.

    Ovanstående leder oss till följande frågeställning: hur förändras en ledare genom ettcoachningprogram?

    Den teoretiska referensramen inkluderar tidigare studier angående effekter av ledarcoachningsamt ett verktyg för att mäta personlighetsdrag kallat NEO PI-R vilket baseras påfemfaktormodellen.

    Studien har genomförts som en fallstudie på coachen Thomas Karlssons företag TKLedarguide AB och dess coachningverksamhet. Vi har använt oss av kvalitativa intervjuermed respondenter som genomgått Karlssons program, parallellt med intervjuerna har vi låtitden coachade ledaren samt några av dennes medarbetare genomföra en enkät som syftar tillatt mäta förändrade personlighetsdrag enligt femfaktormodellen.

    Våra slutsatser kan sammanfattas enligt följande lista:

    • Ledarna skattar sin egen förändring i linje med våra teoretiska antaganden.
    • Ledarna skattar oftast sin egen förändring högre än medarbetarna gör.
    • Medarbetarna skattar de största förändringarna inom Samvetsgrannhet.
    • Coachningprogrammet är en arena för reflektion.
    • Efter coachningprogrammet visar ledarna på en hög nivå av Extraversion.
    • Lyhördhet och Sällskaplighet har varit de faktorer som förändrats minst.

    Då vi har tolkat Karlssons coachningprogram att likna andra ledarcoachningprogram har vi kunnat föra en resultatgivande diskussion kring resultatens överförbarhet till andracoachningprogram.

  • 433.
    Agestam, Petter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Molander, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    En outnyttjad guldgruva: En studie om hur fyra företag motiverar sin kontaktpersonal att lyssna på kunderna2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur tjänsteföretag med många kundkontakter samlar in synpunkter och klagomål från deras kunder. Genom att undersöka hur företag motiverar sin kontaktpersonal att ta emot synpunkter, vill vi förstå i vilken utsträckning empowerment används som motivationsteori. Studien utgår från ett ledningsperspektiv och använder ett kontaktpersonalperspektiv för att se om ledningen och kontaktpersonalens världsbild överensstämmer.

    Metoden har varit fyra kvalitativa fallstudier med kundserviceansvariga och kvantitativa enkäter till kontaktpersonalen i respektive företag.

    Slutsatserna är att vi har funnit att företagen delvis motiverar sin personal utifrån empowerment och de specifika fallföretagen kan utveckla sin synpunktshantering i syfte att anpassa sig efter kundernas krav.

  • 434.
    Agetoft, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Förbud mot konkurrerande offentlig säljverksamhet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 435. Agewall, Stefan
    et al.
    Rydén, Lars
    Perk, Joep
    Rosengren, Annika
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Skellefteå Research Unit.
    Hellénius, Mai-Lis
    Ros, Inger
    Efterlyses: politik mot hjärtinfarkt2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 13-14, p. 664-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 436.
    Aggelid, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Testeffekten som medel för att förbättra läsförståelse?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish school children exhibit deteriorating knowledge results in terms of reading comprehension. Previous research shows that a method to increase the level of knowledge is the use of evidence-based learning techniques. Test based learning generates what is commonly referred to as a test effect, which proved to strengthen the relationship between learning and memory, as well as being applicable to various test formats. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether test based learning, in terms of learning english words leads to increased performance in a reading comprehension test, more specifically a cloze test. The study was based on a within-group design and was conducted three times over four weeks. The participants (n = 26) were pupils in fifth grade in the age of 10-11 years. The results showed significant main effects of both Learning Method and Time, however, in favor of non test based learning. Overall, the results indicated that forgetfulness over time occurred among participants, regardless Learning Method. Learning seems therefore to be dependent on the time interval between learning and retrieval of information.

  • 437.
    Aggestål, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Governing public health through voluntary sport organisations: bridging grassroots engagement and expert knowledge2016In: Sport in the City – Mobility, Urbanity and Social Change: 13th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Adam B. Evans, Glen Nielsen, Lone Friis Thing and Laila Ottesen, Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport , 2016, p. 17-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing trend in welfare economies is governments´ use of voluntary organisations as tools to fulfil wider social goals (Peterson & Lupton, 2000). In Europe specifically, voluntary, non-profit and membership-based sport organisations are, as such, increasingly being used to attain health objectives (Österlind & Wright, 2012; Agergaard & Michelsen la Cour, 2012; Skille, 2008). In this development, policy processes for sport and health have become intertwined and have by that increasingly come to relate to the domain of public health (Stuij & Stokvis, 2014; Michelini, 2013; King, 2009; Coalter, 2013). In Sweden, the Swedish Sport Confederation (SSC) has been given (and taken on) increasing responsibility and has adapted the role of the premier public health promoter (Norberg, 2011; Bolling, 2005). But with this increased responsibility has followed a growing public debate about whether organised sport can deliver against public health objectives in practice. Some point to the deeply rooted tradition and logic of competition in sport as a constraint on the possibilities for sport organisations to implement health policies (Skille, 2011), while others argue that more thought should be given to what kinds of physical activities to encourage (Coalter, 2007; Murphy & Waddington, 1998), if the intention is to improve citizen´s health. Against this backdrop, this study explores sport´s significance and role in public health policy. Drawing on Norman Fairclough´s (1992; 2003) concept of interdiscursivity, it examines how Swedish Government Official Reports on public health treat issues related to sport and how corresponding reports on sport articulate public health issues. The results show how discourses on physical activity and democracy legitimize and consolidate sport´s role in public health, although they differ in their perspectives on health and people which allows for naturalized assumptions (about sport) to be maintained.

  • 438.
    Aggestål, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Organizing physical activity for public health: the case of the Voluntary Sports Movement in Sweden2016In: Sport in the City – Mobility, Urbanity and Social Change: 13th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference : Book of Abstracts / [ed] Adam B. Evans, Glen Nielsen, Lone Friis Thing and Laila Ottesen, Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport 2016 , 2016, p. 83-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This abstract is based on an ongoing study in which data are collected during spring 2016 and preliminary results will be presented at the EASS conference in May 2016. The study aims at making a contribution to the research area of physical activity on prescription, in which knowledge about the role of activity organisers is called for (Kallings et al., 2008; Leijon, 2009). In heeding this call, present study puts focus on the Swedish Sports Confederation (SSC) and how it give meaning to, organises and arranges physical activities for people (patients) which are prescribed physical activity by health care providers. In doing so, this study will add to the existing literature on sport organisations' role in public health promotion (Michelini, 2015; Coalter, 2013; Geidne, Quennerstedt & Eriksson, 2012), and more specifically on the SSC’s potential as physical activity promoter and organiser of activities for people with prescription for physical activity. The study is theoretically based on Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2003, 1992) and data is collected through interviews with leaders, in charge of prescribed physical activity, in the 21 Regional Sports Federations and in a strategic sample of the 71 National Sports Federations.

  • 439.
    Aggestål, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sinnlig träning som livsverktyg?: Om yogautövare2010In: SVEBI:s årsbok 2010: Aktuell beteende- och samhällsvetenskaplig idrottsforskning, ISSN 0284-4672, p. 3-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 440.
    Aggestål, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Employing voluntary sports organisations in the implementation of physical activity policy2018In: Routledge handbook of physical activity policy and practice / [ed] Joe Piggin, Louise Mansfield and Mike Weed, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018, p. 359-370Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 441.
    Aggestål, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Managing Sport for Public Health: Approaching Contemporary Problems with Traditional Solutions2015In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 108-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of public health, civil society involvement in attaining government objectives on physical activity participation is often carried out by voluntary sport organizations (Agergaard & Michelsen la Cour, 2012; Österlind & Wright, 2014; Skille, 2009; Theeboom, Haudenhuyse, & De Knop, 2010). In Sweden, this responsibility has been given to the Swedish Sport Confederation (SSC), a voluntary and membership-based non-profit organization, granted government authority to govern Swedish sport towards government objectives (Bergsgard & Norberg, 2010; Bolling, 2005). Research has pointed to difficulties for sport organizations to shoulder such responsibilities due to the deeply rooted logic of competition in sport and organizational structures adapted for competitive sport (Skille, 2011; Stenling & Fahlén, 2009). This article focuses on how public health is being constructed, implemented and given meaning within the SSC. Drawing on a critical discourse approach (Fairclough & Fairclough, 2012) this study explores the SSC’s role and position in public health promotion by interviewing SSC representatives and National Sport Organizations’ (NSO) general managers. Results indicate how discourses on democracy, equality and physical activity are used to legitimize the SSC’s role in public health. Also, how these discourses are compromised in practice, posing challenges for organized sport in meeting objectives of public health.

  • 442.
    Aggestål, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Ahlenhed, Elenore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Den högaktuella högläsningen: Mer än att bara läsa högt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att utveckla kunskap om hur högläsningen tillämpas ochbearbetas i förskolan, samt om implementeringen av den nya läroplanen kommer att ledatill några förändringar i arbetet. Med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer kunde vi samla in datafrån förskollärares tankar och erfarenheter om ämnet. Studien har sin utgångspunkt i ettsociokulturellt perspektiv, med fokus på att lärandet sker i samspel med andra. Resultatetvisade att högläsning anses viktigt för bland annat barns språk-, läs- och skrivutveckling.Det fanns en stor vilja bland många av förskollärarna att ha mindre läsgrupper och anpassautifrån utvecklingsnivåer och mognad men på grund av ramfaktorer var det många gångerinte möjligt. Inför den nya läroplanen ansåg majoriteten av förskollärarna som deltog istudien att de inte är i behov av att göra några förändringar i sitt nuvarande arbetssätt.

  • 443. Aggett, P J
    et al.
    Haschke, F
    Heine, W
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Koletzko, B
    Launiala, K
    Rey, J
    Rubino, A
    Schöch,
    Senterre, J
    Comment on the content and composition of lipids in infant formulas. ESPGAN Committee on Nutrition.1991In: Acta paediatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-656X, Vol. 80, no 8-9, p. 887-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 444. Aggett, P J
    et al.
    Haschke, F
    Heine, W
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Koletzko, B
    Rey, J
    Rubino, A
    Schöch, G
    Senterre, J
    Strobel, S
    Comment on antigen-reduced infant formulae. ESPGAN Committee on Nutrition.1993In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 314-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 445. Aggett, P J
    et al.
    Haschke, F
    Heine, W
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Launiala, K
    Rey, J
    Rubino, A
    Schöch, G
    Senterre, J
    Tormo, R
    Comment on the composition of soy protein based infant and follow-up formulas. ESPGAN Committee on Nutrition.1990In: Acta paediatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-656X, Vol. 79, no 10, p. 1001-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 446. Aggett, Peter J
    et al.
    Agostoni, Carlo
    Axelsson, Irene
    De Curtis, Mario
    Goulet, Olivier
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Lafeber, Harry N
    Michaelsen, Kim F
    Puntis, John W L
    Rigo, Jacques
    Shamir, Raanan
    Szajewska, Hania
    Turck, Dominique
    Weaver, Lawrence T
    Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.2006In: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 596-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Survival of small premature infants has markedly improved during the last few decades. These infants are discharged from hospital care with body weight below the usual birth weight of healthy term infants. Early nutrition support of preterm infants influences long-term health outcomes. Therefore, the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition has reviewed available evidence on feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge. Close monitoring of growth during hospital stay and after discharge is recommended to enable the provision of adequate nutrition support. Measurements of length and head circumference, in addition to weight, must be used to identify those preterm infants with poor growth that may need additional nutrition support. Infants with an appropriate weight for postconceptional age at discharge should be breast-fed when possible. When formula-fed, such infants should be fed regular infant formula with provision of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Infants discharged with a subnormal weight for postconceptional age are at increased risk of long-term growth failure, and the human milk they consume should be supplemented, for example, with a human milk fortifier to provide an adequate nutrient supply. If formula-fed, such infants should receive special postdischarge formula with high contents of protein, minerals and trace elements as well as an long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply, at least until a postconceptional age of 40 weeks, but possibly until about 52 weeks postconceptional age. Continued growth monitoring is required to adapt feeding choices to the needs of individual infants and to avoid underfeeding or overfeeding

  • 447. Aggett, Peter
    et al.
    Nordberg, Gunnar F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nordberg, Monica
    Essential metals: assessing risks from dificiency and toxicity2015In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: Volume I: General considerations / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg, Academic Press, 2015, 4, p. 281-297Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations aimed at protecting the public from toxicity of essential elements including essential metals have usually been developed separately from those recommendations aimed at protection from deficiency. Because of the uncertainties involved in the evaluations, these recommendations have sometimes been in conflict, emphasizing the need for a new approach, including a balanced consideration of nutritional and toxicological data. In developing these new principles of evaluation, some basic concepts based on interindividual variability in sensitivity to deficiency and toxicity must be considered. Such variation translates into one interval of (low) daily intakes, at which there is a risk of developing deficiency, and another interval of (high) dietary intakes at which toxicity may occur. In most instances, there is a third set of intakes in between, which represents the acceptable range of oral intake (AROI), in which no adverse effects occur. It must be noted, however, that a range cannot be found that protects all persons from adverse effects. Those persons with genetically determined sensitivity may require higher intakes to avoid deficiency or lower intakes to avoid toxicity than those defined by the AROI. The AROI is defined as protecting 95% of an unselected human population from minimal adverse effects of deficiency or toxicity.

  • 448.
    Agha, Hiba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    LAS - Lagen om anställningsskydd.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 449.
    Agharbi, Mariam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hva ønsker den norske kunden seg av helsetjenester i apotek?: Kartlegging og utforming av blodtrykksmåling som en etterspurt helsetjeneste i norske apotek.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 450.
    Aghayev, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Europas sista diktatur: Internationella och nationella faktorer bakom Vitrysslands stagnerade demokratisering2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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