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  • 51.
    Renquist, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rotnedträngning i skydds- och tätskikt på nedlagda anrikningssandsmagasin2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 52.
    Riström, Emilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Siktning som saneringsmetod för metallförorenad mark2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Toxic metals contaminate soil worldwide and thus serve as sever environmental threat. Therefore the purposes of this study were to investigate in which soil fractions that different heavy metals (Fe, As, Cu, Zn and Pb) could be found in contaminated soils and if it is possible to use sieving as a method for decontamination. Soil samples were collected from three different locations, the Nasa silver mine, the Blaiken-mine and Svalget environmental station. The samples were oven dried and later on sieved into six different fractions 8mm, 4 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.250mm, 0.063 mm and <0.063 mm. The fractions 4 mm, 0.5 mm and <0.063 mm from each location were analyzed in an x-ray fluorescence detector. The results showed that in general the smallest fractions contained the highest concentration of heavy metals which was very clear for Pb where 5 out of 6 samples had the highest concentration in the smallest fraction. The highest concentration of Cu (1147 ppm) and Zn (1117 ppm) were found in the smallest fraction in samples from the location Svalget. The highest concentration of Pb (10042 ppm) was also found in the smallest fraction in samples from Blaiken. In similarity the highest concentration of As (13305 ppm) was found in the smallest fraction in samples from the Nasa mine. However, in most samples the difference between the smallest fractions and the coarser material was small. Sieving may therefore not be the best way to decontaminate soil because even the larger fractions contained high concentrations of heavy metals.

  • 53.
    Rybacka, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ruden, Christina
    Tetko, Igor V.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Identifying potential endocrine disruptors among industrial chemicals and their metabolites - development and evaluation of in silico tools2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 139, p. 372-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to improve the identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by developing and evaluating in silico tools that predict interactions at the estrogen (E) and androgen (A) receptors, and binding to transthyretin (T). In particular, the study focuses on evaluating the use of the EAT models in combination with a metabolism simulator to study the significance of bioactivation for endocrine disruption. Balanced accuracies of the EAT models ranged from 77-87%, 62-77%, and 65-89% for E-, A-, and T-binding respectively. The developed models were applied on a set of more than 6000 commonly used industrial chemicals of which 9% were predicted E- and/or A-binders and 1% were predicted T-binders. The numbers of E- and T-binders increased 2- and 3-fold, respectively, after metabolic transformation, while the number of A-binders marginally changed. In-depth validation confirmed that several of the predicted bioactivated E- or T-binders demonstrated in vivo estrogenic activity or influenced blood levels of thyroxine in vivo. The metabolite simulator was evaluated using in vivo data from the literature which showed a 50% accuracy for studied chemicals. The study stresses, in summary, the importance of including metabolic activation in prioritization activities of potentially emerging contaminants. 

  • 54.
    Rydberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rosen, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lambertsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    De Vleeschouwer, F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tomasdotter, S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Assessment of the spatial distributions of total- and methyl-mercury and their relationship to sediment geochemistry from a whole-lake perspective2012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117, p. G04005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the spatial variability for total-and methylmercury in surface sediments (0-2 cm) across a single whole-lake basin, and to relate this variability to the sediment's geochemical composition. 83 surface sediment samples from Stor-Stromsjon - a lake with multiple sub-basins located in northern Sweden - were analyzed for geochemical composition as well as total-mercury (total-Hg) and methylmercury (methyl-Hg; 35 samples) concentrations. Our results indicate that variations in fine-grained mineral matter (36%) and organic matter (34%) explain an equal amount of the total-Hg variation, but that their relative importance varies between different parts of the lake. Total-Hg concentrations were similar in locations controlled by organic matter or fine-grained mineral matter (average 109 ng g(-1)); however, total-Hg inventories (mass per unit area) were significantly higher in the latter (35 and 53 mu g m(-2), respectively). Methyl-Hg concentrations are largely (55% of variance) controlled by water depth and sulfur concentration, which supports the importance of within lake methylation reported from other studies. Both for concentrations and inventories the spatial distribution for methyl-Hg in surface sediments is patchy, and interestingly the highest methyl-Hg inventory (1.4 mu g m(-2)) was found in a shallow location with coarse-grained minerogenic sediment (very low organic matter). A large spatial variability, even within a single lake, is something that needs to be recognized, e.g., when studying processes affecting mercury cycling, mercury loadings and when using lake sediments to reconstruct historic mercury deposition.

  • 55. Shtangeeva, Irina
    et al.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Comparison of nutrient concentrations in leaves of five plants2017In: Journal of plant nutrition, ISSN 0190-4167, E-ISSN 1532-4087, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 239-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes investigation on bioaccumulation of mineral elementsand identification of plants based on the concentrations of the elements inthe plant leaves. Five native plant species (Elytrigia repens, Plantago major,Urtica dioica, Chelidonium majus, and Taraxacum officinale) were studied. Toexclude the effects from different growth conditions and developmentalstages, the plants were collected simultaneously from the same site (park inSt. Petersburg, Russia). It was found that for all plants high concentrations ofpotassium, sodium, phosphorus and magnesium (K, Na, P, and Mg) weretypical, while concentrations of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were the lowest.The most significant difference was found between concentrations ofelements in monocots and eudicots. Among other species,T. officinalehadthe highest concentrations of almost all elements. Excellent separation of theplants into different groups which was due to different elementconcentrations in the plant leaves was demonstrated.

  • 56. Sinclair, Paul
    et al.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Crumley, Carole L.
    Historical ecology and the longue durée2017In: Issues and concepts in historical ecology: the past and future of landscapes and regions / [ed] Carole L. Crumley, Tommy Lennartsson, Anna Westin, Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 13-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Skog, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Geological factors affecting the channel type of Bjur River in Västerbotten County: A study concerning the connection between surficial geology, landforms, slope and different hydrological process domains in a stream catchment above the highest shoreline2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Process domains categorizes sections of streams according to its local dominant processes. These processes often reflect on the local ecology and the streams appearance. But the underlying reason why these different process domains are formed are still not completely certain. In this study the distribution of the process domains: lakes, rapids and slow-flowing reaches in the Bjur River catchment were compared to the geological factors of slope, surficial geology and landforms to see if any connections could be found. The possibility of using GIS (geographic information systems) and remote data to distinguish these stream types and to connect them to the different studied geological factors were also examined. The hypothesis for this study is that the geological factors of slope, surficial geology and landforms all should have an influence over the distribution of the process domains in Bjur River. The analysis was executed through map-studies in ArcGIS and statistical analysis in Excel. All process domains showed statistical significance towards the studied geological factors. The slope was generally steeper in the rapids than in slow-flowing reaches and lakes. The surficial geology displayed more fine-grained sediment (peat) in proximity to lakes and slow-flowing reaches whilst till was more abundant close to rapids. Hilly moraine landscapes were most common around lakes, while rapids displayed a high percentage of glacio-fluvially eroded area. Slow-flowing reaches also showed to have around 44% of its studied points around glacio-fluvially eroded area, and 43% at areas without any major landforms. Even if the statistical analysis and figures display a difference between the different process domains, it is still difficult to say which of these geological factors that plays the most crucial role for their development. However, by using remote data and through studies over slope, adjacent surficial geology and landforms the different process domains can be differentiated from one another.

  • 58. Stephens, Lucas
    et al.
    Fuller, Dorian
    Boivin, Nicole
    Rick, Torben
    Gauthier, Nicolas
    Kay, Andrea
    Marwick, Ben
    Geralda, Chelsey
    Armstrong, Denise
    Barton, C. Michael
    Denham, Tim
    Douglass, Kristina
    Driver, Jonathan
    Janz, Lisa
    Roberts, Patrick
    Rogers, J. Daniel
    Thakar, Heather
    Altaweel, Mark
    Johnson, Amber L.
    Sampietro Vattuone, Maria Marta
    Aldenderfer, Mark
    Archila, Sonia
    Artioli, Gilberto
    Bale, Martin T.
    Beach, Timothy
    Borrell, Ferran
    Braje, Todd
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Jiménez Cano, Nayeli Guadalupe
    Capriles, José M.
    Diez Castillo, Agustín
    \c Cilingiro\u glu, \c Ciler
    Negus Cleary, Michelle
    Conolly, James
    Coutros, Peter R.
    Covey, R. Alan
    Cremaschi, Mauro
    Crowther, Alison
    Der, Lindsay
    di Lernia, Savino
    Doershuk, John F.
    Doolittle, William E.
    Edwards, Kevin J.
    Erlandson, Jon M.
    Evans, Damian
    Fairbairn, Andrew
    Faulkner, Patrick
    Feinman, Gary
    Fernandes, Ricardo
    Fitzpatrick, Scott M.
    Fyfe, Ralph
    Garcea, Elena
    Goldstein, Steve
    Goodman, Reed Charles
    Dalpoim Guedes, Jade
    Herrmann, Jason
    Hiscock, Peter
    Hommel, Peter
    Horsburgh, K. Ann
    Hritz, Carrie
    Ives, John W.
    Junno, Aripekka
    Kahn, Jennifer G.
    Kaufman, Brett
    Kearns, Catherine
    Kidder, Tristram R.
    Lanoë, Fran\c cois
    Lawrence, Dan
    Lee, Gyoung-Ah
    Levin, Maureece J.
    Lindskoug, Henrik B.
    López-Sáez, José Antonio
    Macrae, Scott
    Marchant, Rob
    Marston, John M.
    McClure, Sarah
    McCoy, Mark D.
    Miller, Alicia Ventresca
    Morrison, Michael
    Motuzaite Matuzeviciute, Giedre
    Müller, Johannes
    Nayak, Ayushi
    Noerwidi, Sofwan
    Peres, Tanya M.
    Peterson, Christian E.
    Proctor, Lucas
    Randall, Asa R.
    Renette, Steve
    Robbins Schug, Gwen
    Ryzewski, Krysta
    Saini, Rakesh
    Scheinsohn, Vivian
    Schmidt, Peter
    Sebillaud, Pauline
    Seitsonen, Oula
    Simpson, Ian A.
    So\ltysiak, Arkadiusz
    Speakman, Robert J.
    Spengler, Robert N.
    Steffen, Martina L.
    Storozum, Michael J.
    Strickland, Keir M.
    Thompson, Jessica
    Thurston, T. L.
    Ulm, Sean
    Ustunkaya, M. Cemre
    Welker, Martin H.
    West, Catherine
    Williams, Patrick Ryan
    Wright, David K.
    Wright, Nathan
    Zahir, Muhammad
    Zerboni, Andrea
    Beaudoin, Ella
    Munevar Garcia, Santiago
    Powell, Jeremy
    Thornton, Alexa
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Klein Goldewijk, Kees
    Ellis, Erle
    Archaeological assessment reveals Earth’s early transformation through land use2019In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 365, no 6456, p. 897-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans began to leave lasting impacts on Earth’s surface starting 10,000 to 8000 years ago. Through a synthetic collaboration with archaeologists around the globe, Stephens et al. compiled a comprehensive picture of the trajectory of human land use worldwide during the Holocene (see the Perspective by Roberts). Hunter-gatherers, farmers, and pastoralists transformed the face of Earth earlier and to a greater extent than has been widely appreciated, a transformation that was essentially global by 3000 years before the present.Science, this issue p. 897; see also p. 865Environmentally transformative human use of land accelerated with the emergence of agriculture, but the extent, trajectory, and implications of these early changes are not well understood. An empirical global assessment of land use from 10,000 years before the present (yr B.P.) to 1850 CE reveals a planet largely transformed by hunter-gatherers, farmers, and pastoralists by 3000 years ago, considerably earlier than the dates in the land-use reconstructions commonly used by Earth scientists. Synthesis of knowledge contributed by more than 250 archaeologists highlighted gaps in archaeological expertise and data quality, which peaked for 2000 yr B.P. and in traditionally studied and wealthier regions. Archaeological reconstruction of global land-use history illuminates the deep roots of Earth’s transformation and challenges the emerging Anthropocene paradigm that large-scale anthropogenic global environmental change is mostly a recent phenomenon.

  • 59.
    Sundin, Joe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seed rain and dispersal possibilities between process domains: Comparing seed dispersal abundance between lakes, rapids and slow-flowing reaches2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Process domains are formed by geomorphological process, these geological formation act as water pathways for river systems and affects hydrochory potential for seeds. Hydrochory acts differently depending on fluvial settings and is an important factor for diversity in the riparian zone along streams and lakes. The aim of this study was to (1) determine if process domains influence plant species abundance and diversity, and (2) if certain environmental factors associated with different process domains affects species abundance and diversity. The sample sites are parts of a dendritic water system located in tributaries for Hjuksån summer 2017 in northern Sweden. Seed samples were collected from three process domains (lake, rapids and slow-flowing) and later identified in lab. A greater species abundances and seed amount were found at lakes compared to rapids and slow-flowing reaches but there were no significant different between the process domains. None of the environmental factors showed to be important but there were indications that number of boulders might influence seed dispersal. Shannon Diversity index showed to be highest along slow-flowing reaches, but again no significant difference. Understanding process domains and their unique compositions in species abundance and diversity is for example an important factor for restoration techniques of anthropogenic modified streams.

  • 60.
    Tarberg, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Utsläpp av växthusgaser under islossning i små boreala sjöar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater ecosystems have long been neglected as an important part of the global carbon cycle. However, research shows that most of the world’s lakes are net-heterotrophic and consequently emitters of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In many boreal and north-temperate lakes, most of the yearly emissions usually occur in spring, shortly after ice-thaw. The aim of this study was to quantify the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in three boreal lakes, during this annual event. In order to do this, water samples were collected before and after ice-thaw, and the flux was estimated as the difference in mass of carbon between the two sampling occasions. The results showed that the lakes had accumulated high amounts of carbon over the winter, with higher concentrations generally at higher depths. The fluxes during ice-thaw ranged from 234–380 (mean: 302) and -1.15–15.12 (mean: 8.64) mmol m-2 y-1 for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Given their small sizes, the lakes emitted less carbon, per unit area, than expected. This was assumed to be due to the lakes’ rather isolated locations and since the heating of the water rapidly caused them to become highly stratified, thus preventing the wind from releasing deeper stored carbon. Presumably, this holds true for other similar boreal lakes as well, which suggests that attention – in such ecosystems – also needs to be brought to other mixing periods.

  • 61.
    Tolu, Julie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gerber, Lorenz
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    High-throughput characterization of sediment organic matter by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and multivariate curve resolution: A promising analytical tool in (paleo) limnology2015In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 880, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular-level chemical information about organic matter (OM) in sediments helps to establish the sources of OM and the prevalent degradation/diagenetic processes, both essential for understanding the cycling of carbon (C) and of the elements associated with OM (toxic trace metals and nutrients) in lake ecosystems. Ideally, analytical methods for characterizing OM should allow high sample throughput, consume small amounts of sample and yield relevant chemical information, which are essential for multidisciplinary, high-temporal resolution and/or large spatial scale investigations. We have developed a high-throughput analytical method based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated data processing to characterize sedimentary OM in sediments. Our method consumes 200 mg of freeze-dried and ground sediment sample. Pyrolysis was performed at 450 degrees C, which was found to avoid degradation of specific biomarkers (e. g., lignin compounds, fresh carbohydrates/cellulose) compared to 650 degrees C, which is in the range of temperatures commonly applied for environmental samples. The optimization was conducted using the top ten sediment samples of an annually resolved sediment record (containing 16-18% and 1.3-1.9% of total carbon and nitrogen, respectively). Several hundred pyrolytic compound peaks were detected of which over 200 were identified, which represent different classes of organic compounds (i. e., n-alkanes, n-alkenes, 2-ketones, carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, other N compounds, (methoxy) phenols, (poly) aromatics, chlorophyll and steroids/hopanoids). Technical reproducibility measured as relative standard deviation of the identified peaks in triplicate analyses was 5.5 +/- 4.3%, with 90% of the RSD values within 10% and 98% within 15%. Finally, a multivariate calibration model was calculated between the pyrolytic degradation compounds and the sediment depth (i. e., sediment age), which is a function of degradation processes and changes in OM source type. This allowed validation of the Py-GC/MS dataset against fundamental processes involved in OM cycling in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 62. Valinia, Salar
    et al.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Cosby, Bernard J.
    Rosen, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Folster, Jens
    Simple Models to Estimate Historical and Recent Changes of Total Organic Carbon Concentrations in Lakes2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 386-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying human impacts on the natural environment requires credible reconstructions of reference conditions. Anthropogenic acidification of surface waters is strongly influenced by total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Because both the degree of acidification and recovery are dependent on historical TOC concentrations, simple models to estimate changes in surface water TOC between reference conditions (1860) and the present day (2012) are needed. We used visible near infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS) of lake sediments to reconstruct reference condition TOC and long-term monitoring data to predict recent changes. Two empirical models were developed to predict: (i) historical TOC trends between reference conditions (1860) and peak acidification (1980) and (ii) trends in TOC between 1988 and 2012. The models were statistically robust with adj. R(2) of (i) 0.85 and (ii) 0.71, respectively. Models were driven by lake and catchment area, wetlands, historical sulfur deposition and water chemistry. Present day TOC concentrations are similar to VNIRS-reconstructed and modeled reference condition TOC in Swedish lakes. The results are valuable for understanding drivers of TOC changes in lakes and for more credible assessments of reference conditions needed for water management in Europe and elsewhere.

  • 63.
    Vinterek, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rening av lakvatten vid deponin Degermyran i Skellefteå kommun: Utvärdering av nuvarande reningseffekt och simulering av mängden bildat lakvatten under 2000-talets klimatförändringar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At Degermyran landfill, situated in the municipal Skellefteå, a leachate treatment system was installed in 2005. One of the aims of this study was to investigate how well the treatment system works by using data from chemical measurements made on the leachate before and after treatment. Further this study had the purpose of investigating how the predicted climate changes of the 21st century will affect the amount of leachate generated at Degermyran by using a modified version of Thornthwaites water balance model. The treatment system has the ability of reducing manganese by 90 %, nitrogen by 73 % och TOC by 79 %. By the turn of this century the amount of precipitation that percolates the waste at Degermyran will be between 254 and 298 mm, depending on the amount of greenhouse gases that will be released in the future to come. The conclusions from this study are that the leachate treatment system reduces the levels of the investigated substances and that the amount of leachate produced at Degermyran will increase. To further investigate the efficiency of the leachate treatment system, flow proportionate measurements of the leachate chemistry could be adopted. If accurate flow measurements of the amount of generated leachate were performed the reliability of the used water balance model could be assessed.

  • 64.
    Wieloch, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Ehlers, Ina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Frank, David
    Grabner, Michael
    Gessler, Arthur
    Schleucher, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Intramolecular 13C analysis of tree rings provides multiple plant ecophysiology signals covering decades2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 5048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of carbon isotope contents of plant organic matter provide important information in diverse fields such as plant breeding, ecophysiology, biogeochemistry and paleoclimatology. They are currently based on 13C/12C ratios of specific, whole metabolites, but we show here that intramolecular ratios provide higher resolution information. In the glucose units of tree-ring cellulose of 12 tree species, we detected large differences in 13C/12C ratios (>10‰) among carbon atoms, which provide isotopically distinct inputs to major global C pools, including wood and soil organic matter. Thus, considering position-specific differences can improve characterisation of soil-to-atmosphere carbon fluxes and soil metabolism. In a Pinus nigra tree-ring archive formed from 1961 to 1995, we found novel 13C signals, and show that intramolecular analysis enables more comprehensive and precise signal extraction from tree rings, and thus higher resolution reconstruction of plants’ responses to climate change. Moreover, we propose an ecophysiological mechanism for the introduction of a 13C signal, which links an environmental shift to the triggered metabolic shift and its intramolecular 13C signature. In conclusion, intramolecular 13C analyses can provide valuable new information about long-term metabolic dynamics for numerous applications.

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