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  • 51.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Viklund, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Svensson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Uppsala Municipal Council, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Integrating human dimensions of Arctic palaeoenvironmental science: SEAD – the strategic environmental archaeology database2011In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 345-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change has a human dimension, and has had so for at least the last 10 000 years. The prehistoric impact of people on the Arctic landscape has occasionally left visible traces, such as house and field structures. More often than not, however, the only evidence available is at the microscopic or geochemical level, such as fossil insect and seed assemblages or changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils and sediments. These records are the subject of SEAD, a multidisciplinary database and software project currently underway at Umeå University, Sweden, which aims to create an online database and set of tools for investigating these traces, as part of an international research infrastructure for palaeoecology and environmental archaeology.

  • 52.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Hjärthner-Holdar, Eva
    Swedish National Historical Museums.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Lund University.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University.
    The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (>5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software.

     

    SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems.

     

    SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

  • 53.
    Buckland, Philip I
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Johan, Olofsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    SEAD: Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, planning report2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document lays out a strategy for the development of SEAD – A Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, which will facilitate the digitisation and accessibility augmentation of MAL’s existing data from nearly thirty years of work in the fields of archaeology and environmental science. SEAD will also provide a framework for the entry of data from all future research and consultancy work at MAL, and allow guest researchers and external partners to contribute to, and work with the same data. The planned system will be implemented at both local and internet levels, and be designed with an aim towards broadening its scope with external partners in the future. SEAD will be made available online in order to increase the ease of access to environmental archaeology data and encourage an expansion of both the discipline and Sweden’s role in it. This is inline with current EU strategies on enhancing research infrastructure, and providing a greater insight into human-environment interactions for long term planning.

  • 54.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Jordan, Peter
    Sugden, Heather
    ARCUS Project 220: Analysis of organic deposits from trenching at Elvaston, Derbyshire. Level One Assessment1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Level One assessment was carried out to evaluate the state of preservation within the organic deposits, and to assess their potential usefulness, should further work be undertaken, for the retrieval of palaeoenvironmental information. Selected profiles within palaeochannel sequences were examined, and assessed as to whether these contained macrofossils in a state of preservation which was likely to provide data adequate for the reconstruction of past landscapes within the area. Other factors of special interest were those relating to environmental change, such as changes in sedimentation or vegetation, be they human or naturally induced. The potential for the use of three complementary data retrieval methods was reviewed.

  • 55.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Explaining Late Quaternary beetle extinctions in the UK using palaeoenvironmental databases for quantitative environmental reconstruction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of palaeoenvironmental and archaeological records of fossil insects with modern red data books can provide a picture of local extinctions. Buckland & Buckland (2012) performed such a study on the Coleoptera of the British Isles, using the BugsCEP database for the fossil data, and looking at broad chronological divisions. The ecology of these regionally extinct beetles, all of which are extant in other parts of the World, may be used to investigate the environmental and climatic changes which may have lead to their extirpation. This process can be semi-automated and habitats quantified through the use of ecological classification and a database infrastructure which links fossil and modern ecological and climate data (Buckland & Buckland 2006; http://www.bugscep.com). Preliminary results indicate that the majority of extirpated species with mid-Holocene records were dependent on woodland environments (Buckland 2014). These investigations can be refined by using narrower time-slices, interpolating dating evidence and including more comprehensive archaeological dating evidence. The expansion of the analysis to include the full assemblages found in the samples containing the extirpated species also allows for a more comprehensive picture of the long-term relationships between biodiversity, environmental and climatic change and human activity.

  • 56.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Samuel, Ericson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Environmental archaeological analysis from the archaeological excavations at Ørland kampflybase, Vik 70/1, Ørland, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. 2015-20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 322 bulk samples, 267 bulk subsamples and 1632 survey samples from the excavation of Iron Age settlements at Ørland, Vik, Sør-Trondelag, were analysed at the Environmental Archaeology Laboratory (MAL) at Umeå University. The overall aim of these analyses was to look for evidence which could help identify possible prehistoric activity areas, understand building functions and divisions, and shed light on land management around the farmsteads.

  • 57.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Nicolo, Dell'Unto
    Lund University.
    Palsson, Gisli
    Umeå University.
    To tree, or not to tree? On the Empirical Basis for Having Past Landscapes to Experience2018In: Digital Humanities Quarterly, ISSN 1938-4122, E-ISSN 1938-4122, Vol. 12, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our intention with this point of view paper is to help refocus an increasingly abstract and theoretically orientated Digital Humanities (DH). We will present a critical perspective on some of the problems and potentials relating to the visualisation of past (primarily non-urban) landscapes, with particular emphasis on the use of empirical evidence, from a combined environmental and archaeological point of view. We will outline some of the major challenges associated with reconstructing past landscapes from data, and give some examples of recent attempts to create platforms for addressing some of these issues. We will also briefly discuss the importance of landscape visualisation in the context of heritage management.

  • 58.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Nyqvist, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Alexander, Benedict
    WSP, Sweden.
    Palsson, Gisli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Swedish Transport Administration’s Toolbox and its Potential in Archaeological and Cultural Heritage Survey: Including a brief review of remote sensing, prospection and geodata analysis methods for archaeology and cultural heritage2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the main remote sensing methods and geodata types used in archaeological prospection and cultural heritage survey. Based on a literature review, it provides an initial survey of the state of the art nationally and internationally, followed by details on the potential usage of different methods in a Swedish context. The details include pros and cons of methods as well as information on considerations that should be taken into account when applying the methods in different situations. Examples are provided where relevant to explain specific details or illustrate important points. Particular attention has been paid to laser scanning (LiDAR) data due to its increasing prevalence and prominence in landscape and archaeological surveys.

    The report continues with a preliminary evaluation of the possibilities for using data provided by Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), obtained for other stages of the planning process, in archaeological and cultural heritage work. Specifically, the report looks at a number of geodata types obtained from The Geological Survey of Sweden (Sveriges geologiska undersökning/SGU), a nature conservation survey in report form, a ground penetrating radar technical report, terrain laser scanning (LiDAR) and orthophotos (geometrically corrected aerial photographs). The SGU geodata consist of a number of Geographical Information System (GIS) layers describing bedrock and soil types, and the nature conservation survey included accompanying, but incomplete, GIS data. This section consists of concise descriptions of the potential of each group of GIS layers or data, and is complemented by brief, bullet point summaries along with additional technical information in Appendix 1. Comments have been made where additional, related, data sources would be useful. Swedish terms are included in parenthesis where the term differs significantly from the English equivalent.

    A final summary provides a compact overview of the main points of the report before providing some conclusions and ideas for further work. This is in turn followed by a list of ideas for enhancing the efficiency with which the types of data discussed can be used in infrastructure projects which have a potential to impact on archaeology/cultural heritage.

    References are provided to support important or potentially contentious points or where further reading or research would be advised for a more comprehensive understanding of relevant issues.

  • 59.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Sadler, Jon
    Manual for the Beta test version of BUGS: a computer based palaeoentomological research aid1995Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Blombocken avslöjar forntiden: Databaser.2017In: Populär arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014, no 5, p. 28-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Databaser. Fossila insekter och förkolnade fröer kan ge mycket information om de miljöer som människor har levt i och kan liksom annan biologisk information tjäna arkeologi

  • 61.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    ICT Services and System Development (ITS), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD)2018In: Encyclopedia of global archaeology / [ed] Smith, C., Cham: Springer, 2018, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archaeology encompasses a wide range of scientific methods for analyzing the results of past human activities, environments, climates, and perhaps, most importantly, the relationships between these. Many of these methods are referred to as proxy analyses, denoting the illumination of the past as interpreted indirectly through the evidence of fossil organisms or properties. These lines of evidence, or proxy data sources, are assumed to reflect past conditions by way of their dependence on them. For example, a species of beetle may only survive within a specific climate range, and thus its presence in samples indicates this climate at the time of deposition; organic waste deposited around a farmstead will raise soil phosphate levels above those of the surrounding land; and the presence of cereal grains in postholes suggests their local cultivation or import, usage, or storage.

  • 62.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Symonds, James
    Archaeological Investigation into Subsurface Features at Elvaston, Derbyshire;  A Proposal1996Report (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Symonds, James
    ARCUS Project 220: archaeology at Elvaston, Derbyshire1996Report (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Pollen analysis of samples from the defensive ditch (vollgrav) at Site FO4 Klypen-Øst, Follobanen, Oslo2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine samples were submitted for pollen analyses from three profiles from the "Vollgrav"defensive ditch feature, at the Follobanen FO4 Klypen-Øst excavation in Oslo. These samples were investigated with respect to their pollen contents and, in a separate investigation, soil micromorphology. The micromorphological methods and results are described in detail in a separate report from Richard Macphail (2016). Where relevant, these findings are commented on with respect to the other analysis results below.

  • 65.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Yuan Zhuo, Don
    University of Sheffield.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    University of Sheffield.
    Towards an Expert System in Palaeoentomology1997In: Studies in Quaternary Entomology: an Inordinate Fondness for Insects / [ed] A.C. Ashworth, P.C. Buckland & J.P. Sadler, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. , 1997, p. 71-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of Quaternary insect fossils, principally of Coleoptera, the beetles, are now sufficiently frequent to warrant the construction of a database to maintain easy access to the record. BUGS, however, seeks to go beyond this and provide ecological and distributional data on the modern fauna to enable more precise reconstructions of apst environments. This paper summarizes the program and its salient features and discusses the application of intra- and intersite statistics, which the database allows.

  • 66.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Samuel, Ericson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Pollen, plant macrofossil and geoarchaeological analyses of profile 11632, Follobanen FO3, Oslo2017Report (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Buckland, Philip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Pollenlaboratoriet i Umeå AB.
    Pollenanalys från Rörbäcksnäs, Sälen, Dalarna2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet anlitades för att undersöka ett flertal torvmossar innanför föreslagna alternativa vägkorridorer i området nordöst om byn Rörbäcksnäs i Malung-Sälens kommun, Dalarna. Målen var att 1) undersöka den arkeologiska potentialen av våtmarkssediment som skulle förstöras av det föreslagna vägbygget och 2) utföra analyser på ett urval av materialet om det bedömdes vara tillräckligt välbevarat och av vetenskapligt intresse för området.

  • 68.
    Carlquist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Himmelska rätter - om mattraditionen i Vadstena kloster2012In: Människan, arbetet och historien: en vänbok till professor Tom Ericsson / [ed] Anders Brändström & Svante Norrhem, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 119-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Cruise, G.M.
    et al.
    Sheffield, UK.
    Macphail, R.I.
    Institute of Archaeology, University College London.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Maggi, R.
    Genova, Italy.
    Marshall, P.D.
    Sheffield, UK.
    Lago di Bargone, Liguria, N Italy: a reconstruction of Holocene environmental and land-use history2009In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 19, p. 987-1003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment micromorphology, chemistry and magnetic susceptibility of basin edge deposits at the small, mid-altitude peat site of Lago di Bargone, eastern Liguria, Italy, is compared with a full Holocene palynological sequence and radiocarbon dates from the central part of the peat bog. Micromorphology and MS550 results show that Neolithic to Copper Age forest disturbances and clearings as inferred  from the pollen diagrams, occurred during a period of lower water-tables and intermittent drying out of the basin edge deposits. Extensive deforestation and expansion of heath and rassland during the Iron Age and Roman periods is associated with increases in soil erosion and in micromorphological indications of burning. It is argued that the very fine size range of the charred fragments seen in thin sections and the seeming absence of charcoal of coarser size range suggest a system of light, controlled burning, possibly akin to the local tradition of using fire to control weeds and to encourage new grass and herbaceous growth, and not local forest clearance by fire. Micromorphology of the late-Holocene peat contains herbivore dung possibly indicating the use of the site as a watering hole by domesticated stock. The overlying colluvium displays evidence of deep-seated erosion of the local soils and geology which is most likely to have been associated with local mining activities.

  • 70.
    Edblom, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Långhus i Gene: teori och praktik i rekonstruktion2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the years of 1977-89 the Department of Archaeology at Umeå University conducted a scientific investigation of an Early Iron Age settlement at Genesmon in the parish of Själevad, northern Ångermanland. Subsequently, during the years 1991-99 parts of the farm were reconstructed at Gene Fornby, a couple of hundred meters away from the site. This thesis deals with the construction and furnishing of one of the farm’s longhouses (House II), and the wider context of the construction and function of the “three-aisled” building type. The purpose of this thesis is to describe the interaction between theory and practice in reconstruction, to describe the reconstruction process as a constantly changing process of explanation and understanding, and to investigate as to whether reconstructions can contribute to an increased understanding of archaeological house remains. At the end of the Late Iron Age, after nearly 5000 years of dominance in Southern and Central Scandinavia, the longhouse ceases to be the dominant form of construction. Understanding why this happened became an important problem in this work.

    During the reconstruction work, different interpretations influenced one another in a series of positive and negative feedbacks into the explanations of the archaeological remains. A hermeneutic model is used to describe this phenomenon. From archaeological and written sources, division and furnishing of the long-houses can be described in terms of seven room functions. These can be classified as storage bur, porch önd, living room skåle, byre fjös, stable stall, barn lada and rough kitchen eldhus. In order to understand the ideological meaning of the buildings the role of the fire, the placement of the seat of honour and the change in the type of building in Iceland became important parts of this study. Numerous heating experiments have been undertaken in order to try to solve the problem of excessive smoke within the building. The experiments finally led to a possible solution that also serves to illustrate just how the model itself came to influence the process of interpretation.

    The reconstruction work led to results of different character: partly data on construction, function and materials – and the time frame for the construction of House II from its archaeological remains; and partly knowledge and new theories which increase our understanding of the three-aisled building form. The elongated form, roof supporting poles, central hearth and a close association with ritual and ideology are suggested as characteristic elements for this type of construction, throughout its chronological and spatial extent. The relationship between the building and Norse ideologies is suggested as one of the explanations for the longhouse’s dissappearance with the introduction of Christianity. At the end of the Viking Age, there is a transition into a new framework based method of construction, and the political and ecclesiastical authorities are discussed as having governed these widespread changes.

  • 71.
    Edlund, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages.
    Bygdeå - ett ortnamn och dess historia2005In: ... en lång historia. Festskrift till Evert Baudou på 80-årsdagen, 2005, p. 107-127Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Enayat, Misha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    20,000 14C Years of Climate and Environmental Change in Europe: A Coleopteran-based Reconstruction with an Anthropocenic Focus2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis builds on the work of previous coleopteran-based climatic reconstructions to recreate the environment and climate of the last 20,000 14C years of northwest Europe using the data and methods available within the Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package, and aims to assess the ability of the BugsCEP results to provide information regarding events and anthropogenic changes on environment during the Anthropocene. Samples and data from 134 sites across northwest Europe and the British Isles were included in this study. The Mutual Climatic Range method and the BugStats module based on habitat code classifications were used to create the climatic and environmental reconstructions respectively, the results of which are provided in eight isotherm maps for 14.5-9 14C years BP and 2 EcoFigure graphs for 20,000 14C to present. While the results of some isotherm maps align with the changes described in previous studies, other climate trends are muted within these results. Likewise, some previously recognized environmental shifts in Europe are visible, whereas other major events are not distinguishable within the environmental record. An assessment of the environmental reconstruction results finds that though there is not sufficient material to support any proposed Anthropocene start dates, effects of anthropogenic influence upon the environment may be visible starting within the last 2,000 14C years; the results also show some support for the Vera Hypothesis.

  • 73.
    Enayat, Misha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Celtic and Roman food and feasting practices: A multiproxy study across Europe and Britain2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates common food and feasting practices in both Celtic/Iron Age and Roman Europe and Britain. It is based on previous studies that employ a variety of materials and methods to study issues such as diet, feasting, and luxury/exotic foods. Materials involved in this study include archaeobotanical assemblages, ceramic assemblages, historical texts and records, and skeletal materials used for stable isotope analysis, assessment of dental health, and osteological analysis. The results of previous studies were then assessed for evidence of the following: common diet and food practices amongst both Celtic and Roman cultures; luxury or exotic foods consumed at feasts; communal consumption at feasting events; and possible sociopolitical motivations or effects of such events. The results demonstrated that although exotic, imported plant foods were present in both Celtic and Roman feasting contexts, luxury foods in Celtic feasts were more often likely represented by an abundance of staple foods rather than imported foods, though alcoholic drinks, particularly wine, was the exception. While Celtic feasts and exotic foods were apparently used as venues for maintaining or changing power and political relations, in Roman Europe feasts and foods were more so means of expressing, maintaining, or even changing social class, thus representing a shift from communal to individual elite dining from the Iron Age to the Roman period in Europe and Britain.

  • 74.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Fähus i förhistorien: en miljöhistorisk introduktion1998In: Fähus från bronsålder till idag: stallning och utegångsdrift i långtidsperspektiv / [ed] Karin Viklund, Roger Engelmark och Johan Linderholm, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1998, p. 7-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The Early Holocene Environment of North Fennoscandia and its Implications for Colonisation2005In: Pioneer settlements and colonization processes in the Barents region, Vuollerim: Vuollerim 6000 år , 2005, p. 97-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the currently available data on the immediate post-glacial landscape of Fennoscandia, along with relevant palaeoenvionmental reconstructions for the Barents region, to paint a picture of the landscape and resources available to the early colonisers of this area. In addition, the aim is to provide a source of up to date references for those interested in integrating the archaeological and environmental evidence, towards an holistic model of the Early Holocene landscape.

  • 76.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Larson, Thomas B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Rock art and environment: towards increased contextual understanding2005In: Reflexiones sobre arte rupestre, paisaje, forma y contenido, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto de Estudos Galegos Padre Sarmiento , 2005, p. 113-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Larsson, Thomas B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Rapport från Geo-Arkeologisk fältkurs i Rumänien 20042005Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologisk Laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Archaeology and Science2006In: Proceedings from the VIII Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods In Archaeology, Umeå, Sweden, 2001., 2006, p. 146-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Miljöarkeologi: människa och landskap - en komplicerad dynamik2008Book (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, JohanUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Proceedings from the VIII Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods In Archaeology, Umeå, Sweden, 20012006Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 81.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Olofson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Miljöarkeologisk undersökning av Kornsjövägen, raä 306, Nätra sn, Ångermanland2004Report (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Engelmark, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies. Miljöarkeologiska Laboratoriet.
    Miljöarkeologisk slutundersökning RAÄ 397: Kallerstad 1:1 och 1:4, Linköpings stad och Kommun, Östergötlands län, Steg 12006Report (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Eriksson, Love
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bergartsredskap i Västerbottens län: En sammanställning och studie om bergartsyxor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the often-overlooked stone axes in northern Sweden, a subject which in scientific texts has been touched upon but never been in focus. To fill this knowledge gap the stone axes of Västerbotten county have been summarised and analysed in combination with other stone tools such as clubs and chisels with the aim to expand the basic knowledge of stone tools found in Västerbotten.

  • 84.
    Eriksson, Love
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hyperspektral bildanalys av murbruk från Carcassonnes inre stadsmurar: En studie om applikationen av nära infraröd spektroskopi som en icke-destruktiv metod för klassificering av historiskt murbruk2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study and evaluate the application of hyperspectral image analysis as a non-destructive analysis method for historical mortars. This method was applied on 35 sampled mortars in varying sizes and type from the inner walls of the fortified medieval city Carcassonne. By using near infrared spectroscopy and classifying the complex multivariate data by applying the SIMCA method (Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogies) it is possible to conduct an in depth analysis of the samples. This can then further our understanding about the construction phases as well as construction techniques used as indicated through the chemometric analysis that can identify and group the mortars in accordance to raw material and transformation process. From this could four distinct groups be found in the PCA models, two Roman periods and two high medieval periods, allowing to study Carcassonne prior to and after its enclosure. A find from the first Roman period indicates on a bathhouse or public building existing prior to the construction of the defensive wall, leading to the hypothesis that maybe more parts of the inner wall might contain older structures like this. The application of hyperspectral image analysis on historical mortars has proven itself a useful tool and simple method for studying mortars.

  • 85.
    Eriksson, Love
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    I jordbrukets periferi: En studie om utvecklingen av agrar bebyggelse i marginella miljöer från stenåldern till järnåldern i Norra Sverige2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development and establishment of agriculture in Northern Sweden has since long been believed to appear during the Late Iron Age, close to the Viking period, but recent finds from the Bronze Age in Umeå has opened up new discussion of when agriculture first emerged. Although too early to discuss where and when it developed, the material currently available on the topic allows for discussion for how it developed. By looking at sediment and soil conditions surrounding the settlements in combination with palaeoenvironments and past climate one aim was to try and search for settlement patterns in relation to agricultural potential, this was however unsuccessful. Cultivation practices were analysed using weed and wetland flora as well as agricultural indicators in pollen diagrams. Most settlements appear to focus firstly on animal husbandry and secondarily on cultivating crops, and they might have because of their coastal positioning also relied on fishing. The results confirmed previous hypothesis about the development of agriculture and cultivation practices in Northern Sweden during the Bronze and Iron Age, however, some issues remain concerning the lacking osteological material.

  • 86.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Raä 977 - En lokal och tre aktivitetsytor.: En tvärvetenskaplig undersökning av Raä 977 vid Vojmsjön i Vilhelmina socken2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This candidate thesis concerns the “all but forgotten” material from the bronze age site named “Raä 977, Hansbo 1:3, Vojmsjön, Vilhelmina”. During 1975-76, an archaeological dig was carried out by Västerbottens museum led by Ulla Walukiewich in an attempt to preserve the information the site held, before it was destroyed by the erosion brought on by the recently regulated sea “Vojm” (Vojmsjön). The archaeological dig yielded a stunning amount of finds, samples and information previously unknown. Amongst these finds where a large amount of quartzite scrapers, arrowheads and other stone tools, typologically dated to BC 1500- BC 1000. Two groups of three structures each, interpreted as “hearths” were also discovered. The dig was carried out in extreme detail for this time and provided 54 soil samples originally intended for phosphate analyses by “spot-tests” and coal samples for carbon dating. The site was documented in a grid of 33*33 cm and was dug in an artificial stratigraphy of 3cm layers. Because of these samples and the high resolution of the recorded data it is now possible with new technology and archaeological/environmental archaeological methods to extract even more information from this site, and that is what this paper intends to present. This new information that might be altering the interpretation of the site as a “settlement site” and hopefully shine light on the purpose of the site and to what extent the site have been utilized as well as the extent of the site itself. Hopefully this will enable a more accurate rendering of the activity’s preformed on site, and the lives of the people that once inhabited it, by comparing the result of the analysis presented below and previous research done in the area. 

  • 87.
    Eriksson Persson, Bianca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    En framtid utan dåtid: En studie av forskning kring förstörelse av kulturarv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyzes destruction of cultural heritage, and its impact on future archaeological research. A qualitative case study on four different events of destruction on cultural heritage to evaluate whether it can be positive or negative. It explores if this phenomenon is new or old. Hopefully, the essay also contributes to the knowledge gap that exists in today's analysis of systematic destruction of cultural heritage.

    First, the concept of cultural heritage and systematic destruction is analyzed. Thereafter, a variety of cases are considered to finally arrive at four different events to be analyzed. In these four different events, a case study is made that aims to contribute to a deeper understanding on destruction of culture heritage. If it contributes to something positive or negative to the people in that society, and a possible outcome on how we look back on history. The events that form the case study are the destruction of the Baalshamin Temple, the demolition of the southern state statues, the transplantation of the Abu simbel monuments from Egypt and the destruction of the Sami drums.

    The results found that systematic destruction of cultural heritage is a complex issue and does not have an absolute explanation. Destruction of cultural heritage usually affects archaeologists negatively as it prevents future research and results in a less nuanced image of history. Destruction of cultural heritage is usually considered negative, however, moving objects is considered to be more positive.

  • 88.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den livgivande elden och det livsviktiga bränslet: Bruket av eld och behovet av bränsle på mesolitiska och tidigneolitiska boplatser i Norrland.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Stone Age hunters and gatherers in Norrland has been lively since the 1960s. Central to this research are questions about the organization of society, sedentariness, continuity and resource management. One central part of life in the taiga is the need for fire and fuel. This aspect has been little discussed in conjunction with the mentioned research questions. My goal is to show that the matter of fire and fuel is an important one that needs to be taken in to consideration when discussing Stone Age Norrland and hunter/gatherers. The questions concerns fuel consumption and requirement, the amount of available fuel, the impact these factors may have had on settlement patterns and continuity and the possible              ways in which we could proceed to study this subject further. The material consists of ethnographic records, forestry research on old-growth forests, archaeological and environmental archaeological material, experimental research on fuel consumption and records of traditional Sami fire techniques. With this information I have constructed a number of cases, not with the goal of gaining any conclusive answers but rather to discuss different factors and implications the use of fire and need for fuel could have had and how those may connect to the present archaeological record. Lastly I have looked at the possibility of further research, the material and methods that will allow researchers to approach these questions in further depth. 

  • 89.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk analys av jordprover från BMR 2374, Brogård, Bornholm2018Report (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk analys av prover från Sandholmen, Askim kommune, Østfold fylke, Norge. Teknisk rapport.2016Report (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk analys av prover från Skillingstad inom Riksvei 3/25 projektet. Teknisk rapport2016Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk kartering av Hus 2 och Hus 6 vid Gravråksmoen, Melhus kommun, Sør Trøndelag, Norge2016Report (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk kartering från Sandbrauta, Melhus, Trøndelag, Norge. Interimsrapport2018Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk kartering och analyser av anläggningsprover från Skjerdingstad, Melhus, Trøndelag, Norge. Interimsrapport2018Report (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk kartering och analyser av anläggningsprover från Øya, Melhus, Trøndelag, Norge. Interimsrapport2018Report (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk och –fysikalisk analys av jordprover från Jomala, Gottby, fornlämning Jo 9.8, Åland2014Report (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk och –fysikalisk analys av jordprover från Sa 14_9, Saltvik, Åland2015Report (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk och –fysikalisk analys av jordprover fysikalisk analys av jordprover från Raä 198, Njurunda sn, Medelpad2015Report (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk och –fysikalisk analys av stratigrafier från Rickomberga, Raä 499, Uppsala sn, Uppland2015Report (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Markkemisk undersökning av en stensättning i Hjulsta, Raä Spånga 96:1, Stockholms kommun, Uppland2018Report (Other academic)
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