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  • 401.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Mycket väsen för ringa ting: Ungdomsbrottens utveckling i Sundsvallsregionen 1840-18802006In: Oknytt: Johan Nordlander-sällskapets tidskrift, ISSN 0349-1706, no 1-2, p. 41-68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 402.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects on Female Domestic Servants in Sundsvall: A Swedish Sawmill Town during Industrialization2005In: Servants and Changes in Mentality, 16th to 20th Centuries: Proceedings of the Servant Project, Volume I / [ed] Suzy Pasleau, Isabelle Schopp, Raffaella Sarti, Liège: Les Éditions de l’Université de Liège , 2005, , p. 21p. 19-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 403.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Societal change and individual past in connection with crime: demographic perspectives on young people arrested in Northern Sweden in the Nineteenth Century2008In: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 331-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the lives of criminal offenders prior to their incarceration in past time. Knowing the background of offenders, however, may explain why they broke the law. This article explores young offenders in the Sundsvall region of Sweden, 400 kilometres north of Stockholm, an area with a booming sawmill-based economy in nineteenth-century Sweden. First, using prison registers, large-scale structural concepts are employed to explain the increasing number of incarcerations of young people reported during the period 1840–1880. Second, to uncover the offenders' demographic backgrounds and their socio-economic circumstances when arrested, they are identified in Swedish parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base (DDB) at Umeå University. These sources permit the application of retrospective life-course perspectives that are increasingly applied in modern criminology. These perspectives show that offenders were not primarily migrants or of poor origin, but that they frequently came from the region. Thus their parents were often also present in the community. In providing informal social control these characteristics – being local and having at least one parent nearby – are thought to lead to lower levels of criminality and imprisonment, but they were of little effect in preventing crime or incarceration. This study thus challenges the view of the criminal in past time as a lone individual arrested in an unfamiliar settings. Among the few female offenders observed, however, these factors were more typical; although gender accounts for low levels of criminality, their isolation and poverty did lead some women to theft.

  • 404.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Ung och redan arresterad: unga individers brott och demografiska bakgrund i 1800-talets Sundsvallsregion2006In: Oknytt: Johan Nordlander-sällskapets tidskrift, ISSN 0349-1706, no 3-4, p. 64-91Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 405.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Vi vågade oss också västerut!: Kisakvinnornas utvandring 1845-19152004In: Befolkningshistoriska perspektiv: Festskrift till Lars-Göran Tedebrand / [ed] Anders Brändström, Sören Edvinsson, Tom Ericsson, Peter Sköld, Umeå: Demografiska Databasen , 2004, p. 229-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 406.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Women Migrants in a Sawmill Town: The Socio-Spatial Path of Single Women Migrants Heading for Sundsvall in the 1870s2002In: Nordic Demographic Symposium in History and Present-Day Society / [ed] Peter Sköld & Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Demographic Data Base , 2002, p. 367-384Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 407.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Bland pigor, utvandrare och vanliga dödliga i 1800-talets Sverige: historiska problem i digitala källor: ett arbets- och inspirationsmaterial för gymnasieskolan2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 408.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Kärlek, liv och död på webben: Befolkningshistoriska källor som resurs i historieundervisningen2007In: Aktuellt om historia, ISSN 0348-503X, no 1, p. 37-49Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 409.
    Vikström, Lotta (Marie-Christine)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    I skammens namn?: Kvinnors inflyttning och illegitimitet i det industrialiserade Sundsvall: Samband och konsekvenser2002In: Sekelskiftets utmaningar: Essäer om välfärd, utbildning och nationell identitet vid sekelskiftet 1900 / [ed] Ann-Katrin Hatje, Stockholm: Carlssons , 2002, p. 199-226Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 410.
    Vikström, Lotta (Marie-Christine)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Women Migrants in a Swedish Sawmill Town: The Socio-Spatial Paths of Single Women Migrants Heading for Sundsvall in the 1870s2001In: Nordic demography in history and present-day society / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand and Peter Sköld, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2001, p. 367-384Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 411.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Tedebrand, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Centrum för lokalhistoria, Linköpings universitet.
    Marriage Patterns in Swedish Cities 1840-19902004In: Living in the City (14th-20th Centuries): Proceedings of the International Conference held by the International Commission for Historical Demography (ICHD) / [ed] Eugenio Sonnino, Rome: La Sapienza, University of Rome , 2004, p. 203-236Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 412.
    Waaranperä, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Historieämnet i skolan: Hur man motiverar man eleverna i historia?2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns väldigt lite tidigare studier som behandlar hur man motiverar elever i historieämnet. Min undersökning baserar sig på intervjuer av lärare på mellanstadiet. Lärarna är eller har varit klasslärare på mellanstadiet. Med intervjuerna har jag försökt att få fram vad lärarna gör för att motivera eleverna och vilka aspekter som ligger bakom deras uppfattningar. Lärarna använde framförallt olika metoder i sitt arbete för att motivera eleverna i historieämnet. Det handlade om olika arbetssätt med eleverna och att man var insatt i det man skulle lära ut. Berättartekniken var en viktig del i inledningen till ämnet där lärare kunde fånga och göra det intressant för eleverna genom att berätta med inlevelse om det som skulle behandlas under lektionen. Paralleller till elevens egna liv var viktigt liksom paralleller mellan den svenska historien och övriga världen. Händelser som var aktuella i samhället och som man kunde se hade en orsak och verkan både historiskt och i dag motiverade också eleverna. Slutsatsen blir att historieämnet i skolan är ett område som lärarna arbetar med på många olika sätt för att motivera eleverna. Det handlar mycket om att nå fram till eleverna genom olika arbetssätt och genom att få eleverna delaktiga i historien, känna att en påverkat dem och att den fortfarande påverkar dem och deras samhälle.

  • 413.
    Warg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Familjen i gruvmiljö: Migration, giftermålsmönter och fertilitet i norrbottnisk gruvindustri 1890-19302002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explain the relationship between industrialisation and demographic development in a mining region of northern Sweden at the turn of the twenties century. The analysis addresses the interaction between migration, family and fertility patterns at the community level. The areas of investigation are two mining communities situated in the province of Norrbotten, Kiruna and Malmberget.

    Most theoretical models aiming at explaining the demographic changes in Western Europe and North America during the period from early 19th to mid-20th century, have focused on key factors related to industrialisation and economic development. Local variations in family and fertility patterns have also been related to differences in industrial structure. The assumed relationship between local labour markets and demographic development in mining environments are founded on an interaction between migration, marriage patterns and marital fertility, that taken together created preconditions for high rates of reproduction. This study is guided by an attempt to include also communicative factors in the analytic framework for the analyses of family structure and fertility. In line with this strategy the conceptual scheme of Jürgen Habermas have been applied. This approach gives an opportunity to study both the relations connecting the family to the local economic system, and also the interaction between the private and public spheres at community level.

    The results presented here suggests that the assumed relationship between local labour markets and demographic development stipulated in the above model, was of importance only during the early and dynamic period of industrialisation and population development. However, the rates of marital fertility in the communities declined rapidly and had in the 1920s dropped to levels indicating that deliberate fertility control was practised in the local population. Explanations for changes in fertility patterns discovered in this study suggest the importance of discussions within organisations in the local public sphere. These included local trade unions and particularly women’s organisations associated with the Social Democratic Party of Sweden. The creation of female organisations in the mining communities helped answer questions regarding family structure and fertility. These organisations created the possibility for women to participate and interact in the local public sphere thereby acting as agents for female empowerment in the local environment. Second, records from the Kiruna women’s organisation reveal the influence of neo-malthusian ideas that also fuelled debates at the national level where they were adopted by the left wing of the Social Democratic Party and radical women’s organisations. Female associations and left wing radicals during the first two decades of the 20th century helped garner public support for birth control. Undoubtedly their impact help explain the decline in marital fertility observed in the mining communities.

  • 414.
    Wasniowski, Andréaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Den korrekta avvikelsen: vetenskapsanvändning, normalitetssträvan och exkluderande praktiker hos RFSL, 1950-19702007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Correct Deviation: The Use of Science, the Striving for Normality and Excluding Practices of RFSL, 1950-1970

    The thesis focuses on the organisation today known as the Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights (RFSL) and its activities from the founding year 1950 to around 1970. RFSL was the first Swedish organisation that worked for non-heterosexual persons. The aim was to achieve what was called sexual equality, by which was understood that a person should be able to live without social obstacles in accordance with his or her sexual orientation. It should be noted that even though RFSL was a member organisation, it was never member orientated, and the political ambition was considered more important than the everyday problems of the members. Anyway, sexual equality included both juridical and a social aspects. In its analysis RFSL defined the main problem as intolerance due to lack of knowledge and concluded thereby that the solution lay in enlightenment; the spread of scientific and objective information about both homosexuals and the nature of homosexuality. As the thesis shows, RFSL’s method and activities can be characterised as a strategy of assimilation, which was manifested in two ways. First, RFSL argued that the represented group did not deviate too much from the norms of society, i.e. in a way that would be regarded as unacceptable. Consequently certain forms of deviations were excluded. For instance, RFSL tried to distance itself from sadism, masochism and transvestism but also from pornography and prostitution. The ideal homosexual was well-behaved and conformed in every way to the norms of society, not least gender norms. But there was a discrepancy between what was publicly shown and what was internally tolerated and accepted. Hence it appears plausible to interpret RFSL as pragmatically oriented and acting in accordance with tactical deliberations and not always from real beliefs. Second, RFSL argued, often with references to different scientific sources, that there was no essential difference between hetero- and homosexuality. Instead all people were regarded as positioned on a scale, with sexual orientation being a matter of degree rather than essence. This recognition also holds a critique of the notion that a two-sex model has replaced an earlier one-sex model. Instead the thesis argues for a continuity of some underlying figures of thoughts. These are not only present in the expressions of RFSL but also in the early 20th century scientific discourse and in the sources to which RFSL referred. Besides RFSL’s view on the nature of homosexuality and the normative and excluding practices, the thesis also places the organisation in an international context. Around 1950 the first political gay right organisations took shape not only in Sweden but also in other countries. As a member of the International Committee for Sexual Equality (ICSE), RFSL had an active international exchange with organisations from Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands and also from US. In its publication RFSL also reported news from abroad that where considered relevant to the members.

  • 415.
    Wirén, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Ideologins apparatur: reproduktionsperspektiv på kyrka och skola i 1600- och 1700-talens Sverige2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation examines various aspects of church organization in Sweden during the 17th and 18th centuries. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, the Christian religion and the organization of the Church comprised the dominant ideological power structure. Through the process of state-building and the Protestant Reformation, these structures were charged with new energy. In the present dissertation, the fact that nations were dependent on and exploited ideological power structures in order to control their respective populations and survive the international struggle of the state system has grown to become a central theme.

    The fundamental questions of this dissertation concerning how and why social institutions were reproduced, and the theoretical context of these questions, has been based in the fact that both church and state are social institutions whose construction must include structures for a constant recreation of their forms and functions. The contribution of the present author has been to construct and apply a general model for understanding the organization and reproduction of institutional structures from a materialistic and structural basis. From a discussion of Louis Althusser's theory of the oppressive state apparatus and the ideological state apparatus, I have developed fundamental concepts with the purpose of constructing a theoretical model of the reproduction of an ideological state apparatus. I have dubbed this model the "competitive system", designating a system of material and symbolic structures and processes which, through competition between individuals, produces and maintains the functionaries of said state apparatus.

    In one subsidiary study, the involvement of the repressive state apparatus in the creation of new church dioceses (so-called "superintendant dioceses") in Sweden during the first half of the 17th century is studied. This study showed that the creation of superintendant dioceses was a government-initiated project whose actual motive was the ambition of the repressive state to conquer and secure borders and central regions in the realm.

    In another subsidiary study, some of the structures which reproduced the church and the educational system in Sweden during the 17th and 18th centuries are examined. This study indicated how the system of promotion constructed after the Reformation resulted in an overproduction of clerical labour during the 17th and 18th centuries. At the same time, through the agency of the crown the educational system expanded enormously during the 17th century and, by providing the opportunity for teachers to move into careers in the church, competition in the church apparatus became even keener.

    In a final subsidiary study, the reproduction of diocesans (bishops and superintendents) in Sweden during the period 1580-1800 is analyzed. At the beginning of the period under investigation, careers in the normal competitive system of the church comprised the dominant form of qualification. The court and royal chaplain ministries available there were of great significance for recruitment. By the latter half of the 17th century, the role of the educational system in the reproduction of diocesans increased. In accordance with the Swedish central government´s increasing need to formalize its central competitive system, the educational system was expanded and reinforced, which had reprecussions on the competitive system of the ideological state apparatus of the church and its reproduction of diocesans.

    Keywords: ideological state apparatus, repressive state apparatus, reproduction, church organization, educational system, competitive system, clergy, superintendent, bishop, superintendant dioceses, state building, 17th century, 18th century, Sweden.

  • 416.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Att föda barn -- från privat till offentlig angelägenhet: Förlossningsvårdens institutionalisering i Sundsvall 1900-19302005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By the late nineteenth century childbirth was firmly established in the domestic sphere. However, in the early years of the twentieth century different forms of maternity clinics were established where normal, as well as complicated, deliveries could take place. The aim of this dissertation is to analyse the institutionalisation of maternity care in a local urban context, the role of women in confinement in this process, and its impact on infant mortality. The geographical setting of the thesis is Sundsvall, a town in northern Sweden. The study concentrates on the period spanning from 1900 to 1930, when local communities, rather than federal agencies, were charged with creating and implementing community standards for maternity care.

    In order to lower the mortality rate of illegitimate infants, and to improve delivery conditions for unmarried women, a maternity home was opened in Sundsvall in 1913. Moreover, a maternity ward was established at the local hospital in 1920. In this study it is clear, that when institutional maternity care became available, the transition was rapid and unhesitating. When analysing the local practices it is possible to highlight the central role women played as part of this process. Initially indigent women and women bearing children out of wedlock accepted the institutional alternative, but shortly thereafter married women of means turned to the newly created wards. As a result of this early acceptance, these institutions were soon filled to capacity.

    During the period in question a significant reduction in infant mortality rates can be noticed in the Swedish towns. A reasonable assumption is that the institutionalisation of maternity care improved infants chances of survival. In the study it is suggested that the institutionalised maternity care made an impact on neonatal mortality, as well as on post-neonatal mortality. The study shows that local practices of care played a key role in infant survival.

    This dissertation reveals the value of examining local practices in order to understand the rapid changes of maternity care. Childbirth changed from being a private matter, taking place in one’s home, to be a public concern, taking place in the institutional setting. At the 1937 Parliament (Riksdag) the responsibility for institutionalised maternity care became a public and a State concern, and maternity care became a part of the Swedish welfare system.

  • 417.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Offer eller banbrytare?: Mödrarnas roll i förlossningsvårdens institutionalisering i Sundsvall, 1900-19302004In: Historiens mångfald: presentation av pågående forskning vid institutionen för historiska studier Umeå universitet / [ed] Ann-Katrin Hatje, Umeå: Institutionen för historiska studier, Umeå universitet , 2004, p. 154-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 418.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    CSA och det sociala kunskapsfältets gränser2006In: Ligga till last: Fattigdom och utsatthet -- socialpolitik och socialt arbete under 100 år. / [ed] Hans Swärd, Marie-Anne Egerö, Lund: Gleerups , 2006, p. 37-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 419.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Hemma, borta och på väg: Robinson och det sociala reportaget2001In: Reseberättelser: idéhistoriska resor i sociala och geografiska rum / [ed] Lena Eskilsson & Mohammad Fazlhashemi, Stockholm: Carlssons , 2001, p. 256-275Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 420.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Homo ludens på verkstadsgolvet: Ett humanistiskt perspektiv på skogsbrukets mekanisering1995In: Polhem: tidskrift för teknikhistoria, ISSN 0281-2142, Vol. 13, p. 400-419Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 421.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Kollektivhuset och villa Myrdal: om samhällsvetenskapens rum i folkhemmet2006In: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, p. 130-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 422.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Med siffror och bokstäver: Urban von Feilitzen och Lorénska stiftelsens socialvetenskapliga kartläggning under 1890-talet2000In: Samhällets Linneaner: Kartläggning och förståelse i samhällsvetenskapernas historia, Stockholm: Carlssons , 2000, p. 51-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 423.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Samhällets kartläggare: Lorénska stiftelsen, den sociala frågan och samhällsvetenskapens formering i Sverige 1830-19202000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the Lorén Foundation (Lorénska stiftelsen) as a concrete empirical point of departure, the aim of this dissertation is to study the formation of a Swedish social science discourse in the historical context of the lengthy and broad-ranging discussions summarized in the formula "the social question". Established in 1885, the explicit aim of the Lorén Foundation was to promote the rise of Swedish social science and to contribute to the solution of the social question. Composing an heuristic case, the historical reconstruction of the Lorén Foundation and its activities thus comprise the basic thesis - that modern social science should be understood as an "answer" to the "social question" - while providing it with empirical substance and historical content.

    Emphasizing the contextual and conceptual aspects of the history of social knowledge, the "social question", the Lorén Foundation, and the institutionalization of social science are regarded as different components in an historical discourse centred around the social sphere as it took shape from the 1830s and onwards. In this broad, multifarious definition and articulation process, social science is understood not as a unique "answer", but rather as one attempt alongside others to regulate the social sphere. Focusing on the intimate interrelations between social science practice and realist and naturalist authors, as well as contemporary social reform efforts, the dissertation also emphasizes the historically changing boundaries of social knowledge and its inherent political, gendered and professional dimensions. The final part of the study discusses the role of social science in the Swedish welfare state in more general terms, employing a comparative, international perspective, and the historiographical construction of disciplinary identities characteristic of academic sociology after World War II.

  • 424.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Sociologin som inte blev av?: Gustaf Steffen och tidig svensk socialvetenskap1997In: Sociologisk forskning: tidskrift för Sveriges sociologförbund, ISSN 0038-0342, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 425.
    Wisselgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Viktor Lorén: Välfärdsbyggets obemärkte entreprenör2001In: Sekelskiftets utmaningar: Essäer om välfärd, utbildning och nationell identitet vid sekelskiftet 1900 / [ed] Ann-Katrin Hatje, Stockholm: Carlssons , 2001, p. 227-254Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 426.
    Wäringstam, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Hansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Hembygdens historia genom upplevelse2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 427.
    Åberg Boström, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Vad ska vi med historia till: skolans historieämne upp till diskussion2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur historieämnet och dess plats i den svenska skolan har diskuterats i den allmänna debatten under 2000-talet, samt hur man i den historiedidaktiska litteraturen försvarar ämnets funktion, relevans och utrymme. Jag har sökt efter vilka begrepp/teman man pratar om, om det rått enighet mellan debattörerna och även mellan dem och den historiedidaktiska litteraturen. Debattmaterialet utgörs av artiklar från dagspressen, tidskrifter och debattböcker, samt Gymnasiekommitténs (2000)betänkande och regeringens proposition. För att få en djupare förståelse för vad som diskuteras har jag dels redogjort för det historiedidaktiska perspektivet, dels givit en historisk bakgrund. Historiken påvisar successiva nedskärningar av historieämnet sedan mitten av 1900-talet, en trend som nu har vänt. Beträffande debatten finns i stort sett inte någon större meningsskiljaktighet mellan de inblandade. Genom historiska kunskaper och ett ökat historiemedvetande anses den egna identiteten stärkas och medverka till ökad förståelse och tolerans för omgivningen. Debatten manifesterar att historieämnet behövs och inte om det behövs. Regeringens beslut att göra historia till nytt kärnämne på gymnasiet bemöttes positivt. Här återfinns dock debattens enda egentliga oenighet, vilken är mellan vuxenperspektivet och ungdomsperspektivet, då elevorganisationerna bland annat anser att en utökning av kärnämnena inkräktar på valfriheten.

  • 428.
    Ņkerberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Knowledge and pleasure at Regent's Park: the gardens of the Zoological Society of London during the nineteenth century2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this dissertation is the Zoological Gardens of the Zoological Society of London (f. 1826) in the nineteenth century. Located in Regent s Park, it was the express purpose of the Gardens (f. 1828) to function as a testing-ground for acclimatisation and to demonstrate the scientific impor­tance of various animal species.

    The aim is to analyse what the Gardens signified as a recreational, educational and scientific institution in nineteenth-century London by considering them from four different perspectives: as a pan of a newly-founded society, as a part of the leisure culture of mid-Victorian London, as a medi­ator of popular zoology and as a constituent of the Zoological Society's scientific ambitions.

    After an introduction which describes the devlopment of European zoos, Chapter two recapitu­lates the early years of the Society and the Gardens. The original aims of the Society—science and acclimatisation located in a museum and zoological garden—as stated in various prospectuses, are examined. The implications of acclimatisation, it being a problematic practice, are outlined and the connections between acclimatisation, the Society, the Gardens and the British Empire are also briefly considered. The founding of the Gardens is extensively described as well as how the animals were obtained and how exhibits were arranged.

    Chapter three is based primarily on the popular response to the Gardens in the 1850s when, after a period of decline, the institution once again became a common London visiting-place. The most important questions of this chapter concern the public and how it reacted to the Gardens of this period. The financial problems preceding the five years between 1850 and 1855 ^ described as well as how the Society managed to regain its popularity. This process was closely linked to the decision in 1847to let non-members of the Society enter the Gardens, and the implications of this resolution are discussed. As a background to the Gardens' popularity, two other London recreations are also described: the Colosseum Panorama and the Surrey Zoological Garden. The Surrey Zoological Gar­den especially is interesting, as it was a rival of the Society's Gardens, and the different attractions of these establishments are considered.

    Chapter four focuses on the official and non-official guidebooks to the Gardens and the implica­tions of these as mediators of popular zoology. The historical and cultural connection between the guidebooks and travel handbooks is oudined and also how the genre as a whole is constructed. The progress and development of the Society's guidebooks during the nineteenth century is described and the differences between these guidebooks and the non-official ones are examined. Finally, with the aid of Victorian children's books, I argue that the guidebooks can literally be considered as travel handbooks since a visit to the Gardens may be regarded as a journey of knowledge.

    Chapter five is an in-depth study of the zoological science of the Gardens. The scientific work of the Society is briefly described, starting with the Committee of Science and Correspondence, and the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. The Proceedings reports that base their findings on animals in the Gardens are then described together with minor detours into the history of taxonomy and morphology.

  • 429.
    Åkerberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Undervattensvärldar i miniatyr: akvarier som rationell rekreation under brittiskt 1800-tal2006In: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, p. 30-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 430.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Tortyr och pinligt förhör - våld och tvång i äldre svensk rätt2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Torture in the past is the subject of this dissertation. The aim of the study is to discuss one of the grand narratives of Swedish history. In an evolutionary frame Sweden has been put forward as a country which early developed judicial security for citizens. This dissertation contains a critique against an objectivistic view of the concept of knowledge. It proposes instead an evolutionary concept. In the discussion of sources I argue that although historians have been skilful in their evaluation of sources important problems still remains.

    The phenomenon of torture is here investigated at three different levels, as discourse, as norm and as practice. A point of departure is an overview of the discourse of torture and the use of torture in the past, from ancient times to the beginning of the early modern period in Europe. The purpose of that study is to gain some general insight concerning torture to which the main study, with focus on the phenomenon of torture in Sweden, could be related. The presentation of the history of torture starts in ancient Greece. The ability to use torture was regulated in Greek society. An important element in the discourse concerns a social regulation of torture; another is the connection with different concepts of truth.

    The conditions for the use of torture have changed over time. In early Middle Ages the practice of ordeals was common in Europe. In difficult cases tribes decided guilt with help from God. When the Christian church during the High Middle Ages rose to power it prohibited the use of ordeals. The obvious consequence of this act was that people had to make decisions by themselves, when they no longer could turn to God’s will when making decisions in severe judicial cases. In this context torture became important and was put into use. The existence of ordeals has been an obstacle to the use of torture. Torture had a strong position at the end of the medieval era, and this dissertation discusses whether the legislation is to be understood as implementation of torture or as regulation of an already existing practice.

    The first study of torture in a Swedish context deals with the discourse concerning the concept of torture. It is found that accusations of use of torture were used in propaganda and that torture in this context was understood as something unswedish and shameful.

    Next part focuses on the Old Swedish legislation prior to 1614. It is found that there is a prohibition against torture in the legislation from the fourteenth century, which must be regarded as a first attempt in Swedish law to regulate the use of torture. The study also focuses on the fact that the plaintiff had such extensive rights, that these could enable use of torture.

    The last part of the dissertation deals with the legal practice in Stockholm between 1474 and 1614. It identifies places for torture, actors and the judicial context in which the use of torture was practised.

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