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  • 51. Baeyens, Luc
    et al.
    Lemper, Marie
    Leuckx, Gunter
    De Groef, Sofie
    Bonfanti, Paola
    Stange, Geert
    Shemer, Ruth
    Nord, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Scheel, David W
    Pan, Fong C
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Gu, Guoqiang
    Stoffers, Doris A
    Dor, Yuval
    Ferrer, Jorge
    Gradwohl, Gerard
    Wright, Christopher VE
    Van de Casteele, Mark
    German, Michael S
    Bouwens, Luc
    Heimberg, Harry
    Transient cytokine treatment induces acinar cell reprogramming and regenerates functional beta cell mass in diabetic mice2014In: Nature Biotechnology, ISSN 1087-0156, E-ISSN 1546-1696, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into cells resembling beta cells may provide a strategy for treating diabetes. Here we show that transient administration of epidermal growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor to adult mice with chronic hyperglycemia efficiently stimulates the conversion of terminally differentiated acinar cells to beta-like cells. Newly generated beta-like cells are epigenetically reprogrammed, functional and glucose responsive, and they reinstate normal glycemic control for up to 248 d. The regenerative process depends on Stat3 signaling and requires a threshold number of Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3)-expressing acinar cells. In contrast to previous work demonstrating in vivo conversion of acinar cells to beta-like cells by viral delivery of exogenous transcription factors, our approach achieves acinar-to-beta-cell reprogramming through transient cytokine exposure rather than genetic modification.

  • 52. Bagnato, Paola
    et al.
    Castagnino, Alessia
    Cortese, Katia
    Bono, Maria
    Grasso, Silvia
    Bellese, Grazia
    Daniele, Tiziana
    Lundmark, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Defilippi, Paola
    Castagnola, Patrizio
    Tacchetti, Carlo
    Cooperative but distinct early co-signaling events originate from ERBB2 and ERBB1 receptors upon trastuzumab treatment in breast cancer cells2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 36, p. 60109-60122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ERBB2 receptor belongs to the ERBB tyrosine kinase receptor family. At variance to the other family members, ERBB2 is a constitutively active orphan receptor. Upon ligand binding and activation, ERBB receptors form homo-or hetero-dimers with the other family members, including ERBB2, promoting an intracellular signaling cascade. ERBB2 is the preferred dimerization partner and ERBB2 heterodimers signaling is stronger and longer acting compared to heterodimers between other ERBB members. The specific contribution of ERBB2 in heterodimer signaling is still undefined. Here we report the formation of circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs) upon treatment of the ERBB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 and ZR751 with Trastuzumab, a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody directed against ERBB2. We found that in SK-BR-3 cells Trastuzumab leads to surface redistribution of ERBB2 and ERBB1 in CDRs, and that the ERBB2-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ERBB1 expression are both required for CDR formation. In particular, in these cells CDR formation requires activation of both the protein regulator of actin polymerization N-WASP, mediated by ERK1/2, and of the actin depolymerizing protein cofilin, mediated by ERBB1. Furthermore, we suggest that this latter event may be inhibited by the negative cell motility regulator p140Cap, as we found that p140Cap overexpression led to cofilin deactivation and inhibition of CDR formation. In conclusion, here we show for the first time an ERBB2-specific signaling contribution to an ERBB2/ERBB1 heterodimer, in the activation of a complex biological process such as the formation of CDRs.

  • 53. Bahnan, Wael
    et al.
    Boettner, Douglas R.
    Westermark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Schesser, Kurt
    Pathogenic Yersinia Promotes Its Survival by Creating an Acidic Fluid-Accessible Compartment on the Macrophage Surface2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, article id e0133298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial pathogens and host immune cells each initiate events following their interaction in an attempt to drive the outcome to their respective advantage. Here we show that the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis sustains itself on the surface of a macrophage by forming acidic fluid-accessible compartments that are partially bounded by the host cell plasma membrane. These Yersinia-containing acidic compartments (YACs) are bereft of the early endosomal marker EEA1 and the lysosomal antigen LAMP1 and readily form on primary macrophages as well as macrophage-like cell lines. YAC formation requires the presence of the Yersinia virulence plasmid which encodes a type III secretion system. Unexpectedly, we found that the initial formation of YACs did not require translocation of the type III effectors into the host cell cytosol; however, the duration of YACs was markedly greater in infections using translocation-competent Y. pseudotuberculosis strains as well as strains expressing the effector YopJ. Furthermore, it was in this translocation- and YopJ-dependent phase of infection that the acidic environment was critical for Y. pseudotuberculosis survival during its interaction with macrophages. Our findings indicate that during its extracellular phase of infection Y. pseudotuberculosis initiates and then, by a separate mechanism, stabilizes the formation of a highly intricate structure on the surface of the macrophage that is disengaged from the endocytic pathway.

  • 54.
    Bailey, Leslie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Gylfe, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sundin, Charlotta
    Muschiol, Sandra
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Henriques-Normark, Birgitta
    Lugert, Raimond
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Small molecule inhibitors of type III secretion in Yersinia block the Chlamydia pneumoniae infection cycle2007In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 581, no 4, p. 587-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracellular parasitism by Chlamydiales is a complex process involving transmission of metabolically inactive particles that differentiate, replicate, and re-differentiate within the host cell. A type three secretion system (T3SS) has been implicated in this process. We have here identified small molecules of a chemical class of acylated hydrazones of salicylaldehydes that specifically blocks the T3SS of Chlamydia. These compounds also affect the developmental cycle showing that the T3SS has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia. Our results suggest a previously unexplored avenue for development of novel anti-chlamydial drugs.

  • 55.
    Bamyaci, Sarp
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Ekestubbe, Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nordfelth, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Ertmann, Saskia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Edgren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Forsberg, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    YopN is required for efficient translocation and virulence in Yersinia pseudotuberculosisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 56. Baptista, Marisa A. P.
    et al.
    Keszei, Marton
    Oliveira, Mariana
    Sunahara, Karen K. S.
    Andersson, John
    Dahlberg, Carin I. M.
    Worth, Austen J.
    Lieden, Agne
    Kuo, I-Chun
    Wallin, Robert P. A.
    Snapper, Scott B.
    Eidsmo, Liv
    Scheynius, Annika
    Karlsson, Mikael C. I.
    Bouma, Gerben
    Burns, Siobhan O.
    Forsell, Mattias N. E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Thrasher, Adrian J.
    Nylén, Susanne
    Westerberg, Lisa S.
    Deletion of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein triggers Rac2 activity and increased cross-presentation by dendritic cells2016In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, article id 12175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the WASp gene. Decreased cellular responses in WASp-deficient cells have been interpreted to mean that WASp directly regulates these responses in WASp-sufficient cells. Here, we identify an exception to this concept and show that WASp-deficient dendritic cells have increased activation of Rac2 that support cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Using two different skin pathology models, WASp-deficient mice show an accumulation of dendritic cells in the skin and increased expansion of IFN gamma-producing CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph node and spleen. Specific deletion of WASp in dendritic cells leads to marked expansion of CD8(+) T cells at the expense of CD4(+) T cells. WASp-deficient dendritic cells induce increased cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells by activating Rac2 that maintains a near neutral pH of phagosomes. Our data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells.

  • 57. Barbus, Sebastian
    et al.
    Tews, Björn
    Karra, Daniela
    Hahn, Meinhard
    Radlwimmer, Bernhard
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Hartmann, Christian
    Felsberg, Jörg
    Krex, Dietmar
    Schackert, Gabriele
    Martinez, Ramon
    Reifenberger, Guido
    Lichter, Peter
    Differential retinoic acid signaling in tumors of long- and short-term glioblastoma survivors.2011In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 103, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the prognosis of most glioblastoma patients is poor, 3%-5% patients show long-term survival of 36 months or longer after diagnosis. To study the differences in activation of biochemical pathways, we performed mRNA and protein expression analyses of primary glioblastoma tissues from 11 long-term survivors (LTS; overall survival ≥ 36 months) and 12 short-term survivors (STS; overall survival ≤ 6 months). The mRNA expression ratio of the retinoic acid transporters fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) and cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2), which regulate the differential delivery of retinoic acid to either antioncogenic retinoic acid receptors or prooncogenic nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, was statistically significantly higher in the tumor tissues of STS than those of LTS (median ratio in STS tumors = 3.64, 10th-90th percentile = 1.43-4.54 vs median ratio in LTS tumors = 1.42, 10th-90th percentile = -0.98 to 2.59; P < .001). High FABP5 protein expression in STS tumors was associated with highly proliferating tumor cells and activation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog. The data suggest that retinoic acid signaling activates different targets in glioblastomas from LTS and STS. All statistical tests were two-sided.

  • 58.
    Barcena-Uribarri, Ivan
    et al.
    Universität Würzburg, Germany.
    Thein, Marcus
    Universität Würzburg and Jacobs University Bremen, Germany.
    Maier, Elke
    Universität Würzburg, Germany.
    Bonde, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Benz, Roland
    Universität Würzburg, Germany.
    Use of Nonelectrolytes Reveals the Channel Size and Oligomeric Constitution of the Borrelia burgdorferi P66 Porin2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. e78272-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the outer membrane protein P66 is capable of pore formation with an atypical high single-channel conductance of 11 nS in 1 M KCl, which suggested that it could have a larger diameter than 'normal' Gram-negative bacterial porins. We studied the diameter of the P66 channel by analyzing its single-channel conductance in black lipid bilayers in the presence of different nonelectrolytes with known hydrodynamic radii. We calculated the filling of the channel with these nonelectrolytes and the results suggested that nonelectrolytes (NEs) with hydrodynamic radii of 0.34 nm or smaller pass through the pore, whereas neutral molecules with greater radii only partially filled the channel or were not able to enter it at all. The diameter of the entrance of the P66 channel was determined to be <= 1.9 nm and the channel has a central constriction of about 0.8 nm. The size of the channel appeared to be symmetrical as judged from one-sidedness of addition of NEs. Furthermore, the P66-induced membrane conductance could be blocked by 80-90% by the addition of the nonelectrolytes PEG 400, PEG 600 and maltohexaose to the aqueous phase in the low millimolar range. The analysis of the power density spectra of ion current through P66 after blockage with these NEs revealed no chemical reaction responsible for channel block. Interestingly, the blockage of the single-channel conductance of P66 by these NEs occurred in about eight subconductance states, indicating that the P66 channel could be an oligomer of about eight individual channels. The organization of P66 as a possible octamer was confirmed by Blue Native PAGE and immunoblot analysis, which both demonstrated that P66 forms a complex with a mass of approximately 460 kDa. Two dimension SDS PAGE revealed that P66 is the only polypeptide in the complex.

  • 59. Barfeld, Stefan J
    et al.
    Fazli, Ladan
    Persson, Margareta
    Marjavaara, Lisette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Urbanucci, Alfonso
    Kaukoniemi, Kirsi M
    Rennie, Paul S
    Ceder, Yvonne
    Chabes, Andrei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Visakorpi, Tapio
    Mills, Ian G
    Myc-dependent purine biosynthesis affects nucleolar stress and therapy response in prostate cancer2015In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 6, no 14, p. 12587-12602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The androgen receptor is a key transcription factor contributing to the development of all stages of prostate cancer (PCa). In addition, other transcription factors have been associated with poor prognosis in PCa, amongst which c-Myc (MYC) is a well-established oncogene in many other cancers. We have previously reported that the AR promotes glycolysis and anabolic metabolism; many of these metabolic pathways are also MYC-regulated in other cancers. In this study, we report that in PCa cells de novo purine biosynthesis and the subsequent conversion to XMP is tightly regulated by MYC and independent of AR activity. We characterized two enzymes, PAICS and IMPDH2, within the pathway as PCa biomarkers in tissue samples and report increased efficacy of established anti-androgens in combination with a clinically approved IMPDH inhibitor, mycophenolic acid (MPA). Treatment with MPA led to a significant reduction in cellular guanosine triphosphate (GTP) levels accompanied by nucleolar stress and p53 stabilization. In conclusion, targeting purine biosynthesis provides an opportunity to perturb PCa metabolism and enhance tumour suppressive stress responses.

  • 60. Bassères, Eugénie
    et al.
    Coppotelli, Giuseppe
    Pfirrmann, Thorsten
    Andersen, Jens B
    Masucci, Maria
    Frisan, Teresa
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 promotes bacterial invasion by altering the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton2010In: Cellular Microbiology, ISSN 1462-5814, E-ISSN 1462-5822, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 1622-1633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Knockdown of UCH-L1 reduced the uptake of both bacteria, while expression of the catalytically active enzyme promoted efficient internalization in the UCH-L1-negative HeLa cell line. The entry of L. monocytogenes involves binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase Met, which leads to receptor phosphorylation and ubiquitination. UCH-L1 controls the early membrane-associated events of this triggering cascade since knockdown was associated with altered phosphorylation of the c-cbl docking site on Tyr1003, reduced ubiquitination of the receptor and altered activation of downstream ERK1/2- and AKT-dependent signalling in response to the natural ligand Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). The regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics was further confirmed by the induction of actin stress fibres in HeLa expressing the active enzyme but not the catalytic mutant UCH-L1(C90S). These findings highlight a previously unrecognized involvement of the ubiquitin cycle in bacterial entry. UCH-L1 is highly expressed in malignant cells that may therefore be particularly susceptible to invasion by bacteria-based drug delivery systems.

  • 61.
    Baudin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Hossain, Delowar
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Importance of charge interactions in Rift Valley fever virus attachment to host cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) cause disease in both humans and animals and can infect a large range of animals as well as humans. Many different cell types are infected both in vivo and in vitro. To enter a cell the virus needs to attach and enter, and this initial binding to the host cell surface could depend on both general mechanisms, and different specific receptors. Our aim was to characterize determinants for RVFV entry into its host cells.To examine RVFV attachment to host cells we based our experimental assay on RVF virus-like particles containing a reporter gene. The enveloped RVFV uses protruding glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) for attachment and entry and to investigate potential virus-cell surface interactions, the net surface charge of the glycoproteins was first calculated. The RVFV glycoprotein Gn had a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 7.6 and a net positive charge of +6.9 at pH 7.0, suggesting a charge interaction between the Gn ectodomain and the negatively charged cell surface. RVFV Gc on the other hand, was highly negatively charged, -12.8 at neutral pH, most probably reflecting that Gc is not exposed until after receptor binding. To characterize the general conditions needed for RVFV attachment, cells or virus were treated with various compounds. Both sodium chloride and the negatively charged heparin inhibited RVF virus-like particle infection, strongly indicating that viral binding was charge-dependent. Treatment with sodium periodate pointed to a carbohydrate structure as a cellular interaction partner. Removal of sialic acid or heparan sulfate receptors on the cell surface by enzymatic treatment and blocking of the heparan sulfate receptor did not inhibit virus attachment.In conclusion, RVFV binding to host cells was charge dependent and the results point to a carbohydrate structure with negative charge as a potential attachment factor.

  • 62. Baumann, Anne
    et al.
    Jorge-Finnigan, Ana
    Jung-KC, Kunwar
    Sauter, Alexander
    Horvath, Istvan
    Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Martinez, Aurora
    Tyrosine Hydroxylase Binding to Phospholipid Membranes Prompts Its Amyloid Aggregation and Compromises Bilayer Integrity2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 39488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters and hormones, binds to negatively charged phospholipid membranes. Binding to both large and giant unilamellar vesicles causes membrane permeabilization, as observed by efflux and influx of fluorescence dyes. Whereas the initial protein-membrane interaction involves the N-terminal tail that constitutes an extension of the regulatory ACT-domain, prolonged membrane binding induces misfolding and self-oligomerization of TH over time as shown by circular dichroism and Thioflavin T fluorescence. The gradual amyloid-like aggregation likely occurs through cross-beta interactions involving aggregation-prone motives in the catalytic domains, consistent with the formation of chain and ring-like protofilaments observed by atomic force microscopy in monolayer-bound TH. PC12 cells treated with the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine displayed increased TH levels in the mitochondrial fraction, while incubation of isolated mitochondria with TH led to a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, cell-substrate impedance and viability assays showed that supplementing the culture media with TH compromises cell viability over time. Our results revealed that the disruptive effect of TH on cell membranes may be a cytotoxic and pathogenic factor if the regulation and intracellular stability of TH is compromised.

  • 63. Bauza, Karolis
    et al.
    Malinauskas, Tomas
    Pfander, Claudia
    Anar, Burcu
    Jones, E Yvonne
    Billker, Oliver
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Hill, Adrian V S
    Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo
    Efficacy of a Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Using ChAd63 and Modified Vaccinia Ankara Expressing Thrombospondin-Related Anonymous Protein as Assessed with Transgenic Plasmodium berghei Parasites2014In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 1277-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmodium vivax is the world's most widely distributed malaria parasite and a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for approximately 2.85 billion people living mainly in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Despite this dramatic burden, very few vaccines have been assessed in humans. The clinically relevant vectors modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 are promising delivery systems for malaria vaccines due to their safety profiles and proven ability to induce protective immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) in clinical trials. Here, we describe the development of new recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors expressing P. vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) and show their ability to induce high antibody titers and T cell responses in mice. In addition, we report a novel way of assessing the efficacy of new candidate vaccines against P. vivax using a fully infectious transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite expressing P. vivax TRAP to allow studies of vaccine efficacy and protective mechanisms in rodents. Using this model, we found that both CD8+ T cells and antibodies mediated protection against malaria using virus-vectored vaccines. Our data indicate that ChAd63 and MVA expressing PvTRAP are good preerythrocytic-stage vaccine candidates with potential for future clinical application.

  • 64.
    Beier, Frank
    et al.
    Institute for Experimental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Eerola, Iiro
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vuorio, Eero
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Luvalle, Phyllis
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Reichenberger, Ernest
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Bertling, Wolf
    Institute for Genetics, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    von der Mark, Klaus
    Institute for Experimental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Variability in the upstream promoter and intron sequences of the human, mouse and chick type X collagen genes.1996In: Matrix Biology, ISSN 0945-053X, E-ISSN 1569-1802, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 415-422, article id 9049979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The type X collagen gene is specifically expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Transcription of the type X collagen gene by these differentiated cells is turned on at the same time as transcription of several other cartilage specific genes is switched off and before mineralization of the matrix begins. Analysis of type X collagen promoters for regulatory regions in different cell culture systems and in transgenic mice has given contradictory results suggesting major differences among species. To approach this problem, we have determined the nucleotide sequences of the two introns and upstream promoter sequences of the human and mouse type X collagen genes and compared them with those of bovine and chick. Within the promoter regions, we found three boxes of homology which are nearly continuous in the human gene but have interruptions in the murine gene. One of these interruptions was identified as a complex 1.9 kb repetitive element with homology to LINE, B1, B2 and long terminal repeat sequences. Regulatory elements of the human type X collagen gene are located upstream of the region where the repetitive element is inserted in the mouse gene, making it likely that the repetitive element is inserted between the coding region and regulatory sequences of the murine gene without interfering with its expression pattern. We also compared the sequences of the introns of both genes and found strong conservation. Comparisons of the mammalian sequences with promoter and first intron sequences of the chicken type X collagen gene revealed that only the proximal 120 nucleotides of the promoter were conserved, whereas all other sequences displayed no obvious homology to the murine and human sequences.

  • 65.
    Beier, Frank
    et al.
    Institute Experimental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Institute Experimental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Bertling, Wolf
    Institute for Genetics, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    von der Mark, Klaus
    Institute Experimental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Transcriptional regulation of the human type X collagen gene expression.1996In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 785, p. 209-211, article id 8702131Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Beier, Frank
    et al.
    Institut für Experimentelle Medizin, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
    Vornehm, Silvia
    Institut für Experimentelle Medizin, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Pöschl, Ernst
    Institut für Experimentelle Medizin, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    von der Mark, Klaus
    Institut für Experimentelle Medizin, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Lammi, Mikko
    Department of Anatomy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Localization of silencer and enhancer elements in the human type X collagen gene.1997In: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, ISSN 0730-2312, E-ISSN 1097-4644, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 210-218, article id 9213222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collagen type X is a short, network-forming collagen expressed temporally and spatially tightly controlled in hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Studies on chicken chondrocytes indicate that the regulation of type X collagen gene expression is regulated at the transcriptional level. In this study, we have analyzed the regulatory elements of the human type X collagen (Col10a1) by reporter gene constructs and transient transfections in chondrogenic and nonchondrogenic cells. Four different promoter fragments covering up to 2,864 bp of 5'-flanking sequences, either including or lacking the first intron, were linked to luciferase reporter gene and transfected into 3T3 fibroblasts, HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, prehypertrophic chondrocytes from the resting zone, hypertrophic chondrocytes, and chondrogenic cell lines. The results indicated the presence of three regulatory elements in the human Col10a1 gene besides the proximal promoter. First, a negative regulatory element located between 2.4 and 2.8 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site was active in all nonchondrogenic cells and in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Second, a positive, but also non-tissue-specific positive regulatory element was present in the first intron. Third, a cell-type-specific enhancer element active only in hypertrophic chondrocytes was located between -2.4 and -0.9 kb confirming a previous report by Thomas et al. [(1995): Gene 160:291-296]. The enhancing effect, however, was observed only when calcium phosphate was either used for transfection or included in the culture medium after lipofection. These findings demonstrate that the rigid control of human Col10a1 gene expression is achieved by both positive and negative regulatory elements in the gene and provide the basis for the identification of factors binding to those elements.

  • 67. Beljantseva, Jelena
    et al.
    Kudrin, Pavel
    Jimmy, Steffi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Ehn, Marcel
    Pohl, Radek
    Varik, Vallo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). 1University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Tozawa, Yuzuru
    Shingler, Victoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Tenson, Tanel
    Rejman, Dominik
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). 1University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Molecular mutagenesis of ppGpp: turning a RelA activator into an inhibitor2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 41839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The alarmone nucleotide (p) ppGpp is a key regulator of bacterial metabolism, growth, stress tolerance and virulence, making (p) ppGpp-mediated signaling a promising target for development of antibacterials. Although ppGpp itself is an activator of the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase RelA, several ppGpp mimics have been developed as RelA inhibitors. However promising, the currently available ppGpp mimics are relatively inefficient, with IC50 in the sub-mM range. In an attempt to identify a potent and specific inhibitor of RelA capable of abrogating (p) ppGpp production in live bacterial cells, we have tested a targeted nucleotide library using a biochemical test system comprised of purified Escherichia coli components. While none of the compounds fulfilled this aim, the screen has yielded several potentially useful molecular tools for biochemical and structural work.

  • 68.
    Berg, A. H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Thomas, P.
    Olsson, P-E.
    Characterization of the 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one membrane receptor in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) ovaries and its upregulation during gonadotropin induction of oocyte maturationManuscript (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Berg, A. H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Westerlund, L.
    Olsson, P-E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Regulation of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) egg shell proteins and vitellogenin during reproduction and in response to 17β-estradiol and cortisol2004In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 276-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estrogens induce both vitellogenin (Vtg) and egg shell (zona pellucida; ZP) protein synthesis in salmonids. However, while Vtg is strictly under estrogenic control, recent reports suggest that additional mechanisms are involved in ZP protein synthesis. During sexual maturation both estrogen and glucocorticoid levels increase in the circulation of female fish. As glucocorticoids have been shown to interfere with Vtg induction in fish we investigated whether cortisol (F) had similar effects on ZP regulation. In the present study we determined both the natural variation in Vtg and ZP during an annual reproductive cycle in female Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), and the effect of co-treatment of juvenile Arctic char with 17β-estradiol (E2) and F. During sexual maturation the expression of Vtg and ZP correlated to plasma levels of E2 and F. Determination of Vtg and ZP protein levels following co-treatment with E2 and F showed that F antagonized E2 induction of Vtg. However, F was observed to potentiate the expression of ZP protein in the same fish. These results indicate that in Arctic char Vtg and ZP proteins are not regulated by the same mechanisms and suggest that ZP protein expression does not necessarily imply exposure to estrogenic compounds alone, and may thus not be ideally suited as a biomarker of exposure to estrogenic compounds.

  • 70.
    Berg, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Department of Marine Science, University of Texas Marine Science Institute, University of Texas, Port Aransas, Texas, USA.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Natural Science, Unit of Molecular Biology, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
    Modig, Carina
    17ß-estradiol induced vitellogenesis is inhibited by cortisol at the post-transcriptional level in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)2004In: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, ISSN 1477-7827, E-ISSN 1477-7827, Vol. 2, no 62, p. 1-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed to investigate stress effects on the synthesis of egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin (Vtg) in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). In particular the effect of cortisol (F) was determined since this stress hormone has been suggested to interfere with vitellogenesis and is upregulated during sexual maturation in teleosts. Arctic char Vtg was purified and polyclonal antibodies were produced in order to develop tools to study regulation of vitellogenesis. The Vtg antibodies were used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The corresponding Vtg cDNA was cloned from a hepatic cDNA library in order to obtain DNA probes to measure Vtg mRNA expression. Analysis of plasma from juvenile Arctic char, of both sexes, exposed to different steroids showed that production of Vtg was induced in a dose dependent fashion by 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone and estriol. Apart from estrogens a high dose of F also upregulated Vtg. In addition, F, progesterone (P) and tamoxifen were tested to determine these compounds ability to modulate E2 induced Vtg synthesis at both the mRNA and protein level. Tamoxifen was found to inhibit E2 induced Vtg mRNA and protein upregulation. P did not alter the Vtg induction while F reduced the Vtg protein levels without affecting the Vtg mRNA levels. Furthermore the inhibition of Vtg protein was found to be dose dependent. Thus, the inhibitory effect of F on Vtg appears to be mediated at the post-transcriptional level.

  • 71. Berger, Cedric N
    et al.
    Billker, Oliver
    Meyer, Thomas F
    Servin, Alain L
    Kansau, Imad
    Differential recognition of members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family by Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC)2004In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 963-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the molecular bases underlying the virulence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) harbouring the Afa/Dr family of adhesins. These adhesins recognize as receptors the GPI-anchored proteins CD55 (decay-accelerating factor, DAF) and CD66e (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). CD66e is a member of the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) family, comprising seven members. We analysed the interactions of Afa/Dr DAEC with the CEACAMs using CEACAM-expressing CHO and HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that only E. coli expressing a subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, named here Afa/Dr-I, including Dr, F1845 and AfaE-III adhesins, bound onto CHO cells expressing CEACAM1, CEA or CEACAM6. Whereas all the Afa/Dr adhesins elicit recruitment of CD55 around adhering bacteria, only the Afa/Dr-I subfamily elicits the recruitment of CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6. In addition, although CEACAM3 is not recognized as a receptor by the subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, it is recruited around bacteria in HeLa cells. The recruited CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6 around adhering bacteria resist totally or in part a detergent extraction, whereas the recruited CEACAM3 does not. Finally, the results show that recognition of CEA and CEACAM6, but not CEACAM1, is accompanied by tight attachment to bacteria of cell surface microvilli-like extensions, which are elongated. Moreover, recognition of CEA is accompanied by an activation of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 and by a phosphorylation of ERM, which in turn elicit the observed cell surface microvilli-like extensions.

  • 72. Berger, Susanne
    et al.
    Schäfer, Gritt
    Kesper, Dörthe A
    Holz, Anne
    Eriksson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Palmer, Ruth H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Beck, Lothar
    Klämbt, Christian
    Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate
    Onel, Susanne-Filiz
    WASP and SCAR have distinct roles in activating the Arp2/3 complex during myoblast fusion2008In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 121, no Pt 8, p. 1303-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myoblast fusion takes place in two steps in mammals and in Drosophila. First, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a trinucleated precursor, which then recruits further FCMs. This process depends on the formation of the fusion-restricted myogenic-adhesive structure (FuRMAS), which contains filamentous actin (F-actin) plugs at the sites of cell contact. Fusion relies on the HEM2 (NAP1) homolog Kette, as well as Blow and WASP, a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein family. Here, we show the identification and characterization of schwächling--a new Arp3-null allele. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrate that Arp3 schwächling mutants can form a fusion pore, but fail to integrate the fusing FCM. Double-mutant experiments revealed that fusion is blocked completely in Arp3 and wasp double mutants, suggesting the involvement of a further F-actin regulator. Indeed, double-mutant analyses with scar/WAVE and with the WASP-interacting partner vrp1 (sltr, wip)/WIP show that the F-actin regulator scar also controls F-actin formation during myoblast fusion. Furthermore, the synergistic phenotype observed in Arp3 wasp and in scar vrp1 double mutants suggests that WASP and SCAR have distinct roles in controlling F-actin formation. From these findings we derived a new model for actin regulation during myoblast fusion.

  • 73. Berggren, Kristina
    et al.
    Vindebro, Reine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bergström, Claes
    Spoerry, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Persson, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Fex, Tomas
    Kihlberg, Jan
    von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Luthman, Kristina
    3-aminopiperidine-based peptide analogues as the first selective noncovalent inhibitors of the bacterial cysteine protease IdeS2012In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 2549-2560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of eight peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of the hinge region of IgG and 17 newly synthesized peptide analogues containing a piperidine moiety as a replacement of a glycine residue were tested as potential inhibitors of the bacterial IgG degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes, IdeS. None of the peptides showed any inhibitory activity of IdeS, but several piperidine-based analogues were identified as inhibitors. Two different analysis methods were used: an SDS-PAGE based assay to detect IgG cleavage products and a surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy based assay to quantify the degree of inhibition. To investigate the selectivity of the inhibitors for IdeS, all compounds were screened against two other related cysteine proteases (SpeB and papain). The selectivity results show that larger analogues that are active inhibitors of IdeS are even more potent as inhibitors of papain, whereas smaller analogues that are active inhibitors of IdeS inhibit neither SpeB nor papain. Two compounds were identified that exhibit high selectivity against IdeS and will be used for further studies.

  • 74.
    Berglöf, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Histology and Cell Biology.
    Dopamine neurons in ventral mesencephalon: interactions with glia and locus coeruleus2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a depletion of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The cause of the disease is yet unknown but age, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation are some of the features involved in the degeneration. In addition, substantial cell death of noradrenergic neurons occurs in the locus coeruleus (LC). Noradrenaline has been suggested to protect the dopamine neurons from oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. The main treatment of Parkinson’s disease is Levo-dopa, although severe side effects arise from this therapy. Hence, grafting fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue into the adult striatum has been evaluated as an alternative treatment for Parkinsons’s disease. However, the survival of the grafted neurons is limited, and the dopamine-denervated striatum does not become fully reinnervated. Therefore, elucidating factors that enhance dopamine nerve fiber formation and/or survival of the grafted neurons is of utmost importance.

    To investigate dopamine nerve fiber formation and the interactions with glial cells, organotypic VM tissue cultures were utilized. Two morphologically different nerve fiber outgrowths from the tissue slice were observed. Nerve fibers were initially formed in the absence of migrating astrocytes, although thin vimentin-positive astrocytic processes were detected within the same area. A second, persistent nerve fiber outgrowth was observed associated with migrating astrocytes. Hence, both of these nerve fiber outgrowths were to some extent dependent on astrocytes, and appeared as a general feature since this phenomenon was demonstrated in β-tubulin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDH1)-positive nerve fibers. Neither oligodendrocytes (NG2-positive cells), nor microglia (Iba-1-positive cells) exerted any effect on these two neuronal growths. Since astrocytes appeared to influence the nerve fiber formation, the role of proteoglycans, i.e. extracellular matrix molecules produced by astrocytes, was investigated. β-xyloside was added to the cultures to inhibit proteoglycan synthesis. The results revealed a hampered astrocytic migration and proliferation, as well as a reduction of the glia-associated TH-positive nerve fiber outgrowth. Interestingly, the number of cultures displaying the non-glia-mediated TH-positive nerve fibers increased after β-xyloside treatment, although the amount of TH-protein was not altered. Thus, proteoglycans produced by astrocytes appeared to be important in affecting the dopamine nerve fiber formation.

    The noradrenaline neurons in LC have been suggested to protect dopamine neurons from damage. Therefore, the interaction between VM and LC was evaluated. Using the intraocular grafting method, fetal VM and LC were grafted either as single grafts or as VM+LC co-grafts. Additionally, the recipient animals received 2% blueberry-enriched diet. The direct contact of LC promoted graft volume and survival of TH-positive neurons in the VM grafts. The number of dopamine neurons, derived preferably from the A9 (ALDH1/TH-positive) was increased, whereas the dopamine neurons from the A10 (calbindin/TH-positive) were not affected. A dense dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)-positive innervation was correlated to the improved survival. Blueberry-enriched diet enhanced the number of TH-positive neurons in VM, although the graft size was not altered. The combination of blueberries and the presence of LC did not yield additive effects on the survival of VM grafts. The attachment of VM or the addition of blueberries did not affect the survival of TH-positive neurons in LC grafts. The number of Iba-1-positive microglia was decreased in co-grafted VM compared to single VM transplants. The addition of blueberries reduced the number of Iba-1-positive microglia in single VM transplants. Hence, the direct contact of LC or the addition of blueberries enhanced the survival of VM grafts.

    Taken together, these data demonstrate novel findings regarding the importance of astrocytes for the nerve fiber formation of dopamine neurons. Further, both the direct attachment of LC or antioxidant-enriched diet promote the survival of fetal VM grafts, while LC is not affected.

  • 75.
    Bergman, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    A sub-phenotype approach to dissect the genetic control of murine type 1 diabetes2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model for human type 1 diabetes (T1D). The disease in the NOD mouse is polygenic and multifactorial and so far at least 20 insulin dependent diabetes (Idd) susceptibility loci have been identified. However, no etiological mutations have been definitely ascribed to the Idd loci. To identify potential etiological mutations, a sub-phenotype approach was undertaken, consisting of the establishment and genetic mapping of immuno-related sub-phenotypes that may contribute to the pathogenesis of T1D in the NOD mouse model. This thesis presents (1) the results of the identification and genetic mapping of four novel NOD immuno-phenotypes to individual Idd loci, and (2) confirmation of these results by the generation and analysis of congenic strains covering those Idd regions.

    Evidence is provided that gene(s) within the Idd5 region control cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes and y-irradiation induced apoptosis in NOD thymocytes. Analysis of non-obese resistant (NOR) and NOD-Idd5 congenic mice reveal that CY-induced apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes and y-irradiation induced apoptosis in thymocytes are controlled by a 20cM and a 6cM region, respectively, both containing the Idd5 region and including the immuno-regulatory Ctla4 gene. Additionally, CTLA4 is shown to be defectively up-regulated in activated NOD peripheral lymphocytes, and CTLA4-deficient mice show similar defects in T cell apoptosis induction. Taken together, these results suggest that a defective up-regulation of CTLA4 mediates apoptosis resistance, contributing to diabetes pathogenesis.

    Moreover, it is shown that gene(s) within the Idd6 region control low proliferation ofNOD immature thymocytes and resistance to dexamethazone-induced apoptosis in immature DP thymocytes. The decrease of diabetes incidence and the restoration of the apoptosis resistance phenotype in reciprocal Idd6 congenic strains further restrict the chromosomal region controlling the Idd6 locus as well as the locus controlling the apoptosis resistance phenotype. In fact, analysis of NOD-Idd6 congenic mice reveal that Dxm-induced apoptosis in thymocytes is controlled by the distal 3cM region of the Idd6 locus. As the thymic selection process is highly dependent on both proliferation and apoptosis, the hypothesis is raised that the Idd6 locus contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes by altering thymic selection, resulting in an autoimmune prone peripheral T cell repertoire.

  • 76. Bernardo-Garcia, Noelia
    et al.
    Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A.
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Martínez-Caballero, Siseth
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Hermoso, Juan A.
    Gago, Federico
    Cold-induced aldimine bond cleavage by Tris in Bacillus subtilis alanine racemase2019In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 17, no 17, p. 4350-4358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a versatile cofactor involved in a large variety of enzymatic processes. Most of PLP-catalysed reactions, such as those of alanine racemases (AlaRs), present a common resting state in which the PLP is covalently bound to an active-site lysine to form an internal aldimine. The crystal structure of BsAlaR grown in the presence of Tris lacks this covalent linkage and the PLP cofactor appears deformylated. However, loss of activity in a Tris buffer only occurred after the solution was frozen prior to carrying out the enzymatic assay. This evidence strongly suggests that Tris can access the active site at subzero temperatures and behave as an alternate racemase substrate leading to mechanism-based enzyme inactivation, a hypothesis that is supported by additional X-ray structures and theoretical results from QM/ MM calculations. Taken together, our findings highlight a possibly underappreciated role for a common buffer component widely used in biochemical and biophysical experiments.

  • 77. Berry, Teeara
    et al.
    Luther, William
    Bhatnagar, Namrata
    Jamin, Yann
    Poon, Evon
    Sanda, Takaomi
    Pei, Desheng
    Sharma, Bandana
    Vetharoy, Winston R
    Hallsworth, Albert
    Ahmad, Zai
    Barker, Karen
    Moreau, Lisa
    Webber, Hannah
    Wang, Wenchao
    Liu, Qingsong
    Perez-Atayde, Antonio
    Rodig, Scott
    Cheung, Nai-Kong
    Raynaud, Florence
    Hallberg, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Robinson, Simon P
    Gray, Nathanael S
    Pearson, Andrew DJ
    Eccles, Suzanne A
    Chesler, Louis
    George, Rani E
    The ALK(F1174L) mutation potentiates the oncogenic activity of MYCN in neuroblastoma2012In: Cancer Cell, ISSN 1535-6108, E-ISSN 1878-3686, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 117-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALK(F1174L) mutation is associated with intrinsic and acquired resistance to crizotinib and cosegregates with MYCN in neuroblastoma. In this study, we generated a mouse model overexpressing ALK(F1174L) in the neural crest. Compared to ALKF1174L and MYCN alone, co-expression of these two oncogenes led to the development of neuroblastomas with earlier onset, higher penetrance, and enhanced lethality. ALK(F1174L)/MYCN tumors exhibited increased MYCN dosage due to ALK(F1174L)-induced activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways, coupled with suppression of MYCN pro-apoptotic effects. Combined treatment with the ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor Torin2 overcame the resistance of ALK(F1174L)/MYCN tumors to crizotinib. Our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for ALK(F1174L) in neuroblastomas overexpressing MYCN and suggest a strategy for improving targeted therapy for ALK-positive neuroblastoma.

  • 78.
    Billing, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Insulin secretion and ASNA-1-dependent function of the endoplasmic reticulum in C. elegans2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ASNA1 is a well-conserved ATPase involved in a wide range of functions, including cisplatin resistance, growth control, insulin secretion and targeting of tail-anchored (TA) proteins to membranes. It is a positive regulator of insulin secretion both in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and in humans. Insulin secretion and downstream insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) stands at the heart of many human pathologies, such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. A better understanding of IIS may therefore prove vital for treatment and cure of these diseases. This thesis aims to further investigate the function of asna-1, and to identify new regulators of IIS based on the asna-1 phenotype in C. elegans.

    Worms lacking ASNA-1 arrest growth in the first larval stage, L1, with reduced insulin secretion. The L1 arrest represents the strongest of the IIS phenotypes in worms. Most regulators of the insulin pathway have been identified in screens for other IIS phenotypes, influencing lifespan or the dauer diapause. Therefore, new regulators could be found by screening for genes which, when inactivated, cause an asna-1-like L1 arrest. Using bioinformatic approaches, a set of 143 putative asna-1 interactors were identified, based on their predicted or confirmed interaction with asna-1 in various organisms. Depletion of the Golgi SNARE homologue YKT-6 or the mitochondrial translocase homologue TOMM-40 caused asna-1-like larval arrests. Using several criteria, including genetic suppression by daf-16/Foxo, it was established that YKT-6 and TOMM-40 are positive regulators of IIS. Both proteins were also required for normal DAF-28/insulin secretion.

    Further investigation of TOMM-40 identified it as a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial translocase in C. elegans: It localized to mitochondrial membranes and was required for importing a tagged mitochondrial reporter across mitochondrial membranes. Depletion of TOMM-40 caused a collapse of the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane and triggered the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR). Worms with defective mitochondria failed to grow normally in presence of food, but this growth defect was suppressed by daf-16(mgDf50). In addition, tomm-40(RNAi) led to DAF-16/FOXO activation, an effect that was suppressed by over expression of DAF-28/insulin. Taken together, these findings support a model whereby signals of food availability are conveyed through respiring mitochondria to promote DAF-28/insulin secretion, which in turn promotes growth.

    Biochemical studies have identified ASNA-1 as a chaperone that targets a subset of newly synthesized TA proteins to a receptor at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo in a metazoan model. A reporter-based system to analyse TA protein targeting into the ER in live animals using confocal microscopy was set up. A model asna-1-dependent TA protein, Y38F2AR.9/SEC-61β, required functional ASNA-1 for correct targeting to the ER. Conversely, a model asna-1-independent TA protein, CYTB5.1/cytochrome B5, did not. This phenotype was shared with the predicted asna-1 receptor homologue, wrb-1. Consistently, WRB-1 was found to localize to the ER. However, other wrb-1 mutant phenotypes only partially overlap with those of asna-1 mutants, suggesting that ASNA-1 is either partially independent of WRB-1 for TA protein targeting or that ASNA-1 has additional functions besides its role in TA protein targeting.

    Confocal microscopy also indicated that the ER morphology was aberrant in asna-1 and wrb-1 mutants. ER UPR was elevated in the asna-1 mutants, as indicated by the upregulation of an hsp-4/BiP reporter. Transmission and immuno-electron microscopy of these mutants revealed a swollen ER lumen, which is another hallmark of ER stress. High levels of autophagy in asna-1 animals and the presence of ER-containing autophagosomes in both asna-1 and wrb-1 mutants indicated a stress-induced remodelling of the ER membrane in these two mutants. In addition, both mutants had normal mitochondrial morphology, but showed severe effects on Golgi compartment morphology. Hypothetically, all these phenotypes could be due to defects in the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. This is because Y38F2AR.9/SEC-61β is both a TA protein and a component of the SEC-61 translocon. However, both Golgi and ER morphology was normal in Y38F2AR.9/sec-61β(tm1986) mutant animals, suggesting that the organellar defects seen in asna-1 and wrb-1 were due to a TA protein-dependent mechanism rather than an SRP-dependent mechanism. In addition, asna-1 mutants displayed numerous protein aggregates, consistent with a proposed role for ASNA-1 in shielding aggregation-prone TA protein membrane anchors from the hydrophilic environment of the cytosol.

    In conclusion, YKT-6 and TOMM-40 are positive regulators of IIS and DAF-28/insulin secretion, implicating roles for Golgi and mitochondria in IIS. DAF-28 is a metabolically regulated insulin in C. elegans, since its secretion depends on active mitochondria. Mutants for asna-1 and its predicted receptor wrb-1 show severe defects in ER and Golgi morphology. These defects may occur because TA protein targeting in asna-1 and wrb-1 mutants is defective, which is also demonstrated here in the first analysis of this process in live animals.

  • 79.
    Billing, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Kao, Gautam
    Naredi, Peter
    ASNA-1 acts independently of its endoplasmic reticulum receptor WRB-1 to promote insulin/IGF signallingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Billker, Oliver
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom.
    Cracking Ali Baba's code2017In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A protein called P36 holds the key to how different species of malaria parasite invade liver cells.

  • 81.
    Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences Imperial College London London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.
    Dechamps, Sandrine
    Tewari, Rita
    Wenig, Gerald
    Franke-Fayard, Blandine
    Brinkmann, Volker
    Calcium and a calcium-dependent protein kinase regulate gamete formation and mosquito transmission in a malaria parasite2004In: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 503-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission of malaria parasites to mosquitoes is initiated by the obligatory sexual reproduction of the parasite within the mosquito bloodmeal. Differentiation of specialized transmission stages, the gametocytes, into male and female gametes is induced by a small mosquito molecule, xanthurenic acid (XA). Using a Plasmodium berghei strain expressing a bioluminescent calcium sensor, we show that XA triggers a rapid rise in cytosolic calcium specifically in gametocytes that is essential for their differentiation into gametes. A member of a family of plant-like calcium dependent protein kinases, CDPK4, is identified as the molecular switch that translates the XA-induced calcium signal into a cellular response by regulating cell cycle progression in the male gametocyte. CDPK4 is shown to be essential for the sexual reproduction and mosquito transmission of P. berghei. This study reveals an unexpected function for a plant-like signaling pathway in cell cycle regulation and life cycle progression of a malaria parasite.

  • 82. Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Lindo, V.
    Panico, M.
    Etienne, A. E.
    Paxton, T.
    Dell, A.
    Rogers, M.
    Sinden, R. E.
    Morris, H. R.
    Identification of xanthurenic acid as the putative inducer of malaria development in the mosquito1998In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 392, no 6673, p. 289-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is transmitted from vertebrate host to mosquito vector by mature sexual blood-living stages called gametocytes. Within seconds of ingestion into the mosquito bloodmeal, gametocytes undergo gametogenesis. Induction requires the simultaneous exposure to at least two stimuli in vitro: a drop in bloodmeal temperature to 5 degrees C below that of the vertebrate host, and a rise in pH from 7.4 to 8.0-8.2. In vivo the mosquito bloodmeal has a pH of between 7.5 and 7.6. It is thought that in vivo the second inducer is an unknown mosquito-derived gametocyte-activating factor. Here we show that this factor is xanthurenic acid. We also show that low concentrations of xanthurenic acid can act together with pH to induce gametogenesis in vitro. Structurally related compounds are at least ninefold less effective at inducing gametogenesis in vitro. In Drosophila mutants with lesions in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism (of which xanthurenic acid is a side product), no alternative active compound was detected in crude insect homogenates. These data could form the basis of the rational development of new methods of interrupting the transmission of malaria using drugs or new refractory mosquito genotypes to block parasite gametogenesis.

  • 83. Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Lourido, Sebastian
    Sibley, L David
    Calcium-dependent signaling and kinases in apicomplexan parasites2009In: Cell Host and Microbe, ISSN 1931-3128, E-ISSN 1934-6069, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 612-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium controls many critical events in the complex life cycles of apicomplexan parasites including protein secretion, motility, and development. Calcium levels are normally tightly regulated and rapid release of calcium into the cytosol activates a family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which are normally characteristic of plants. CDPKs present in apicomplexans have acquired a number of unique domain structures likely reflecting their diverse functions. Calcium regulation in parasites is closely linked to signaling by cyclic nucleotides and their associated kinases. This Review summarizes the pivotal roles that calcium- and cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases play in unique aspects of parasite biology.

  • 84.
    Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK.
    Miller, A J
    Sinden, R E
    Determination of mosquito bloodmeal pH in situ by ion-selective microelectrode measurement: implications for the regulation of malarial gametogenesis2000In: Parasitology, ISSN 0031-1820, E-ISSN 1469-8161, Vol. 120, p. 547-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malarial gametocytes circulate in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host as developmentally arrested intra-erythrocytic cells, which only resume development into gametes when ingested into the bloodmeal of the female mosquito vector. The ensuing development encompasses sexual reproduction and mediates parasite transmission to the insect. In vitro the induction of gametogenesis requires a drop in temperature and either a pH increase from physiological blood pH (ca pH 7.4) to about pH 8.0, or the presence of a gametocyte-activating factor recently identified as xanthurenic acid (XA). However, it is unclear whether either the pH increase or XA act as natural triggers in the mosquito bloodmeal. We here use pH-sensitive microelectrodes to determine bloodmeal pH in intact mosquitoes. Measurements taken in the first 30 min after ingestion, when malarial gametogenesis is induced in vivo, revealed small pH increases from 7.40 (mouse blood) to 7.52 in Aedes aegypti and to 7.58 in Anophĕles stephensi. However, bloodmeal pH was clearly suboptimal if compared to values required to induce gametogenesis in vitro. Xanthurenic acid is shown to extend the pH-range of exflagellation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner to values that we have observed in the bloodmeal, suggesting that in vivo malarial gametogenesis could be further regulated by both these factors.

  • 85.
    Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Infektionsbiologie, Abteilung Molekulare Biologie, Berlin, Germany.
    Popp, A
    Gray-Owen, S D
    Meyer, T F
    The structural basis of CEACAM-receptor targeting by neisserial Opa proteins2000In: Trends in Microbiology, ISSN 0966-842X, E-ISSN 1878-4380, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 258-261Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Max‐Planck‐Institut für Infektionsbiologie, Abteilung Molekulare Biologie, Schumannstraße 21/22, D‐10117 Berlin, Germany.
    Popp, Andreas
    Brinkmann, Volker
    Wenig, Gerald
    Schneider, Jutta
    Caron, Emmanuelle
    Meyer, Thomas F.
    Distinct mechanisms of internalization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by members of the CEACAM receptor family involving Rac1- and Cdc42-dependent and -independent pathways2002In: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 560-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opa adhesins of pathogenic Neisseria species target four members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family. CEACAM receptors mediate opsonization-independent phagocytosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by human granulocytes and each receptor individually can mediate gonococcal invasion of epithelial cells. We show here that gonococcal internalization occurs by distinct mechanisms depending on the CEACAM receptor expressed. For the invasion of epithelial cell lines via CEACAM1 and CEACAM6, a pathogen-directed reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is not required. In marked contrast, ligation of CEACAM3 triggers a dramatic but localized reorganization of the host cell surface leading to highly efficient engulfment of bacteria in a process regulated by the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, but not Rho. Two tyrosine residues of a cytoplasmic immune receptor tyrosine-based activating motif of CEACAM3 are essential for the induction of phagocytic actin structures and subsequent gonococcal internalization. The granulocyte-specific CEACAM3 receptor has properties of a single chain phagocytic receptor and may thus contribute to innate immunity by the elimination of Neisseria and other CEACAM-binding pathogens that colonize human mucosal surfaces.

  • 87.
    Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Malaria Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.
    Rayner, Julian C.
    Calcium Builds Strong Host-Parasite Interactions2015In: Cell Host and Microbe, ISSN 1931-3128, E-ISSN 1934-6069, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 9-10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apicomplexan parasite invasion of host cells is a multistep process, requiring coordinated events. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Paul et al. (2015) and Philip and Waters (2015) leverage experimental genetics to show that the calcium-regulated protein phosphatase, calcinuerin, regulates invasion in multiple parasite species.

  • 88.
    Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Molecular and Cellular Parasitology Research Group, Infection and Immunity Section, Department of Biology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK.
    Shaw, M K
    Margos, G
    Sinden, R E
    The roles of temperature, pH and mosquito factors as triggers of male and female gametogenesis of Plasmodium berghei in vitro1997In: Parasitology, ISSN 0031-1820, E-ISSN 1469-8161, Vol. 115, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmentally arrested malarial gametocytes undergo gamete formation in the mosquito midgut immediately after ingestion of the infected bloodmeal. In the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei male gametogenesis (exflagellation) can be induced in vitro by a temperature decrease (from 39 degrees C in the vertebrate host to 20 degrees C) and a concomitant pH increase (from 7.3 in mouse blood to 8.0). We report the presence of additional Gametocyte Activating Factor(s) (GAF) present in Anopheles stephensi tissue extracts, which induce both male and female gametogenesis at the otherwise nonpermissive pH of 7.3 in vitro but are unable to overcome the low temperature requirement. All constituent cellular events of microgametogeneis studied here are induced by the same triggers in vitro. A temperature decrease is also required for exflagellation in the mosquito midgut. The possible role of GAF as a second obligatory natural trigger of gametogenesis is discussed.

  • 89. Billker, Oliver
    et al.
    Shaw, Michael K
    Jones, Ian W
    Ley, Steven V
    Mordue, A Jennifer
    Sinden, Robert E
    Azadirachtin disrupts formation of organised microtubule arrays during microgametogenesis of Plasmodium berghei2002In: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, ISSN 1066-5234, E-ISSN 1550-7408, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 489-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission of malaria parasites from vertebrate blood to the mosquito vector depends critically on the differentiation of the gametocytes into gametes. This occurs in response to environmental stimuli encountered by the parasite in the mosquito bloodmeal. Male gametogenesis involves three rounds of DNA replication and endomitosis, and the assembly de novo of 8 motile axonemes. Azadirachtin, a plant limnoid and insecticide with an unkown mode of action, specifically inhibits the release of motile gametes from activated microgametocytes but does not inhibit growth and replication of a sexual blood stages. We have combined confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to examine the effect of azadirachtin on the complex reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton during gametogenesis in Plasmodium berghei. Neither the replication of the genome nor the ability of tubulin monomers to assemble into microtubules upon gametocyte activation were prevented by azadirachtin. However, the drug interfered with the formation of mitotic spindles and with the assembly of microtubules into typical axonemes. Our observations suggest that azadarachtin specifically disrupts the patterning of microtubules into more complex structures, such as mitotic spindles and axonemes.

  • 90.
    Birve, A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Chen, S.
    Rasmuson-Lestander, Å.
    Expression pattern of the Drosophila polycomb group gene Suppressor of zeste 12Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 91. Björnberg, O
    et al.
    Vodnala, Munender
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Domkin, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Hofer, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Rasmussen, A
    Andersen, G
    Piskur, J
    Ribosylurea accumulates in yeast urc4 mutants2010In: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids, ISSN 1525-7770, E-ISSN 1532-2335, Vol. 29, no 4-6, p. 433-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yeast Saccharomyces (Lachancea) kluyveri urc4 mutants, unable to grow on uracil, biotransformed (14)C(2)-uracil into two labeled compounds, as detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These two compounds could also be obtained following organic synthesis of ribosylurea. This finding demonstrates that in the URC pyrimidine degradation pathway, the opening of the uracil ring takes place when uracil is attached to the ribose moiety. Ribosylurea has not been reported in the cell metabolism before and the two observed compounds likely represent an equilibrium mixture of the pyranosyl and furanosyl forms.

  • 92. Blazkova, Hana
    et al.
    Krejcikova, Katerina
    Moudry, Pavel
    Frisan, Teresa
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hodny, Zdenek
    Bartek, Jiri
    Bacterial intoxication evokes cellular senescence with persistent DNA damage and cytokine signalling2010In: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Print), ISSN 1582-1838, E-ISSN 1582-4934, Vol. 14, no 1-2, p. 357-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are proteins produced and secreted by facultative pathogenic strains of Gram‐negative bacteria with potentially genotoxic effects. Mammalian cells exposed to CDTs undergo cell type‐dependent cell‐cycle arrest or apoptosis; however, the cell fate responses to such intoxication are mechanistically incompletely understood. Here we show that both normal and cancer cells (BJ, IMR‐90 and WI‐38 fibroblasts, HeLa and U2‐OS cell lines) that survive the acute phase of intoxication by Haemophilus ducreyi CDT possess the hallmarks of cellular senescence. This characteristic phenotype included persistently activated DNA damage signalling (detected as 53BP1/γH2AX+ foci), enhanced senescence‐associated β‐galactosidase activity, expansion of promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear compartments and induced expression of several cytokines (especially interleukins IL‐6, IL‐8 and IL‐24), overall features shared by cells undergoing replicative or premature cellular senescence. We conclude that analogous to oncogenic, oxidative and replicative stresses, bacterial intoxication represents another pathophysiological stimulus that induces premature senescence, an intrinsic cellular response that may mechanistically underlie the ‘distended’ morphology evoked by CDTs. Finally, the activation of the two anticancer barriers, apoptosis and cellular senescence, together with evidence of chromosomal aberrations (micronucleation) reported here, support the emerging genotoxic and potentially oncogenic effects of this group of bacterial toxins, and warrant further investigation of their role(s) in human disease.

  • 93.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Regulation of apoptosis during treatment and resistance development in tumour cells2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Induction of apoptosis is the most studied cell death process and it is a tightly regulated physiological event that enables elimination of damaged and unwanted cells. Apoptosis can be induced via activation of either the intrinsic or the extrinsic signalling pathway. The intrinsic pathway involves activation of the mitochondria by stress stimuli, whereas the extrinsic pathway is triggered by ligand induced activation of death receptors such as Fas. Apoptosis induction via Fas activation plays an important role in the function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and in the control of immune cell homeostasis.

    Several studies have shown that anticancer therapies require functional cell death signalling pathways. Irradiation based therapy has been successful in treatment of several malignancies but the usage of high doses has been associated with side effects. Therefore, low dose therapies, that either is optimized for specific delivery or administrated in combination with other treatments, are promising modalities. However, in order to achieve high-quality effects of such treatments, the death effector mechanisms involved in tumour eradication needs to be further explored. Importantly, tumour cells frequently acquire resistance to apoptosis, which consequently allows tumour cells to escape from elimination by the immune system and/or treatment.

    Interferons constitute a large family of pleotrophic cytokines that are important for the immune response against viruses and other microorganisms. The interferon signalling pathway mediates transcriptional regulation of hundreds of genes, which result in mRNA degradation, decreased protein synthesis, cell cycle inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Interferon has successfully been used in therapy against some tumours. However, several drawbacks have been reported, such as reduced sensitivity to interferon during treatment.

    The aim of this thesis was to elucidate mechanisms that mediate resistance to death receptor or interferon induced apoptosis in human tumour cell models, as well as investigate what molecular events that underlie cell death following radiation therapy of tumour cells.

    In order to elucidate mechanisms involved in acquired resistance to Fas- or interferon-induced apoptosis, a Fas- and interferon-sensitive human cell line, U937, was subjected to conditions where resistance to either Fas- or interferon induced apoptosis was acquired. Characterization of the Fas resistant cells showed that multiple resistant mechanisms had been acquired. Reduced Fas expression and increased cFLIP expression, which is an inhibitor of death receptor signalling, were two important changes found. To further examine the importance of these two alterations, clones from the Fas resistant population were established. The reduced Fas expression was determined to account for the resistant phenotype in approximately 70% of the clones. In the Fas resistant clones with normal Fas expression, the importance of an increased amount of the cFLIP protein was confirmed with shRNA interference. A cross-resistance to death receptor induced apoptosis was detected in the interferon resistant variant, which illustrates that a connection between death receptor and interferon induced apoptosis exists. Notably, interferon resistant cells also contained increased cFLIP expression, which were determined to mediate resistance to both interferon and death receptor mediated apoptosis. Finally, when cell death induced by irradiation treatment was investigated in HeLa Hep2 cells we could demonstrate that cell death was mediated by centrosome hyperamplification and mitotic aberrations, which forced the cells into mitotic catastrophes and delayed apoptosis.

    In conclusion, we have described model systems where selection for resistance to Fas or interferon induced apoptosis generated a heterogeneous population, where several signalling molecules were altered. Furthermore, we have shown that a complex cell death network was activated by irradiation based therapy.

  • 94.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Höglund, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Eriksson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Ruuth, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Jacobsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Lundgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Inhibition of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein abolishes insensitivity to interferon-α in a resistant variant of the human U937 cell line2011In: Apoptosis (London), ISSN 1360-8185, E-ISSN 1573-675X, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 783-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type I interferons constitute a family of pleiotropic cytokines that have a key role in both adaptive and innate immunity. The interferon signalling pathways mediate transcriptional regulation of hundreds of genes, which result in mRNA degradation, decreased protein synthesis, cell cycle inhibition and induction of apoptosis. To elucidate regulatory networks important for interferon induced cell death, we generated interferon resistant U937 cells by selection in progressively increasing concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α). The results show that IFN-α activates the death receptor signalling pathway and that IFN resistance was associated with cross-resistance to several death receptor ligands in a manner similar to previously described Fas resistant U937 cell lines. Increased expression of the long splice variant of the cellular FLICE-like inhibitor protein (cFLIP-L) was associated with the resistance to death receptor and IFN-α stimulation. Accordingly, inhibition of cFLIP-L expression with cycloheximide or through cFLIP short harpin RNA interference restored sensitivity to Fas and/or IFN-α. Thus, we now show that selection for interferon resistance can generate cells with increased expression of cFLIP, which protects the cells from both IFN-α and death receptor mediated apoptosis.

  • 95.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ruuth, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Jacobsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Höglund, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Nilsson, Jonas A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Lundgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Reduced FAS transcription in clones of U937 cells that have acquired resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis2009In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 276, no 2, p. 497-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Susceptibility to cell death is a prerequisite for the elimination of tumour cells by cytotoxic immune cells, chemotherapy or irradiation. Activation of the death receptor Fas is critical for the regulation of immune cell homeostasis and efficient killing of tumour cells by apoptosis. To define the molecular changes that occur during selection for insensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis, a resistant variant of the U937 cell line was established. Individual resistant clones were isolated and characterized. The most frequently observed defect in the resistant cells was reduced Fas expression, which correlated with decreased FAS transcription. Clones with such reduced Fas expression also displayed partial cross-resistance to tumour necrosis factor-alpha stimulation, but the mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor receptors was not decreased. Reintroduction of Fas conferred susceptibility to Fas but not to tumour necrosis factor-alpha stimulation, suggesting that several alterations could be present in the clones. The reduced Fas expression could not be explained by mutations in the FAS coding sequence or promoter region, or by silencing through methylations. Protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, components of signalling pathways downstream of Ras, were shown to be activated in some of the resistant clones, but none of the three RAS genes was mutated, and experiments using chemical inhibitors could not establish that the activation of these proteins was the cause of Fas resistance as described in other systems. Taken together, the data illustrate that Fas resistance can be caused by reduced Fas expression, which is a result of an unidentified mode of regulation.

  • 96. Boehme, Katja
    et al.
    Steinmann, Rebekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Kortmann, Jens
    Seekircher, Stephanie
    Heroven, Ann Kathrin
    Berger, Evelin
    Pisano, Fabio
    Thiermann, Tanja
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Narberhaus, Franz
    Dersch, Petra
    Concerted Actions of a Thermo-labile Regulator and a Unique Intergenic RNA Thermosensor Control Yersinia Virulence2012In: PLOS PATHOGENS, ISSN 1553-7366, Vol. 8, no 2, p. e1002518-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression of all Yersinia pathogenicity factors encoded on the virulence plasmid, including the yop effector and the ysc type III secretion genes, is controlled by the transcriptional activator LcrF in response to temperature. Here, we show that a protein-and RNA-dependent hierarchy of thermosensors induce LcrF synthesis at body temperature. Thermally regulated transcription of lcrF is modest and mediated by the thermo-sensitive modulator YmoA, which represses transcription from a single promoter located far upstream of the yscW-lcrF operon at moderate temperatures. The transcriptional response is complemented by a second layer of temperature-control induced by a unique cis-acting RNA element located within the intergenic region of the yscW-lcrF transcript. Structure probing demonstrated that this region forms a secondary structure composed of two stemloops at 25 degrees C. The second hairpin sequesters the lcrF ribosomal binding site by a stretch of four uracils. Opening of this structure was favored at 37 degrees C and permitted ribosome binding at host body temperature. Our study further provides experimental evidence for the biological relevance of an RNA thermometer in an animal model. Following oral infections in mice, we found that two different Y. pseudotuberculosis patient isolates expressing a stabilized thermometer variant were strongly reduced in their ability to disseminate into the Peyer's patches, liver and spleen and have fully lost their lethality. Intriguingly, Yersinia strains with a destabilized version of the thermosensor were attenuated or exhibited a similar, but not a higher mortality. This illustrates that the RNA thermometer is the decisive control element providing just the appropriate amounts of LcrF protein for optimal infection efficiency.

  • 97. Boj, Sylvia F
    et al.
    Hwang, Chang-Il
    Baker, Lindsey A
    Chio, Iok In Christine
    Engle, Dannielle D
    Corbo, Vincenzo
    Jager, Myrthe
    Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano
    Tiriac, Hervé
    Spector, Mona S
    Gracanin, Ana
    Oni, Tobiloba
    Yu, Kenneth H
    van Boxtel, Ruben
    Huch, Meritxell
    Rivera, Keith D
    Wilson, John P
    Feigin, Michael E
    Öhlund, Daniel
    Handly-Santana, Abram
    Ardito-Abraham, Christine M
    Ludwig, Michael
    Elyada, Ela
    Alagesan, Brinda
    Biffi, Giulia
    Yordanov, Georgi N
    Delcuze, Bethany
    Creighton, Brianna
    Wright, Kevin
    Park, Youngkyu
    Morsink, Folkert HM
    Molenaar, I Quintus
    Borel Rinkes, Inne H
    Cuppen, Edwin
    Hao, Yuan
    Jin, Ying
    Nijman, Isaac J
    Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine
    Leach, Steven D
    Pappin, Darryl J
    Hammell, Molly
    Klimstra, David S
    Basturk, Olca
    Hruban, Ralph H
    Offerhaus, George Johan
    Vries, Robert GJ
    Clevers, Hans
    Tuveson, David A
    Organoid models of human and mouse ductal pancreatic cancer2015In: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 160, no 1-2, p. 324-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies due to its late diagnosis and limited response to treatment. Tractable methods to identify and interrogate pathways involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis are urgently needed. We established organoid models from normal and neoplastic murine and human pancreas tissues. Pancreatic organoids can be rapidly generated from resected tumors and biopsies, survive cryopreservation, and exhibit ductal- and disease-stage-specific characteristics. Orthotopically transplanted neoplastic organoids recapitulate the full spectrum of tumor development by forming early-grade neoplasms that progress to locally invasive and metastatic carcinomas. Due to their ability to be genetically manipulated, organoids are a platform to probe genetic cooperation. Comprehensive transcriptional and proteomic analyses of murine pancreatic organoids revealed genes and pathways altered during disease progression. The confirmation of many of these protein changes in human tissues demonstrates that organoids are a facile model system to discover characteristics of this deadly malignancy.

  • 98.
    Boldrup, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences.
    p63 and potential p63 targets in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), the 6th most common cancer worldwide, has a low 5-year survival. Disease as well as treatment often causes patients severe functional and aesthetic problems. In order to improve treatment and diagnosis at earlier stages of tumour development it is important to learn more about the molecular mechanisms behind the disease. p63, an important regulator of epithelial formation, has been suggested to play a role in the development of SCCHN. Six different isoforms of p63 have been found and shown to have various functions. The aim of the studies in this thesis was to learn more about the role of p63 and proteins connected to p63 in SCCHN.

    Expression of p63, Cox-2, EGFR, beta-catenin, PP2A and p53 isoforms was mapped in tumours and normal tumour adjacent tissue from patients with SCCHN using western blot or RT-PCR. Results showed no significant difference between tumours and normal tumour adjacent tissue concerning expression of EGFR and beta-catenin. Cox-2 and PP2A showed significantly higher expression in tumours while p63 was more expressed in normal tumour adjacent tissue. However, expression of all these proteins in normal tumour adjacent tissue differed from tissue from disease-free non-smoking individuals. Smoking in itself did not affect expression of these proteins. The p53 isoforms p53, p53beta, p53gamma, ∆133p53, ∆133p53beta and ∆133p53gamma were expressed at RNA level in samples both from tumours and normal tumour adjacent tissue, though most of them at fairly low levels.

    The functional properties of the different p63 isoforms have not been fully mapped. By establishing stable cell lines over-expressing the different p63 isoforms we investigated their specific effect on tumour cells from SCCHN. Only the ∆Np63 isoforms could be stably over-expressed, whereas no clones over-expressing TAp63 could be established. Using microarray technique, cell lines stably expressing the ∆Np63 isoforms were studied and CD44, Keratins 4, 6, 14, 19 and Cox-2 were found to be regulated by p63.

    In conclusion, the present project adds new data to the field of p63 and SCCHN. For example, we have shown that clinically normal tumour adjacent tissue is altered compared to normal oral mucosa in non tumour patients, and that smoking does not change expression of p63, Cox-2, EGFR, beta-catenin or PP2A in oral mucosa. Novel p53 isoforms are expressed in SCCHN, and even though levels are very low they should not be overlooked. Furthermore, CD44, keratins 4, 6, 14, 19 and Cox-2 were identified as p63 targets in SCCHN.

  • 99.
    Boldrup, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Coates, Philip J
    Gu, Xiaolian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    DeltaNp63 isoforms differentially regulate gene expression in squamous cell carcinoma: identification of Cox-2 as a novel p63 target.2009In: The Journal of pathology, ISSN 1096-9896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p53 homologue p63 produces six different isoforms that are important in development of epithelial tissues and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). In SCCHN, the expression of p63 isoforms is highly complex, with over-expression of DeltaNp63 and p63beta isoforms in many tumours. To date, little is known about the functions of different DeltaNp63 isoforms and elucidating the distinctive properties of DeltaNp63 isoforms will help to clarify how they influence tumour biology. By gene expression profiling of SCCHN cells over-expressing the DeltaNp63 isoforms we identified different effects of the three isoforms, with DeltaNp63beta being more effective at gene induction than DeltaNp63alpha and DeltaNp63gamma, whereas DeltaNp63gamma was most effective at repressing gene expression. Thus, tumours expressing even low levels of DeltaNp63beta or DeltaNp63gamma may have distinct clinicopathological characteristics important for metastasis and therapeutic response. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) was shown by each isoform and data were confirmed by independent quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. No direct binding of DeltaNp63 to the Cox-2 promoter could be seen, neither could any evidence for Cox-2 induction as a consequence of activated NF-kappaB pathway responses be found. As Cox-2 is known to inhibit radiotherapy responses in SCCHN patients, data indicate an additional mechanism through which DeltaNp63 acts to promote cell survival and influence therapeutic response of SCCHN. MIAME-compliant data have been deposited in the MIAME Express database (Accession No. E-MEXP-1842). Copyright (c) 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 100.
    Boldrup, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Coates, Philip J
    Laurell, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Nylander, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    p63 transcriptionally regulates BNC1, a Pol I and Pol II transcription factor that regulates ribosomal biogenesis and epithelial differentiation2012In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1401-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p53-family member, p63 is a transcription factor that influences cellular adhesion, motility, proliferation, survival and apoptosis, and has a major role in regulating epithelial stem cells. Expression of p63 is often dysregulated in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. In this study we show that p63 induces the expression of the basal epithelial transcription factor, Basonuclin 1. Basonuclin 1 is an unusual transcription factor that interacts with a subset of promoters of genes that are transcribed by both RNA polymerase-I and -II and has roles in maintaining ribosomal biogenesis and the proliferative potential of immature epithelial cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays demonstrate that Basonuclin 1 is a direct transcriptional target of p63 and we also show that up-regulation of Basonuclin 1 is a common event in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. These data identify a new transcriptional programme mediated by p63 regulation of the Basonuclin 1 transcription factor in squamous cell carcinomas and provide a novel link of p63 with the regulation of ribosomal biogenesis in epithelial cancer.

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