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  • 51.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Mathematics and mathematics education - two sides of the same coin: creative reasoning in university exams in mathematics2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of two different but connected parts. Part A is based on two articles in mathematics and Part B on two articles in mathematics education.

    Part A mainly focus on properties of positive currents in connection to polynomial convexity. Earlier research has shown that a point z0 lies in the polynomial hull of a compact set K if and only if there is a positive current with compact support such that ddcT = μ−δz0. Here μ is a probability measure on K and δz0 denotes the Dirac mass at z0. The main result of Article I is that the current T does not have to be unique. The second paper, Article II, contains two examples of different constructions of this type of currents. The paper is concluded by the proof of a proposition that might be the first step towards generalising the method used in the first example.

    Part B consider the types of reasoning that are required by students taking introductory calculus courses at Swedish universities. Two main concepts are used to describe the students’ reasoning: imitative reasoning and creative reasoning. Imitative reasoning consists basically of remembering facts or recalling algorithms. Creative reasoning includes flexible thinking founded on the relevant mathematical properties of ob jects in the task. Earlier research results show that students often choose imitative reasoning to solve mathematical tasks, even when it is not a successful method. In this context the word choose does not necessarily mean that the students make a conscious and well considered selection between methods, but just as well that they have a subconscious preference for certain types of procedures. The research also show examples of how students that work with algorithms seem to focus solely on remembering the steps, and researchers argue that this weakens the students’ understanding of the underlying mathematics. Article III examine to what extent students at Swedish universities can solve exam tasks in introductory calculus courses using only imitative reasoning. The results show that about 70 % of the tasks were solvable by imitative reasoning and that the students were required to use creative reasoning in only one of 16 exams in order to pass. In Article IV, six of the teachers that constructed the analysed exams in Article III were interviewed. The purpose was to examine their views and opinions on the reasoning required in the exams. The analysis showed that the teachers are quite content with the present situation. The teachers expressed the opinion that tasks demanding creative reasoning are usually more difficult than tasks solvable with imitative reasoning. They therefore use the required reasoning as a tool to regulate the tasks’ degree of difficulty, rather than as a task dimension of its own. The exams demand mostly imitative reasoning since the teachers believe that they otherwise would, under the current circumstances, be too difficult and lead to too low passing rates.

  • 52.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    University mathematics teachers' views on the required reasoning in calculus exams2012In: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 371-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students often use imitative reasoning, i.e. copy algorithms or recall facts, when solving mathematical tasks. Research show that this type of imitative reasoning might weaken the students' understanding of the underlying mathematical concepts. In a previous study, the author classified tasks from 16 final exams from introductory calculus courses at Swedish universities. The results showed that it was possible to pass 15 of the exams, and solve most of the tasks, using imitative reasoning. This study examines the teachers' views on the reasoning that students are expected to perform during their own and others mathematics exams. The results indicate that the exams demand mostly imitative reasoning since the teachers think that the exams otherwise would be too difficult and lead to too low passing rates.

  • 53.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The role of the formal written curriculum in standards-based reform2017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 149-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 15 years after the introduction of a standards-based curriculum reform, the mathematics teachers are positive towards the reform message but have not changed their classroom practice accordingly. To improve the impact of future reforms, it is important to learn from this situation and to better understand the role of the national policy documents. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how the standards-based reform in mathematics in Sweden was conveyed in the formal written curriculum. The research questions focus on to what extent and how clearly the national policy documents convey the message. The results show that the message is present to a large extent in the policy documents, but that it is vague and formulated with complex wording. The study gives concrete examples and shows in detail in what ways the documents are vague and complex.

  • 54.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: grundskolan våren 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: gymnasiet hösten 20092010Report (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relating vocabulary in mathematical tasks to aspects of reading and solving2012In: Evaluation and comparison of mathematical achievement: Dimensions and perspectives. Proceedings of MADIF 8, The Eighth Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Umeå, January 24-25, 2012 / [ed] Christer Bergsten, Eva Jablonka & Manya Raman, Linköping: SMDF , 2012, p. 61-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on relationships between vocabulary in mathematical tasks and aspects of reading and solving these tasks. The paper contains a framework that highlights a number of different aspects of word difficulty as well as many issues to consider when planning and implementing empirical studies concerning vocabulary in tasks, where the aspect of common/uncommon words is one important part. The paper also presents an empirical method where corpora are used to investigate issues of vocabulary in mathematical tasks. The results from the empirical study show that there are connections between different types of vocabulary and task difficulty, but that they seem to be mainly an effect of the total number of words in a task.

  • 57.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Linguistic properties of PISA mathematics tasks in different languages2016In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10: the tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 / [ed] Häggström, Johan; Norén, Eva; van Bommel, Jorryt; Sayers, Judy; Helenius, Ola; Liljekvist, Yvonne, Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2016, p. 147-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mathematics PISA tasks are primarily supposed to measure mathematical ability and not reading ability, so it is important to avoid unnecessary demands of reading ability in the tasks. Many readability formulas are using both word length and sentence length as indicators of text difficulty. In this study, we examine differences and similarities between English, German, and Swedish mathematics PISA tasks regarding word length and sentence length. We analyze 146 mathematics PISA tasks from 2000–2013, in English, German, and Swedish. For each task we create measures of mean word and sentence length. To analyze if there are any differences between the three language versions of the tasks, we use t-tests to compare the three languages pairwise. We found that in average, the German versions have the longest words, followed by Swedish and then English. Average sentence length was highest for English, followed by German and then Swedish.

  • 58.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relations between linguistic features and difficulty of PISA tasks in different languages2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 125-125Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    The role of linguistic features when reading and solving mathematics tasks in different languages2018In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 51, p. 41-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of the relation between the language used in mathematics tasks and the difficulty in reading and solving the tasks. We examine issues of language both through linguistic features of tasks (word length, sentence length, task length, and information density) and through different natural languages used to formulate the tasks (English, German, and Swedish). Analyses of 83 PISA mathematics tasks reveal that tasks in German, when compared with English and Swedish, show stronger connections between the examined linguistic features of tasks and difficulty in reading and solving the tasks. We discuss if and how this result can be explained by general differences between the three languages.

  • 60.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    A theoretical model of the connection between the process of reading and the process of solving mathematical tasks2010In: Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions. Proceedings of MADIF 7 / [ed] C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka & T. Wedege, Linköping, Sweden: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, SMDF , 2010, p. 47-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest a theoretical model of the connection between the process of reading and the process of solving mathematical tasks. The model takes into consideration different types of previous research about the relationship between reading and solving mathematical tasks, including research about traits of mathematical tasks (a linguistic perspective), about the reading process (a psychological perspective), and about behavior and reasoning when solving tasks (a mathematics education perspective). In contrast to other models, our model is not linear but cyclic, and considers behavior such as re-reading the task.

  • 61.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Monash University, Australia.
    Communicating mathematics or mathematical communication?: An analysis of competence frameworks2012In: Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Vol. 2: opportunities to learn in mathematics education / [ed] Tai-Yih Tso, 2012, p. 67-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse the communication competence included in two different frameworks of mathematical knowledge. The main purpose is to find out if mathematical communication is primarily described as communication of or about mathematics or if it is (also) described as a special type of communication. The results show that aspects of mathematics are mostly included as the content of communication in the frameworks but the use of different forms of representation is highlighted both in the frameworks and also in prior research as a potential cause for characterising mathematical communication differently than "ordinary" communication.

  • 62.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Språkbrukets roll i matematikundervisningen2014In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, Vol. 2014, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det språk vi använder oss av i matematikklassrummet kan fokuseras på många olika sätt. Språket är också nödvändigt att förhålla sig till vid utvecklingen av sitt matematiska tänkande. Författarna diskuterar här relationer mellan språk och lärande.

  • 63.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Variation of explicit argumentation in mathematics textbooks2017In: Proceedings of the 41st Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Kaur, B., Ho, W.K., Toh, T.L., & Choy, B.H., 2017, Vol. 1, p. 170-170Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, MagnusUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Granberg, CarinaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Sumpter, LovisaStockholms universitet.
    Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Gymnasieelever undersöker ett matematiskt begrepp med grafräknare1999In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 7, no 3-4, p. 35-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver ett försök där gymnasieelever får undersöka faktorisering av andragradspolynom med hjälp av grafiska representationer av funktioner. Eleverna leds in i ett för dem nytt arbetssätt, där de tillsammans med en lärare får arbeta med ett antal uppgifter med hjälp av en grafräknare. Resultaten visar att eleverna kommer med egna hypoteser och an­vänder grafräknaren på eget initiativ i vissa situationer. Resultaten visar också att eleverna i för­söket i viss mån kunde använda grafräkna­ren i ett undersökande arbetssätt.

  • 66.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    How teachers verify conjectures: teachers' expectations2005In: Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, ISSN 1386-4416, E-ISSN 1573-1820, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 171-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, “How Students Verify Conjectures” [Bergqvist, T. (2000). How students verify conjectures. Research reports in Mathematics Education 3]. Teachers’ expectations of students’ reasoning and performance are examined, and also how they wish students would work. The results indicate that the teachers tend to underestimate the students’ reasoning levels and that they believe that only a small group of students in each class can use higher level reasoning in mathematics.

  • 67.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    MatBIT: matematisk begreppsbildning och IT2002Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Podcasting mathematics2013In: The International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, ISSN 1744-2710, E-ISSN 2045-2519, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 147-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study podcasts, i.e. short video clips, were analysed to ascertain how mathematical competencies were addressed. We analysed how the mathematical content was presented in the podcasts, and then how these characterizations related to eight students’ interest to learn mathematics. The mathematical presentations was analysed using the Mathematical Competencies Research Framework (Lithner et al., 2010). The results indicate that podcasts that address several mathematical competencies receive overall higher grades by the students in the study.

  • 69.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Problem solving in mathematics education: learning problem solving and learning through problem solving2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proceedings from the 13th ProMath conference, September 2 – 4, 2011, in Umeå, Sweden.

  • 70.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Problemlösning i Nämnaren under 2000-talet2014In: NTema 10: Matematik – undervisning i praktiken / [ed] Karin Wallby, Ulrika Dahlberg, Ola Helenius, Johan Häggström och Anders Wallby, Göteborg: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), 2014, p. 270-275Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i ett stort antal artiklar om problemlösning i de 15 senaste årens Nämnaren diskuteras i artikeln några intressanta problem och problemlösningens roll i skolans matematikundervisning.

  • 71.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Räknare i skolmatematik - vara eller inte vara?2006In: IKT i matematikkundervisningen - muligheter og begrensninger / [ed] Merete Lysberg, Trondheim, Norge: Nasjonalt senter for matematikk i opplæringen , 2006, p. 35-39Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    To explore and verify in mathematics2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of four articles and a summary. The main focus of the studies is students' explorations in upper secondary school mathematics.

    In the first study the central research question was to find out if the students could learn something difficult by using the graphing calculator. The students were working with questions connected to factorisation of quadratic polynomials, and the factor theorem. The results indicate that the students got a better understanding for the factor theorem, and for the connection between graphical and algebraical representations.

    The second study focused on a the last part of an investigation, the verification of an idea or a conjecture. Students were given three conjectures and asked to decide if they were true or false, and also to explain why the conjectures were true or false. In this study I found that the students wanted to use rather abstract mathematics in order to verify the conjectures.

    Since the results from the second study disagreed with other research in similar situations, I wanted to see what Swedish teachers had to say of the students' ways to verify the conjectures.

    The third study is an interview study where some teachers were asked what expectations they had on students who were supposed to verify the three conjectures from the second study. The teachers were also confronted with examples from my second study, and asked to comment on how the students performed. The results indicate that teachers tend to underestimate students' mathematical reasoning.

    A central focus to all my three studies is explorations in mathematics. My fourth study, a revised version of a pilot study performed 1998, concerns exactly that: how students in upper secondary school explore a mathematical concept. The results indicate that the students are able to perform explorations in mathematics, and that the graphing calculator has a potential as a pedagogical aid, it can be a support for the students' mathematical reasoning.

  • 73.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    WHAT MATHEMATICAL COMPETENCES CAN BE LEARNED FROM WEB-BASED LEARNING RESOURCES?2013In: Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, vol 5. / [ed] Anke M. Lindmeier, Aiso Heinze, Kiel: The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) , 2013, p. 21-21Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two web-based learning resoruces were analysed using the MCRF research framework. The aim was to identify opportunities to develop mathematical competencies. The findings indicate that opportunities are few, and that what is offered in web-based learning resources is similar to what is offered in Swedish classrooms.

  • 74.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Why are students using web-based learning resources in mathematics outside the classroom?2013In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Science, Mathematics and Technology Education. Muscat, Oman 4-7 November, 2012 / [ed] Darrell Fisher and Rekha Koul, Perth: Science and Mathematics Education Centre, Curtin University, Australia. , 2013, p. 40-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study is to gain insights into the situation of students using web-based learning resources (WBLR) outside the formal learning environment in the classroom. More specifically to understand why students use the resources, and what they do when they access the resources. Eleven students that to some extent had used WBLR were interviewed, five in school year eight and six in school year twelve. The results indicate that the extent of the use of the resources were very limited and that the two main activities the students engage in are very similar to those they are used to from the classroom; i) practicing rote learning and ii) listening to solutions of tasks by a teacher. The students in upper secondary school used arguments tightly connected to grades, tests and results, aspects that will be of importance for the students in the future, while the younger students used arguments concerning mathematics in society and knowledge as important for their everyday life. The impression from the interviews was also that the younger students to a larger extent were open to new resources and more willing to search for new sites and try out what they found. 

  • 75.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Mathematical competences in Swedish steering documents2009In: In search for theories in mathematics education: proceedings of the 33rd conference of the International group for the psychology of mathematics education / [ed] Marianna Tzekaki, Maria Kaldrimidou, Haralambos Sakonidis, Thessaloniki, Greece: PME , 2009, p. 1:336-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an ongoing project where we only have very preliminary results, and the main aim of this paper is not to present results, but to discuss the methodological issues when using content analysis on the course syllabus for the Swedish compulsory school. Content analysis (Krippendorff, 2004) is in most cases in the literature used on large materials, for example all news articles from a specific year that concern a certain political issue. We will discuss what happens when we try to use the method on a comparatively small document of a very different kind.

  • 76.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    What is “strong presence” of a message in a steering document?2012In: Proceedings of Norma 11, The Sixth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education in Reykjavík, May 11-14, 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss what a “strong presence” of a message in a syllabuscould be. The discussion takes a starting point in what we call the reformmessage; that what mathematics is can not only be described in terms of content andprocedures, but must also be defined in terms of competencies, e.g. problem solving,reasoning and communication. The analyzed document is the Swedish syllabus forthe first course at upper secondary school. Different ways, both quantitative andqualitative, of determining what a strong presence of a message could be are presentedand discussed.

  • 77.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Hudson, Brian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lindwall, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Podcasting in School2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Podcasting is a new phenomenon in Swedish schools. This pa- per describes a project where the main goal is to analyze if the students’ interest in mathematics is affected if the mathematics is made accessible via podcasts and iPods. Teachers at eleven schools were encouraged to produce podcasts as a part of their mathematics teaching in school year eight. The results indicate an increased interest in mathematics and the learning of mathematics among the students. We also found that the tech- nical difficulties for the teachers were underestimated in the project, and that teachers had difficulties in finding time for the production of podcasts.

     

  • 78.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Hudson, Brian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lindwall, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Podcasting in school2009In: Sixth Research Seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education (MADIF 6), In press, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Podcasting is a new phenomenon in Swedish schools. This paper describes a project where the main goal is to analyze if the students’ interest in mathematics is affected if the mathematics is made accessible via podcasts and ipods. Teachers at eleven schools were encouraged to produce podcasts as a part of their mathematics teaching in school-year eight. The results indicate an increased interest in mathematics and the learning of mathematics among the students. We also found that the technical difficulties for the teachers were underestimated in the project, and that teachers had difficulties in finding time for the production of podcasts.

  • 79.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet.
    van Bommel, Jorryt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Evaluation of a large scale professional development program: Vol 22017In: Proceedings of the 41st Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Kaur, B., Ho, W.K., Toh, T.L., & Choy, B.H., Singapore: The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education , 2017, Vol. 2, p. 153-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a par of an evaluation of the professional development program (PDP) Boost for Mathematics in Sweden. Around 200 mathematics lessons were observed, and the teachers were interviewed after each lesson. The findings indicate that the PDP has had a significant impact on the teachers’ knowledge about the mathematical competencies as they are presented in the national curriculum documents, and that the teaching practice had improved and now gives the students better possibilities to develop the competencies. The results also show that these improvements are still present one year after the program had ended. 

  • 80.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mathematical reasoning in teachers' presentations2012In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 31p. 252-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of the opportunities presented to students that allow them to learn different types of mathematical reasoning during teachers’ ordinary task solving presentations. The characteristics of algorithmic and creative reasoning that are seen in the presentations are analyzed. We find that most task solutions are based on available algorithms, often without arguments that justify the reasoning, which may lead to rote learning. The students are given some opportunities to see aspects of creative reasoning, such as reflection and arguments that are anchored in the mathematical properties of the task components, but in relatively modest ways.

  • 81.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Why is learning via creative reasoning effective?2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged: PME , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sumpter, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Upper secondary students’ task reasoning2008In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, Vol. 39, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upper secondary students’ task solving reasoning was analysed, with a focus on grounds for different strategy choices and implementations. The results indicate that mathematically well-founded considerations were rare. The dominating reasoning types were algorithmic reasoning, where students tried to remember a suitable algorithm, sometimes in a random way, and guided reasoning, where progress was possible only when essentially all important strategy choices were made by the interviewer.

  • 83.
    Bergström, Kai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    ”Håller pojkar på att bli mer som flickor?”: En granskning av läroböcker i ämnet engelska ur ett genusperspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how gender is embedded into English teaching course books in years seven and nine in secondary school in Sweden. The criteria used include male-to-female ratios regarding visibility as subjects and objects in texts, professions connected to men and women, the representation and presentation of well-known men and women, the presence of gender stereotypes as well as representation of women and men in pictures. Both quantitative and qualitative text analyses have been used and the result of the study shows that there is an inequality in terms of male-to-female ratios with men being overrepresented in all fields including presence in texts and pictures as well as having a larger representation of professions and well-known persons than women. The study further shows that while there are signs of efforts to combat gender stereotypes in the course books there are still many examples of gender stereotypes with women generally being pictured as more emotional and vulnerable, and men being pictured as more active and emotionless. Gender disparities are also visible in the form of women more often being shown to break gender stereotypes than men.

  • 84.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Lärmiljön för studerande i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten sammanfattas den intervjustudie som skett i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad under höstterminen 2013. Programmet sker på distans med 50% studietakt. Projektets målsättning är att studera studentens process genom masterprogrammet. Processen har avgränsats till att dels studera hur studenten själv kan skapa en individuellt anpassad utbildning och dels att studera studenternas lärprocess i de valbara kurserna. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att förstå hur studenterna uppfattat sin första termin i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad. För att besvara syftet formulerades två forskningsfrågor: 1) Hur beskriver studenterna möjligheterna att individualisera sin utbildning under höstterminen 2013? 2) Vad kännetecknar de valbara eller tillgodoräknade kursernas design och genomförande under höstterminen 2013? Resultatet indikerar tre teman 1) att skapa sin individuella inriktning i programmet 2) Undervisningens utformning 3) Att knäcka koden. Sammanfattningsvis indikerar resultatet att programmets avsikt att skapa självständiga studenter står i relation till att inom de individuellt valda kurserna finns ringa möjligheter till självständighet.

  • 85.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: students’ perspectives on teachers’ didactical design2018In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 160-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research study that scrutinised the student perspective on teachers’ different didactical designs from lessons in the one-to-one computing classroom. Specifically, the aim was to describe and understand three different clusters of didactical design in the one-to-one computing classroom from the student perspective. Each of the three clusters represents different interactions between teachers and students. The research questions embrace how the teachers or students, through the didactical design, will have an advantage over the other. The empirical material was based on student focus groups interviews, enhanced through the method of stimulated recall where different photographs of teaching and learning situations from the one-to-one computing classroom were shown to the students. The results demonstrate three empirical themes: students’ learning in class, students’ learning outside class, and classroom assessment. From a theoretical lens of power and control, the students’ reasoning demonstrates approaches to how teachers regulate students and to how students can make decisions in their learning process. For handling students’ demands, specifically in pedagogical plans, the one-to-one computing classroom becomes one component for making students’ learning processes smoother regarding when to study and how to study.

  • 86.
    Bergström, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bäckström, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutveckling: att klä matematiken i ett skimmer av glädje2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan matematiken kläs i ett skimmer av glädje genom matematikutveckling? I olika studier (bland annat PISA, 2003 och TIMSS, 2003) som vi tagit del av visas ett sjunkande intresse och kunskap hos skolelever i matematik. Utifrån detta har vi valt att studera en norrländsk kommun och deras satsningar på matematikutveckling. Genom intervjuer med politiker, tjänsteman, matematikutvecklare, rektorer och lärare kan vi konstatera att dessa strävar mot samma mål när det gäller matematikutveckling, elevernas matematikkunskaper måste förbättras. Respondenterna anser att kompetensutveckling för lärare är av vikt för att elevers matematikutveckling skall höjas, men hur denna kompetensutveckling skall ske skiljer sig åt. Det pratas om traditionell kompetensutveckling såväl som kompetensväxling och matematikutvecklare för att utbilda och stötta lärare. I studien kan vi se att den kommun som undersöktes bara har påbörjat sin matematiksatsning, medan matematikdelegationen (SOU 2004) hade som mål att år 2006 skulle alla kommuner i landet ha påbörjat utbildning av och arbetet med matematikutvecklare. De lärare som deltog i studien har gemensamt med rektorerna att de tycker att läromedlen styr för mycket. Lärarna måste få en chans att utveckla sina matematiklektioner och det är här som skillnaderna i hur denna utveckling skall ske uppdagar sig. Rektorerna och en av lärarna menar att det är traditionell kompetensutveckling, det vill säga den kompetensutveckling som kommunen erbjuder, som i första hand bör nyttjas, medan det övriga lärarna till största del talar om erfarenhetsutbyte lärare emellan. Vi kan konstatera att ännu kan matematiken inte kläs i ett skimmer av glädje. Eftersom att alla inblandade har en vilja att utveckla matematikämnet finns det stora förhoppningar att detta kommer att kunna ske i framtiden.

  • 87.
    Bergvall, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Näslund, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Alla använder läroböcker! Vad finns det för andra sätt lixom?: En undersökning om lärares syn på det enskilda arbetet i läroboken2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningar som Skolverket har gjort visar att matematikundervisningen idag till stor del består av enskild räkning i läroboken. I styrdokumenten framkommer det tydligt att man inom skolan ska arbeta på ett varierat sätt, men i verkligenheten ser det annorlunda ut. Vår undersökning handlar om att ta reda på hur lärarna resonerar kring det enskilda arbetet i läroboken som arbetssätt.Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka vad lärare anger som anledning till val av arbetsmetoder i matematikundervisningen, och deras syn på det enskilda arbetet i läroboken som arbetssätt. Vi vill undersöka om lärarna anser att styrdokumentens intentioner angående matematikämnet uppfylls genom att låta eleverna arbeta enskilt i läroboken. Vi har då valt att avgränsa vår undersökning till kommunikationen i styrdokumenten, eftersom det finns så många olika faktorer och tiden inte räcker till för att undersöka fler. Vi har genomfört kvalitativa intervjuer med sex lärare som jobbar på grundskolans senare år.Den litteratur vi har studerat är överlag negativt inställd till lärobokens dominans. Samtidigt som det finns en förståelse för att undervisningen idag ser ut som den gör, bland annat för att läroboken är enkel att använda och underlättar lärarnas arbete, ifrågasätts det om arbetssättet är lämpligt för alla elever. Våra slutsatser är bland annat att lärarna väljer att jobba med enskild räkning i läroboken för att tiden är för knapp för att hinna med att jobba på andra sätt, och för att eleverna är så vana att jobba i läroboken att de blir stressade av andra arbetssätt. Att styrdokumenten anses luddiga och svåra att samköra med undervisningen är också en anledning till att lärarna väljer det enskilda arbetet i läroboken. Lärobokens fördelar överväger dess nackdelar och det väger också in i lärarnas val av metod. Det är uppnåendemålen som i verkligheten styr undervisningen. Trots att kommunikation anses som en viktig del av undervisningen bortses det från vid valet av metod eftersom läroboken används, och vid det enskilda arbetet i den faller kommunikation lätt bort.

  • 88.
    Bernholt, Andrea
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education (IPN), Germany.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lindfors, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Students’ epistemic beliefs in Sweden and Germany: Correlations with classroom characteristics2017In: Education in the Crossroads of Economy and Politics: Role of Research in the Advancement of Public Good. Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 678-678Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims at describing students’ epistemic beliefs over school years 5–11, investigating differences between Sweden and Germany regarding the ‘trajectories’ of epistemic beliefs over the grades, and if classroom factors can explain these differences. A cross-sectional survey, covering grades 5–11, was distributed to 1501 students in Sweden and 2839 in Germany to assess their epistemic beliefs and perceived classroom environment in chemistry. Factor analysis revealed four valid constructs for students’ epistemic beliefs and perceived classroom environment, respectively.  A common trend for both countries was an increasing sophistication over grades as to the Certainty of knowledge and an emphasis in all grades on the need for evidence from several sources to make claims of knowing (Justification). Trust in authorities decreased over the grades in Germany, while Swedish students showed similar levels in all grades. Beliefs in dynamic and changing knowledge was strong in both countries, with an increasing trend in Germany while stable in Sweden. Significant correlations between epistemic beliefs and perceived classroom environment were found in both countries, but stronger in Sweden than Germany

  • 89.
    Bernholt, Sascha
    et al.
    IPN Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Blankenburg, Janet
    IPN Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Kiel, Germany.
    Broman, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Parchmann, Ilka
    IPN Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Kiel, Germany.
    How Do Students’ Interest and Conceptual Understanding Develop Over the Time of Their Secondary Chemistry Education? First Results From the Binational Project DoLiS2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90. Bernholt, Sascha
    et al.
    Broman, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Siebert, Sara
    Parchmann, Ilka
    Digitising teaching and learning: additional perspectives for chemistry education2019In: Israel Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 0021-2148, Vol. 59, p. 554-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemistry requires and combines both observable and mental representations. Still we know that learners often struggle in combining these perspectives successfully, especially when experimental observations contradict the model-based explanations, e.g. in interpreting the chemical equilibrium as dynamic processes while observing a static system without any visible changes. Digital media offer potentials that might not have been accessible to this degree until now. However, we do not know enough with regard to the degree and effects these media tools have in supporting learning processes but perhaps also in hindering them. This article presents four approaches on how to potentially make use of digital media in learning processes based on theoretical considerations and empirical investigations. The projects will explore applications of media as visualization, learning and investigation tools in chemistry education, embracing techniques from virtual realities to eye-tracking.

  • 91.
    Bindler, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library.
    Olsson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library.
    Paraphrasing makes perfect sense: Help students understand what "write it in your own words" means2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Bjuhr, Jerry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
      Använder sig läraren av olika strategier när han/hon hjälper pojkar och flickor?: En studie av lärares förutfattade meningar om pojkar & flickor och hur detta återspeglas i deras sätt att hjälpa eleverna i matematik.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbete var att synligöra eventuella skillnader i lärares sätt att hjälpa pojkar och flickor. Lärare som tar del av denna studie blir förhoppningsvis mer medvetna om vilka strategier som används och om eventuella skillnader man gör mellan könen.

    Idén till studien har sitt ursprung i Lovisa Sumpters avhandling. I den tillskriver lärare pojkar och flickor olika genussymboler i koppling till matematiskt resonemang. Fokus i denna studie har legat på att observera interaktioner som behandlar matematiska uppgifter och som utspelar sig mellan en lärare och en elev. Olika observationskategorier har utformats med Sumpters resultat som utgångspunkt. 5 olika gymnasielärare har observerats. För att underlätta observationerna och analysen av dessa så har interaktionerna mellan eleverna och läraren spelats in med hjälp av en trådlös mick.

    Resultat tyder på att lärarna agerar i enlighet med några av de genussymboler som eleverna tillskrivs i Sumpters studie. Bland annat så ger lärarna flickorna större möjligheter till imitativt resonemang, genom att visa fler exempel och oftare hänvisa till standardmetoder. En del av resultatet är till viss del motsägelsefullt mot tidigare forsknings som säger att pojkar i allmänhet tar större plats i klassrummet. I denna studie så hjälper lärarna fler flickor och tiden för varje interaktion är i genomsnitt längre för flickorna.  En av de tydligare skillnaderna som framkom var att läraren ställer fler öppna frågor till pojkarna. Detta innebär att pojkarna i större utsträckning får argumentera och genomföra sitt matematiska resonemang.

  • 93. Björkqvist, Ole
    et al.
    Gjone, GunnarJohansson, BengtKristjánsdóttir, AnnaLithner, JohanUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Wallin, HansUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Preparation of researchers in mathematics education: Nordic symposium Umeå, August 17-20, 19951996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Blom, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Matematiska stödinsatser: I glesbygdsskolor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna fallstudie undersöker hur glesbygdsskolan utformar och organiserar stödinsatser för elever ibehov av särskilda utbildningsinsatser i matematik (SUM-elever). Det som studien fokuserar på är hurSUM-elever identifieras och kartläggs, vilka extra anpassningar och vilket särskilt stöd som utformasoch organiseras i matematik, arbetet med inkludering samt vilka arbetsuppgifter specialpedagogenhar i arbetet med matematiska stödinsatser. Studien bygger på intervjuer med lärare, specialpedagogoch rektor från två olika glesbygdsskolor i samma kommun samt deras kvalitetsredovisningar. Denteoretiska utgångspunkt som denna studie har är den fenomenologiska. Resultatet visar att skolornaupptäcker eleven i det dagliga arbetet. Lärarna anpassar den ordinarie undervisningen till SUMelevernavilket gör att särskilt stöd är ovanligt och stor andel av eleverna klarar nationella proven imatematik. Det råder en inkluderande miljö i glesbygdsskolan och specialpedagogensarbetsuppgifter är i till stor del att handleda och stötta lärarna.

  • 95.
    Blomquist, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Language and Identity: attitudes towards code-switching in the immigrant language classroom2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although many studies have been conducted on second language acquisition and bilingual education, little is known about the role of language in the formation of identity by adolescent immigrants in the language classroom. More specifically, this study aims to investigate the use of code-switching by immigrant and refugee students learning Swedish and English in a high school preparatory program. Furthermore, this study investigates the relationship between students’ and teachers’ attitudes towards code-switching and language as a resource, and theories on language as a marker of identity. Quantitative collection of data and qualitative interviews reveal tensions between the ways in which teachers and students relate to code-switching and bilingualism. This study concludes that language in general, and code-switching in particular, can be used by students as a marker of identity. It further concludes that teachers to some extent discourage the use of code-switching, and thereby undermine the students’ possibilities in forming multicultural identities.

  • 96.
    Bodin, Madelen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Att skapa egna virtuella modeller i fysik och teknik2013In: Modeller, analogier och metaforer i naturvetenskapsundervisning / [ed] Fredrik Jeppson, Fredrik Haglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, p. 169-184Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Bodin, Madelen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Computational problem solving in university physics education: Students’ beliefs, knowledge, and motivation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solving physics problem in university physics education with a computational approach requires knowledge and skills in several domains, for example, physics, mathematics, programming, and modelling. These competences are in turn related to students' beliefs about these domains as well as about learning, and their motivation to learn. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the role of university physics students' knowledge, beliefs and motivation when solving and visualizing a physics problem using a computational approach. The results showed that expert-like beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were important predictors of the quality of performance. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to be good indicators of students' motivation were also good predictors of performance. However, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with beliefs expressing students' personal interest and utility value, did not predict performance to any higher extent. Instead, my results indicate that integration and identification of expert-like beliefs about learning and concentration and control emotions during learning are more influential on the quality of performance. Thus, the results suggest that the development of students' epistemological beliefs is important for students' ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education. In order to investigate knowledge and beliefs structures network modeling has been applied as a novel tool for analysis. Students' epistemic frames are analyzed before and after the task in computational physics using a network analysis approach on interview transcripts, producing visual representations of mental models. The results show that students change their epistemic framing from a modelling task, with expectancies about learning programming, to a physics task, in which they are challenged to use physics principles and conservation laws in order to troubleshoot and understand their simulations. This implies that the task, even though it is not introducing any new physics, helped the students to develop a more consistent view of the importance of using physics principles in problem solving. When comparing students' framing with teachers,' it is shown that although teachers and students agree on the main features of simulation competence in physics, differences in their epistemic networks can be distinguished. For example, while teachers believe that numerical problem solving facilitates fundamental understanding of physics and mathematics, this is not obvious to students. This implies that university teachers need to be aware of these differences as well as students' beliefs in order to challenge students' expectations and to give support concerning the learning objectives of the assignment. 

  • 98.
    Bodin, Madelen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Creative interactive environment for doing physics2009In: MPTL 14 International Workshop on Multimedia in Physics Teaching and Learning, 23-25 September 2009, University of Udine, Italy, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Algodoo 2D simulation environment is built upon advanced real-time physicssimulation technology. (Demonstration video is provided on Youtube:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qa9xn-xYQQk)  It has a graphical user interface whichmakes it possible for anybody to create and explore scenes that are physicallyinteractive. In Algodoo it is possible to create and edit scenes using simple drawingtools, save and load scenes, start and stop simulation, interact with simulation byclick, drag, tilt and shake. Color traces, force and velocity vectors can be addedfor enhanced visualization. The built-in physics simulation engines treat rigidbodies, fluids, chains, gears, gravity, contacts, friction, restitution, springs,hinges, lock, motors and also laser rays and optics. Algodoo is based on highlycompetitive technologies for interactive multiphysics simulation, includingvariational mechanical integrators and high performance numerical methods. Algodoo isparticularly intended to be used in order to encourage and make use of the students’own creativity in order to construct knowledge and giving the student a sense ofownership of their own learning. The sense of having control of the learningsituation is considered being one of the most important factors that generatemotivational behaviour. Algodoo offers new strategies for working with computers inteaching and learning physics. This study demonstrates the use of Algodoo withteacher students in physics and also with 8-9 year old girls in a science class.

  • 99.
    Bodin, Madelen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mapping students' epistemic framing of computational physics using network analysis2012In: Physical Review Special Topics : Physics Education Research, ISSN 1554-9178, E-ISSN 1554-9178, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 010115-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fa]

    Solving physics problem in university physics education using a computational approach requires knowledge and skills in several domains, for example, physics, mathematics, programming, and modelling. These competences are in turn related to students’ beliefs about the domains as well as about learning. These knowledge and beliefs components are here referred to as epistemic elements, who together represent the students’ epistemic framing of the situation. The purpose of this study was to investigate university physics students’ epistemic framing when solving and visualizing a physics problem using a particle-spring model system. Students’ epistemic framings are analyzed before and after the task using a network analysis approach on interview transcripts, producing visual representations as epistemic networks. The results show that students change their epistemic framing from a modelling task, with expectancies about learning programming, to a physics task, in which they are challenged to use physics principles and conservation laws in order to troubleshoot and understand their simulations. This implies that the task, even though it is not introducing any new physics, help the students to develop a more coherent view of the importance of using physics principles in problem solving. The network analysis method used in this study is shown to give intelligible representations of the students’ epistemic framing and is proposed as a useful method of analysis of textual data.

  • 100.
    Bodin, Madelen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Mapping university physics teachers' and students' conceptualization of simulation competence in physics education using network analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study physics university teachers and undergraduate students were interviewed in order to capture their knowledge and beliefs structures about simulation competence and computational physics in university physics education. The analysis was done using a network analysis approach and the knowledge and beliefs structures were referred to as epistemic networks. The epistemic networks visualize how teachers and students conceptualize this particular learning situation and how these concepts are related. The results show that although teachers and students agree on the main features of simulation competence in physics, differences in their epistemic networks can be distinguished. For example, while teachers believe that numerical problem solving facilitates fundamental understanding of physics and mathematics, this is not obvious to students. This implies that university teachers need to be aware of the these differences in order to meet students' expectations and to give support concerning the learning objectives of the assignment. The method chosen for this study shows that network analysis is a novel and useful method to analyze beliefs structures from textual data, such as interview transcripts. 

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