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  • 451.
    Rönnblom, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Women's Studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Wahl, Anna
    Eduards, Maud
    Holgersson, Charlotte
    Höök, Pia
    Linghag, Sophie
    Motstånd och fantasi: Historien om F2008 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 452.
    Salander, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Lilliehorn, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Kero, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The impact of breast cancer on living an everyday life 4.5-5 years post-diagnosis: a qualitative prospective study of 39 women2011In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 399-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The survival of women with breast cancer has improved. There are many studies available describing different aspects of how the illness and its treatment affect the women. Usually these studies are cross-sectional and focus on assessments of a sample of women at a single point in time during post-treatment. These studies are important but of limited value if we are interested in understanding more about breast cancer in a life context. The present study is a contribution.

    Methods. A consecutive sample of 39 women was followed up by means of repeated thematic interviews about how they lived their lives, from the end of radiation therapy to a point four years later, i.e. 4.5–5 years post diagnosis.

    Results. Four different groups of women emerged. Largely, the first group evaluated the cancer initiated transformation of their lives in a positive way. The breast cancer helped them depart from a career treadmill or to positive interpersonal experiences. In the second group the cancer and its treatment seemed to pass without marked traces. The cancer made a difference for the third group, but both in positive and negative ways. A different life perspective or improved relationships were weighted against troublesome side effects from treatment. Finally, in the fourth group a bodily decline due to side effects and other health problems was predominant and this obstructed their chances of living a good life.

    Discussion. The narratives showed that being diseased by breast cancer has different impacts depending on how the woman lives her life – it is very much a matter of transition in a life context. The results are furthermore discussed in relation to adaptation and coping theory.

  • 453. Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Respectable, Disreputable, or Rightful? Young Nicaraguan Women's Discourses on Femininity, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Abuse: A Grounded Theory Situational Analysis2016In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 315-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This situational analysis study aims to position the discourses that young Nicaraguan women use in their understanding of femininities, male intimate partner violence (IPV), and men's sexual violence toward women (SA). Eight focus group discussions with a total of 59 women were conducted. Positional maps were used to display the data. The findings show a dominant discourse that portrays femininity as enacting attributes habitually bestowed to men such as independence and agency, while still upholding key patriarchal conceptions (respectability) limiting women's agency. Tolerance of IPV and SA by nonpartners varies depending on women's perceived respectability and agency. Most important, we identified a pro-women's rights resistance discourse that constructs femininity and advocates nonviolence from a human rights perspective.

  • 454.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Negotiating Masculinity, Violence, and Responsibility: A Situational Analysis of Young Nicaraguan Men’s Discourses on Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence2015In: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, ISSN 1092-6771, E-ISSN 1545-083X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 131-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This situational analysis study aims to explore the discourses that young Nicaraguan men use in their understanding of male intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual abuse toward women. Six urban and 8 rural focus group discussions including 91 men were conducted. Positional maps were used to articulate the positions taken in the data within 2 continuums of variation representing men’s reasoning around control over women and men's responsibility for IPV and sexual abuse (SA). Nicaraguan men's discourses ranged from challenging gender inequality, IPV, and SA to supporting the patriarchal gender order. A key finding shows that a discourse supporting gender equality and men's full responsibility for IPV and SA is fighting to achieve recognition in this setting.

  • 455.
    Salazar, Mariano
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Who is using the morning-after pill?: Inequalities in emergency contraception use among ever partnered Nicaraguan women; findings from a national survey2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 61-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionFew studies have described the inequalities in hormonal emergency contraception (HEC) use in developing countries. Thus, the main aim of this manuscript is to study socio-demographic inequalities in HEC use among Nicaraguan women, and to study if inequalities in HEC use arise from exposure to different forms of intimate partner violence (IPV).MethodsData from a national cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 was used. This study included data from 8284 ever partnered, non-sterilized women. Separate multivariate logistic regressions with each form of IPV were conducted to study how different forms of IPV were associated with HEC. Women¿s age, residency, education, socioeconomic status, parity, and current use of reversible contraception were included in the multivariate logistic regressions to obtain adjusted odds ratios showing inequalities in HEC use.ResultsSix percent of the women had ever used HEC (95% CI 5.1-6.9). Multivariate analyses showed that urban residency, higher education, and higher socioeconomic status were significantly associated with higher odds of ever using HEC, and age was associated with decreased odds of HEC use. A key finding of this study is that after controlling for socio-demographic factors, the odds of using HEC were higher for those women ever exposed to emotional IPV (AOR 1.58, 95%CI 1.16-2.00), physical IPV (AOR 1.82, 95%CI 1.30-2.55), sexual IPV (AOR 1.63, 95%CI 1.06-2.52), and controlling behavior by partner (AOR 1.51 95%CI 1.13-2.00) than those not exposed.ConclusionsThis study provides sound evidence supporting the hypothesis that there are inequalities in HEC use even in countries where inequalities in use to other forms of contraceptive technology has been reduced. HEC use among Nicaraguan women is strongly influenced by individual factors such as age, residency, educational level, socioeconomic status, and exposure to different forms of IPV. It is paramount that actions are taken to diminish these gaps.

  • 456.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Knowledge organization for feminism and feminist research: a discourse oriented study  of systematic outlines, logical structure, semantics and the process of indexing2010In: Knowledge organization, ISSN 0943-7444, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 3-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus in this article is directed towards an analysis of the knowledge organization systems that index and classify feminist research texts in a Swedish bibliographic context. The article also has an important mission in elucidating the methodology of my analytical framework – so it could be repeated and further used for knowledge organization (KO) research. The theoretical and analytical framework is primarily discourse theoretic. At first, a feminist discourse is defined, of which feminist research is seen as a part. Feminist perspectives are analyzed through textanalysis of PhD-dissertations as feminist articulations. I also analyze the possibilities to classify and index feminist research with the national universal knowledge organization systems (KOS); Svenska Ämnesord (SÄ) and Klassifikationssystem för svenska bibliotek (KSB), and one subject specific system; Kvinnohistoriska samlingarnas ämnesord (KvÄ). The systems are analyzed as articulations. The KOS are studied in order to discuss how they are able to articulate feminist perspectives. In the national universal systems, a severe marginalization of feminist research is noticed. Feminist discourse consisting of feminist theoretical and metatheoretical perspectives are not considered at all in the KOS. The conclusion drawn is that the KOS could not be considered as feminist articulations. The marginalization is interpreted as an objectivistic and universalistic epistemology and ontology; monodisciplinary knowledge and thematic topics are privileged. Feminism is misunderstood as a field relating to socio-political women’s issues, which has marginalized status in the systems. In the subject-specific system Kvinnohistoriska samlingarnas ämnesord incomplete and inadequate knowledge organization is shown. The structure of this index is too simplistic and feminist discourse as such is not defined. Successful organization of feminist knowledge needs to be based on a particular understanding of knowledge and knowledge organization as contextually shaped (and shaping). Feminist literature is expressing feminist discourse qua theme, perspective, and part of the feminist tradition (such as critical, women-centring, and reflexive feminisms) – which must be expressed in the knowledge organization.

  • 457.
    Sandberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fear and Loathing in Umeå - Gendered Bodies and Actual Imprints of the Haga Man2013In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 108-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the responses and reactions among women and men in Umeå during the period of threat from a serial rapist, the so-called Haga Man. This article discusses how the increased threat in public space influenced constructions of male and female bodies in space during a period of changing public crime discourses. The article illustrates the importance of context and demonstrates the temporality of how bodies are perceived in space. Public descriptions of the Haga Man focused on characteristics of the perpetrator’s body and “normal Swedish appearance”, which constructed an image of the dangerous white body. White male respondents positioned themselves in relation to these descriptions, and were partly challenged with respect to new perceptions and meanings associated with “normality”. In descriptions of the Haga Man’s victims, women were presented as vulnerable, but in contrast to many other cases of serial rape there was no immediate focus on their bodies in terms of respectability. A shift of emphasis took place, towards a focus on bodies that frighten, rather than those that are afraid. The findings contribute to a discussion of how gendered power relations can be understood through shifting representations of bodies in space.

  • 458.
    Sandberg, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Brandén, Jennie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Coe, Anna-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Rädsla och trygghet i ord och handling2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 459.
    Sandberg, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hudson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Schmauch, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Den progressiva, jämställda staden och den "manliga" kulturens företräde2016In: Gränser, mobilitet och mobilisering: Boundaries, mobility and mobilisation : Nationell konferens för genusforskning = Swedish conference for gender research / [ed] Silje Lundgren, Maja Lundqvist, Björn Pernrud, Göteborg: Nationella sekretariatet för genusforskning , 2016, p. 144-145Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 460.
    Sandberg, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Afraid and restricted vs bold and equal: women’s fear of violence and gender equality discourses in Sweden2013In: The European Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 1350-5068, E-ISSN 1461-7420, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 189-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the responses and reactions among women in Umeå during the period of threat from the Haga Man: a serial rapist operating between 1998 and 2006, and highlights how women in this new situation handled feelings of vulnerability and fearof violence in public space. The article analyses the ways women positioned themselves in their narratives and how this could be understood in terms of how they negotiated spaces for agency within a context where public space has been represented as safe and gender-equal. Women’s fear of violence is discussed in relation to Swedish genderequality discourses and contextual constructions of femininity. The research is based on empirical data collected through in-depth interviews with women in Umeå. The results show the difficulties of claiming the official position of a gender-equal femininity. The informants’ ambivalence, and partly anger, in relation to a femininity they wanted but could not have also created an opportunity for critique of women’s position in society and thus a challenge to a presumed gender equality that stands in the way of addressing issues of gendered power relations.

  • 461.
    Sandberg, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    ‘I don’t think we’ll ever be finished with this’: Fear and safety in policy and practice2015In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 2664-2679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In planning contexts, safety is often discussed from a women’s perspective. An ideal site forexploring some of the key issues is Umea°, a medium-sized town in northern Sweden. Here, attentionto women’s fear of violence greatly increased at the turn of the century, when a single repeatoffender known as the ‘Haga Man’ assaulted several women in the city. People’s (especiallywomen’s) fear of violence came to be seriously recognised, discussed and taken into considerationin the city’s planning. The present research is based on an analysis of empirical data collectedin 2008, through interviews with people who in various ways work to increase safety inUmea°. The paper addresses how the informants define the problem of fear of violence in publicspace and the strategies they employ to address it, what could be described as the analyticalpracticeparadox, as the results show the difficulties of integrating gender-aware planning intoplanning practice.

  • 462.
    Sandberg, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies, Karlstad University.
    Imagining the ideal city, planning the gender-equal city in Umeå, Sweden2016In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1750-1762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on imaginaries of the ideal city is an important method to illustrate the power of ideas, imagination, representations and even visions, and how these dimensions influence the way in which cities are organized and lived. In this article, we argue that one current and important city imaginary in a Swedish context is the gender-equal city. In this imaginary, the gender-equal city becomes a symbol for the open, tolerant, bustling, safe city, a city aiming to attract the middle and creative classes. However, at the same time, the imaginary of the ideal, gender-equal city is highly ambiguous. This ambiguity will be discussed throughout the article. Based on present planning projects in the city of Umeå in Sweden, we will discuss how the imaginary of the gender-equal city is presented, filled with meaning and used in place marketing, with the overall ambition of discussing the possibilities and pitfalls of what we call the gender-equality planning strategy. The aim of the article is to study how the city of Umeå is acting to create a gender-equal city and what kind of imaginaries these practices build on. The material consists primarily of a case study focusing on projects that aim to create an equal city, and also includes analyses of policy documents and media reports. This study illustrates how imaginaries are produced through local projects and different imaginaries provide different spaces for politicizing gendered power relations.

  • 463.
    Sandberg, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Rönnblom, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies, Karlstad University, Universitetsgatan 2, 651 88 Karlstad, Sweden.
    Planning the new city: emotional reaction and positions2016In: EMOTION SPACE AND SOCIETY, ISSN 1755-4586, Vol. 21, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kiruna, the northernmost city in Sweden, is constructed around a classic industrial source of production - the prosperous mine. The mine has been the overwhelmingly dominant employer in the city and its fortunes have been intimately connected with the city's prosperity. However, massive, continuing expansion of the mine has led to severe risks of subsidence; thus, substantial parts of the city must be moved to assure both the citizens' safety and continuation of the mining. This will be done gradually over the coming decade, and all of Kiruna's citizens will be affected in one way or another. Schools, shops, daycare centres, homes for the elderly and workplaces will all be rebuilt in the new city centre. Drawing on an emotional geographies framework, this paper discusses how people's emotions are understood and given meaning, and even addressed in the planning context of the city transformation that is taking place.

  • 464.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    “Laws shouldn’t chain people to one another”: Attitudes toward divorce in Swedish public debate 1964-19722011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s and 1970s in Sweden, both the labor force participation rate of marriedwomen and the divorce rate increased more than during any other period of the twentiethcentury. Higher levels of extramarital fertility, cohabitation among unmarried spouses andincreasing age at first birth accompanied the rise of these two rates. These developmentsexemplify phenomena associated with the second demographic transition, and weremarkedly evident in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s. Studying the national newspapersfrom 1964 to 1969, this paper traces the impact of these demographic and socioeconomicchanges on the public debate on divorce prior to the implementation of the 1974divorce law.The Swedish divorce law of 1974 was based on unilateral no-fault and thus meant aremoval of more or less all legal constraints against divorce. The aim of this paper is toidentify the normative views of divorce that dominated the public debate during the secondhalf of the 1960s, just prior to the implementation of the new divorce law. In thispaper, the daily press is used to detect the arguments that were publically raised for andagainst an increased access to divorce and how the argumentation changed over time.With regard to gender and socio-economic position, the study further identifies the participantsin the debate and whether they represented any political or other group affiliations.Focusing on this divorce debate, the findings will contribute to the knowledge onhow changes in cultural and normative values in society interact with dramatic demographicdevelopments and institutional changes.

  • 465.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Socio-economic determinants of divorce in early twentieth-century Sweden2011In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, ISSN 1081-602X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 292-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of census data and aggregated divorce statistics, this study investigates how socio-economic conditionsinfluenced the risk of divorce among men in different occupations during the 1920s and 1930s in Sweden. The results support thetheoretical presupposition that the stability of marriage was associated with the degree of economic interdependence betweenspouses. Rural, low-income, single-provider households with many children exhibit a significantly lower probability of divorcethan urban, dual-provider, high-income households with few children. This lends support to a socio-economic growth hypothesisstating that lower levels of marriage stability first developed in the more affluent strata of society living in urban settings. Thetendency of decreasing marriage stability then successively spread to the middle and lower classes as the divorce rate continued toincrease during the course of the twentieth century.

  • 466.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Time–space trends in Swedish divorce behaviour 1911–19742011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 65-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the divorce rate in Sweden has varied over time and across different geographical areas during the period 1911-1974, and how these variations can be connected to the political, socio-economic, and cultural development in Sweden. The analysis provides empirical support for the hypothesis that increased divorce rates has been the result of changes in the structural conditions that determine the degree of economic interdependence between spouses. There is a strong connection between the degree of urbanization and the divorce rate on a regional level for the entire research period. The statistical analysis of the regional data indicates that these patterns are connected to the more diversified economy that has developed in urban settings, in the form of a more qualified labor market and higher wages for females. These characteristics resulted in a faster and more pronounced reduction of economic interdependence between spouses, which made divorce more attainable in these areas as compared to rural settings.

  • 467.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    A prelude to the dual provider family: the changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900–602019In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By investigating changes in the association between women’s socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900–60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

  • 468.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the effect of female labor force participation and occupational field2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education from the 1920s up until the end of the baby boom.

  • 469.
    Santosa, Ailiana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies2016In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, no 9, p. 855-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the increase in life expectancy (LE) globally is coupled with a postponement of morbidity and disability. Evidence on trends and determinants of disability-free life expectancies (DFLEs) are available in high-income countries but less in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the levels of and inequalities in LE, disability and DFLE between men and women across different age groups aged 50 years and over in six countries with developing economies.

    METHODS: This study utilised the cross-sectional data (n=32 724) from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa in 2007-2010. Disability was measured with the activity of daily living (ADL) instrument. The DFLE was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and ADL-disability proportions.

    RESULTS: The disability prevalence ranged from 13% in China to 54% in India. The prevalence of disability was highest and occurred at younger age in both sexes in India. Women were more disadvantaged with higher prevalence of disability across all age groups, and the situation was worst among older women in Mexico and the Russian Federation. Though women had higher LE, their proportion of remaining LE free from disability was lower than men.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are inequalities in the levels of disability and DFLE among men and women in different age groups among people aged over 50 years in these six countries. Countermeasures to decrease intercountry and gender gaps in DFLE, including improvements in health promotion and healthcare distribution, with a gender equity focus, are needed.

  • 470.
    Santosa, Ailiana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Cross-sectional survey of sexual dysfunction and quality of life among older people in Indonesia2011In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1594-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction.  The burden of sexual dysfunction among older people in many low- and middle-income countries is not well known. Understanding sexual dysfunction among older people and its impact on quality of life is essential in the design of appropriate health promotion programs.

    Aims.  To assess levels of sexual function and their association with quality of life while controlling for different sociodemographic determinants and chronic diseases among men and women over 50 years of age in rural Indonesia.

    Methods.  A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia in 2007. The study involved 14,958 men and women over 50 years old. The association between sexual dysfunction and quality of life after controlling for potential confounders (e.g., sociodemographic determinants and self-reported chronic diseases) was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression.

    Main Outcome Measures.  Self-reported quality of life.

    Results.  Older men more commonly reported sexual activity, and sexual problems were more common among older women. The majority of older men and women reported their quality of life as good. Lack of sexual activity, dissatisfaction in sexual life, and presence of sexual problems were associated with poor self-reported quality of life in older men after adjustment for age, marital status, education, and history of chronic diseases. A presence of sexual problems was the only factor associated with poor self-reported quality of life in women. Being in a marital relationship might buffer the effect of sexual problems on quality of life in men and women.

    Conclusion.  Sexual dysfunction is associated with poor quality of life among older people in a rural Javanese setting. Therefore, promotion of sexual health should be an integral part of physical and mental health campaigns in older populations.

  • 471.
    Schnabel, Annette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Modernità, stress e ricerca dell'autogestione emotiva2012In: Salute e Società. La medicina delle emozioni e delle cognizioni, ISSN 1723-9427, no 2, p. 74-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociology has a longstanding tradition in describing the emotional regime of modernity as "disciplining" effect, accompanied by an increased demand for selfregulation (Elias). Recently, researchers stressed that we nowadays observe a growing informalization of emotion rules (Wouters) and an increased demand for the emotional labour (Hochschild). The tension between disciplinary limitation of emotions and their informalization is mirrored in the growing necessity to psychologically and chemically alter and optimize emotions (Neckel). Beyond a mere theoretical analysis of this tension, the article empirically explores the selfperceptions and self-management strategies of young women in Sweden in order to cope with felt oppression and stress in relation to the emotional and behavioural demands of their environment.

  • 472.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedman, Leif R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The Blurring between Strictand Fluid demands at theUmeå Dentistry Programme2008In: Abstracts of the XXIX International Congress of Psychology, July 21- 25, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study elements forming students’ professional identity and experience ofdental education. Focus was on how students cope with conflicting demands and the interaction between a male dentist norm and predominantly female students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three teachers and ten students from the Umeå dentistry programme. The Grounded Theory method used generated a model centred on ‘‘Experiencing ambiguity’’ – ambiguity about actual effort needed and actual demands to be met. Also central were ‘‘Experiencing stress’’, time related as well as strain related, and ‘‘Demands lead to quality’’. The consequences of this ambiguity will be further explored.

  • 473.
    Sedholm, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Det könade författarskapet: En analys av förkroppsligande av kvinnliga författare inom fantastik-genren2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines in which ways and how female authors in the fantasy-genre are being embodied in their authorship. It is done so through interviews of three published female authors working in the fantasy and/or science fiction genre and analysed with thematic analysis through the lense of Judith Butlers theory on the gender/sex distinction and performativity. The study shows how actors in the field act as gatekeepers by exclusion and how the authors negotiate their position as authors in the context of the fantasy/science fiction genre. The performative regulations of embodiment genders these authors to the extent of questioning the female authorship itself.

  • 474.
    Seger, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    NÄR VÅLD FÖRSTÅS SOM LEGITIMT.: En maktanalys av polisvåldets performativitet utifrån erfarenheter hos våldsutsatta.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Violence is put in a specific context when the police are the perpetrator of violence rendering violence possibly legitimate through sovereignty. The possibility of legitimization of police violence raises important questions of how such violence is legitimized and how resistance is conceived of and defined. I have interviewed seven people in Sweden from different backgrounds, all of whom share the experience of having been subjugated to police violence, including threats, harassments and physical violence.This paper analyzes the performativity of police violence through the relations between police violence, power, sovereignty, subjectstatus and resistance, in order to understand how police violence is being legitimized and to understand its consequenses with respect to those subjugated to it. I’ve also analyzed if this violence is being politicized and, in that case, how politicization is made possible. Performativity implies an understanding where those relations aswell as understandings of it are framing which actions are made possible and rendered real while those very actions themselves also animates those understandings. Those framings are to be understood as neither unambiguous nor ever-lasting.In order to analyze power relations considerate of different backgrounds and experiences where the relationship between the police and those who are subjected to police violence aren’t formulated in political terms I’ve chosen to analyze power relations through subjectstatus and sovereignty. Subjectstatus signifies to which extent we are acknowledged as subjects and thus granted raison d’être through such status. Sovereignty is understood as the power structure giving meaning to the police actions of violence. Thus, I am not analyzing structures of power or identity such as class and gender. Instead I analyze to what extent we are acknowledged as subjects through the concept of subjectstatus where for instance gender and class may be included.The perception of yourself through others is of significance for the risk of being subjected to police violence where the very experience of being violated carry consequences for how we are perceived. Legitimized police violence in itself denies victimstatus to those being violated, thus explaining why the victims of police violence are seldom seen as subjugated to violence. The possibility of police violence being rendered legitimate are materialized through sovereignty where police violence can be understood as a way of outlining the boundaries through which sovereignty acknowledges some subjects the freedom from violence in ambiguous ways.A subject wielding resistance can be conceived of as being in a subject-position, rendering police violence legitimate. The very acts of police violence carry the power to define what is to be understood as resistance. Such subject-positions are advantageous to the police since they entail the possibility of rendering police violence legitimate when someone who is violated by the police can be construed as wielding resistance after the violations. Thus police violence and sovereignty entail their own prerequisites for being rendered real. When the framings of police violence are being materialized through that very violence they can be understood as hegemonic, making police violence hard to politicize.

  • 475.
    Silfver, Ann-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Emancipation or neo-colonisation?: Global gender mainstreaming policies, Swedish gender equality politics and local negotiations about putting gender into education reform in the Lao People's Democratic Republic2010In: Compare, ISSN 0305-7925, E-ISSN 1469-3623, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 479-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach in work on education change and development cooperation in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Interviews with Lao government officials at ministry and university levels are used to exemplify how gender mainstreaming can present both possibilities and problems in a local context. The article argues that gender mainstreaming as a political strategy requires a strong focus on contextual circumstances in order to become a vehicle for social transformation.

  • 476.
    Silfver, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Berge, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ‘We are like orphans’: exploring narratives of Lao doctoral alumni educated in Sweden2016In: Higher Education Research and Development, ISSN 0729-4360, E-ISSN 1469-8366, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 575-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the narratives of 10 doctoral alumni from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) who underwent graduate training in Sweden. The narratives identify challenges encountered by the alumni but more importantly reveal the agency by which these challenges were overcome. The most important strategy was that of collaborative learning, actively enlisting the help of other doctoral students and supervisors, thus challenging the prevalent discourse about doctoral studies as an individual endeavour. Inspired by post-colonial perspectives, the article reveals juxtapositions between Lao colonial experiences and Swedish ignorance of their ramifications. The article argues that programmes in Sweden should work more actively towards a collaborative and inclusive learning process. This strategy becomes especially important when doctoral endeavours involve participants from both the global south and the global north, and it could be an important step in challenging the hegemonic position of the global north in processes of knowledge production.

  • 477.
    Simonsson, Per
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ready, Willing, and Able to Divorce: An Economic and Cultural History of Divorce in Twentieth-Century Sweden2011In: Journal of Family History, ISSN 0363-1990, E-ISSN 1552-5473, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 210-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study outlines a long history of divorce in Sweden, recognizing the importance of considering both economic and cultural factors in the analysis of marital dissolution. Following Ansley Coale, the authors examine how a framework of multiple theoretical constructs, in interaction, can be applied to the development toward mass divorce. Applying a long historical perspective, the authors argue that an analysis of gendered aspects of the interaction between culture and economics is crucial for the understanding of the rise of mass divorce. The empirical analysis finds support for a marked decrease in legal and cultural obstacles to divorce already during the first decades of the twentieth century. However, economic structures remained a severe obstacle that prohibited significant increases in divorce rate prior to World War II. It was only during the 1940s and 1960s, when cultural change was complemented by marked decreases in economic interdependence between spouses, that the divorce rate exhibited significant increases. The authors find that there are advantages to looking at the development of divorce as a history in which multiple empirical factors are examined in conjunction, recognizing that these factors played different roles during different time periods.

  • 478.
    Sjödin, Joanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    “If your husband doesn’t beat you,he doesn’t love you”: A qualitative study about the work of change regardingIntimate Partner Violence in Nairobi, Kenya.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative interview study aims to examine the work of change regarding IntimatePartner Violence (IPV), through the voices of seven change workers at Non-GovernmentalOrganizations (NGO) in Nairobi, Kenya. The focus lies on identifying worker’s expresseddefinitions and comprehensions of violence and in what ways those affect the work of changein sectors as victim support, awareness creation & changing societal attitudes and norms. Athematic analysis reveals two themes of social and cultural norms, which emerges as themain comprehensions of violence; as well as essential components of the work of change.Feminist theory enables the image of gendered, embodied norms that supports the hierarchalstructure of marriage and women’s subordination. Findings of social and cultural normsinclude IPV as a loving form to discipline a woman, marital rape does not exist and womenshould stay in marriage. Furthermore, this study presents a mutual understanding of IPV bythe change workers, but with various ways to create change. Obstacles for the eradication ofIPV is presented as lack of shelters, lack of legal implementation, as well as lack ofknowledge within the police force. Key findings include an ambivalent perspective from thechange workers concerning women’s subordination. Most worked against it, while sometaught it, so women could “escape” violence by becoming more submissive. Throughout, IPVis expressed in gender-neutral terms, but interviews reveal the perspective of genderasymmetry and that IPV is a form of violence directed towards women by men.

  • 479.
    Skåreus, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Creative Studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Absent bodies in teacher education2007In: Present challenges in gender research / [ed] Åsa Andersson & Eva E. Johansson, Umeå: Umeå universitet, Genusforskarskolan , 2007, p. 88-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The body has great significance for a teacher and constitutes one of the most important tools of the profession. It is through the body that the teacher is present in the room, performs and meets the students. The body bears knowledge, personality and the subject’s experiences. This has a dialectical relationship and is communicated to the individual from within in its meeting with the students. The students place their experience of the teacher on the exterior of the teacher’s body. Michail Bachtin has coined a term for these relationships: I-for-myself represents what the individual experiences from within, and The-other-for-me represents how the individual experiences the other person which is projected on the being outside, “extralocalization” (Bachtin, 2000). When people perform in their professional role, they are hidden to a certain degree in an institutionalized body, their professional role (Berger, Luckmann, 1998). This professional role is already defined by the employer and thereby marked by social characteristics. During teacher education, the students are trained in an institutionalized body while they are also working to establish their own characteristics. This can be described as a negotiation between demands and their own ambitions, as well as a struggle between being disciplined and manoeuvring for one’s own space. This negotiation or struggle continues in practical training and at abstract levels. Winning a place or space for the exercise of a profession will also be an encounter between institutionalized demands and one’s own conceptions. Moreover, the place or space can be considered as an arena where the body’s suitability in the professional role is negotiated. The objective of this article is to examine how signs of this negotiation about the body are reflected in pictures where art teacher students represent themselves in the professional role.

  • 480.
    Skåreus, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Frånvarande kroppar inom lärarutbildningen2009In: Tilde: Tema: bildanalys / [ed] Per-Olof Erixon, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2009, p. 83-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 481.
    Skåreus, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Pictorial analysis in research on education: method and concepts2009In: International Journal of Research and Method in Education, ISSN 1743-727X, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 167-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pictures are rarely used as the principal research material in research on the teaching profession. This article presents the central analytical concepts and method development of such a study. The research material consisted of pictures that art student teachers created from a given theme: Who are you as a teacher? The theoretical frame combines gender theory and socio-culture theory with pictorial semiotics and discourse analysis. The central concepts are exemplified by pictures created by student teachers. The article concludes with a comparative pictorial analysis and interpretation. The research focused on gender issues, associated manly with bodily representation and reflexivity. The aim of the article is to present the method and its relevance for research in education and other disciplines.

  • 482.
    Skåreus, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Egberg Thyme, Karin
    Kropp. kamp. bild: Jo Spence1998In: Astra nova, ISSN 1238-1837, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 6-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 483.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kalman, Hildur
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    A Pilot Study of Birthday Cards as Vignettes: Methodological Reflections on the Elusive Everyday Ageism2012In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, ISSN 2220-8488, E-ISSN 2221-0989, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the expressions and experiences of everyday ageism among elderly retired people. Remarkably little attention has previously been paid to how elderly people themselves experience everyday ageism. The phenomenon of everyday ageism is both neglected and demanding to identify and analyse. This pilot study uses focus group interviews and birthday card vignettes in order to encourage informants to speak freely and discuss their experiences of attitudes towards ageing. The results of the pilot study show ancillary perceptions, agreements and silences that are characteristic of everyday ageism, and either directly related to the vignettes or to other everyday experiences. It is emphasised that the phenomenon at hand is multifaceted and complex. Methodological implications are discussed in order to shed light on the uncovering of signifiers and intersecting signifiers of everyday ageism. The study demonstrates a particularly useful approach in researching everyday ageism.

  • 484.
    Snellman, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Conformity and resistance in older women´s life stories2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main obejctive of the presentation is to highlight aspects of conformity and resistance as described in older women's oral life stories. The life stories are part of an ongoing dissertation project, at the Department of social work, Umea university, Sweden. The data consists of ten women's life stories, aged 75 to 85, living in the rural countryside in the county of Vasterbotten in northern Sweden and the region of Ostrobothnia on the west coast of Finland. The meaning of old age cannot be separated from the rest of the course of a person's life, and by conducting life story interviews ageing as a process is emphasised. Life stories not only give us information about the individual, but also about cultural and societal conditions in two similar, but still different countries. Hence, the purpose of the presentation is to make visible women's diverse circumstances during life course, at both a structural and individual level, and how these are articulated through different strategies of adaptation and/or opposition.

     

    The women taking part in the study are all born and raised in an agrarian community. During the women's life course the society has undergone many transformations. The Second World War, modernisation and the development of the welfare state are some of the changes that have taken place during their life course, as well as reassessment about women's work and family life. Despite many similarities between the two countries, there are also disparities that must be considered when trying to understand and interpret the life stories of these women. The national economical conditions after the Second World War were completely different, which has also influenced political and ideological attitudes and values about men's and women's responsibilities and positions. How such circumstances have shaped strategies of conformity and resistance used by women in different situations, concerning i.e education, work and relationships is therefore of interest to investigate. 

  • 485.
    Snellman, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Obetalt arbete och kontext i äldre kvinnors livsberättelser2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett övergripande syfte med presentationen är att lyfta fram kvinnors obetalda arbete, såsom det framträder i fritt formulerade livsberättelser av kvinnor födda på 1920-talet och boendes på landsbygden, i Västerbotten i Sverige och Österbotten i Finland. Materialet ingår i ett avhandlingsprojekt vid Institutionen för socialt arbete och inom ramen för Genusforskarskolan vid Umeå universitet. Materialet, insamlat åren 2004-2005, består av tio kvinnors muntliga livsberättelser, berättade vid två olika tillfällen. Utgångspunkten är att livsberättelser inte bara ger kunskap om den enskilda individen, utan att de även kan förstås i ett kulturellt och samhälleligt perspektiv. Därmed är avsikten med presentationen att synliggöra hur kvinnornas villkor och förutsättningar under livet har sett olika ut i de båda länderna, samt på vilket sätt detta avspeglar sig i hur det obetalda arbetet framträder i livsberättelserna. Utöver detta är syftet med presentationen också att belysa hur det obetalda arbetet tar sig uttryck, med utgångspunkt i olikartade livssituationer och familjeförhållanden. Vilka skillnader och likheter finns i förhållande till obetalt arbete, beroende av om man levt sitt liv som ogift och ensamstående, eller som gift i en traditionell kärnfamilj? Vilka skillnader och likheter finns mellan kvinnorna i de båda länderna?

     

    Kvinnorna som ingår i studien är alla födda under en tid då det agrara inslaget i samhället fortfarande var stort, både i Sverige och Finland. Deras liv har präglats av att samhället genomgått stora omvälvande förvandlingar. Krigstiden, samhällets modernisering och utvecklandet av välfärdsstaten, samt omvärderingar i synen på kvinnors förvärvsarbete och familjelivet är exempel på förändringar som skett under deras livstid. Trots många likheter i den utveckling som skett i Sverige och Finland, finns även skillnader som bör synliggöras i förståelsen av kvinnornas livsberättelser. Det finländska samhället drabbades hårt av krigen under 1930- och 1940-talet. Förutsättningarna för de båda ländernas samhällsuppbyggnad efter kriget var helt olikartade. Finland förblev länge ett agrart land, där moderniseringen och effektiviseringen av jordbruket, välfärdssamhällets utbyggnad samt den fortsatta industrialiseringen fördröjdes. Sverige upplevde däremot en stark ekonomisk utveckling under efterkrigsåren. De olikartade samhällsekonomiska utgångspunkterna har även fått konsekvenser för politiska och ideologiska förhållningssätt och värderingar gällande mäns och kvinnors uppgifter och positioner i samhället. I relation till detta är det intressant att studera hur det obetalda arbetet synliggörs i kvinnornas livsberättelser överlag, men också utifrån deras olikartade civilrättsliga positioner i en viss social(historisk) kontext. 

  • 486.
    Solander, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    "Creating the Senses": Sensation in the work of Shelley Jackson2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This monograph on the œuvre of contemporary American author and multimedia artist Shelley Jackson addresses the question of how literary works employ language to evoke sense impressions. Gilles Deleuze’s notion of aesthetic percepts is drawn on to develop a theory of literary phantom sensations which is then tested on the work of Jackson and related authors.  Although imperceptible as such, it is argued that percepts are made perceptible in art in sense-specific forms as phantom sensations. “Phantom” is not meant to indicate a pale shadow of real sensations but the intensely perceived realness of phantom limb phenomena, in accordance with Deleuze’s understanding of the virtual as real but not actual. For the sake of clarity, literary phantom sensations are divided into phantom smells, tastes, touches, sights and sounds, with a chapter devoted to each in turn. It is found that different phantom sensations serve different functions in Jackson’s work, correlated to the cultural history of the senses as outlined by recent sensory scholarship.  Phantom smells are associated with Deleuze’s concept of becoming due to their liminality. Phantom tastes contribute to an aesthetics of distaste in which shades of disgust are cultivated and drawn upon for literary effect. Phantom touch creates conceptual intimacy and invites the reader to handle words like toys in a game. Phantom sight is turned back upon itself in an anatomy of the eye. Phantom hearing is associated with forms of ventriloquism in which it is unclear who is speaking through whom and in which language itself throws its voice. However, it is also found that all phantom sensations similarly serve to create a material and affective connection between the body of the reader and the body of the text. Throughout the dissertation, Jackson’s work is read against and alongside that of other writers such as Djuna Barnes, Neil Bartlett, Brigid Brophy and Leonora Carrington. Together these form a trajectory termed minor writing for queers to come, which is meant to indicate that aesthetic and sexual-political  radicalism go hand in hand.  Furthermore, Jackson’s work is described as a form of body writing informed by feminist body art and écriture féminine. Specifically, Jackson takes her cue from early modern anatomical blazons and describes living bodies in pieces.  Her work is also described as object writing: a literary equivalent to surrealist object art.  A central method for making words more like things is to arrange her texts spatially rather than temporally, as exemplified by her electronic hypertexts.

  • 487.
    Solander, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Queerblivanden: försök till en queer-Deleuziansk litteraturläsning2012In: Queera Läsningar / [ed] Katri Kivilaakso, Ann-Sofie Lönngren och Rita Paqvalén, Hägersten: Rosenlarv förlag , 2012, p. 42-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 488.
    Solander, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Signature scents: perfume and characterization in the contemporary novel2010In: The Senses & Society, ISSN 1745-8927, E-ISSN 1745-8935, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 301-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfume critique is an underdeveloped academic field and this includes considerations of perfume as a theme within other art forms such as literature. In this article, Angela Carter’s Wise Children and Monika Fagerholm’s Wonderful Women by the Sea are read alongside perfume blogs in order to analyze the significance of perfume references in the novels. It is demonstrated that the authors’ choice of perfumes for their characters plays a crucial part in their characterization, especially in relation to the theme of identity change. Using Alfred Gell’s analysis of perfume use as bound up with “the transcendence of the sweet life,” it is argued that female characters use perfume to become someone else, sometimes a past self. Furthermore, the use of perfume as a literary device in these novels is shown serve as the vehicle for a feminist critique of the division between “masculine” “high” and “feminine” “low” culture.

  • 489.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Genusperspektiv på rehabilitering för patienter med rygg- och nackbesvär i primärvård2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Gender as a social and cultural construction has an impact on physiotherapist and patient beliefs, understanding, and behaviour and could affect physiotherapy encounters. Gender studies in early rehabilitation are scarce. The aim of this thesis was to study gender during different parts of the rehabilitation process for primary health care patients with neck and back pain.

    Method

    The analyses are based on data from three different samples. One sample is composed of physiotherapists and two samples consist of patients consulting primary health care providers because of neck and back pain. All data were gathered from primary health care provided in Västerbotten County.

    Baseline data on 73 physiotherapists and 586 of their patients with neck and back pain were collected by questionnaire during three consecutive days in 2006. Patient data included affected pain site and treatment procedures used by the physiotherapist (Study I). Differences in treatment procedures used by female and male physiotherapists and differences in use for female or male patients were analysed using Chi square-test, Fisher’s exact tests, Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regressions with cluster analysis.

    Thematised interviews with 12 patients were made before the patient’s first appointment with a physiotherapist or doctor and repeated after three months. Data were analysed according to grounded theory (Study II) and qualitative content analysis (Study III).

    A comprehensive questionnaire was answered at the first appointment when patients sought a physiotherapist in primary health care. The questionnaires included questions about pain intensity, self-rated health, function, psychological stress reactions, domestic work, work environment, self-efficacy and kinesiophobia. Response patterns were linked to the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS).

    Result

    Patients were given the same treatment procedures irrespective of gender. The treatment procedures most often used were training of joint motion (48%), training of muscle functions and strength training (31%), massage (31%), physical treatment (28%), information about health/ill health (24%), and acupuncture (18%). Female and male physiotherapists used the same treatment procedures with a few exceptions. Female physiotherapists used treatment for mental functions and acupuncture more often than male physiotherapists. The women gave their patients a unique mixture of treatment procedures more frequently (43%) compared to their male colleagues (25%). Male physiotherapists used more training of joint motion.

    "To be confirmed" emerged as the core category when analysing interviews that considered expectations or experiences. Five categories were extracted: "To be taken seriously", "To get an explanation", "To be individually assessed and treated", "To be invited to participate", and "To be taken care of in a trustworthy environment". These were factors leading to confirmation. Two ideal types were identified: "confident" and "ambiguous". The "confident" did not doubt their right to health care and blamed their work for causing the pain. They related to a positive identity of strong or hard working. The "ambiguous" were afraid of being regarded as old, whining women and not being taken seriously. They were ashamed of having neck or back pain and blamed themselves; they thought they were not fit enough. The ideal types were not completely defined by gender, but more men were among the "confident" ideal type and more women were among the "ambiguous" type. Patients reacted differently to feelings of being confirmed or not, and this depended on whether they were the "confident" or "ambiguous" ideal type.

    The "confident" were satisfied and reacted with reorientation when they felt confirmed, even if they were not totally cured. When not confirmed, the "confident" reacted with anger, frustration, and feelings of shame or remained proud and blamed the health care personnel for being incompetent.

    The "ambiguous" also were satisfied and felt reoriented when they were confirmed. They then moved from being an "ambiguous" type to a more "confident" type. When the "ambiguous" were not confirmed in healthcare, they became dissatisfied and unhappy. They doubted the assessment, felt forlorn, and felt increased shame. Not being confirmed was experienced more negatively by women than by men irrespective of ideal type.

    Interesting information was found about how patients view their body in relation to pain during analysis of expectations and experiences in study II interviews. This led to Study III.

    In study III, "Fear of hurting the fragile body" emerged as an interview theme. Five categories supported or undermined beliefs about pain and physical activity: "The mechanical body", "Messages about activity", "Earlier experiences of pain and activity", "To be a good citizen", and "Support to be active". Patients thought their pain was due to tissue damage and viewed their bodies in a mechanical way. Clear messages from health care personnel about activity led to less fear of physical activity. Vague and contradictory messages led to more fear. Gender-stereotyped messages were given to patients. "The take it carefully" was such a message, and was more often to women when women were thought to be weak and in need of training. Another message was "Pain goes with heavy work". This message was more often given to men when men were thought to be strong and not in need of training. Earlier experiences of pain and activity could have been positive or negative. If positive, the experiences led to less fear of engaging in physical activity. A wish to be a good citizen, such as being a good parent, led to patients being more engaged in child care and playing more than they thought was good for their pain. Women, more than men, expressed avoidance of sick leave because they did not want to be a burden to society or to their work colleagues. Patients were anxious about how to do the "correct" exercises to avoid further injury. Practical support and a follow up to adjust the training program were important to reduce the fear of engaging in physical activity and to maintain motivation.

    One hundred and eighteen patients (84 women and 34 men) completed the questionnaire. PCA of all questions identified five significant components. The model explained 37% of the variance. The predictive power was 17%. PC1 explained 17% of the variance and the predictive power was 0.13%.

    PC1 was mainly explained by questions classified in ICF as Activity and Participation. These included questions about physical function and self-efficacy (classified as Content of Thought). Questions about support (classified as Environmental Factors) and stress reactions (classified as Body Function (Emotional Functions)) mainly explained PC2. PC3 was mainly explained by reported pain and symptoms from muscles (classified as Body Functions) and domestic work and leisure time activities (classified as Activity and Participation).

    There were differences in t-scores between women and men in PC2 (p=0.045) and PC3 (p=0.003). Variables that discriminated between women and men were questions about stress reactions and support at work in PC2, and questions about pain intensity and domestic work in PC3.

    Conclusion

    As a physiotherapist working with neck and back pain rehabilitation patients, it is important to be aware of both one’s own and the patient’s preconceptions about women and men. It is also important to be aware of the impact of gender on the professional role when choosing treatment procedures in order to ensure that choices will be based on evidence of effectiveness and not from stereotypes. Awareness of the patient’s individual needs and subsequent adaptation of treatments is also important.

    Some patients display a negative self-assessment and shame. They need more support to be able to reorient. Unless these patients are confirmed, they are at risk of prolonged disability.

    Gender stereotypes can hinder rehabilitation of neck and back pain if women are seen as weak and in need of protection and men are seen as strong and not in need of preventive muscle training.

    When assessing neck and back pain patients with questionnaires, gender has less significance than when asking questions about physical function and self-efficacy. Questions about emotions of stress reactions, support at work, and pain intensity contribute to gender differences for women. Questions on the level of domestic work contribute to gender differences for men.

  • 490.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    A gender perspective on physiotherapy treatment in patients with neck and back pain2010In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women report more pain from the musculoskeletal system, and more disability, than do men. As a consequence, women more often seek healthcare than men do, and are more often on sick leave. Research shows that female patients and male patients are treated differently by physicians and that the physician's gender also influenced the choice of treatment. The aim was to study whether the patients’ and/or the physiotherapists’ gender influences physiotherapy treatments for patients with neck and/or low back pain. During 3 days in April 2006, 73 physiotherapists in primary care and private practices collected information on 586 patients with neck and/or low back pain. The information included data on the affected pain sites and the treatment procedures used by the physiotherapist. Baseline data on the physiotherapists were collected with a questionnaire. The results showed that female and male physiotherapists mainly used the same treatment procedures, but with some differences. The female physiotherapists used significantly more acupuncture and procedures directed toward treatment of mental function. They also gave their patients a unique combination of treatment procedures to a greater extent than their male colleagues. The malte physiotherapists used significantly more training of joint mobility. Male and female patients were given the same treatment.

  • 491.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    'I am afraid to make the damage worse': fear of engaging in physical activity among patients with neck or back pain : a gender perspective2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: Neck and back pain are major public health problems in Western societies and cause considerable disability and health service use. Swedish women report more severe neck and back pain compared with Swedish men. Most studies on the aetiology of gender differences in pain deal with biological mechanisms, and less with the role of psychological and sociocultural factors. 'Pain beliefsis a sociocultural factor and can be expressed in different ways among women and men. It is important to know what pain beliefs are held by neck and back pain patients, especially when medical guidelines recommend that back pain patients stay physically active.

    Aim: Exploring pain beliefs in relation to physical activity among neck and back pain patients consulting primary health care.

    Method: Twelve patients (seven women, five men) consulting primary health care for an initial episode of neck or back pain were interviewed before their first appointment with a physiotherapist or general practitioner and 3 months later. The interviews covered patient experiences of neck or back pain, consequences, strategies and treatment experiences. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis from a gender perspective.

    Result: One theme 'Fear of hurting the fragile body' was expressed by all neck or back pain patients. Five categories were identified 'The mechanical body', 'Messages about activity', 'Earlier experiences of pain and activity', 'To be a good citizen' and 'Support to be active' supported or undermined beliefs about pain and physical activity. Gender expressions occurred in the categories 'Messages about activity', 'To be a good citizen' and 'Support to be active'.

    Conclusions: Neck or back pain patients in the study saw the body as fragile and were afraid of hurting it. Notions of gender had an impact on the given advice about activity and on how patients perceived the message about staying active.

  • 492.
    Stenius, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Attacking the body in mixed martial arts: perspectives, opinions and perceptions of the full contact combat sport of ultimate fighting2015In: Journal of Arts and Humanities, E-ISSN 2167-9045, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the sensuous experience of full contact fighting through ethnographic research in mixed martial arts clubs. Presenting its first card in 1993 in Denver, Colorado, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) stunned martial artists while thrilling and frightening spectators. Mixed martial arts (MMA) is an evolving combat sport pitting elite athletes trained in a variety of combat arts against each other in the “Octagon”. Contestants are permitted to kick, punch, elbow and knee as well as use grappling submission techniques to defeat opponents. Despite criticism, supporters claim that the efficiency of non-violent grappling techniques has made MMA much safer than boxing, where fighters absorb repeated blows to the head. As the sport developed, fighters adjusted their bodies in order to better utilize the positional, tactical techniques that proved more successful than brute force. The mediated representation of fighting revealed that despite of being in a state of rage, MMA was a technically challenging sport based on the sublime performance of participant’s bodies. However, MMA remains the subject of debate in popular culture and the media, and medical expertise argues that the sport is dangerous and puts participants in harm´s way. On the other hand, proponents of the sport argue that health risks are overstated and that other, far less safe sports exist. The aim of this article is to scrutinize fighters as well as the opinions of media and the medical humanities in order to achieve an overview of the image of this combat sport. Convinced that the debate needs to be more nuanced, this paper examines how MMA encounters and mitigates scientific discourse and attitudes. The results also show that MMA is an ambiguous sport, taking responsibility for the well being of its fighters while encouraging spectacle in the arena.

  • 493.
    Stenmark, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Bergström, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Mental problems and their socio-demographic determinants in young schoolchildren in Sweden, a country with high gender and income equality2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Mental problems and their potential socio-demographic determinants were investigated in young schoolchildren in Sweden, a high-income country in the top of income- and gender-equality rankings.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1465 schoolchildren in grades 3 and 6. Mental health was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self Report (Total problems and 14 specific problem areas). Potential socio-demographic determinants were sex, parental education and occupation, family structure, and immigrant status.

    RESULTS: Mental problems were present in 14% of the sixth graders and in 7% of the third graders. In grade 3, the mean total problem score was lower in girls than in boys, but the prevalence of problems at a subclinical/clinical level did not differ by sex. Furthermore, in nine to 13 of the 14 specific problem areas, problems were equally distributed by sex, parental education, parental occupation, immigrant status, and family structure. In grade 6, both the total mean score and the overall odds of subclinical/clinical problems were similar in girls and boys. Likewise, in all the specific problem areas, problems were evenly distributed by parental education and occupation, and only independently associated with immigrant status and family structure in one problem area. In five specific problem areas, boys had higher odds of problems than girls.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that also in a relatively wealthy and equal country such as Sweden, mental problems are a significant child public health issue. The association between socio-demographic background and mental problems seems to be rather weak, but differ dependent on the type of mental problem in focus.

  • 494.
    Strandgren, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    FATTA VADÅ?: En studie av problemlösningar, underliggande antaganden och möjliga konsekvenser inom Fattas tal om det sexuella våldet.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: UNDERSTAND WHAT? – A study of problem solutions, underlying assumptions andpossible consequences within Fattas speech of sexual violence.

    One organization within Sweden´s feminist movement that works against sexual violence is FATTA!1. Fattas prime suggestions to combat the problem are changing law and the social norms that leads to sexual violence. The aim of this study is to examine the underlying assumptions located in Fattas speech about the sexual violence, and furthermore to problematize the possible consequences these assumptions could lead to. The used method and theory are discourse theory inspired by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe as well as Carol Bacchis “Whats the problem-approach”. The analysis shows that Fattas solutionsconsist of several inconsistencies. Particularly prominent is that they talk about sexual violence as a structural problem, with a repressive approach to power, while they run their project primarily from an individual perspective and presents solutions that also are made understandable in a liberal discourse, where all power influence are ignored. The discourse that reaches the hegemonic status, is however the liberal. Consequences that these assumptions include are for example stabilizing and essentializing identity. An important final conclusion is that Fattas problem solutions contribute to the problem more than they are a partof the solution as well as they produce other issues. These identity politic strategies are connected to our contemporary neoliberal time that explains Fattas problem formulations at a higher level.

  • 495.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Kroppen som helande process2008In: Psykisk Hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 496.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Skapa rum. Ung femininitet, kroppslighet och psykisk ohälsa: genusmedveten hälsofrämjande intervention.2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health problems among young people, girls and young women in particular, are a serious public health problem. Gendered patterns of mental illness are seen in conjunction with stress-related problems such as anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic complaints. Intervention models tailored to the health care situation are therefore in need of development and evaluation. The overall aim of this thesis is to develop knowledge and understanding for young women’s mental health, stress-related, and bodily problems from a psychosomatic and gender theory perspective, and to evaluate a gender sensitive physiotherapeutic intervention model consisting of a stress management course for young women with stress-related problems.

    The thesis consists of four studies. The overall research design combines qualitative and quantitative methods in which questionnaires and interviews were used to explore participant experiences and symptoms linked to perceived stress before and after the intervention. Data consisted of a cumulative sample of 65 young women, 16 to 25 years of age, who attended the youth-friendly health center because of stress-related problems. In paper I, multiple symptom areas of mental health and somatic problems, self-image and aspects of body perception were measured before the course. Participants were 47 of the young women. The results were compared with published normative and clinical reference groups. In paper II, the young women’s experiences of living stressful femininity were analysed with a qualitative content analysis using gender theoretical and phenomenological perspectives as an interpretative frame. The study was based on interviews with 25 of the women. In paper III, follow-up interviews were done with 32 of the women after completion of the course. Data was using qualitative content analysis to illuminate experiences of participating in the course. In paper IV, the course was evaluated by measuring changes in multiple symptom areas using the Adult Self Report (ASR), Social Analysis of Social Behaviour (SASB), and Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ). Participants were 54 of the women who completed measurements finishing the course.

    Young women present complex symptomatology of stress-related problems. The total burden of symptoms plus the narrated experiences highlight how renegotiations of gender constructions and handling of normative and stressful femininity constrain access to bodily resources. After the stress management course, their measured and narrated experiences show positive changes and release of mental health and stress problems, including a more positive self-image and sense of enhanced confidence in their bodies. Experiences of the course as a safe and explorative space for gendered collective understanding and embodied empowerment indicate the need to develop gender-sensitive interventions. The thesis contributes to youth and gender theoretical perspectives with integration of psychosomatic and psychiatric physiotherapy. A broader awareness of how gender constructions and sociocultural aspects are significant in the understanding of psychosomatic expressions of mental ill health and young femininity is valuable in development of theory and interventions in physiotherapy, as well as into other fields. 

  • 497.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Formark, Bodil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    The corporeality of living stressful femininity: a gender–theoretical analysis of young Swedish women’s stress experiences2014In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 271-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes young Swedish women’s experiences of living stressful femininity from an existentialist gender theoretical perspective. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 25 women, aged 17–25, who had registered for a stress management course at a youth health centre. Our analysis suggests that their experiences of stress can be related to the renegotiation of gender constructions that have occurred within the Swedish society. The young female subject can be viewed as living through a historic break between a historical position as a subordinated ‘Other’ while simultaneously having to navigate within contemporary discourses of successful femininity. The doing of normative femininity resulted in an exhausting and draining self-evaluating circle. The experiences of having a painful and collapsing body led to a sense of loss of access to and confidence in their bodies. This should be understood as a loss both of subjectivity and connectedness with the corporeality of existence.

  • 498.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    'Girls need to strengthen each other as a group': experiences from a gender-sensitive stress management intervention by youth-friendly Swedish health services: a qualitative study2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, no 907, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health problems among young people, and girls and young women in particular, are a well-known health problem. Such gendered mental health patterns are also seen in conjunction with stress-related problems, such as anxiety and depression and psychosomatic complaints. Thus, intervention models tailored to the health care situation experienced by young women within a gendered and sociocultural context are needed. This qualitative study aims to illuminate young women's experiences of participating in a body-based, gender-sensitive stress management group intervention by youth-friendly health services in northern Sweden.

    A physiotherapeutic body-based, health-promoting, gender-sensitive stress management intervention was created by youth-friendly Swedish health services. The stress management courses (n = 7) consisted of eight sessions, each lasting about two hours, and were led by the physiotherapist at the youth centre. The content in the intervention had a gender-sensitive approach, combining reflective discussions; short general lectures on, for example, stress and pressures related to body ideals; and physiotherapeutic methods, including body awareness and relaxation. Follow-up interviews were carried out with 32 young women (17--25 years of age) after they had completed the intervention. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    The overall results of our interview analysis suggest that the stress management course we evaluated facilitated 'a space for gendered and embodied empowerment in a hectic life', implying that it both contributed to a sense of individual growth and allowed participants to unburden themselves of stress problems within a trustful and supportive context. Participants' narrated experiences of 'finding a social oasis to challenge gendered expectations', 'being bodily empowered', and 'altering gendered positions and stance to life' point to empowering processes of change that allowed them to cope with distress, despite sometimes continuously stressful life situations. This intervention also decreased stress-related symptoms such as anxiousness, restlessness, muscle tension, aches and pains, fatigue, and impaired sleep.

    The participants' experiences of the intervention as a safe and exploratory space for gendered collective understanding and embodied empowerment further indicates the need to develop gender-sensitive interventions to reduce individualisation of health problems and instead encourage spaces for collective support, action, and change.

  • 499.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Complex symptomatology among young women who present with stress-related problems2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 234-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Scandinavia and globally, mental health and stress-related problems among adolescent girls and young women are public health concerns that need attention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health and somatic symptoms with a special focus on internalized problems, self-image, and body-mind aspects of body perception in a group of adolescent girls and young women presenting with stress-related problems at a youth-friendly Swedish health center, and to compare them with normative and clinical reference groups.

    Methods: The participants were 47 adolescent girls and young women, aged 17 to 25 years. The Adult Self Report (ASR), Social Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) and Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ) were used to measure multiple symptom areas.

    Results: Compared to reference groups, adolescent girls and young women report complex symptomatology with high levels of internalized problems such as anxiousness, depression, and somatic complaints. This manifested in attention problems, negative self-image, and perceived bodily discomfort and distrust.

    Conclusion

    Adolescent girls and young women emerging into adulthood present complex symptomatology of stress-related problems. This study gathered valuable information about their symptoms when they were seeking help. These young women showed higher symptom frequency than normative groups, and similar or higher symptom frequency than other clinical groups. Our findings of internalised and cognitive problems, including impaired self-image and body perceptions, point to the need for preventive strategies and tailored multidisciplinary interventions involving body-based methods to meet this complexity. Using tenets of stress theory, the complex symptomatology may be understood as logical responses to overwhelming stimuli and demands that exceed their ability to cope and disturb their ‘equilibrium’. However, the complex gendered interplays between various external/internal stressors and a broad range of stress responses and health outcomes need further study in a long-term perspective.

  • 500.
    Strömbäck, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gender-sensitive and youth-friendly physiotherapy: Steps toward a stress management intervention for girls and young women2016In: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes and evaluates initial steps of a gender-sensitive, youth-friendly group intervention model designed for teenage girls and young women who experience stress-related or psychosomatic problems. Fifty-four young women (16–25 years of age) participated in a gendersensitive physiotherapy stress management course at a youth health center. Inclusion criteria were self-defined stress-related problems and a wish to participate in the group intervention. Measurements of aspects of body perception, self-image, multiple somatic problems, and mental health symptom areas were assessed both before and after intervention with the Body Perception Questionnaire ad modum Schiöler, social analysis of social behavior, and Adult Self-Report scale. Significant positive changes were found in aspects of body perception, self-image, and mental health and somatic symptoms. The changes were most significant in lower internalization of anxiety and depression symptoms. Symptoms such as headaches and sleeping problems decreased. Participants were more satisfied with their bodies and more able to listen to body signals. Among cognitive issues, significant change occurred in thought problems, but not in attention problems. The intervention model needs further evaluation in controlled trials, but is promising and should be developed further in other physiotherapy settings and subgroups of young people.

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