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  • 401.
    Sturesson, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Användning av kylväst i vardagen för personer med Multipel Skleros2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Heat sensitivity is common in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and it correlates with symptoms such as fatigue, pain and concentration difficulties. In previous studies, active coolingvests have been studied but there are no studies investigating how passive coolingvest in the home environment affects people with MS. Aims: To increase the knowledge about the experience of using passive coolingvest with frozen elements in home environment for people with MS. Methods: A mixed method design was used to evaluate the benefit of using a passive coolingvest for a 3 week period. Qualitative data was combined with quantitative data. The qualitative part of the study was based on a diary and on an questionnaire with open question. The quantitative part of the study was based on several evaluation tools and self-assessment forms. Results: The cooling vest was used in over 90 different activities. No improvement could be seen with the evaluation tools but the experiences were that the activity level was positively affected, they participated in activities for longer periods, they could focus longer and had easier to cope with social activities. The experience of using coolingvests varied, both positive and negative feelings were described, fatigue decreased and thought capacity improved. Conclusion: The qualitative part of the study showed that the coolingvest seemed to have a direct effect on activity, mobility, thought ability and fatigue. There was uncertainty about how long the effect lasted. Some people had obstacles in the management of the coolingvest and for all, the benefit didn´t overcome the obstacles.

  • 402.
    Sundberg, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Viberg, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Tillgängligheten på Sollefteå kommuns allmänna lekplatser: för barn och föräldrar med nedsatt rörelseförmåga eller synskada2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lek är en stor del i barns sociala och kognitiva utveckling och leken sker till stor del på lekplatser. Enligt svensk lag ska alla allmänna lekplatser vara tillgängliga för alla, innan utgången av år 2010. Syftet var att undersöka tillgängligheten på allmänna lekplatser i Sollefteå kommun för barn och föräldrar med nedsatt rörelseförmåga eller synskada. Arton allmänna lekplatser bedömdes utifrån instrumentet Housing Enabler. Resultatet visade att ingen av de arton lekplatserna är tillgängliga, då sand, stockar och gropar var vanligt förekommande. Dessutom hade alla lekplatser instabil ytbeläggning i form av sand och ojämn ytbeläggning i form av sprickor och gropar. Endast tre lekplatser hade taktila varningar i form av ett trästaket runt gungställningarna. Arbetsterapeuter kan med sina kunskaper om fysisk miljö bidra till att öka tillgängligheten på lekplatser, vilket samtliga kommuner i Sverige ska sträva efter att uppnå.

     

  • 403.
    Sunlove, Gulli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Barns beskrivningar av tio olika bilder: En studie av hur barn känner igen symboler2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how children, between the ages of three and six years, describe ten different pictures. Nineteen children, eight girls and eleven boys were interviewed. The results are based on a content analysis with categories based on Peirce description of various characters and Vygotskij's description of creative forms. The results show that children mainly describe what the pictures represent, they see icons more often than symbols. In order to attribute the pictures meaning the children used the second creative form most, which is based on borrowed experience. The results show that children in this age range need to continue to develop their ability to symbolize like they need to develope other abilities. With Peirce categorization of signs and Vygotskij's creative forms, art therapists can obtain access to a more vivid picture of the art therapeutic process concerning the development of symbols and ability to symbolize.

  • 404.
    Svensson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Hellqvist, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Arbetsterapeuters erfarenhet av att implementera Vardagsrevidering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vardagsrevidering är en arbetslivsinriktad rehabiliteringsmetod som ursprungligen utvecklats för att rehabilitera långtidssjukskrivna kvinnor med stressrelaterad ohälsa. Tidigare forskning har bland annat studerat deltagares upplevelser av Vardagsrevidering. Någon utvärdering av arbetsterapeuters erfarenheter av att använda metoden har däremot inte gjorts. Syftet med den här studien var därför att undersöka arbetsterapeuters erfarenheter av att genomföra metoden Vardagsrevidering och att använda materialet. En enkätstudie skickades till 229 arbetsterapeuter i Sverige som hittills genomgått kursen i Vardagsrevidering. Resultatet visade att även om det inte var många arbetsterapeuter som använde manualen fullt ut så tyckte majoriteten av de som svarade att det hade gått mycket bra att implementera metoden i deras verksamhet. I diskussionen lyftes att detta resultat till viss del är motsägelsefullt då andra studier visar att om en metod inte används fullt ut utifrån anvisningarna kan det inte påstås att den nya metoden har implementerats korrekt. För att metoden Vardagsrevidering ska användas fullt ut och bli implementerad kan antingen metoden eller verksamheterna behöva ändras.

  • 405.
    Svensson, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Linnea, Bergström
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Terapihundens förmåga att främja äldres välmående: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Symptom på depression hos äldre kan yttra sig genom nedstämdhet, oro, ångest, trötthet och nedsatt energi. Detta är även vanliga symptom vid åldrande och kan därför vara svåra att skilja på, vilket i sin tur kan leda till att äldre med depression blir underdiagnostiserade. Djur speciellt hundar, har länge använts som hjälpmedel inom vården och har visat sig höja välmående och lindra symptom på depression. Terapihund är en benämning för utbildad hund och kan ha olika syften inom vården. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka effekterna av terapihund hos äldre med symptom på depression, med fokus på välmående och aktivitet. En systematisk litteraturöversikt genomfördes där artiklar hämtades från Academic Search Elite, CINAHL, Psycinfo och PubMed. Studier som stämde mot syftet kvalitetsgranskades och totalt inkluderades åtta studier som publicerats mellan 2011-2016. Alla kategoriserades efter hur de berörde terapihundens effekter på (i) depression och demens, (ii) den äldres välmående och aktivitet och (iii) den äldres livskvalitet. Resultatet visar att terapihundar kan främja välmående och lindra symptom på depression hos äldre. Resultatet visar även att terapihundar kan öka livskvalitet och ha positiv inverkan på fysisk aktivitet. Slutsatsen är att terapihundar har potential att vara en del av arbetsterapeutiska interventioner då de visat positiva effekter hos en målgrupp där depression är vanligt förekommande. Det krävs dock vidare forskning för att säkerställa evidens i klinisk praxis.

  • 406.
    Söderback, Siw-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Bildterapi som en metod att förebygga och lindra vid stressrelaterade tillstånd2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om bildterapiforskning ger stöd för att bildterapi kan förebygga stress och ge lindring vid olika stresstillstånd. Undersökningen utformades som en systematisk litteraturstudie. Sex artiklar jämfördes avseende de bildterapimetoder och undersökningsmetoder som använts. Artiklarna granskades avseende klientgrupper och stressrelaterade symtom. De bildterapimetoder som använts identifierades, liksom de undersökningsmetoder som tillämpats för att utvärdera bildterapin. Vidare granskades vilka stressrelaterade symtom som angivits och vilken effekt bildterapi hade haft på dessa. En beskrivning av de undersökningsmetoder som använts för att utvärdera bildterapi gjordes. Därefter värderades huruvida angivna syften uppfyllts. Granskningen visade att ett flertal olika bildterapimetoder hade använts i de olika undersökningarna. Undersökningsmetodiken varierade, från rent experimentella upplägg, till analys och bedömning av bilder och grupprocesser. Enligt undersökningsresultaten hade ett stort antal stressrelaterade symtom påverkats och positiva förändringar ägt rum. Studien visade att bildterapi är en metod som kan förebygga och ge lindring vid svåra stresstillstånd.

  • 407.
    Söndergaard, Mette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fisher, Anne G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Sensitivity of the evaluation of social interaction measures among people with and without neurologic or psychiatric disorders2012In: American Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0272-9490, E-ISSN 1943-7676, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 356-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE. To determine whether the Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESI) is sensitive enough to differentiate between people without identified diagnoses and those with neurologic or psychiatric disorders in terms of their observed quality of social interaction. METHOD. Participants were age 16-69 and were without identified diagnoses (n = 304) or had neurologic (n = 77) or psychiatric (n = 104) disorders. They were evaluated using the ESI. RESULTS. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that the group without identified diagnoses had significantly better quality of social interaction than did either group with disabilities (Us = 3,172 and 3,189, respectively; p <= .001). CONCLUSION. The ESI is sensitive with regard to detecting differences in quality of social interaction among groups expected to differ, suggesting that it is valid for use when the desired purpose is to identify people with diminished quality of social interaction.

  • 408.
    Tahhan, Burhan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Health economic evaluation of Occupational Therapy Interventions for Older People. A Literature Study.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational therapists who work within elderly health care need to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness and value for money for occupational therapy intervention in comparison to other interventions or no interventions. In doing so they will help to ensure that, the occupational therapy service users in Sweden can continue to benefit from these interventions. The purpose of this study was to review health economic evaluations of OT interventions for older people to evaluate if they are cost-effective. Eligible studies included articles published in English language from the year 1995 to 2015. The included studies were economic evaluations that considered both costs and end effects in occupational therapy for older people compared with other in-terventions or no interventions. In all, nine articles, all random-ized controlled trials, were analyzed using selected items from the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Stand-ards (CHEERS) statement. The majority of these studies found that occupational therapy was clinically effective and cost-effective for the older people under study in comparison with other interventions or no interventions. Future studies on the cost-effectiveness and health economics of occupational therapy in older people are strongly required.

  • 409.
    Teka, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Demir, Berfin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner för vuxna med mental ohälsa: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mental ohälsa är ett växande problem hos både män och kvinnor, för individen och för samhället i stort. Personer med mental ohälsa kan ha begränsningar i aktivitet och tenderar att stigmatiseras. Syftet med studien var att beskriva effekterna av arbetsterapeutiska interventioner för vuxna med mental ohälsa. En beskrivande litteraturstudie utfördes där nio kvantitativa artiklar har lästs och kvalitetsgranskats. Sökning av vetenskapliga artiklar utfördes i databaserna Cinahl och PsychInfo med sökorden occupational therapy, intervention och mental illness. Sökningen kompletterades med manuell sökning. Resultatet i de nio artiklarna visade att åtta av interventionerna antingen reducerade psykiska symptom och/eller hade goda effekter på deltagarnas aktivitetsutförande. Psykiska symptom som reducerades var bland annat självmordstankar, ångest och depression. Vidare påvisades ökad genomsnittlig tid i aktivitetsutförande, förbättrade sociala färdigheter samt minskad arbetslöshet. Mer forskning behöver bedrivas inom området, detta för att styrka befintliga studier, men även för utveckling av outforskade områden inom mental ohälsa och arbetsterapi. 

  • 410.
    Tham, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bernspång, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fisher, Anne G.
    Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Applied Human Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
    Development of the Assessment of Awareness of disabilities1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 184-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for clients with stroke to lack awareness of their disabilities, which is an obstacle in the rehabilitation process. The aim of this article is to describe how Rasch measurement methods were used to develop a new Assessment of Awareness of Disability (AAD) and to present a preliminary evaluation of the instrument. Awareness of disability was defined as no discrepancy between the client’s actual disability (measured by the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills, AMPS) and the client’s perceived and verbally described disability in a specific ADL task. AAD consists of an interview guide that includes seven questions (items) that are asked directly after the performance of the AMPS task. The AAD was administered to a target sample of 12 clients with stroke. Four clients were each tested 10 times and 8 clients were each tested once. A Rasch measurement model was used to analyse the AAD data from 48 test sessions. The results indicated that AAD measures a single construct and that it discriminates among clients with different levels of awareness of disability. While the results of this pilot study are promising, the validity and reliability of the AAD need to be further examined on a larger and more varied group of clients.

  • 411.
    Thörn, Marika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Bildarbete för resiliens: - att främja återhämtning och motståndskraft hos anhöriga till personer i missbruk2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is written for professionals interested in art therapy as support for adult co-dependents. Through interviews with professionals the work with adult co-dependents is described. Since a large amount of people are affected of a loved ones addiction and since consequences from that addiction can be severe, there can be a gain to support co-dependents. The interviewees describe how co-dependents have a need to process experiences and identify their own needs. The habit of always being on guard for these consequences, feelings of shame and fear of loosing control creates reluctance for processing and change. The interviewees use themselves as a tool but also art therapy and group therapy to intensify the support. This requires knowledge about co-dependency, group dynamics, creativity, therapeutic relationships and an awareness of the individual experiences, characteristics and needs.  

  • 412.
    Tjernqvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Boström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Att våga vara aktör i sitt eget liv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med funktionsnedsättning upplever ohälsa i större utsträckning än den övriga befolkningen. Det är även vanligt att de upplever diskriminering och brist på inflytande i samhället, som påverkar livskvalitén negativt. Projektet Livsentreprenörens vision är att få ungdomar med funktionsnedsättningar att ta vara på sina resurser, jobba för ett bättre välmående och utvecklas i sig själva. Syftet var att undersöka upplevelsen av utveckling inom områdena hälsa, delaktighet och livsmål hos deltagarna i projektet Livsentreprenören. Fem deltagare i projektet intervjuades och intervjuerna analyserades utifrån en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade på upplevd utveckling bland informanterna och presenteras utifrån kategorierna Användbara egenskaper för problemlösning, Social delaktighet, Jobba mot sin framtid, Välmående, Växa i sig själv och Våga anta utmaningen. Projektet visade sig vara en bra plattform för att ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning ska få ta till vara på sina resurser och utveckla entreprenörskap.

  • 413.
    Tobiasson, Ulrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Värme och rörelseträning för personer med handartros: - en litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Artros är den vanligaste kroniska ledsjukdomen i Sverige. Symptomen bidrar till nedsatt aktivitetsförmåga i vardagen, ökade sjukskrivningar samt stor vårdkonsumtion. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att se om aktivitetsförmågan förändrades hos personer med handartros efter behandling med värme och/eller rörelseträning. Sökningen utfördes i två steg med två sökordssträngar. Databaser som användes var PubMed, Cinahl, Amed, PsycInfo samt Academic Search Elite. Sex kvantitativa originalartiklar som publicerats mellan år 2010-2018 har analyserats och sammanställts i fem kategorier: bedömningsinstrument som mäter den upplevda aktivitetsförmågan, behandlingsmetoder, värmebehandling, rörelseträning och kombination av värme och rörelseträning. Sammantaget föreföll kombinationen värme och rörelseträning öka aktivitetsförmågan hos personer med handartros. Bäst långsiktig effekt uppnåddes då värme och rörelseträning kombinerades. Då det finns få studier gjorda om värme och rörelseträning, vore det värdefullt med ytterligare studier för att få större kunskap om behandlingseffekterna.

  • 414.
    Trense, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Kryg, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    ADL-bedömning och intygsskrivning för assistansersättning inom barn- och ungdomshabiliteringen – en enkätstudie utifrån arbetsterapeutens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir allt svårare för personer med funktionsnedsättning att beviljas statlig assistansersättning.Arbetsterapeuten är en del av processen vid ansökan av rätten till assistansersättning, och utför ADL-bedömningar till grund för ADL-intyg. Syftet med studien var att kartlägga arbetsterapeuters arbete med ADL-bedömning och tillhörande intygsskrivning för assistansersättning, inom barn- och ungdomshabiliteringen. Kvantitativ metod användes och data samlades in via en webb-enkät samt analyserades i SPSS. Enkäten besvarades av 40 arbetsterapeuter. Alla arbetsterapeuter i studien använde ADL-taxonomin vid bedömning, och det vanligaste sättet att utföra bedömningen var via observation i barnets hemmiljö. Majoriteten av arbetsterapeuterna i studien upplever sig kunna möta det krav som ställs på dem som intygsutfärdare, men mer tid och rutiner efterfrågas till uppdraget.I resultatet syns genomgående att uppdraget kring ADL-bedömningar och tillhörande intygsskrivning utförs olika över landet och beroende av arbetsterapeut. Det finns behov av vidare forskning inom området och studier av kvalitativ karaktär skulle passa, för att gå djupare in på uppdragets komplexitet.

  • 415.
    Tylli, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Chernogorova, Evgenija
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Att få möjlighet till en bättre livssituation: Deltagarnas erfarenheter från första och andra året i Livsentreprenörens projekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungdomstiden är den förberedande tiden för vuxenlivet då individen står inför utveckling och många förändringar. Projektet Livsentreprenören vill ge unga personer med funktionsnedsättningar möjlighet att utvecklas och följa sina drömmar och intressen. Syftet var att belysa ungdomarnas erfarenheter av deltagande i projektet Livsentreprenörens metod. En kvalitativ metod användes med fokusgruppintervju som datainsamlingsmetod. Sex deltagare, varav tre unga kvinnor och tre unga män, deltog i en timmes lång fokusgruppsintervju. Intervjun spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades därefter utifrån kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Fyra kategorier uppstod efter analysen: Meningsfulla aktiviteter och miljöombyte ger resultat, Lärande tillsammans med andra, Att kunna påverka samt Önskade förändringar i metoden. Kategorin Att kunna påverka resulterade även i två subkategorier: Att hitta nya strategier för att skapa en bättre livssituation och Att stärka sig själv.  Det framkom att utformande av goda villkor och förutsättningar är betydande för utveckling och välbefinnande samt att positiva processer utvecklade och förändrade mot målen med projektet. Det visade sig även att projektet Livsentreprenörens metod är i behov av förbättringar inom vissa områden, bland annat genom att öka antalet gruppträffar, gruppresor och bredda åldersgruppen för deltagare.

  • 416.
    Vagif, Dashdemirov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Joakim, Olsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fysisk tillgänglighet till 10 kaféer i centrala Umeå: Med fokus på personer som använder rullstol2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla människor skall kunna vara delaktiga i samhällslivet. Trots detta möter rullstolsburna dagligen barriärer vid förflyttning i den fysiska miljön på offentliga platser. Syftet med studien var att kartlägga tillgängligheten inom fysisk miljö för rullstolsburna till kaféer i centrala Umeå. För att kartlägga den fysiska miljön användes bedömningsinstrumentet Housing Enabler. Resultatet visar att samtliga kaféer har någon form av tillgänglighetsproblem i den fysiska miljön som försvårar för rullstolsburna. Hygienutrymmet innehåller flest hinder för rullstolsburna. Arbetsterapeuter kan använda instrumentet vid observation och kartläggning av tillgänglighet i den fysiska miljön. Det behövs mer forskning om ämnet eftersom de flesta tidigare studier har hemmiljön i fokus.

  • 417.
    van den Brink, Kirsti
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Bildskapande som fenomen: – en självstudie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     In art therapy, image creation is a cornerstone and the factor that makes this form of therapy unique. This study aimed to describe what happens when an image was created. The creation was commented upon verbally and was recorded by a video camera. The study was conducted as a self-study where the author created the images. The approach was qualitative and the video recordings were analyzed using content analysis. The results were presented in two parts, one described the components grouped in themes according to Vija Lusebrinks Expressive Therapies Continuum Model (ETC), and the other part described the interaction between these components. The investigation resulted in the conclusion that image-making is a complex task that involves many components and concerns many domains of human functioning of thoughts, feelings and behaviors. The study links carefully together with the ETC components highlighted. The study can benefit the understanding of image-making as a phenomenon in art therapy.

  • 418.
    Viitanen, Matti
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Fugl-Meyer, K. S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Bernspång, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fugl-Meyer, Axel R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Life satisfaction in long-term survivors after stroke1988In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different aspects of the quality of life before and after stroke were registered for 62 communicable, representative long-term (4-6 years) survivors, who reported the global and domain specific life satisfaction that they experienced (7 items, 6 graded-ordinal scales). Reference subjects were 60 healthy individuals in two age cohorts (60-61 years, n = 34; 79-81 years, n = 26) none of whom had been hospitalized during the last seven years prior to the investigation. The main finding is that, after the stroke, at least one aspect of the quality of life had decreased for 61% of them; this concerned global, sexual and leisure satisfaction mainly. Moreover, persisting motor impairment and ADL-disability had a negative effect on several aspects of life satisfaction. As nearly 30% of the non-impaired and the non-disabled interviewees reported decreased global life satisfaction, these changes indicate that they do not cope psychosocially with the stroke as such nor with its sequelae. In contrast, the levels of life satisfaction were similar for the 60-61 and 79-81 year-old interviewees, clinically healthy respondents, indicating stability in the quality of life that they experienced from late middle age into senectitude. For the patients, social integration estimated normatively did not covariate significantly with post-stroke satisfaction derived from social relationships.

  • 419.
    Viklund, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Koskenniemi, Yvette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    När energin tar slut: Upplevelser av hjärntrötthet efter stroke2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer som drabbas av stroke upplever i efterförloppet ofta så kallad hjärntrötthet, vilket kan innebära stora omställningar i vardagen. Höga krav i dagens samhälle kan göra att hjärntrötthet blir en svår funktionsnedsättning att hantera. Tidigare forskning har visat att det saknas kunskap om individers upplevelse av vad hjärntrötthet innebär. Syftet med studien var att undersöka upplevelsen av hjärntrötthet och dess inverkan på vardagen hos dem som drabbats av stroke. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med fem personer i åldrarna 47-58 år som alla hade erfarenhet av hjärntrötthet efter stroke. Intervjuerna bearbetades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Analysen resulterade i de fem huvudkategorierna; ’Hjärnan får inte plats’, ’Att sakna energi’, ’En förändring som är svår att acceptera och förstå’, ’Att försöka hitta balansen’, ’Intryck är jobbigt’. Viljan att hitta strategier för att hantera tröttheten och energilösheten var centralt hos deltagarna. Deltagarna upplevde att det var svårt att förklara och beskriva hjärntrötthet för andra människor. Information till anhöriga, arbetsplatsen och den närmaste omgivningen angående vad hjärntrötthet innebär skulle öka förståelsen enligt deltagarna. Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner kan stötta personer att hantera hjärntröttheten i vardagen. Arbetsterapeuten har en viktig roll i rehabiliteringen för att stödja personer som drabbats av stroke och deras anhöriga för att lära sig hantera en förändrad livssituation.

  • 420.
    Vikström, Linda-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Aktiviteters effekt på neuropsykiatriska symtom hos personer med demens: - En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    I Sverige finns 148 000 invånare som har en demenssjukdom. De neuropsykiatriska symtom som kan uppstå i samband med sjukdomen kan orsaka en försämrad livskvalitet för personen med demens. Syftet med studien var att studera aktivitetsbaserade interventioners effekt på neuropsykiatriska symtom som apati, agitation och depression hos personer med demens. För att besvara studiens syfte utfördes en litteraturstudie som inkluderade sex studier. Resultatet av den aktuella studien visade att aktiviteter kan ha både positiv och negativ inverkan på neuropsykiatriska symtom hos personer med demens. De interventioner som verkar vara gynnsamma hade ett fokus på klientens intresse. Då antalet studier är begränsat i denna litteraturstudie bör ytterligare studier genomföras för att öka förståelsen kring aktiviteters inverkan på neuropsykiatriska symtom.

     

    Sökord: icke farmakologiska interventioner, demenssjukdom, apati, depression och agitation.

  • 421.
    Vllasalihu, Shyhrete
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner i multiprofessionell fallprevention för äldre personer: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fallolyckor hos den ökande gruppen äldre orsakar mycket lidande, hälsoproblem och stora kostnader för samhället. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva arbetsterapeutiska interventioner i multiprofessionell fallprevention och effekter av dessa interventioner för personer 60 år eller äldre. Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie där systematisk sökning utfördes i olika databaser.  Sex kvantitativa orginalartiklar som publicerarats mellan 2008–2014 har granskats, analyserats och sammanställts i olika kategorier. Sammanfattningsvis visade studien att multiprofessionell fallprevention kan förebygga fall genom att minska fallolyckor, fallskador, fallrädsla och fallrisker i hemmet och underlätta utförandet av dagliga aktiviteter. Arbetsterapeuten beskrevs ha kompetens och kunskap för att i multiprofessionella interventioner kunna identifiera fallrisker i den äldres hemmiljö samt ge förslag på hur miljön och aktivitetsutförandet kan anpassas för att förebygga fallolyckor.

  • 422.
    Voxendal, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Bildterapeuters beskrivning av uppgiften ”måla ett träd” i bildterapi med vuxna2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppgiften att måla ett träd används ofta inom bildterapi. Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur några bildterapeuter beskrev uppgiften att måla ett träd och sitt användande av uppgiften i bildterapi med vuxna. Hur motiverar bildterapeuterna sitt val av uppgiften? Hur läggs sessionen upp praktiskt? Hur används den färdiga bilden? Sex bildterapeuter intervjuades med semi-strukturerade intervjuer och materialet analyserades enligt Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2003). Resultatet bestod av tre överordnade teman: Trädtemat är enkelt och informationsrikt, Bildterapeuterna skapar förutsättningar för skapande och Bildterapeuterna reflekterar men ger inga svar. Resultatet gav en rik bild av intervjupersonernas perspektiv på sin verksamhet. Många motiv till att använda uppgiften gavs, det praktiska upplägget samt samtalet kring bilden beskrevs.

  • 423.
    Vänglund, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Erfarenheter av stödinsatser i skolmiljö bland gymnasieelever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:   A successful schooling has proven to be an important factor in regards to students later on not experiencing alienation or mental illnesses. Pupils with neurodevelopmental disorders have in recent years attracted attention, and it has emerged that schools have lacking knowledge of these students’ issues. In 2013-2014, a project was carried out in a medium-sized town in Sweden on structural interventions for high-school students with neurodevelopmental disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how high school students with neurodevelopmental disorders experience their situation in the school and leisure environment, and how structure-related interventions in the school environment affect their ability to perform activities in the school environment and how it affects their general well-being. Method: Nine students in the age of 17 to 20 were recruited through strategic selection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. A content analysis with an hermeneutic approach was used to analyze the data. The result: The analysis resulted in a main theme, "To be seen and heard", as well as three categories: "To handle demands in school", "Life outside the school" and "Support to deal with difficulties and challenges in school". Conclusion: The results show that all students describe the support from student-coaches as having been significant for their schooling. The study highlights the importance of continuous, structure-related assistance as well as the importance of support from an adult they trust and who has knowledge about their unique difficulties and needs . The total amount of support has given the students the opportunity to complete their secondary education as well as having increased their general well-being.

     

  • 424.
    Vänman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Wennberg, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    “Mind the GAP”: Aktivitet, delaktighet och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos personer som behandlas med Duodopa för avancerad Parkinsons sjukdom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med Parkinsons sjukdom (PS) som behandlas med Duodopa, har ofta en avancerad form av sjukdomen. Detta kan påverka alla delar av livet med negativ inverkan på personens välmående. Studiens syfte var att undersöka självskattad förmåga, delaktighet och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet i vardagen, hos personer med avancerad Parkinsons sjukdom som behandlas med Duodopa. Data samlades in via postenkäter (inklusive instrumenten Parkinson's Disease Activities of Daily Living Scale (aktivitet), GAP i vardagens aktiviteter (delaktighet) och Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire-39 (hälsorelaterad livskvalitet) från 20 personer med avancerad Parkinsons sjukdom. Resultatet visade begränsningar i aktivitet, delaktighet och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos personerna med PS. Det fanns signifikanta samband mellan aktivitet, delaktighet och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet. Ett signifikant samband påvisades även mellan instrumentens respektive ADL-områden. Deltagarna hade mindre aktivitetsbegränsningar än förväntat, troligen till följd av en positiv behandlingseffekt. Vår studie är den första som använder GAP för att mäta delaktighet hos personer med avancerad PS, vilket visade på en otillfredsställande delaktighet hos personerna. Vid en kronisk sjukdom såsom PS påverkas olika områden inom hälsorelaterad livskvalitet i varierande grad. Detta visar att Parkinsons sjukdom är komplex och påverkar varje person individuellt, vilket är en viktig kunskap för arbetsterapeuten i arbetet med klienten.

  • 425.
    Waehrens, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Bliddal, H.
    Danneskiold-Samsoe, B.
    Lund, H.
    Fisher, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Differences between questionnaire- and interview-based measures of activities of daily living (ADL) ability and their association with observed ADL ability in women with rheumatoid arthritis, knee osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Although self-report based on questionnaire is the common method to obtain information about activities of daily living (ADL) ability in rheumatic diseases, little is known about the relationship between measures of ADL ability based on questionnaire, interview, and observation. The present study examined whether measures of self-reported ADL ability based on questionnaire and interview yielded different results, determined whether the magnitude of the difference varied among women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), knee osteoarthritis (OA), and fibromyalgia (FM), and investigated the relationships between self-reported and observed ADL ability. Method: The 47 ADL tasks of the ADL taxonomy were used to evaluate self-reported ADL ability based on questionnaire (ADL-Q) and interview (ADL-I), and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) was used to obtain measures of observed ADL ability. Results: Participants across diagnostic groups reported significantly more ADL ability based on the ADL-Q than on the ADL-I. Moderate correlations were found between the ADL-Q and ADL-I ability measures. Although low to moderate correlations were seen between measures based on the AMPS ADL motor scale and the ADL-Q and ADL-I, respectively, correlations between measures based on AMPS ADL process scale and ADL-Q and ADL-I were generally low. Overall, there was no difference in how the measures based on the two modes of self-report related to the observed ADL ability measures. Conclusion: Measures of self-reported ADL ability based on either questionnaire or interview have limited relationship to each other or to observed performance of ADL tasks.

  • 426.
    Waehrens, Eva Ejlersen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Ergoterapeutiske redskaber: undersøgelse og evaluering2008Book (Other academic)
  • 427.
    Waehrens, Eva Ejlersen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Measuring quality of occupational performance based on self-report and observation: development and validation of instruments to evaluate ADL task performance2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background People with rheumatic or neurologic conditions are commonly referred for occupational therapy because of decreased ability to perform ADL tasks. Upon referral, occupational therapists use a client-centred, occupationfocused approach when evaluating a person's perceived and observed quality of ADL task performance to clarify the nature and extent of the person’s problems, plan interventions and determine effectiveness of interventions. Evaluation of the extent of problems and change following intervention require the use of linear measures of ADL. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to develop and validate linear measures of perceived and observed quality of ADL task performance for occupational therapy clinical praxis and research.

    Methods To develop linear measures of observed quality of ADL task performance based on Rasch measurement methods, clients with ABI (n=70) were evaluated using a 3-category rating scale and the ADL Taxonomy. Similarly, to develop linear measures of perceived quality of ADL task performance women with rheumatic diseases (n=118) reported their ability on a questionnaire and in an interview based on the ADL Taxonomy and a 4- category rating scale. To further validate the ADL ability measures of the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) data were collected in two samples. In a sample of women with chronic widespread pain (CWP) or fibromyalgia (FM) (n=50) the ADL ability measures were validated with regard to discrimination, stability and sensitivity to changes. Discrimination was examined by comparing AMPS data from women with CWP/FM to those of healthy women. Stability and sensitivity to change were examined based on repeated AMPS observations pre and post intervention. In addition, sensitivity to change was examined in a sample of clients with ABI (n=36) using a pre- and post-test design. Finally, the validity of the AMPS ADL ability measures in relation to perceived ADL ability was examined in women with rheumatic diseases (n=118) and women with CWP/FM (n=50).

    Results Based on the results of the four studies in this thesis, we were able to conclude that it was possible to obtain linear measures of observed quality of ADL task performance based on a revised version of the ADL Taxonomy (ADL-O). It was also possible to obtain linear measures of perceived quality of ADL task performance based on revised versions of the ADL Taxonomy using the formats of questionnaires (ADL-Q) and interviews (ADL-I). Moreover, it was possible to establish further evidence of validity of the ADL ability measures of the AMPS. Thus, the AMPS ADL ability measures could discriminate between women with CWP/FM and healthy women. The ADL ability measures of remained stable when no intervention was provided and the ADL motor ability measures were sensitive to change among women with CWP/FM. Moreover, the ADL ability measures were sensitive to change among clients with low ADL ability following ABI. Finally, only low to moderate correlations were found between measures of perceived and observed ADL ability.

    Conclusions Rasch analyses of revised versions of the ADL Taxonomy suggest that the majority of the ADL tasks and rating scales focused on quality of ADL task performance can be used to obtain linear measures of quality of ADL task performance based on methods of questionnaire, interview or observation. Furthermore, the studies provided evidence of validity of the ADL ability measures of the AMPS in relation to discrimination, stability and sensitivity to change and relation to perceived ADL ability. The results may, therefore, enhance the use of ADL instruments that provide linear measures of perceived and observed quality of ADL task performance in occupational therapy clinical praxis and research.

  • 428.
    Waehrens, Eva Ejlersen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Amris, K
    Fisher, Anne G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Observation-based assessment of ADL ability among women with chronic widespread painArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 429.
    Waehrens, Eva Ejlersen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. The Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark.
    Amris, Kirstine
    Fisher, Anne G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain2010In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 150, no 3, p. 535-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional ability, including the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), is considered a core outcome domain in chronic pain clinical trials and is usually assessed through generic or disease-specific self-report questionnaires. Research, however, indicates that self-report and performance-based assessment of ADL offer distinct but complementary information about ability. The present study, therefore, investigated the applicability of a performance-based measure of ADL ability, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), among 50 women with chronic widespread pain. The investigated psychometric properties of the AMPS included discrimination between a sample of healthy women and those with chronic widespread pain, as well as stability when no intervention was provided and sensitivity to change following intervention. Data were obtained based on a repeated measures design performing AMPS evaluations twice pre- and twice post-rehabilitation. Results indicated that the ADL motor ability measures of the participants were significantly lower than those of healthy women of same age, the ADL motor and ADL process ability measures remained stable when no intervention was provided and the ADL motor ability measures were sensitive to change following a 2-week interdisciplinary rehabilitation program. A weak correlation (r(s) = -0.35) was found between self-reported ADL ability as measured by the physical function subscale of the Functional Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and performance-based ADL motor measures, and no correlation (r(s) = -0.02) was found between FIQ ADL measures and ADL process ability, supporting the need for both performance-based and self-reported assessment of ADL. (C) 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain.

  • 430.
    Waehrens, Eva Ejlersen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Bliddal, H
    Danneskiold-Samsöe, B
    Lund, H
    Fisher, Anne G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Differences between questionnaire- and interview-based measures of ADL ability and their association to observed ADL ability in women with rheumatiod arthritis, knee osteoarthritis and fibromyalgiaArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 431.
    Waehrens, Eva Ejlersen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fischer, Anne G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Developing linear ADL ability measures based on the ADL taxonomy: a Rasch analysis2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 159-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the possibility of developing linear measures of ADL ability based on the ADL Taxonomy and a three-category rating scale.

    Method. Data were obtained from medical records of adults with moderate to severe brain injury. The participants were rated on the ADL taxonomy, and recorded on the ADL Taxonomy Circle, based on direct observations. By applying the Rasch rating scale model, we examined the possibility of converting the raw ordinal scores into equal-interval estimates of the participants’ ADL ability.

    Results. The data analysis indicated that the rating scale used in this study displays sound psychometric properties. Items from the ADL taxonomy defined one construct after 10 actions were removed, but retention of all items did not disrupt the measurement system. Except for one item in each of five different activity domains, the item difficulty hierarchy was the same as in the hierarchy originally published, supporting reliability of the item difficulty estimates. The ADL taxonomy discriminated well between different levels of ability in this sample of persons with brain injury.

    Conclusion. This preliminary study indicates that the ADL taxonomy has potential to become a linear measure of a person's ability to perform ADL tasks.

  • 432.
    Waehrens, Eva Ejlersen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fisher, Anne
    Improving quality of ADL performance after rehabilitation among people with acquired brain injury2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 250-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether people with brain injury show improvements in quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) after rehabilitation. A retrospective pre- and post-test design with no control group was used. Subjects received interdisciplinary rehabilitation consisting of restorative and compensatory strategies. Thirty-six adults with moderate to severe disability following acquired brain injury were evaluated using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), an observational evaluation of the quality of ADL task performance. Paired t-tests revealed significant increase in ADL ability after intervention; effect sizes were medium. Improvements occurred across ages, within all diagnostic groups, and with no relation to time post-injury. It was concluded that people with moderate to severe disability following acquired brain injury improved in ADL ability after participating in an intensive, interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Although lack of a control group prevented a conclusively conclusion that the changes were due to the intervention provided, the fact that the subjects had shown slow spontaneous recovery and minimal improvements before the study was implemented supports the likelihood that their gains were largely the result of the intervention.

  • 433.
    Wallin, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Aho, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Arbetsterapeuters uppfattning om instrumentet ’Frågor om aktivitetsmässigt välbefinnande’: En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Två huvudantaganden inom arbetsterapi är att människors individuella upplevelser av meningsfull aktivitet bidrar till hälsa och välbefinnande samt att människans självupplevda hälsa och välmående kan påverkas av nedsatt aktivitetsförmåga. Dessa antaganden understöds i den arbetsterapeutiska litteraturen, vad som däremot ännu saknar god evidens är relationen mellan aktivitet och hälsa. På grund av denna bristfälliga kunskap uppkom syftet med föreliggande studie; att undersöka arbetsterapeuters uppfattning om påståendena och dess innebörd i instrumentet ‘Frågor om aktivitetsmässigt välbefinnande’. I studien inkluderades sex legitimerade arbetsterapeuter i varierande åldrar, av båda könen och med erfarenheter från olika verksamhetsområden. Sex kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes och en kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes. Denna resulterade i fyra huvudkategorier som beskriver hur frågorna omfattar olika varianter av varande, aspekter av görande, den egna viljan och motivationen och att känna samhörighet med andra, dessa utgjordes vidare av elva underkategorier. Resultatet visar att påståendena bland annat uppfattas handla om att aktiviteter bör möta individens behov, att upplevelsen av aktivitet är subjektiv och att möjligheten till meningsfull aktivitet kan variera mellan personer. Slutsatsen är att denna studie bidrar till processen av att utveckla och validera instrumentet. Det framkom att de antaganden som instrumentet bygger på i flera fall motsvarar de områden som föreliggande studie beskriver även om andra, av instrumentet icke nämnda områden, också kan identifieras.

  • 434.
    Wanhatalo, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Bildarbete med våldsutsatta kvinnor i nära relation: En kartläggning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to describe if and how Art Therapy is used in treatment with survivors of interpersonal violence in municipal center as well as to describe the outcomes of Art Therapy for the service recipients. The method used is short interviews and survey. Forty-one (n=41) centers participated in the study. The result shows that eight centers uses Art Therapy, mainly in individual contacts. One outcome is increasing self-esteem. Women take space, show themselves through art. Art Therapy makes it easier to verbalize and makes it easier to remember. Women can respond to their feelings and Art Therapy give women acknowledgement that violence is not normal. One of the centers has evaluated their work and another center is planning one. One-third of the centers who are not using Art Therapy are expressing an interest in the method.

  • 435.
    Westman, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    En kartläggning av tillgänglighet i gruppbostäder för rullstolsburna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många som bor i gruppbostäder och är rullstolsburna har behov av att den fysiska miljön är anpassad för att kunna vara delaktiga i sin egen dagliga livsföring. Syftet var att kartlägga tillgängligheten i boendemiljön för rullstolsburna personer som bor i gruppbostäder. Som metod för kartläggningen användes bedörnningsinstrumentet             Housing Enabler. Bedömningar gjordes i fyra gruppbostäder i centrala Härnösand, både i de gemensamma utrymmena och i en av lägenheterna i varje gruppbostad. Resultatet visar att det finns miljöhinder på samtliga gruppbostäder.  De flesta miljöhindren  som påträffades i de gemensamma utrymmena var vid entreer och i köket. I de egna lägenheterna påträffades de flesta  miljöhindren  i  köket och i hygienutrymmen. Slutsatser är att det inte var många miljöhinder som påträffades i gruppbostäderna trots att det var många komponenter som bedömdes. Det finns dock behov för mer forskning kring tillgänglighet och delaktighet för studiens persongrupp.

  • 436.
    Wicksell, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Paulsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Förebyggande insatser för äldre som lever i ofrivillig ensamhet: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Var sjunde äldre upplever idag ensamhet och två av dessa upplever det som vanligt förekommande. En åldrande befolkning leder till en ökad risk för att fler äldre kommer uppleva ofrivillig ensamhet med psykisk ohälsa som följd. Genom aktivitet och delaktighet kan äldre förstärka det sociala nätverket, sociala stödet och uppnå högre välmående. Syftet med denna studie var att kartlägga aktivitetfokuserade interventioner som syftar till att minska ensamhet hos äldre som lever i ofrivillig ensamhet. I litteraturstudien utfördes sökningar med databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och PsycINFO. Åtta vetenskapliga artiklar valdes ut och granskades. I resultatet framkom tre olika teman; aktivitet och gemenskap, utbildning för ökad delaktighet i samhället och social interaktion genom informationsteknik. Fyra interventioner minskade ensamhet och alla inkluderade interventioner hade positiv inverkan på äldres välmående. Ensamhet kan förebyggas hos äldre med hjälp av interventioner riktade mot att stärka det sociala nätverket, sociala stödet och genom att utbilda äldre inom befintliga resurser. Studien lyfter fram aktivitetfokuserade interventioner som kan tillämpas för att förebygga upplevelsen av ensamhet. Det krävs mer omfattande forskning inom området för att kunna bekräfta studiens resultat.

  • 437.
    Wolpher, Nicole
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Att erbjuda skapande för att ersätta skadande: - en beskrivning av bildterapeuters erfarenheter av att behandla personer med självskadebeteende2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning:Syfte: Att beskriva bildterapeuters erfarenheter av att arbeta behandlande med personer med självskadebeteende.Metod: Fem kvalitativa intervjuer med bildterapeuter analyserades genom en induktiv kvalitativ innehållsanalys med syfte att lyfta fram variationer och likheter ur materialet. Urvalet skedde via bekvämlighetsurval, snöbollsurval och självselektion.Resultat: Bildterapeuternas erfarenheter av att behandla personer med självskadebeteende handlar om: - relationen mellan personen i behandling och bilden; att få utlopp för känslor och tankar samt att skapa förståelse, - relationen mellan personen i behandling och bildterapeuten; att arbeta med följsamhet, hitta en lagom nivå för behandlingsarbetet, att arbeta med nyansering, att hitta alternativa sätt att förhålla sig till självskadandet och att processen kräver samarbete, - förhållningssättet till behandlingens ramverk; att skapa trygghet genom ramar, att ha ett öppet och bekräftande förhållningssätt, att utforma meningsfulla teman, att förhålla sig till materialet och att arbeta med grupp,- förhållningssättet till övergripande faktorer; att hitta lämpliga gränser i samverkan med andra, att ha en mångsidig yrkesroll och att det är en utmanande problematik att arbeta med.Slutsats: Bildterapi ger personen en möjlighet till självbehandling. Bildterapeuterna behöver hålla en balans mellan att arbeta följsamt och att styra behandlingen för att hjälpa personen. De behöver också hålla en balans mellan formella krav och behandlingsprocessen. Det krävs en tillit till behandlingsmetoden för att använda bild även i krisskeden. Kollegor och anhöriga runt om kan vara viktiga för avlastning men kan också behöva begränsas i sin insyn i behandlingsprocessen. Det är ett svårt arbete där bilden kan underlätta.

  • 438.
    Wågberg, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Jakobsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Upplevelser av att leva med Multipel Sklerosrelaterad fatigue: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fatigue är ett vanligt symptom för personer med Multipel Skleros (MS), trots det är förståelsen för symptomet och dess konsekvenser för dagligt liv bristfällig. Fatigue definieras som en känsla av trötthet som upplevs större än väntad, i förhållande till graden av utförd ansträngning. Symptomets konsekvenser beskrivs innebära stora begränsningar i det vardagliga livet för personer med MS-relaterad fatigue. Syftet med litteraturstudien var således att belysa upplevelser av fatigue samt dess betydelse för dagliga aktiviteter och delaktighet hos personer med Multipel Skleros. Studien utgör en granskning av nio kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar publicerade mellan 2004 och 2016. Litteratursökningen utfördes i databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och PsycINFO samt manuell sökning. Totalt nio studier inkluderades i litteraturstudien. Resultatet visade att fatigue är ett oförutsägbart symptom med negativ påverkan på arbete, skola och sociala relationer i det dagliga livet. Symptomet var svårt att förstå för andra, vilket innebar ett bristfälligt stöd för personerna i fråga. Vidare leder fatigue till delaktighetsinskränkningar och försämrad aktivitetsbalans. Arbetsterapeutisk kompetens är av stor vikt för att möjliggöra hantering av fatigue i vardagen hos personer med MS. Implementering av ett energibesparande arbetssätt och utbilding om fatigue, kan vara användbara strategier för hantering av fatigue.

  • 439.
    Zingmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Occupation-focused and occupation-based interventions for community-dwelling older people: Intervention effects in relation to facets of occupational engagement and cost effectiveness2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

     Occupation-focused and occupation-based interventions can potentially promote occupational engagement among community-dwelling older people, but there is limited evidence to identify the most effective and cost-effective interventions. For independent-living older people, there is a lack of evidence to determine if occupation-focused and occupation-based interventions have an effect on their occupational engagement. For older people who need assistance because of bathing disabilities, there is limited evidence of the effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based interventions on their occupational engagement or for reducing or omitting their need for assistance. Finally, there is limited evidence to determine if occupation-focused and occupation-based interventions implemented for community-dwelling older people are cost effective.

    Aim

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effects and cost effectiveness of occupation-focused and occupation-based interventions for two groups of community-dwelling older people, independent-living, community-dwelling older people and older people with bathing disabilities.

    Method

    Studies I and II were based on an exploratory randomized controlled trial. One hundred and seventy seven persons, 77–82 years, single living, and without need for home help were randomized to a no-intervention control group or to one of three occupational therapy interventions focused on promoting occupational engagement: an individual intervention, an activity group or a discussion group. In study I, effect sizes for leisure engagement and ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) tasks were estimated for each intervention in relation to the control group to identify the most effective intervention at 3 and 12 months after baseline. In study II, the effects on quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and the total costs for the intervention, social services provided by the municipality and health care were used evaluate cost-effectiveness.

    Study III was a quasi-experimental clinical trial and included 95 persons, 65+, who had applied for municipality-based home help with bathing. For participants in the intervention group, occupational therapists implemented occupation-focused and occupation-based interventions. No occupational therapy intervention was implemented for those in the control group, but they were allocated home help services if judged to need it based on an assessment by a municipality care manager. Evaluations of ADL ability, self-rated health and allocated home help were implemented at baseline and after 15 weeks.

    Study IV involved the use of decision-modeling based on a five state Markov model that included levels of dependency in ADLs, place of residency and death. Probabilities for transitions between states in the model, QoL scores and societal costs for each state were derived from previous research. Overall, the model was based on research indicating that more severe levels of dependency reduced QALY scores and increased societal costs. Previous trials have provided evidence that an occupation-focused and occupation-based intervention implemented to reduce bathing disabilities increased the probability of independence of home help. The Markov model was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness over 8 years for an intervention compared to no intervention.

    Results

    The results of study I indicated that each intervention had a small positive effect on minimizing a decline in leisure engagement and/or ADL, but no intervention was clearly superior. In study II, the results indicated that the interventions delivered in a group format positively affected self-rated health. The discussion group was the most cost-effective intervention. The results of study III indicated that the intervention had no effect on ADL ability or self-rated health. There was, however, a large difference in the allocation of home help at follow up, indicating that the intervention was effective in reducing dependency on home help for bathing. The results of study IV indicated that compared to no intervention, the intervention resulted in a positive accumulation of QALYs and lower costs for every year during the entire 8 year period.

    Conclusion

    This thesis provides evidence to support the implementation of occupation-focused and occupation-based interventions for independent-living, community-dwelling older people in order to reduce their decline in occupational engagement and improve their self-rated health; the interventions also have the potential to be cost effective. This thesis also provides evidence that an occupation-focused and occupation-based intervention implemented for older people with bathing disabilities was effective in promoting independence from home help for bathing. Finally, an occupation-focused and occupation-based intervention that increased the probability of being independent of home help for bathing had a positive impact on the long term accumulation of QALYs and reduced societal costs and, therefore, can be considered very cost effective.

  • 440.
    Zingmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Community Care Administration, Municipality of Östersund, Östersund.
    Bernspång, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Meeting the needs of elderly with bathing disability2011In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 164-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Difficulties with bathing are frequent among older people and are associated with an increasing need for societal support. As loss of independence has a negative impact on health and wellbeing, it is important to study interventions that can provide the required support for people to be able to remain independent. Occupational therapy interventions can improve clients' abilities enabling them to bathe themselves, thus reducing the need for other, more long-term societal support from, e.g. a home help. In this study, two groups of elderly people with difficulties in bathing were compared; the clients in the intervention group were engaged in occupational therapy.

    METHODS: A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used, in which participants with reported difficulties in bathing were recruited consecutively from two municipalities. The clients in the intervention group routinely received occupational therapy, whereas clients in the control group received assistance from a home help for bathing. Activities of daily living, quality of life and home-help allocation were assessed at the baseline and after 15 weeks.

    RESULTS: Clients in the intervention group received less than three home visits on average, with majority of interventions consisting of graded activity and the use of an encouraging approach. Seventy per cent of the interventions were adaptive. Activities of daily living and quality of life of both groups improved, but the differences of being allocated a home help were significant.

    CONCLUSION: Occupational therapy interventions seem beneficial in terms of supporting older people in becoming independent of home help in bathing but the results must be interpreted with caution as there were differences at baseline between the groups.

  • 441.
    Zingmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fisher, Anne G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Occupation-focused interventions for well older people: an exploratory randomized controlled trial2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 447-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this exploratory randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate three different occupation-focused interventions for well older people by estimating effect sizes for leisure engagement and ability in activities of daily living (ADL) and thereby identifying the most effective interventions.

    Methods: One hundred and seventy seven persons, 77-82 years old, living alone and without home help, were randomized to a control group (CG), an individual intervention (IG), an activity group (AG), and a one-meeting discussion group (DG). All interventions focused on occupational engagement and how persons can cope with age-related activity restrictions in order to enhance occupational engagement. Data were collected by blinded research assistants at baseline, three, and 12 months. Ordinal outcome data were converted, using Rasch measurement methods, to linear measures of leisure engagement and ADL ability. Standardized between-group effect sizes, Cohen's d, were calculated.

    Results: While all groups showed a decline in leisure engagement and ADL over time, the IG and the DG were somewhat effective in minimizing the decline at both three and 12 months. However, the effect sizes were small.

    Conclusions: The findings indicate that occupation-focused interventions intended to minimize a decline in leisure engagement and ADL were sufficiently promising to warrant their further research.

  • 442.
    Zingmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fisher, Anne G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Health and Human Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Occupation-focused health promotion for well older people: a cost-effectiveness analysis2016In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 153-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate three occupational therapy interventions, focused on supporting continued engagement in occupation among older people, to determine which intervention was most cost effective, evaluated as the incremental cost/quality adjusted life year gained. Method The study was based on an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Participants were 77-82 years, single living and without home help. One hundred and seventy seven persons were randomized to an individual intervention, an activity group, a discussion group or a no intervention control group. All interventions focused on supporting the participants to maintain or improve occupational engagement. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, three and 12 months and included general health and costs (intervention, municipality and health care). Based on linear regression models, we evaluated how outcomes had changed at each follow-up for each intervention group in relation to the control group. Results Both group interventions resulted in quality adjusted life years gained at three months. A sustained effect on quality adjusted life years gained and lower total costs indicated that the discussion group was the most cost-effective intervention. Conclusion Short-term, occupation-focused occupational therapy intervention delivered in group formats for well older people resulted in quality-adjusted life years gained. A one-session discussion group was most cost effective.

  • 443.
    Zingmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fisher, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Occupation-focused health promotion for well older people - a cost-effectiveness analysisIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 444.
    Zingmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Community Care Administration, Municipality of Östersund, 83182 Östersund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sahlén, Klas-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Cost effectiveness of an intervention focused on reducing bathing disability2017In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 233-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The onset of bathing disability among older people is critical for a decline in functioning and has implications for both the individuals’ quality of life and societal costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate longterm cost effectiveness of an intervention targeting bathing disability among older people. For hypothetical cohorts of community-dwelling older people with bathing disability, transitions between states of dependency and death were modelled over 8 years including societal costs. A five-state Markov model based on states of dependency was used to evaluate Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a societal perspective. An intervention group was compared with a no intervention control group. The intervention focused on promoting safe and independent performance of bathing-related tasks. The intervention effect, based on previously published trials, was applied in the model as a 1.4 increased probability of recovery during the first year. Over the full follow-up period, the intervention resulted in QALY gains and reduced societal cost. After 8 years, the intervention resulted in 0.052 QALYs gained and reduced societal costs by €2410 per person. In comparison to the intervention cost, the intervention effect was a more important factor for the magnitude of QALY gains and long-term societal costs. The intervention cost had only minor impact on societal costs. The conclusion was that an intervention targeting bathing disability among older people presents a cost-effective use of resources and leads to both QALY gains and reduced societal costs over 8 years.

  • 445.
    Árnadóttir, Guðrún
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Measuring the impact of body functions on occupational performance: validation of the ADL-focused occupation-based neurobehavioral evaluation (A-ONE)2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Among the instruments commonly used by occupational therapists working in the area of rehabilitation of persons with neurological disorders are evaluations of both occupation, such as activities of daily living (ADL), and body functions. While persons with neurological diagnoses typically have symptoms that represent diminished neurobehavioral functions, the resulting pattern of neurobehavioral impairments affecting ADL performance often differs among diagnostic groups. Usually, neurobehavioral impairments are evaluated in a context that is separate from and not natural for ADL task performance. The A-ONE is a unique instrument that can be used to evaluate both ADL performance (ADL scale) and, in the natural context of the ADL task performance, the underlying neurobehaviors that cause diminished ADL task performance among persons with neurological disorders (Neurobehavioral scale). The scales of the instrument are of ordinal type, and in their existing form, do not have measurement properties. Measurement properties are a requirement of evidence-based and quality assured rehabilitation services.

    The overall aim of this doctoral study was to further develop and validate the A-ONE. This included (a) internal validation to explore the potential for converting the ordinal scales of the instrument to interval scales, (b) examination of which of the neurobehavioral items would be most beneficial and clinically useful for constructing a new Neurobehavioral Impact (NBI) scale for evaluating persons with different neurological diagnoses, and (c) exploration of whether persons with right and left cerebrovascular accidents (RCVA, LCVA) differ in mean NBI measures.

     Methods: This thesis is comprised of four studies which all contribute in different ways to the validation of the scales of the A-ONE. In the first three studies, Rasch analyses, a widely accepted modern test theory methodology, was used to examine internal validity of the scales and the reliability of the A-ONE measures. In the fourth study, ANCOVA was used to explore between group differences, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to explore relations between person measures from the different A-ONE scales.

    Results: The first study of 209 persons diagnosed with CVA and dementia provided support for converting the ordinal ADL scale to an interval scale that has potential to be used to measure change in ADL performance over time. The second and third studies, including 206 and 422 persons respectively, indicated that it is possible to construct several unidimensional versions of a new NBI scale from the neurobehavioral items of the instrument, each with different item content and hierarchical item structure. Further, some of these NBI scales could be used across different diagnostic groups. When exploring differences between 215 persons with RCVA and LCVA on the NBI scale developed for CVA, results of the ANCOVA (with ADL ability as a covariate) indicated that there is no significant difference between groups in their mean NBI measures, despite known differences in patterns of neurobehavioral impairments.

    Conclusions: The results of this thesis indicate that the A-ONE, although developed by traditional psychometric methods for the purpose of providing useful information for intervention planning, now also has the potential to be used to measure change and compare diagnostic groups. This additional feature will likely enhance both clinical and research potential of the instrument. In order to make the results of the study accessible for clinicians, conversion tables need to be developed.

  • 446.
    Árnadóttir, Guðrún
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. 1Occupational Therapy Unit, Grensás, Landspítali University Hospital, Reykjavík; 2Division of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health, University of Akureyri, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Löfgren, Britta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Fisher, Anne G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Difference in impact of neurobehavioural dysfunction on Activities of Daily Living performance between right and left hemispheric stroke2010In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 903-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore whether persons with right- and left-sided cerebrovascular accidents differ significantly in mean impact of neurobehavioural impairments on ability to perform activities of daily living. Design and subjects: Retrospective study of data from 215 persons (103 right-sided, 112 left-sided cerebrovascular accident). The Activities of daily living-focused Occupation-based Neurobehavioral Evaluation was used to evaluate ability on an activities of daily living scale and the impact of neurobehavioural impairment on ability on another scale. Methods: To control for possible differences in activities of daily living ability between groups, analysis of covariance, with activities of daily living ability as a covariate, was used to test for a significant difference in impact of neurobehavioural impairments on activities of daily living ability between groups. Results: Expected moderate correlation (r=-0.57) was obtained between activities of daily living ability and neurobehavioural impact measures, and there was no difference in mean neurobehavioural impact measures between groups (F [1, 212] = 2.910,p = 0.090). Conclusion: This study is the first: to explore directly the impact of neurobehavioural impairment on activities of daily living ability. While persons with right-sided and left-sided cerebrovascular accidents may differ in type of neurobehavioural impairments, direct evaluation of the impact of such impairments on activities of daily living ability reveals no difference between groups.

  • 447.
    Önnhall, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Upplevd autonomi hos äldre personer med hemtjänst2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Andelen äldre i Sverige som får vård och omsorg i hemmet ökar. Det kan komma att påverka de äldres autonomi då de blir beroende av andra. Autonomi är ett begrepp som innebär möjligheten att själv bestämma i de frågor som rör den egna individen. Syftet med studien var att beskriva äldre personers upplevelse av autonomi, i samband med hjälp och stöd av hemtjänsten, i aktiviteter i det dagliga livet (ADL). Studien genomfördes i form av intervjuer med sex äldre personer, både män och kvinnor, i åldern 72 till 91 år. Därefter transkriberades intervjuerna och en innehållsanalys utfördes. Resultatet visade att alla deltagarna anser att det är viktigt att få vara med och bestämma om det som rör deras dagliga liv och att de har möjlighet att kunna ändra på överenskomna tider samt att avboka hemtjänstbesök. Det framkom även att de har begränsat självbestämmande inom olika områden och att de ibland undviker att uttrycka sina åsikter för att inte besvära hemtjänstpersonalen.  Det förekom att deltagare får lägga sig och stiga upp tidigare än de själva önskat. Det kan tyda på att deltagarna har en känsla av att inte ha fullständig kontroll över alla sina aktiviteter, vilket kan påverka deras upplevda självständighet.

  • 448.
    Öster, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Edberg Thyme, Karin
    Magnusson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindh, Jack
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Åström, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Art therapy during radiotherapy – A five-year follow-up study with women diagnosed with breast cancer2014In: The arts in psychotherapy, ISSN 0197-4556, E-ISSN 1873-5878, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Follow-up studies on art therapy are lacking. In a randomised art therapy intervention study from 2001 to 2004 with women with breast cancer, results showed that patients benefitted from participating in art therapy for up to four months after the intervention. The aim of this study was to describe the coping resources and quality of life amongst women treated for breast cancer five to seven years after participating in individual art therapy during radiotherapy as compared to a control group. In 2009, thirty-seven women, 18 from the intervention group and 19 from the control group, answered questionnaires about their coping resources and quality of life. The results showed no significant difference between the groups regarding their coping resources or quality of life, except for an unexpected significantly lower score in the domain 'Social relations' in the study group as compared to baseline, at the time of the follow up. However, our study from 2001 to 2004 supports various positive effects of art therapy within six months of participation as compared to a control group. Consequently, attending art therapy during the treatment period for breast cancer can be of great importance to support health, coping and quality of life in a short-term perspective.

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