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  • 451. Zamora-Ros, Raul
    et al.
    Knaze, Viktoria
    Rothwell, Joseph A.
    Hémon, Bertrand
    Moskal, Aurelie
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Touillaud, Marina
    Katzke, Verena
    Kühn, Tilman
    Boeing, Heiner
    Förster, Jana
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Valanou, Elissavet
    Peppa, Eleni
    Palli, Domenico
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Tumino, Rosario
    de Magistris, Maria Santucci
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Skeie, Guri
    Hjartåker, Anette
    Menéndez, Virginia
    Agudo, Antonio
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Huerta, José María
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Amiano, Pilar
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Key, Timothy J.
    Khaw, Kay-Thee
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Lu, Yunxia
    Slimani, Nadia
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Riboli, Elio
    Scalbert, Augustin
    Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2016In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 1359-1375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations. The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing.

    RESULTS: Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers.

    CONCLUSION: This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.

  • 452. Zamora-Ros, Raul
    et al.
    Luján-Barroso, Leila
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Dik, Vincent K
    Boeing, Heiner
    Steffen, Annika
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Bech, Bodil Hammer
    Overvad, Kim
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Racine, Antoine
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Kuhn, Tilman
    Katzke, Verena
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Vineis, Paolo
    Grioni, Sara
    Palli, Domenico
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Huerta, José María
    Sánchez, María-José
    Argüelles, Marcial
    Amiano, Pilar
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Wallner, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lindkvist, Björn
    Wallström, Peter
    Peeters, Petra H M
    Key, Timothy J
    Khaw, Kay-Thee
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Freisling, Heinz
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Gunter, Marc J
    Murphy, Neil
    Riboli, Elio
    González, Carlos A
    Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2014In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 1470-1479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; P-trend=0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.93; P-trend=0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.73; P-trend=0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases.

  • 453. Zamora-Ros, Raul
    et al.
    Rothwell, Joseph A.
    Scalbert, Augustin
    Knaze, Viktoria
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Slimani, Nadia
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Perquier, Florence
    Touillaud, Marina
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Amiano, Pilar
    Menendez, Virginia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Santucci de Magistris, Maria
    Palli, Domenico
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sieri, Sabina
    Crowe, Francesca L.
    Khaw, Kay-Thee
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Grote, Verena
    Li, Kuanrong
    Boeing, Heiner
    Foerster, Jana
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Benetou, Vassiliki
    Tsiotas, Konstantinos
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Ros, Martine
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Overvad, Kim
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Wallstrom, Peter
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Skeie, Guri
    Wark, Petra
    Riboli, Elio
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Dietary intakes and food sources of phenolic acids in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 110, no 8, p. 1500-1511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265.5 and 980.7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213.2 and 158.6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84.6-95.3% of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4.6-14.4%, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0.1-0.8% and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids <= 0.1% for all regions. An increasing south-north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55.3-80.7% of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.

  • 454. Zheng, Ju-Sheng
    et al.
    Imamura, Fumiaki
    Sharp, Stephen J.
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Sluijs, Ivonne
    Gundersen, Thomas E.
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bonet, Catalina
    Humberto Gomez, Jesus
    Dow, Courtney
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Franks, Paul W.
    Jenab, Mazda
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Key, Timothy J.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Lasheras, Cristina
    Mokoroa, Olatz
    Mancini, Francesca Romana
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Overvad, Kim
    Panico, Salvatore
    Palli, Domenico
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sieri, Sabina
    Salamanca-Fernandez, Elena
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Tumino, Rosario
    Butterworth, Adam S.
    Riboli, Elio
    Danesh, John
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Forouhi, Nita G.
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Association of Plasma Vitamin D Metabolites With Incident Type 2 Diabetes: EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study2019In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 1293-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Existing evidence for the prospective association of vitamin D status with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is focused almost exclusively on circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] without distinction between its subtypes: nonepimeric and epimeric 25(OH)D3 stereoisomers, and 25(OH)D2, the minor component of 25(OH)D. We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of circulating levels of the sum and each of these three metabolites with incident T2D.

    Methods: This analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–InterAct case-cohort study for T2D included 9671 incident T2D cases and 13,562 subcohort members. Plasma vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used a multivariable Prentice-weighted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of T2D for each metabolite. Analyses were performed separately within country, and estimates were combined across countries using random-effects meta-analysis.

    Results: The mean concentrations (SD) of total 25(OH)D, nonepimeric 25(OH)D3, epimeric 25(OH)D3, and 25(OH)D2 were 41.1 (17.2), 40.7 (17.3), 2.13 (1.31), and 8.16 (6.52) nmol/L, respectively. Plasma total 25(OH)D and nonepimeric 25(OH)D3 were inversely associated with incident T2D [multivariable-adjusted HR per 1 SD = 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77, 0.86) for both variables], whereas epimeric 25(OH)D3 was positively associated [per 1 SD HR = 1.16 (1.09, 1.25)]. There was no statistically significant association with T2D for 25(OH)D2 [per 1 SD HR = 0.94 (0.76, 1.18)].

    Conclusions: Plasma nonepimeric 25(OH)D3 was inversely associated with incident T2D, consistent with it being the major metabolite contributing to total 25(OH)D. The positive association of the epimeric form of 25(OH)D3 with incident T2D provides novel information to assess the biological relevance of vitamin D epimerization and vitamin D subtypes in diabetes etiology.

  • 455.
    Zhu, Yan-He
    et al.
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Wang, Xin-Feng
    Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Yang, Guang
    Second Department of Cardiology, Shaanxi Province People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.
    Wei, Jin
    Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China..
    Tan, Wu-Hong
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Wang, Li-Xin
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Guo, Xiong
    Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Institute of Endemic Diseases, Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Xi'an, China.
    Xu, Jie-Hua
    Department of Human Anatomy and Histo-Embryology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Efficacy of long-term selenium supplementation in the treatment of chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure2019In: Current medical science, ISSN 2096-5230, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 237-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few effective treatments for chronic Keshan disease have been available till now. The efficacy of long-term selenium supplementation in the treatment of chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure is inconclusive. This study aimed to determine whether selenium supplementation is associated with a decreased risk of cardiac death in chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure by ten years of follow-up. A retrospective long-term follow-up analysis was performed on a monitored cohort consisting of 302 chronic Keshan disease patients with a mean age of 40.8±11.4 years. Of the 302 chronic Keshan disease patients, 170 (56.3%) were given selenium supplementation until the end point of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify the independent predictors of cardiac events. Our results showed that during the follow-up, there were 101 deaths of patients with chronic Keshan disease in the selenium supplementation group (101/170, 59.4%) and 98 in non-selenium supplementation group (98/132, 74.2%). Multivariate analyses suggested that selenium supplementation was associated with a decreased risk of cardiac death (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.28-0.53) after adjustment for baseline age, sex, cigarette smoking, family history of Keshan disease, body mass index (BMI), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, blood pressure, initial cardiothoracic ratio, left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) and whole-blood selenium concentration. Our ten-year follow-up analysis indicated that selenium supplementation, specifically combined with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and beta blocker therapy, improved the survival of patients with chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure. BMI, selenium deficiency, male, combined ECG abnormalities, LVEF, and fast heart rate increased the risk of cardiac events.

  • 456.
    Ådén, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Carlsson, Maine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Edström, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Håglin, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Dietary intake and olfactory function in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.2011In: Nutritional neuroscience, ISSN 1476-8305, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate energy and nutrient intake in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and association between olfaction and nutrient density of the diet.

    DESIGN: Baseline data from a prospective cohort study.

    SUBJECTS: Eighty-seven patients and 28 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study.

    METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed by using 3-day dietary records and 24-hour dietary recalls. The Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) was used to test olfaction.

    RESULTS: Patients, compared with controls, had lower intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.024) and a higher intake of carbohydrates (P = 0.027) in energy percent (E%). Lower intake of protein (E%) (P = 0.045), and a low nutrient density of folate (P = 0.022), magnesium (P = 0.012), and phosphorus (P = 0.029) were associated with lower B-SIT score in both patients and controls. PD patients had a lower B-SIT score than controls (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The results indicate a higher relative contribution of energy from carbohydrates in PD patients. An association between low protein, folate, magnesium, and phosphorus density of the diet and olfaction was seen in the whole population.

  • 457.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Studiebesök på the Royal London Hospital2008In: Dietistaktuellt, ISSN 1102-9285, Vol. XIX, no 2, p. 24-25/27Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 458.
    Öhlund, Inger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Silfverdal, Sven-Arne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Karlsland Åkeson, Pia
    Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dark skin and low exposure to sunlight increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in children. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of vitamin D needed to ascertain that most children >4 y of age attain sufficient serum25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH) D; i.e., >= 50 nmol/L] during winter regardless of latitude and skin color. Design: In a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized, food-based intervention study, 5- to 7-y-old children from northern (638 degrees N) and southern (558 degrees N) Sweden with fair (n = 108) and dark (n = 98) skin were included. Children, stratified by skin color by using Fitzpa-trick's definition, were randomly assigned to receive milk-based vitamin D-3 supplements that provided 2 (placebo), 10, or 25 mu g/d during 3 winter months. Results: Mean daily vitamin D intake increased from 6 to 17 mu g and 26 mu g in the intervention groups supplemented with 10 and 25 mu g, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 90.2% (95% CI: 81.1%, 99.3%) of fair-skinned children randomly assigned to supplementation of 10 mu g/d attained sufficient concentrations, whereas 25 mu g/d was needed in dark-skinned children to reach sufficiency in 95.1% (95% CI: 88.5%, 100%). In children adherent to the study product, 97% (95% CI: 91.3%, 100%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 76.8%, 99%) of fair-and dark-skinned children, respectively, achieved sufficient concentrations if supplemented with 10 mu g/d. By using 95% prediction intervals for 30 and 50 nmol S-25(OH) D/L, intakes of 6 and 20 mu g/d are required in fair-skinned children, whereas 14 and 28 mu g/d are required in children with dark skin. Conclusion: Children with fair and dark skin require vitamin D intakes of 20 and 28 mu g/d, respectively, to maintain S-25(OH) D >= 50 nmol/L, whereas intakes of 6 and 14 mu g/d, respectively, are required to maintain concentrations >= 30 nmol/L during winter.

  • 459.
    Öhlund, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Dietary shortcomings in children on a gluten-free diet2010In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 294-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Coeliac disease (CD), or permanent gluten intolerance, is one of the most common chronic food-related diseases among children in Europe and the USA. The treatment is lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) (i.e. the exclusion of wheat, rye and barley from the diet, which are important sources particularly of iron, dietary fibre and vitamin B). The present study aimed to evaluate dietary intakes of energy and nutrients in children and adolescents on GFD and compare these with intake of comparable age groups on a normal diet as well as current recommendations.

    Methods: Thirty children, 4-17 years of age with confirmed CD and on GFD were agreed to participate in this study at the Department of Pediatrics, Umeå University Hospital. Weight and height were used to calculate individual energy requirement according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004 (NNR-04). Dietary intake was assessed using 5-day food records and household measures were used for quantities. Twenty-five children completed their dietary record.

    Results: Thirteen of the 25 children did not meet the recommended energy intake and the dietary intakes were inadequate regarding quality of macronutrients and quantity of minerals and vitamins. The mean intakes of sucrose and saturated fatty acids were above and the intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin D, magnesium and selenium below the NNR-04. High intakes of sucrose and saturated fat and a low intake of dietary fibre were also noted in a previous national survey on healthy children on a normal diet. The nutrient density of vitamin D, riboflavin, niacin, thiamine, magnesium and selenium were lower among CD children than healthy children but, for iron and calcium, it was higher in CD children.

    Conclusions: Children on GFD appear to follow the same trends as healthy children on a normal diet, with high intakes of saturated fat and sucrose and low intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin D and magnesium compared to recommendations.

78910 451 - 459 of 459
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