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  • 451.
    Skåreus, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Egberg Thyme, Karin
    Kropp. kamp. bild: Jo Spence1998In: Astra nova, ISSN 1238-1837, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 6-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 452.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kalman, Hildur
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    A Pilot Study of Birthday Cards as Vignettes: Methodological Reflections on the Elusive Everyday Ageism2012In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, ISSN 2220-8488, E-ISSN 2221-0989, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the expressions and experiences of everyday ageism among elderly retired people. Remarkably little attention has previously been paid to how elderly people themselves experience everyday ageism. The phenomenon of everyday ageism is both neglected and demanding to identify and analyse. This pilot study uses focus group interviews and birthday card vignettes in order to encourage informants to speak freely and discuss their experiences of attitudes towards ageing. The results of the pilot study show ancillary perceptions, agreements and silences that are characteristic of everyday ageism, and either directly related to the vignettes or to other everyday experiences. It is emphasised that the phenomenon at hand is multifaceted and complex. Methodological implications are discussed in order to shed light on the uncovering of signifiers and intersecting signifiers of everyday ageism. The study demonstrates a particularly useful approach in researching everyday ageism.

  • 453.
    Snellman, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Conformity and resistance in older women´s life stories2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main obejctive of the presentation is to highlight aspects of conformity and resistance as described in older women's oral life stories. The life stories are part of an ongoing dissertation project, at the Department of social work, Umea university, Sweden. The data consists of ten women's life stories, aged 75 to 85, living in the rural countryside in the county of Vasterbotten in northern Sweden and the region of Ostrobothnia on the west coast of Finland. The meaning of old age cannot be separated from the rest of the course of a person's life, and by conducting life story interviews ageing as a process is emphasised. Life stories not only give us information about the individual, but also about cultural and societal conditions in two similar, but still different countries. Hence, the purpose of the presentation is to make visible women's diverse circumstances during life course, at both a structural and individual level, and how these are articulated through different strategies of adaptation and/or opposition.

     

    The women taking part in the study are all born and raised in an agrarian community. During the women's life course the society has undergone many transformations. The Second World War, modernisation and the development of the welfare state are some of the changes that have taken place during their life course, as well as reassessment about women's work and family life. Despite many similarities between the two countries, there are also disparities that must be considered when trying to understand and interpret the life stories of these women. The national economical conditions after the Second World War were completely different, which has also influenced political and ideological attitudes and values about men's and women's responsibilities and positions. How such circumstances have shaped strategies of conformity and resistance used by women in different situations, concerning i.e education, work and relationships is therefore of interest to investigate. 

  • 454.
    Snellman, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Obetalt arbete och kontext i äldre kvinnors livsberättelser2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett övergripande syfte med presentationen är att lyfta fram kvinnors obetalda arbete, såsom det framträder i fritt formulerade livsberättelser av kvinnor födda på 1920-talet och boendes på landsbygden, i Västerbotten i Sverige och Österbotten i Finland. Materialet ingår i ett avhandlingsprojekt vid Institutionen för socialt arbete och inom ramen för Genusforskarskolan vid Umeå universitet. Materialet, insamlat åren 2004-2005, består av tio kvinnors muntliga livsberättelser, berättade vid två olika tillfällen. Utgångspunkten är att livsberättelser inte bara ger kunskap om den enskilda individen, utan att de även kan förstås i ett kulturellt och samhälleligt perspektiv. Därmed är avsikten med presentationen att synliggöra hur kvinnornas villkor och förutsättningar under livet har sett olika ut i de båda länderna, samt på vilket sätt detta avspeglar sig i hur det obetalda arbetet framträder i livsberättelserna. Utöver detta är syftet med presentationen också att belysa hur det obetalda arbetet tar sig uttryck, med utgångspunkt i olikartade livssituationer och familjeförhållanden. Vilka skillnader och likheter finns i förhållande till obetalt arbete, beroende av om man levt sitt liv som ogift och ensamstående, eller som gift i en traditionell kärnfamilj? Vilka skillnader och likheter finns mellan kvinnorna i de båda länderna?

     

    Kvinnorna som ingår i studien är alla födda under en tid då det agrara inslaget i samhället fortfarande var stort, både i Sverige och Finland. Deras liv har präglats av att samhället genomgått stora omvälvande förvandlingar. Krigstiden, samhällets modernisering och utvecklandet av välfärdsstaten, samt omvärderingar i synen på kvinnors förvärvsarbete och familjelivet är exempel på förändringar som skett under deras livstid. Trots många likheter i den utveckling som skett i Sverige och Finland, finns även skillnader som bör synliggöras i förståelsen av kvinnornas livsberättelser. Det finländska samhället drabbades hårt av krigen under 1930- och 1940-talet. Förutsättningarna för de båda ländernas samhällsuppbyggnad efter kriget var helt olikartade. Finland förblev länge ett agrart land, där moderniseringen och effektiviseringen av jordbruket, välfärdssamhällets utbyggnad samt den fortsatta industrialiseringen fördröjdes. Sverige upplevde däremot en stark ekonomisk utveckling under efterkrigsåren. De olikartade samhällsekonomiska utgångspunkterna har även fått konsekvenser för politiska och ideologiska förhållningssätt och värderingar gällande mäns och kvinnors uppgifter och positioner i samhället. I relation till detta är det intressant att studera hur det obetalda arbetet synliggörs i kvinnornas livsberättelser överlag, men också utifrån deras olikartade civilrättsliga positioner i en viss social(historisk) kontext. 

  • 455.
    Solander, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    "Creating the Senses": Sensation in the work of Shelley Jackson2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This monograph on the œuvre of contemporary American author and multimedia artist Shelley Jackson addresses the question of how literary works employ language to evoke sense impressions. Gilles Deleuze’s notion of aesthetic percepts is drawn on to develop a theory of literary phantom sensations which is then tested on the work of Jackson and related authors.  Although imperceptible as such, it is argued that percepts are made perceptible in art in sense-specific forms as phantom sensations. “Phantom” is not meant to indicate a pale shadow of real sensations but the intensely perceived realness of phantom limb phenomena, in accordance with Deleuze’s understanding of the virtual as real but not actual. For the sake of clarity, literary phantom sensations are divided into phantom smells, tastes, touches, sights and sounds, with a chapter devoted to each in turn. It is found that different phantom sensations serve different functions in Jackson’s work, correlated to the cultural history of the senses as outlined by recent sensory scholarship.  Phantom smells are associated with Deleuze’s concept of becoming due to their liminality. Phantom tastes contribute to an aesthetics of distaste in which shades of disgust are cultivated and drawn upon for literary effect. Phantom touch creates conceptual intimacy and invites the reader to handle words like toys in a game. Phantom sight is turned back upon itself in an anatomy of the eye. Phantom hearing is associated with forms of ventriloquism in which it is unclear who is speaking through whom and in which language itself throws its voice. However, it is also found that all phantom sensations similarly serve to create a material and affective connection between the body of the reader and the body of the text. Throughout the dissertation, Jackson’s work is read against and alongside that of other writers such as Djuna Barnes, Neil Bartlett, Brigid Brophy and Leonora Carrington. Together these form a trajectory termed minor writing for queers to come, which is meant to indicate that aesthetic and sexual-political  radicalism go hand in hand.  Furthermore, Jackson’s work is described as a form of body writing informed by feminist body art and écriture féminine. Specifically, Jackson takes her cue from early modern anatomical blazons and describes living bodies in pieces.  Her work is also described as object writing: a literary equivalent to surrealist object art.  A central method for making words more like things is to arrange her texts spatially rather than temporally, as exemplified by her electronic hypertexts.

  • 456.
    Solander, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Queerblivanden: försök till en queer-Deleuziansk litteraturläsning2012In: Queera Läsningar / [ed] Katri Kivilaakso, Ann-Sofie Lönngren och Rita Paqvalén, Hägersten: Rosenlarv förlag , 2012, p. 42-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 457.
    Solander, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Signature scents: perfume and characterization in the contemporary novel2010In: The Senses & Society, ISSN 1745-8927, E-ISSN 1745-8935, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 301-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfume critique is an underdeveloped academic field and this includes considerations of perfume as a theme within other art forms such as literature. In this article, Angela Carter’s Wise Children and Monika Fagerholm’s Wonderful Women by the Sea are read alongside perfume blogs in order to analyze the significance of perfume references in the novels. It is demonstrated that the authors’ choice of perfumes for their characters plays a crucial part in their characterization, especially in relation to the theme of identity change. Using Alfred Gell’s analysis of perfume use as bound up with “the transcendence of the sweet life,” it is argued that female characters use perfume to become someone else, sometimes a past self. Furthermore, the use of perfume as a literary device in these novels is shown serve as the vehicle for a feminist critique of the division between “masculine” “high” and “feminine” “low” culture.

  • 458.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Genusperspektiv på rehabilitering för patienter med rygg- och nackbesvär i primärvård2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Gender as a social and cultural construction has an impact on physiotherapist and patient beliefs, understanding, and behaviour and could affect physiotherapy encounters. Gender studies in early rehabilitation are scarce. The aim of this thesis was to study gender during different parts of the rehabilitation process for primary health care patients with neck and back pain.

    Method

    The analyses are based on data from three different samples. One sample is composed of physiotherapists and two samples consist of patients consulting primary health care providers because of neck and back pain. All data were gathered from primary health care provided in Västerbotten County.

    Baseline data on 73 physiotherapists and 586 of their patients with neck and back pain were collected by questionnaire during three consecutive days in 2006. Patient data included affected pain site and treatment procedures used by the physiotherapist (Study I). Differences in treatment procedures used by female and male physiotherapists and differences in use for female or male patients were analysed using Chi square-test, Fisher’s exact tests, Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regressions with cluster analysis.

    Thematised interviews with 12 patients were made before the patient’s first appointment with a physiotherapist or doctor and repeated after three months. Data were analysed according to grounded theory (Study II) and qualitative content analysis (Study III).

    A comprehensive questionnaire was answered at the first appointment when patients sought a physiotherapist in primary health care. The questionnaires included questions about pain intensity, self-rated health, function, psychological stress reactions, domestic work, work environment, self-efficacy and kinesiophobia. Response patterns were linked to the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS).

    Result

    Patients were given the same treatment procedures irrespective of gender. The treatment procedures most often used were training of joint motion (48%), training of muscle functions and strength training (31%), massage (31%), physical treatment (28%), information about health/ill health (24%), and acupuncture (18%). Female and male physiotherapists used the same treatment procedures with a few exceptions. Female physiotherapists used treatment for mental functions and acupuncture more often than male physiotherapists. The women gave their patients a unique mixture of treatment procedures more frequently (43%) compared to their male colleagues (25%). Male physiotherapists used more training of joint motion.

    "To be confirmed" emerged as the core category when analysing interviews that considered expectations or experiences. Five categories were extracted: "To be taken seriously", "To get an explanation", "To be individually assessed and treated", "To be invited to participate", and "To be taken care of in a trustworthy environment". These were factors leading to confirmation. Two ideal types were identified: "confident" and "ambiguous". The "confident" did not doubt their right to health care and blamed their work for causing the pain. They related to a positive identity of strong or hard working. The "ambiguous" were afraid of being regarded as old, whining women and not being taken seriously. They were ashamed of having neck or back pain and blamed themselves; they thought they were not fit enough. The ideal types were not completely defined by gender, but more men were among the "confident" ideal type and more women were among the "ambiguous" type. Patients reacted differently to feelings of being confirmed or not, and this depended on whether they were the "confident" or "ambiguous" ideal type.

    The "confident" were satisfied and reacted with reorientation when they felt confirmed, even if they were not totally cured. When not confirmed, the "confident" reacted with anger, frustration, and feelings of shame or remained proud and blamed the health care personnel for being incompetent.

    The "ambiguous" also were satisfied and felt reoriented when they were confirmed. They then moved from being an "ambiguous" type to a more "confident" type. When the "ambiguous" were not confirmed in healthcare, they became dissatisfied and unhappy. They doubted the assessment, felt forlorn, and felt increased shame. Not being confirmed was experienced more negatively by women than by men irrespective of ideal type.

    Interesting information was found about how patients view their body in relation to pain during analysis of expectations and experiences in study II interviews. This led to Study III.

    In study III, "Fear of hurting the fragile body" emerged as an interview theme. Five categories supported or undermined beliefs about pain and physical activity: "The mechanical body", "Messages about activity", "Earlier experiences of pain and activity", "To be a good citizen", and "Support to be active". Patients thought their pain was due to tissue damage and viewed their bodies in a mechanical way. Clear messages from health care personnel about activity led to less fear of physical activity. Vague and contradictory messages led to more fear. Gender-stereotyped messages were given to patients. "The take it carefully" was such a message, and was more often to women when women were thought to be weak and in need of training. Another message was "Pain goes with heavy work". This message was more often given to men when men were thought to be strong and not in need of training. Earlier experiences of pain and activity could have been positive or negative. If positive, the experiences led to less fear of engaging in physical activity. A wish to be a good citizen, such as being a good parent, led to patients being more engaged in child care and playing more than they thought was good for their pain. Women, more than men, expressed avoidance of sick leave because they did not want to be a burden to society or to their work colleagues. Patients were anxious about how to do the "correct" exercises to avoid further injury. Practical support and a follow up to adjust the training program were important to reduce the fear of engaging in physical activity and to maintain motivation.

    One hundred and eighteen patients (84 women and 34 men) completed the questionnaire. PCA of all questions identified five significant components. The model explained 37% of the variance. The predictive power was 17%. PC1 explained 17% of the variance and the predictive power was 0.13%.

    PC1 was mainly explained by questions classified in ICF as Activity and Participation. These included questions about physical function and self-efficacy (classified as Content of Thought). Questions about support (classified as Environmental Factors) and stress reactions (classified as Body Function (Emotional Functions)) mainly explained PC2. PC3 was mainly explained by reported pain and symptoms from muscles (classified as Body Functions) and domestic work and leisure time activities (classified as Activity and Participation).

    There were differences in t-scores between women and men in PC2 (p=0.045) and PC3 (p=0.003). Variables that discriminated between women and men were questions about stress reactions and support at work in PC2, and questions about pain intensity and domestic work in PC3.

    Conclusion

    As a physiotherapist working with neck and back pain rehabilitation patients, it is important to be aware of both one’s own and the patient’s preconceptions about women and men. It is also important to be aware of the impact of gender on the professional role when choosing treatment procedures in order to ensure that choices will be based on evidence of effectiveness and not from stereotypes. Awareness of the patient’s individual needs and subsequent adaptation of treatments is also important.

    Some patients display a negative self-assessment and shame. They need more support to be able to reorient. Unless these patients are confirmed, they are at risk of prolonged disability.

    Gender stereotypes can hinder rehabilitation of neck and back pain if women are seen as weak and in need of protection and men are seen as strong and not in need of preventive muscle training.

    When assessing neck and back pain patients with questionnaires, gender has less significance than when asking questions about physical function and self-efficacy. Questions about emotions of stress reactions, support at work, and pain intensity contribute to gender differences for women. Questions on the level of domestic work contribute to gender differences for men.

  • 459.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    A gender perspective on physiotherapy treatment in patients with neck and back pain2010In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women report more pain from the musculoskeletal system, and more disability, than do men. As a consequence, women more often seek healthcare than men do, and are more often on sick leave. Research shows that female patients and male patients are treated differently by physicians and that the physician's gender also influenced the choice of treatment. The aim was to study whether the patients’ and/or the physiotherapists’ gender influences physiotherapy treatments for patients with neck and/or low back pain. During 3 days in April 2006, 73 physiotherapists in primary care and private practices collected information on 586 patients with neck and/or low back pain. The information included data on the affected pain sites and the treatment procedures used by the physiotherapist. Baseline data on the physiotherapists were collected with a questionnaire. The results showed that female and male physiotherapists mainly used the same treatment procedures, but with some differences. The female physiotherapists used significantly more acupuncture and procedures directed toward treatment of mental function. They also gave their patients a unique combination of treatment procedures to a greater extent than their male colleagues. The malte physiotherapists used significantly more training of joint mobility. Male and female patients were given the same treatment.

  • 460.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    'I am afraid to make the damage worse': fear of engaging in physical activity among patients with neck or back pain : a gender perspective2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: Neck and back pain are major public health problems in Western societies and cause considerable disability and health service use. Swedish women report more severe neck and back pain compared with Swedish men. Most studies on the aetiology of gender differences in pain deal with biological mechanisms, and less with the role of psychological and sociocultural factors. 'Pain beliefsis a sociocultural factor and can be expressed in different ways among women and men. It is important to know what pain beliefs are held by neck and back pain patients, especially when medical guidelines recommend that back pain patients stay physically active.

    Aim: Exploring pain beliefs in relation to physical activity among neck and back pain patients consulting primary health care.

    Method: Twelve patients (seven women, five men) consulting primary health care for an initial episode of neck or back pain were interviewed before their first appointment with a physiotherapist or general practitioner and 3 months later. The interviews covered patient experiences of neck or back pain, consequences, strategies and treatment experiences. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis from a gender perspective.

    Result: One theme 'Fear of hurting the fragile body' was expressed by all neck or back pain patients. Five categories were identified 'The mechanical body', 'Messages about activity', 'Earlier experiences of pain and activity', 'To be a good citizen' and 'Support to be active' supported or undermined beliefs about pain and physical activity. Gender expressions occurred in the categories 'Messages about activity', 'To be a good citizen' and 'Support to be active'.

    Conclusions: Neck or back pain patients in the study saw the body as fragile and were afraid of hurting it. Notions of gender had an impact on the given advice about activity and on how patients perceived the message about staying active.

  • 461.
    Stenius, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Attacking the body in mixed martial arts: perspectives, opinions and perceptions of the full contact combat sport of ultimate fighting2015In: Journal of Arts and Humanities, E-ISSN 2167-9045, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the sensuous experience of full contact fighting through ethnographic research in mixed martial arts clubs. Presenting its first card in 1993 in Denver, Colorado, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) stunned martial artists while thrilling and frightening spectators. Mixed martial arts (MMA) is an evolving combat sport pitting elite athletes trained in a variety of combat arts against each other in the “Octagon”. Contestants are permitted to kick, punch, elbow and knee as well as use grappling submission techniques to defeat opponents. Despite criticism, supporters claim that the efficiency of non-violent grappling techniques has made MMA much safer than boxing, where fighters absorb repeated blows to the head. As the sport developed, fighters adjusted their bodies in order to better utilize the positional, tactical techniques that proved more successful than brute force. The mediated representation of fighting revealed that despite of being in a state of rage, MMA was a technically challenging sport based on the sublime performance of participant’s bodies. However, MMA remains the subject of debate in popular culture and the media, and medical expertise argues that the sport is dangerous and puts participants in harm´s way. On the other hand, proponents of the sport argue that health risks are overstated and that other, far less safe sports exist. The aim of this article is to scrutinize fighters as well as the opinions of media and the medical humanities in order to achieve an overview of the image of this combat sport. Convinced that the debate needs to be more nuanced, this paper examines how MMA encounters and mitigates scientific discourse and attitudes. The results also show that MMA is an ambiguous sport, taking responsibility for the well being of its fighters while encouraging spectacle in the arena.

  • 462.
    Stenmark, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Bergström, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Mental problems and their socio-demographic determinants in young schoolchildren in Sweden, a country with high gender and income equality2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Mental problems and their potential socio-demographic determinants were investigated in young schoolchildren in Sweden, a high-income country in the top of income- and gender-equality rankings.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1465 schoolchildren in grades 3 and 6. Mental health was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self Report (Total problems and 14 specific problem areas). Potential socio-demographic determinants were sex, parental education and occupation, family structure, and immigrant status.

    RESULTS: Mental problems were present in 14% of the sixth graders and in 7% of the third graders. In grade 3, the mean total problem score was lower in girls than in boys, but the prevalence of problems at a subclinical/clinical level did not differ by sex. Furthermore, in nine to 13 of the 14 specific problem areas, problems were equally distributed by sex, parental education, parental occupation, immigrant status, and family structure. In grade 6, both the total mean score and the overall odds of subclinical/clinical problems were similar in girls and boys. Likewise, in all the specific problem areas, problems were evenly distributed by parental education and occupation, and only independently associated with immigrant status and family structure in one problem area. In five specific problem areas, boys had higher odds of problems than girls.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that also in a relatively wealthy and equal country such as Sweden, mental problems are a significant child public health issue. The association between socio-demographic background and mental problems seems to be rather weak, but differ dependent on the type of mental problem in focus.

  • 463.
    Strandgren, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    FATTA VADÅ?: En studie av problemlösningar, underliggande antaganden och möjliga konsekvenser inom Fattas tal om det sexuella våldet.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: UNDERSTAND WHAT? – A study of problem solutions, underlying assumptions andpossible consequences within Fattas speech of sexual violence.

    One organization within Sweden´s feminist movement that works against sexual violence is FATTA!1. Fattas prime suggestions to combat the problem are changing law and the social norms that leads to sexual violence. The aim of this study is to examine the underlying assumptions located in Fattas speech about the sexual violence, and furthermore to problematize the possible consequences these assumptions could lead to. The used method and theory are discourse theory inspired by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe as well as Carol Bacchis “Whats the problem-approach”. The analysis shows that Fattas solutionsconsist of several inconsistencies. Particularly prominent is that they talk about sexual violence as a structural problem, with a repressive approach to power, while they run their project primarily from an individual perspective and presents solutions that also are made understandable in a liberal discourse, where all power influence are ignored. The discourse that reaches the hegemonic status, is however the liberal. Consequences that these assumptions include are for example stabilizing and essentializing identity. An important final conclusion is that Fattas problem solutions contribute to the problem more than they are a partof the solution as well as they produce other issues. These identity politic strategies are connected to our contemporary neoliberal time that explains Fattas problem formulations at a higher level.

  • 464.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kroppen som helande process2008In: Psykisk Hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 465.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Skapa rum. Ung femininitet, kroppslighet och psykisk ohälsa: genusmedveten hälsofrämjande intervention.2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health problems among young people, girls and young women in particular, are a serious public health problem. Gendered patterns of mental illness are seen in conjunction with stress-related problems such as anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic complaints. Intervention models tailored to the health care situation are therefore in need of development and evaluation. The overall aim of this thesis is to develop knowledge and understanding for young women’s mental health, stress-related, and bodily problems from a psychosomatic and gender theory perspective, and to evaluate a gender sensitive physiotherapeutic intervention model consisting of a stress management course for young women with stress-related problems.

    The thesis consists of four studies. The overall research design combines qualitative and quantitative methods in which questionnaires and interviews were used to explore participant experiences and symptoms linked to perceived stress before and after the intervention. Data consisted of a cumulative sample of 65 young women, 16 to 25 years of age, who attended the youth-friendly health center because of stress-related problems. In paper I, multiple symptom areas of mental health and somatic problems, self-image and aspects of body perception were measured before the course. Participants were 47 of the young women. The results were compared with published normative and clinical reference groups. In paper II, the young women’s experiences of living stressful femininity were analysed with a qualitative content analysis using gender theoretical and phenomenological perspectives as an interpretative frame. The study was based on interviews with 25 of the women. In paper III, follow-up interviews were done with 32 of the women after completion of the course. Data was using qualitative content analysis to illuminate experiences of participating in the course. In paper IV, the course was evaluated by measuring changes in multiple symptom areas using the Adult Self Report (ASR), Social Analysis of Social Behaviour (SASB), and Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ). Participants were 54 of the women who completed measurements finishing the course.

    Young women present complex symptomatology of stress-related problems. The total burden of symptoms plus the narrated experiences highlight how renegotiations of gender constructions and handling of normative and stressful femininity constrain access to bodily resources. After the stress management course, their measured and narrated experiences show positive changes and release of mental health and stress problems, including a more positive self-image and sense of enhanced confidence in their bodies. Experiences of the course as a safe and explorative space for gendered collective understanding and embodied empowerment indicate the need to develop gender-sensitive interventions. The thesis contributes to youth and gender theoretical perspectives with integration of psychosomatic and psychiatric physiotherapy. A broader awareness of how gender constructions and sociocultural aspects are significant in the understanding of psychosomatic expressions of mental ill health and young femininity is valuable in development of theory and interventions in physiotherapy, as well as into other fields. 

  • 466.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Formark, Bodil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    The corporeality of living stressful femininity: a gender–theoretical analysis of young Swedish women’s stress experiences2014In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 271-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes young Swedish women’s experiences of living stressful femininity from an existentialist gender theoretical perspective. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 25 women, aged 17–25, who had registered for a stress management course at a youth health centre. Our analysis suggests that their experiences of stress can be related to the renegotiation of gender constructions that have occurred within the Swedish society. The young female subject can be viewed as living through a historic break between a historical position as a subordinated ‘Other’ while simultaneously having to navigate within contemporary discourses of successful femininity. The doing of normative femininity resulted in an exhausting and draining self-evaluating circle. The experiences of having a painful and collapsing body led to a sense of loss of access to and confidence in their bodies. This should be understood as a loss both of subjectivity and connectedness with the corporeality of existence.

  • 467.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    'Girls need to strengthen each other as a group': experiences from a gender-sensitive stress management intervention by youth-friendly Swedish health services: a qualitative study2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, no 907, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health problems among young people, and girls and young women in particular, are a well-known health problem. Such gendered mental health patterns are also seen in conjunction with stress-related problems, such as anxiety and depression and psychosomatic complaints. Thus, intervention models tailored to the health care situation experienced by young women within a gendered and sociocultural context are needed. This qualitative study aims to illuminate young women's experiences of participating in a body-based, gender-sensitive stress management group intervention by youth-friendly health services in northern Sweden.

    A physiotherapeutic body-based, health-promoting, gender-sensitive stress management intervention was created by youth-friendly Swedish health services. The stress management courses (n = 7) consisted of eight sessions, each lasting about two hours, and were led by the physiotherapist at the youth centre. The content in the intervention had a gender-sensitive approach, combining reflective discussions; short general lectures on, for example, stress and pressures related to body ideals; and physiotherapeutic methods, including body awareness and relaxation. Follow-up interviews were carried out with 32 young women (17--25 years of age) after they had completed the intervention. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    The overall results of our interview analysis suggest that the stress management course we evaluated facilitated 'a space for gendered and embodied empowerment in a hectic life', implying that it both contributed to a sense of individual growth and allowed participants to unburden themselves of stress problems within a trustful and supportive context. Participants' narrated experiences of 'finding a social oasis to challenge gendered expectations', 'being bodily empowered', and 'altering gendered positions and stance to life' point to empowering processes of change that allowed them to cope with distress, despite sometimes continuously stressful life situations. This intervention also decreased stress-related symptoms such as anxiousness, restlessness, muscle tension, aches and pains, fatigue, and impaired sleep.

    The participants' experiences of the intervention as a safe and exploratory space for gendered collective understanding and embodied empowerment further indicates the need to develop gender-sensitive interventions to reduce individualisation of health problems and instead encourage spaces for collective support, action, and change.

  • 468.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Complex symptomatology among young women who present with stress-related problems2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 234-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Scandinavia and globally, mental health and stress-related problems among adolescent girls and young women are public health concerns that need attention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health and somatic symptoms with a special focus on internalized problems, self-image, and body-mind aspects of body perception in a group of adolescent girls and young women presenting with stress-related problems at a youth-friendly Swedish health center, and to compare them with normative and clinical reference groups.

    Methods: The participants were 47 adolescent girls and young women, aged 17 to 25 years. The Adult Self Report (ASR), Social Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) and Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ) were used to measure multiple symptom areas.

    Results: Compared to reference groups, adolescent girls and young women report complex symptomatology with high levels of internalized problems such as anxiousness, depression, and somatic complaints. This manifested in attention problems, negative self-image, and perceived bodily discomfort and distrust.

    Conclusion

    Adolescent girls and young women emerging into adulthood present complex symptomatology of stress-related problems. This study gathered valuable information about their symptoms when they were seeking help. These young women showed higher symptom frequency than normative groups, and similar or higher symptom frequency than other clinical groups. Our findings of internalised and cognitive problems, including impaired self-image and body perceptions, point to the need for preventive strategies and tailored multidisciplinary interventions involving body-based methods to meet this complexity. Using tenets of stress theory, the complex symptomatology may be understood as logical responses to overwhelming stimuli and demands that exceed their ability to cope and disturb their ‘equilibrium’. However, the complex gendered interplays between various external/internal stressors and a broad range of stress responses and health outcomes need further study in a long-term perspective.

  • 469.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gender-sensitive and youth-friendly physiotherapy: Steps toward a stress management intervention for girls and young women2016In: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes and evaluates initial steps of a gender-sensitive, youth-friendly group intervention model designed for teenage girls and young women who experience stress-related or psychosomatic problems. Fifty-four young women (16–25 years of age) participated in a gendersensitive physiotherapy stress management course at a youth health center. Inclusion criteria were self-defined stress-related problems and a wish to participate in the group intervention. Measurements of aspects of body perception, self-image, multiple somatic problems, and mental health symptom areas were assessed both before and after intervention with the Body Perception Questionnaire ad modum Schiöler, social analysis of social behavior, and Adult Self-Report scale. Significant positive changes were found in aspects of body perception, self-image, and mental health and somatic symptoms. The changes were most significant in lower internalization of anxiety and depression symptoms. Symptoms such as headaches and sleeping problems decreased. Participants were more satisfied with their bodies and more able to listen to body signals. Among cognitive issues, significant change occurred in thought problems, but not in attention problems. The intervention model needs further evaluation in controlled trials, but is promising and should be developed further in other physiotherapy settings and subgroups of young people.

  • 470.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Haukenes, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Bergen, Norway.
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.
    Wiklund, Anncristine Fjellman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Is there a gender bias in recommendations for further rehabilitation in primary care of patients with chronic pain after an interdisciplinary team assessment?2015In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 365-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine potential gender bias in recommendations of further examination and rehabilitation in primary care for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain after an interdisciplinary team assessment. Methods: The population consisted of consecutive patients (n=589 women, 262 men) referred during a 3-year period from primary healthcare for assessment by interdisciplinary teams at a pain specialist rehabilitation clinic. Patient data were collected from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation. The outcome was defined as the examination or rehabilitation that was specified in the patient's record. Results: Men had a significantly higher likelihood than women of being recommended physiotherapy and radiological examination, and the gender difference was not explained by confounding variables and covariates (age, marital status, ethnicity, education, working status, pain severity, pain interference, pain sites, anxiety and depression). There was no significant gender difference in recommendations to treatment by specialist physician, occupational therapist, psychologist or social worker. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the interdisciplinary teams in specialist healthcare may discriminate against women with chronic pain when physiotherapy and radiological investigation are recommended. The team's choice of recommendations might be influenced by gendered attitudes, but this field of research needs to be studied further.

  • 471.
    Svanberg, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Standing By Our Own Feet: An Interview Study On Women’s Local Organization Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The emancipation of women has historically always been preceded by women’s organization.The character of women’s organization changes with time and space (Rönnblom 2002). This thesis attempts to explore women’s organization on a locale scale based on a field study performed in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. This paper provides a unique insight into a local, independent women’s organization, further referred to in this paper as The Women’s Group.The field study was conducted by qualitative interviews as an attempt to study women’s organization on a local level. Most studies performed on this topic in the Minor Fields Program have studied SIDA and UN supported women’s organizations. Whilst there has been less focuson small, local, aid-independent women’s organizations where women by organizing themselves are aspiring to improve their position in their community. The women of this autonomous group, subject to the field study, aims to standardize the lives of the women in the group by social and financial support. The group stands, as an example on women’s local commitment and this thesis study’s the importance of local women’s organization and women empowerment.

  • 472.
    Svedmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Att skydda individen från skada: en forskningsetisk balansakt2012In: Etiska dilemman: forskningsdeltagande, samtycke och utsatthet / [ed] Hildur Kalman & Veronica Lövgren, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 473.
    Svedmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Becoming Together and Apart: technoemotions and other posthuman entanglements2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using social media and norm-breaking material as an empirical touchstone this thesis elaborates, investigates and explores the entangled relationships between humans and technology in social media settings. Guided by uncomfortable, emotional and bodily online sharing the thesis gives voice to stories that are seldom heard, by people whose lives are rarely spoken of. By exploring the performative entanglements of/with/through technology, design and human intent the overall aim is to offer a critical and new understanding of our online togetherness and posthuman becoming.

    The conceptual framework throughout the thesis is based on posthuman theory and feminist technoscience, two closely connected theories providing a new onto-epistemological way of understanding the world’s becoming. The thesis should be seen as the product of an empirical practice of making theory about digital things, culture, humans and non-humans. By exploring diffraction and touch as not only theoretical standpoints but also hands-on methodology the thesis contributes to the development of new ways of doing research.

    Important findings arising from the practice of diffraction and touch are Technoemotions – conceptually agents built on a posthuman understanding of how emotions are entangled between and within the phenomenon, becoming important agents in the apparatus creating the phenomenon. Four Technoemotions seem particularly prominent in the material: Trust, Truth, Time and Embodiment.

    The thesis concludes by providing a discussion on critical alternatives for ethics, politics and power in relation to social media and the norms and norm-breaking practices most of us participate in. The responsibility and ability to respond are addressed, as well as social justice and hope for the future to come. 

  • 474.
    Söderholm, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Experience of living with nonspecific building-related symptoms2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 406-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms (NBRS) is a combination of general, skin and mucosal symptoms related to certain buildings. Despite high prevalence in the general population and severe symptomatology in certain cases there is no scientific documentation of quality of life in NBRS. The purpose of this study was to illuminate how individuals with NBRS experience daily life. Data were collected through descriptive, written texts and through telephone interviews with 11 individuals diagnosed with NBRS, and qualitative content analysis was conducted. Three main content areas were identified: (1) attitudes from the surrounding (categories: being questioned and lack of understanding from others; from zero to full support); (2) consequences (difficulties with daily activities; financial difficulties; affecting family and friends; emotional consequences); and (3) coping (learning to accept and finding solutions; avoiding; struggling; finding the positive; making one's home a sanctuary). As a conclusion, NBRS may affect several aspects of daily life, resulting in considerable alterations, limitations and emotional impact for the afflicted person and his/her family. Both environmental factors and attitudes from the surrounding can contribute to this impact on daily life. Strategies needed to cope with this impact may include both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies, such as struggling, avoiding trigger factors and finding positive aspects.

  • 475.
    Sörensson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Biljett till ett bättre liv? (Kärleks)migration mellan Sydostasien och Europa.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 476.
    Sörensson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Future prospects in times of crises: Livelihoods in an Indonesian backpacker enclave.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 477.
    Sörensson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Insiders and outsiders sustaining livelihoods in a tourism neighbourhood: the case of kampung Sosrowijayan in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 478.
    Sörensson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Providing fun in the 'world of tourism': servicing backpackers in Indonesia2012In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 670-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service sector work is a special arena for the formation of gendered subjects because its workers are both service providers and part of the consumed product in the sense that they have to deliver a 'quality' product and have the 'right attitude' toward customers. Based on repeated qualitative fieldwork, including in-depth interviews with tourism workers in a backpacker tourism enclave in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, this article explores the ways in which tourism work and tourism workers are constructed as gendered subjects. Although women and men might have the same work tasks within tourism, they are positioned differently, and it is not unusual for women to be seen as having a hidden agenda that is assumed to involve sex work. Men are constructed as the norm to which women are compared and consequently perceived as deviating from. Between men and women working in tourism and the western backpackers on which tourism workers depend in order to sustain their livelihoods, relations of class, gender and colonial stereotypes come into play. Tourism workers consider themselves to be seen as providers of fun, which means that they are able to meet the needs of the tourists, whatever those needs might be.

  • 479.
    Sörlin, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Gender equality in couples and self-rated health: a survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health2011In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 10, no Art.nr. 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health.

    Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1) a self-reported gender equality index, and 2) a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH). With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used.

    Results: Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used.

    Conclusions: Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is necessary not only to be conscious of the methods and measurements used to quantify men's and women's opinions of gender equality, but also to be aware of the implications for health outcomes.

  • 480.
    Sörlin, Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sickness absence in gender-equal companies: a register study at organizational level2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 548-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gender equality is measured by an index ranking companies at organizational level; health is measured as days on sickness benefit.

    Methods: Gender equality was measured using the Organizational Gender Gap Index or OGGI, which is constructed on the basis of six variables accessible in Swedish official registers. Each variable corresponds to a key word illustrating the interim objectives of the "National Plan for Gender Equality", implemented by the Swedish Parliament in 2006. Health is measured by a variable, days on sickness benefit, also accessible in the same registers.

    Result: We found significant associations between company gender equality and days on sickness benefit. In gender-equal companies, the risk for days on sickness benefit was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8) higher than in gender-unequal companies. The differences were greater for men than for women: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.7-2.0) compared to OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.5).

    Conclusions: Even though employees at gender-equal companies had more days on sickness benefit, the differences between men and women in this measure were smaller in gender-equal companies. Gender equality appears to alter health patterns, converging the differences between men and women.

  • 481.
    Tetra Dewi, Fatwa Sari
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Public Health Division, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå Center for Global Health Research, Umeå University.
    Marlinawati, V Utari
    Center for Health and Nutrition Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå Center for Global Health Research, Umeå University.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå Center for Global Health Research and Ageing and Living Conditions, CPS, Umeå University.
    A community intervention for behaviour modification: an experience to control cardiovascular diseases in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, article id 1043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Non-communicable Disease (NCD) is increasingly burdening developing countries including Indonesia. However only a few intervention studies on NCD control in developing countries are reported. This study aims to report experiences from the development of a community-based pilot intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as initial part of a future extended PRORIVA program (Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Yogyakarta, Indonesia) in an urban area within Jogjakarta, Indonesia.

    METHODS: The study is quasi-experimental and based on a mixed design involving both quantitative and qualitative methods. Four communities were selected as intervention areas and one community was selected as a referent area. A community-empowerment approach was utilized to motivate community to develop health promotion activities. Data on knowledge and attitudes with regard to CVD risk factors, smoking, physical inactivity, and fruit and vegetable were collected using the WHO STEPwise questionnaire. 980 people in the intervention areas and 151 people in the referent area participated in the pre-test. In the post-test 883 respondents were re-measured from the intervention areas and 144 respondents from the referent area. The qualitative data were collected using written meeting records (80), facilitator reports (5), free-listing (112) and in-depth interviews (4). Those data were analysed to contribute a deeper understanding of how the population perceived the intervention.

    RESULTS: Frequency and participation rates of activities were higher in the low socioeconomic status (SES) communities than in the high SES communities (40 and 13 activities respectively). The proportion of having high knowledge increased significantly from 56% to 70% among men in the intervention communities. The qualitative study shows that respondents thought PRORIVA improved their awareness of CVD and encouraged them to experiment healthier behaviours. PRORIVA was perceived as a useful program and was expected for the continuation. Citizens of low SES communities thought PRORIVA was a "cheerful" program.

    CONCLUSION: A community-empowerment approach can encourage community participation which in turn may improve the citizen's knowledge of the danger impact of CVD. Thus, a bottom-up approach may improve citizens' acceptance of a program, and be a feasible way to prevent and control CVD in urban communities within a low income country.

  • 482.
    Torres, Virgilio Mariano Salazar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Center for Demography and Health Research, Nicaraguan National Autonomous University, León, Nicaragua.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    'Expanding your mind': the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs2012In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing.

    OBJECTIVE: This study has two aims: (i) to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii) to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW).

    DESIGN: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men.

    RESULTS: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled 'Expanding your mind', in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and 'The feminist man'. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility) and behavior (thoughtful action) that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

  • 483.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Subramanian, S. V.
    Households, the omitted level in contextual analysis: disentangling the relative influence of households and districts on the variation of BMI about two decades in Indonesia2016In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, article id 102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most of the research investigating the effect of social context on individual health outcomes has interpreted context in terms of the residential environment. In these studies, individuals are nested within their neighbourhoods or communities, disregarding the intermediate household level that lies between individuals and their residential environment. Households are an important determinant of health yet they are rarely included at the contextual level in research examining association between body mass index (BMI) and the social determinants of health. In this study, our main aim was to provide a methodological demonstration of multilevel analysis, which disentangles the simultaneous effects of households and districts as well as their associated predictors on BMI over time.

    Methods: Using both two- and three-level multilevel analysis, we utilized data from all four cross-sections of the Indonesian Family life Survey (IFLS) 1993 to 2007-8.

    Results: We found that: (i) the variation in BMI attributable to districts decreased from 4.3 % in 1993 to 1.5 % in 1997-98, and remained constant until 2007-08, while there was an alarming increase in the variation of BMI attributable to households, from 10 % in 2000 to 15 % in 2007-08; (ii) ignoring the household level did not change the relative variance contribution of districts on BMI, but ignoring the district level resulted in overestimation of household effects, and (iii) households' characteristics (socioeconomic status, size, and place of residence) did not attenuate the variation of BMI at the household-level.

    Conclusions: Estimating the relative importance of multiple social settings allows us to better understand and unpack the variation in clustered or hieratical data in order to make valid and robust inferences. Our findings will help direct investment of limited public health resources to the appropriate context in order to reduce health risk (variation in BMI) and promote population health.

  • 484.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Razak, Fahad
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Subramanian, S.V.
    Inter-individual inequality in BMI: an analysis of Indonesian Family LifeSurveys (1993–2007)2016In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 2, p. 876-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widening inequalities in mean Body Mass Index (BMI) between social and economic groups are well documented. However, whether changes in mean BMI are followed by changes in dispersion (or variance) and whether these inequalities are also occurring within social groups or across individuals remain understudied. In addition, a substantial body of literature exists on the global increase in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, whether this weight gain is shared proportionately across the whole spectrum of BMI distribution, also remains understudied. We examined changes in the distribution of BMI at the population level over time to understand how changes in the dispersion reflect between-group compared to within-group inequalities in weight gain. Moreover, we investigated the entire distribution of BMI to determine in which percentiles the most weight gain is occurring over time. Utilizing four waves (from 1993 to 2007) of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS), we estimated changes in the mean and the variance of BMI over time and across various socioeconomic groups based on education and households’ expenditure per capita in 53,648 men and women aged 20–50 years. An increase in mean and standard deviation was observed among men (by 4.3% and 25%, respectively) and women (by 7.3% and 20%, respectively) over time. Quantile-Quantile plots showed that higher percentiles had greater increases in BMI compared to the segment of the population at lower percentiles. While between socioeconomic group differences decreased over time, within-group differences increased and were more prominent among individuals with poor education and lower per capita expenditures. Population changes in BMI cannot be fully described by average trends or single parameters such as the mean BMI. Moreover, greater increases in within-group dispersion compared with between-group differences imply that growing inequalities are not merely driven by these socioeconomic factors at the population level.

  • 485.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kusnanto, Hari
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The effect of gender and social capital on the dual burden of malnutrition: a multilevel study in indonesia2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 8, p. e103849-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The paradoxical phenomenon of the coexistence of overweight and underweight individuals in the same household, referred to as the "dual burden of malnutrition", is a growing nutrition dilemma in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

    AIMS: The objectives of this study were (i) to examine the extent of the dual burden of malnutrition across different provinces in Indonesia and (ii) to determine how gender, community social capital, place of residency and other socio-economic factors affect the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition.

    METHODS: The current study utilized data from the fourth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) conducted between November 2007 and April 2008. The dataset contains information from 12,048 households and 45,306 individuals of all ages. This study focused on households with individuals over two years old. To account for the multilevel nature of the data, a multilevel multiple logistic regression was conducted.

    RESULTS: Approximately one-fifth of all households in Indonesia exhibited the dual burden of malnutrition, which was more prevalent among male-headed households, households with a high Socio-economic status (SES), and households in urban areas. Minimal variation in the dual burden of malnutrition was explained by the community level differences (<4%). Living in households with a higher SES resulted in higher odds of the dual burden of malnutrition but not among female-headed households and communities with the highest social capital.

    CONCLUSION: To improve household health and reduce the inequality across different SES groups, this study emphasizes the inclusion of women's empowerment and community social capital into intervention programs addressing the dual burden of malnutrition.

  • 486.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Concerned and conscious, but defenceless: the intersection of gender and generation in child malnutrition in Indonesia: A qualitative grounded theory studyArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 487.
    Valverius, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    VEM ÄR ANSVARIG FÖR KATASTROFEN VID RANA PLAZA?: Svenska och brittiska dagstidningars rapportering om katastrofen vid Rana Plaza, Bangladesh 20132015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats analyserar jag representationerna av Rana Plaza det rapporterades om i svenska och brittiska dagstidningar 2013. Jag fokuserar på representationerna som hanterar händelsen, händelsens konsekvenser och de iblandade aktörerna i rapporteringen om katastrofen Rana Plaza i Bangladesh. Detta genomförs genom en kartläggning av dagstidningarnas rapporteringar genom en kvantifierad tematisk analys. Resultatet tolkas sedan genom att analysera hur representationernas betydelser antingen stabiliseras eller ifrågasätts inom materialet. Detta görs genom en diskursteoretisk analys med utgångspunkt i frågorna: ”Hur representeras de inblandade inom områden som kön, klass, ras och specifika egenskaper genom rapportering?”, ”Vilken bild av platsen konstrueras genom särskiljandet av ”tredje världen”/”öst” och ”västvärlden”/”väst”?”, ”Hur rapporterar dagstidningarna om eventuella avtal och förändringar i förhållande till katastrofen Rana Plaza?” samt ”Hur synliggörs och fördelas ansvar mellan de inblandade? Hur tar ansvar sig uttryck i dagstidningarnas rapportering?” Resultatet visar att en kolonial diskurs samarbetar med rasistiska förbestämda regler för att bibehålla de inblandades positioner i förhållande till varandra. Detta gynnar en globaliserande ordning där västvärlden kan exploatera och utnyttja individer i Bangladeshs textilindustri genom att stabilisera koloniala identiteter (t.ex. arbetaren, leverantör, Bangladesh stat och företagen i västvärlden).

  • 488.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Demographic outcomes during colonisation: Migration and mortality among indigenous and non-indigenous populations in nineteenth-century Sweden2016In: Journal of Migration History, ISSN 2351-9916, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 148-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to insufficient historical population data, there is limited knowledge about the demographic outcomes of colonisation. This study provides demographic evidence of the difficulties faced by the Sami – an indigenous population in Sweden – during nineteenth-century colonisation, as indicated by (1) high risks of migration and (2) low survival rates compared to non-Sami. The digitised parish registers of the Demographic Data Base (Umeå University) provide longitudinal, individual-level data on migration, mortality, and ethnic origin. Event history analysis reveals that the Sami were vulnerable, with a higher mortality rate than non-Sami, and that they were more prone to migrate from areas overcrowded due to an increased competition for land. However, regardless of ethnic origin, it was primarily the settlers who migrated, and who ran the lowest mortality risks. This result suggests a ‘healthy settler effect’, and diverse consequences of colonisation that did not always follow ethnic lines.

  • 489. Vives-Cases, Carmen
    et al.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Gender and health inequalities: intersections with other relevant axes of oppression2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, article id 30292Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 490.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Stenmark, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Bergström, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    School experiences may be important determinants of mental health problems in middle childhood: a Swedish longitudinal population-based study2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 407-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimLittle is known about the association between school experiences and mental health in young schoolchildren. This study explored the cross-sectional and prospective associations between children's school experiences and mental health in middle childhood. MethodsWe gathered comprehensive population-based data on the school experiences and mental health of 592 schoolchildren attending grades three and six in Sweden (ages approximately nine and 12 years). The KIDSCREEN questionnaire was used to measure school experiences in both age groups while the Child Behavior Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire measured mental health in grades three and six, respectively. ResultsChildren with problematic school experiences in grade three had an approximately two times higher odds for concurrent total, internalised, externalised, attention-hyperactivity and social problems. They also had a 1.5-2.5 higher odds for these mental health problems three years later. Likewise, there was an association between problematic school experiences in grade three and lower levels of prosocial behaviour three years later. These associations were shown in both boys and girls, but were particularly pronounced in girls. ConclusionThis study indicated that school experiences in young schoolchildren may be important determinants of concurrent and later mental health problems.

  • 491.
    Wahlström Edling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Strandberg, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Supporting personal growth with music: music teachers' experiences of health and gender among young music studentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 492.
    Wallgren, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Jämställdhet – vad är det?: En genusanalys av beviljade ansökningar i Länsstyrelsen Västerbottens integrationsprojekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens teman är integration och jämställdhet där materialet består av ansökningar till integrationsprojekt § 37 a med särskilt jämställdhetsfokus, utlysta och beviljade av Länsstyrelsen Västerbotten under 2015. Syftet är att genom What´s the problem approach (WPR) analysera projektens ansökningar (Bacchi 2009). Teoretiska verktyg som använts är poststrukturalism, diskursanalys, etnicitet, kön och makt. Uppsatsens syfte är att att analysera hur jämställdhet och (icke)svenskhet formuleras samt vilka tänkbara effekter formuleringarna kan ge.De tre teman som var mest återkommande (som även är uppsatsens kapitel) är: 1) Den svenska jämställdheten 2) Den kvantitativa jämställdheten och 3) Jämställdhet – bara för kvinnor?Resultatet visar att de kvinnor och män som förväntas delta i projekten skapas i motsats till varandra och förstås som motpoler med olika behov som projekten ämnar att tillgodose. Det förutsätts även kulturella skillnader där kvinnorna förstås som offer för patriarkal kultur, medan männen i sin tur förstås som de som upprätthåller den. Deltagarna sätts i relation till det ”svenska” – det de förväntas integrereras in i. Deltagarna homogeniseras och förstås som ojämställda, något som den svenska jämställdhetsdiskursen ses som motpol till. Den svenska jämställdheten kan även förstås som kvantitativ, då jämställt deltagande förstås som centralt i ansökningarna.

  • 493.
    Wegener, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Grow up!: Kollektive boformer:familie, hjem, og det at gøremellemalder ordentligt2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based  on  nine  qualitative  interviews  with  individuals  living  communally  in  three  Swedish  and  Danish cities, this study investigates how age and corresponding heteronormative ideas about home and family influence communal living. Utilizing queer and feminist theory in addition to studies on aging, I find that the participants reproduce age standards in order to legitimize their way of living whilst trying to distance themselves from the common notion that communal living is a lifestyle for young  people.  However  at  the  same  time  they  resist  age  norms,  for  example,  by  using  language  creatively,   hereby   blurring   the   boundaries   of   the   conventional   heteronormative   concept   of   adulthood. Furthermore  I  explore  how a  heteronormative  design  of housing, a  lack  of  communes that can serve as models for future living and the fact that communes often has connotations to the  hippie era in the 1970s, makes it   difficult for participants to see themselves live collectively in the future. Ultimately,  I  argue  that  the  commune  can  be  seen  as  a  nowtopia,  a  utopia  practised  in  the  present,   which   queers   time   and   age   concepts,   thus   holding   the   potential   of   changing heteronormative ideas about home, family and age.

  • 494.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    At the Interstices of Disciplines: Early Career Researchers and Research Collaborations Across Boundaries2013In: The Social Politics of Research Collaboration / [ed] Gabriele Griffin, Katarina Hamberg, Britta Lundgren, New York: Routledge, 2013, 1, p. 1-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 495.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    ”He wrecked me”: Young men’s violence as a severe form of doing gendered ill-health in Swedish teenage girls2008In: 10th International Interdisciplinary Congress of women, Mundos De Mujeres/ Women’s Worlds. Madrid, Spanien, July, 2008. / [ed] Bárbara de Braganza, 12 - 3º D - 28004 Madrid, SpainPh.: + 34 91 310 43 76 - Fax: + 34 91 319 57 46e-mail: mmww08@unicongress.com, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 496.
    Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Working Hard to Create a Visible Self: Social Constructions of (In)Visibility in Relation to Girls' Stress2012In: Invisible Girl: "Ceci n'est pas une fille" / [ed] Gun-Marie Frånberg, Camilla Hällgren & Elza Dunkels, Umeå: Umeå University , 2012, p. 21-31Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we problematise the stress girls experience in the light of invisibility and visibility, including the gendered tensions around the social constructions of girls as (in)visible. Our analysis is based on a rereading of narrative interviews with Swedish girls experiencing stress-related problems. Issues of girl's health and illness are found to be undeveloped in the wider sociocultural context of both health research and cultural youth studies. Our analysis suggests that stress as an illness among girls seems invisible and diminished, and also that girls themselves feel invisible and not good enough. We emphasise that girls' efforts and the external demands on them need to be acknowledged and addressed instead of individualised. Furthermore, we relate the tension between visibility and invisibility, which seems central to the girl's distress, to limiting norms of femininity and gender orders. According to our analysis the girls' efforts to create a visible self seem to come at a price.

  • 497.
    Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Young women facing multiple and intersecting stressors of modernity, gender orders and youth2010In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 71, no 9, p. 1567-1575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to explore stressors experienced by Swedish adolescent girls and young women, specifically understood in relation to social context and gender theory. Interviews were conducted with 40 young Swedish women, aged 16–25 years, who had sought help at a youth health centre for stress problems. Using qualitative content analysis we identified three clusters of stressors: “the stressors of modernity”, “the stressors of gendered orders”, and “the stressors of youth”. The results revealed that multiple and intersecting discourse-shaped stressors and demands connected to essential life spheres contribute not only to experiences of distress but also to feelings of constraint. Gendered individualism and healthism proved to be essential in understanding the young women’s experienced stress. Failing social support from adults, gendered demands and responsibility taking were also illuminated. This calls for a broad contextualized and gender-sensitive approach to young women’s stress and health problems.

  • 498.
    Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Stress hos unga - samband med ångest, hälsobesvär och genus2013In: BestPractice - Psykiatri/Neurologi. Yrkesdialog mellan specialister, Vol. 4, no 14, p. 7-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 499.
    Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Access to rehabilitation: patient perceptions of inequalities in access to specialty pain rehabilitation from a gender and intersectional perspective2016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, article id 31542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long-term musculoskeletal pain is common, particularly among women. Pain conditions are a concern in primary health care, and people with severe and complex pain are referred to specialty health care. There is gender bias in access, counselling, assessment, and treatment of long-term pain.

    Objective: This study explores patient accounts and perceptions about important (social) factors for accessing specialised pain rehabilitation from gender and intersectional equality perspectives. We aimed to identify potential biases and inequalities in accessing rehabilitation resources at a specialised rehabilitation clinic.

    Design: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults after an assessment or completion of a specialised rehabilitation programme in northern Sweden. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore patients’ perceptions of important factors for accessing rehabilitation.

    Results: One main theme was formulated as Access to rehab – not a given. Three categories of perceived inequality were demonstrated: power of gender, power of social status, and power of diagnosis. Participants perceived rehabilitation as a resource that is not equally available, but dependent on factors such as gender, socio-economic status, ability to work, ethnicity, or age, and more subtle aspects of social status and habitus (e.g. appearance, fitness, and weight). The character of diagnosis received (medical versus psychiatric or social) was also noted.

    Conclusions: It is crucial that professionals are aware of how potential inequalities related to gender, social status, and diagnosis, and their intersections, can be created, perceived, and have influence on the processes of assessment and treatment. Reduction of social determinants of health and biases remain important within global, national, and local contexts.

  • 500.
    Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    "He messed me up": Swedish adolescent girls' experiences of gender-related partner violence and its consequences over time2010In: Violence against Women, ISSN 1077-8012, E-ISSN 1552-8448, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 207-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article illuminates two Swedish adolescent girls' experiences of living in a violent relationship as teenagers and how this has affected their lives and health over time. Interviews were conducted in a youth health center. A combination of qualitative content analysis and narrative analysis describes violation, stress, trauma, coping, and agency during the period of adolescence and transition into adulthood. Despite Swedish progressive public policies on men's violence against women, teenage girls are exposed to male partners' violation, a severe gendered stressor. There is a need for the development of health policy and gender-responsive interventions geared specifically toward adolescent girls.

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