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  • 51.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Strandberg, CajFrancén Olinder, RagnarEriksson, JohnBjörklund, Fredrik
    Motivational Internalism2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational internalism—the thesis that there is an intrinsic or necessary connection between moral judgment and moral motivation—is a central thesis in a number of metaethical debates. In conjunction with a Humean picture of motivation, it has provided a challenge for cognitivist theories that take moral judgments to concern objective aspects of reality, and versions of internalism have been seen as having implications for moral absolutism, realism, non-naturalism, and rationalism. Being a constraint on theories of moral motivation and moral judgment, it is also directly relevant to wider issues in moral psychology. But internalism is a controversial thesis, and the apparent possibility of amoralists and the rejection of strong forms of internalism have also been seen as a problem for non-cognitivists. This volume is meant to help people appreciate the state of the art of research on internalism, to see connections between various aspects of the debate, and to deepen the discussion of a number of central aspects. The introductory chapter provides a structured overview of the debate with a focus on the last two decades or so, distinguishing several important threads and trends in recent developments. The 13 chapters of original research are divided into three parts. The essays in the first part focus on what evidence there is for or against various versions of internalism, those in the second on the relevance of versions of internalism for wider metaethical issues, and those in the third develop different ways of accommodating both internalist and externalist aspects of moral practice.

  • 52.
    Björnsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Strandberg, Caj
    Francén Olinder, Ragnar
    Eriksson, John
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Motivational Internalism: Contemporary Debates2015In: Motivational Internalism / [ed] Gunnar Björnsson, Caj Strandberg, Ragnar Francén Olinder, John Eriksson, and Fredrik Björklund, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational internalism—the idea that moral judgments are intrinsically or necessarily connected to motivation—has played a central role in metaethical debates. In conjunction with a Humean picture of motivation, internalism has provided a challenge for theories that take moral judgments to concern objective aspects of reality, and versions of internalism have been seen as having implications for moral absolutism, realism, and rationalism. But internalism is a controversial thesis, and the apparent possibility of amoralists and the rejection of strong forms of internalism have also been seen as a problem for non-cognitivists. The last decades have seen a number of developments of internalist positions and arguments for and against internalism. This chapter provides a structured overview of the more important themes, including the development of new forms of conditional internalism, deferred internalism, and non-constitutional internalism, as well as the emergence of empirically-based arguments and new forms of a posteriori internalism.

  • 53.
    Bortolotti, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Birmingham, Department of Philosophy.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg,Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science.
    Reproductive and parental autonomy: an argument for compulsory parental education2009In: Reproductive Biomedicine Online, ISSN 1472-6483, E-ISSN 1472-6491, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 5-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that comprehensive and systematic parental education has the potential to equip young adults with the necessary information for the responsible exercise of their autonomy in choices about reproduction and parenting. Education can allow young adults to acquire largely accurate beliefs about reproduction and parenting and about the implications of their reproductive and parental choices. Far from being a limitation of individual freedom, the acquisition of relevant information about reproduction and parenting and the acquisition of self-knowledge with respect to reproductive and parenting choices can help give shape to individual life plans. We make a case for compulsory parental education on the basis of the need to respect and enhance individual reproductive and parental autonomy within a culture that presents contradictory attitudes towards reproduction and where decisions about whether to become a parent are subject to significant pressure and scrutiny.

  • 54.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Efter Gettier Kom Plantinga: En Fördjupning av Begreppet Berättigande2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After Gettier came Plantinga.In this essay I explore the concepts of justification and warrant. Are they just two words with the same meaning? Starting with Edmund Gettier’s famous 1963 paper Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? as a backdrop, I investigate Alvin Plantinga’s Proper Functionalism, his analysis of warrant, that property enough of which turns mere true belief into knowledge.

    Then we put Plantinga’s proper functionalism to the test with challenges from a selection of essays from philosophers critical to Plantinga’s views on warrant.

    We end up in a summary, where I defend the thesis that Plantinga’s proper functionalism has deepened our understanding of warrant to the point that we can say that it is the best starting point when investigating what warrant is, and how it thus helps us in our understanding what constitutes knowledge.

    The question of whether Plantinga’s account of warrant can be said to be a solution of Gettier cases will depend on our willingness to allow some vagueness in Plantinga’s definition of the cognitive ”mini environment”. Otherwise, a reductive analysis of knowledge and its parts seem doomed.

    In the end I give a slightly adjusted revision or addendum of proper functionalism, adding what I call the elements of recognition and surprise in being prepared for truth’s either validating or refuting my belief.

    I also shortly, in a postscript, discuss possible ways forward for those who want to explore more about Plantinga’s design plan condition, whether it should be interpreted in a theistic or naturalistic framework.

  • 55.
    Boucher, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dumas, Genevieve
    Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Hist, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada.
    Medical Translations and Practical Compilations: A Necessary Coincidence?2012In: Early Science and Medicine, ISSN 1383-7427, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 273-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical Translations and Practical Compilations: A Necessary Coincidence? Fourteenth-and fifteenth-century medicine is characterised by a trickle-down effect which led to an increasing dissemination of knowledge in the vernacular. In this context, translations and compilations appear to be two similar endeavours aiming to provide access to contents pertaining to the particulars of medical practice. Nowhere is this phenomenon seen more clearly than in vernacular manuscripts on surgery. Our study proposes to compare for the first time two corpora of manuscripts of surgical compilations, in Middle French and Middle English respectively, in order to discuss form and matter in this type of book production.

  • 56.
    Brattgård, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den pliktetiska datorn: En diskussion om förutsättningarna för Kants pliktetik som etisk teori i datorer som har en plats i vardagen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many has asked themselves the question, now when technology gets a larger importance in everyday life, if it is necessary to give this technology the ability to act according to an ethical theory. In this paper I will say that it is a good idea to give computers that take part in everyday life an ethic, even though they are not conscious or ethically responsible to a higher degree. The choosen ethic for this paper is the deontological ethics of Kant, which initially seems very appealing as an ethic for computers. I write that even if that is the case, it is not suitable as a theory for computers. As a conclusion I have choosen to present questions that may be up for discussion later, or that will be interesting to discuss when computers work under new conditions. This paper is written in Swedish.

    Key words: Kant, ethics, technology, computers, consciousness, thinking.

  • 57.
    Burman, Christo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Comparative Literature and Scandinavian Languages. Drama-Teater-Film.
    Osynligheten tar vid där ruinerna slutar2005In: À Derrida x 13, Institutionen för konstvetenskap, Umeå universitet: Umeå , 2005, p. S. 59-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58. Cantwell, John
    et al.
    Lindström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Rabinowicz, Wlodek
    McGee's Counterexample to the Ramsey Test2017In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 154-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vann McGee has proposed a counterexample to the Ramsey Test. In the counterexample, a seemingly trustworthy source has testified that p and that if not-p, then q. If one subsequently learns not- p (and so learns that the source is wrong about p), then one has reason to doubt the trustworthiness of the source (perhaps even the identity of the source) and so, the argument goes, one has reason to doubt the conditional asserted by the source. Since what one learns is that the antecedent of the conditional holds, these doubts are contrary to the Ramsey Test. We argue that the counterexample fails. It rests on a principle of testimonial dependence that is not applicable when a source hedges his or her claims.

  • 59.
    Carlsson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Att välja forskningsetik: några reflektioner2007In: Forska rätt: texter om etik och historisk forskning, Umeå: Institutionen för historiska studier , 2007, p. 10-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln diskuterar forskningsetik i allmänhet och etiska problem i avhandlingsskrivande.

  • 60. Clutton, Peter
    et al.
    Sandgren, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    A New Puzzle for Phenomenal Intentionality2019In: Ergo - An Open Access Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 0014-0171, E-ISSN 2330-4014, Vol. 6, p. 335-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenomenal intentionality theories have recently enjoyed significant attention. According to these theories, the intentionality of a mental representation (what it is about) crucially depends on its phenomenal features. We present a new puzzle for these theories, involving a phenomenon called 'intentional identity', or 'cointentionality'. Co-intentionality is a ubiquitous intentional phenomenon that involves tracking things even when there is no concrete thing being tracked. We suggest that phenomenal intentionality theories need to either develop new uniquely phenomenal resources for handling the puzzle, or restrict their explanatory ambitions.

  • 61.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ai cui sunt embrionii?2015In: Think Outside the BoxArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 62.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Au generaţiile viitoare dreptul la o societate non-discriminatorie?2004In: Drepturile omului la intâlnirea dintre culturi / [ed] J. Rüsen, H.-K. Keul, A.P. Iliescu, Bucharest: Paralela 45 , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg.
    Children with Gender Identity Disorder: a Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Analysis. Author: Simona Giordano, 2013, Published by Routledge2015In: Analize – Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 117-125Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Despre iubire, prietenie si familie2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Framtidens familjer: definitioner, etik och politik2015In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 12-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    GenEtica Reproducerii. Politici ale moralităţii şi moralitatea politicilor [The GenEthics of Reproduction. Policies of morality and the morality of policies]2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book comprises three parts: (1) a general presentation and analysis of the main relevant concepts: bioethics, human genetic engineering, eugenics, disability and, particularly, of the relations between these; (2) the analysis of two documents of the Council of Europe (the so called “Bioethics Convention” and its first protocol), and the reconstruction of the debates surrounding their primary concerns: human dignity and rights in relation to the prospect of human genetic engineering; and (3) the analysis of a Romanian draft law on human assisted reproduction and of the Romanian legislative endeavours and debates regarding human genetic engineering.

  • 67.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg, Philosophy Department.
    Immortal Fetuses2008In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 322-329Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Istoria din noi2018In: Scena9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 69.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg, Philosophy Department.
    Life extension, overpopulation and the right to life: against lethal ethics2008In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 34, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the objections to life-extension stem from a concern with overpopulation. I will show that whether or not the overpopulation threat is realistic, arguments from overpopulation cannot ethically demand halting the quest for, nor access to, life-extension. The reason for this is that we have a right to life, which entitles us not to have meaningful life denied to us against our will and which does not allow discrimination solely on the grounds of age. If the threat of overpopulation creates a rights conflict between the right to come into existence, the right to reproduce, the right to more opportunities and space (if, indeed, these rights can be successfully defended), and the right to life, the latter ought to be given precedence.

  • 70.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Faculty of Political Science, National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Bucharest, Romania / NSPSPA, Bucharest .
    Looking for the meaning of dignity in the bioethics convention and the cloning protocol2005In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 303-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focused on the analysis of two documents (the Council of Europe's Bioethics Convention and the Additional Cloning Protocol) inasmuch as they refer to the relationship between human dignity and human genetic engineering. After presenting the stipulations of the abovementioned documents, I will review various proposed meanings of human dignity and will try to identify which of these seem to be at the core of their underlying assumptions. Is the concept of dignity proposed in the two documents coherent? Is it morally legitimate? Is it, as some might assume, of Kantian origin? Does it have any philosophical roots?

  • 71. Cutas, Daniela
    On triparenting. Is having three committed parents better than having only two?2011In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 735-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research indicates that single parenting is not by itself worse for children than their being brought up by both their parents, there are reasons why it is better for children to have more than one committed parent. If having two committed parents is better, everything else being equal, than having just one, I argue that it might be even better for children to have three committed parents. There might, in addition, be further reasons why allowing triparenting would benefit children and adults, at least in some cases. Whether or not triparenting is on the whole preferable to bi- or monoparenting, it does have certain advantages (as well as shortcomings) which, at the very least, warrant its inclusion in debates over the sorts of family structures we should allow in our societies, and how many people should be accepted in them. This paper has the modest aim of scratching the surface of this wider topic by challenging the necessity of the max-two-parents framework.

  • 72.
    Cutas, Daniela
    University of Gothenburg,Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science.
    Sex is overrated: On the right to reproduce2009In: Human Fertility, ISSN 1464-7273, E-ISSN 1742-8149, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I will show that what is respected the most in human reproduction and parenting is not a right to reproduce in the way in which this right is explicitly proposed. The only way in which people can become, and function as, parents without having to submit themselves to anyone else’s judgments and decisions, is by having reproductive sex. Whatever one’s intentions, social status, standard of living, income etc., so long as assistance is not required, that person’s reproductive decisions will not be interfered with in any way, at least not until neglect or abuse of their offspring becomes known. Moreover, none of the features that are said to back the right to reproduce (such as bodily integrity or personal autonomy) can justify one’s unquestioned access to the relationship with another unable to consent (the child). This indicates that the discourse in terms of the right to reproduce as is currently used so as to justify non-interference with natural reproduction and parenting coupled with the regulation of assisted forms of reproduction and parenting, is at best self-deluding and that all it protects is people’s freedom to have reproductive sex and handle the consequences.

  • 73.
    Cutas, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Should parents take active steps to preserve their children's fertility?2017In: Parental responsibility in the context of neuroscience and genetics / [ed] Kristien Hens, Daniela Cutas, Dorothee Horstkötter, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 189-205Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that, when there is a probable imminent risk of loss of children's fertility, their parents should take active steps to preserve their reproductive potential if possible – or even that children have a right to such interventions being undertaken on them on their behalf, as an expression of their right to an open future. In this chapter, I explore these proposals and some of their implications. I place the discussion of fertility preservation for children into the more general context of the choices that parents might have to help keep their children's future reproductive (and parenting) choices open. I discuss the role of desert and fairness in arguments for fertility preservation and their relevance for framings of infertility in general, as well as the relation between having a (slight) possibility to reproduce and becoming a parent.

  • 74.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Bortolotti, Lisa
    University of Birmingham, Department of Philosophy.
    Natural versus Assisted Reproduction: In Search of Fairness2010In: Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology, ISSN 1941-6008, E-ISSN 1941-6008, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are concerned with the ethical implications of the distinction between natural reproduction (via sexual intercourse) and reproduction that requires assistance (either medical or social). We argue that the current practice of enforcing regulations on the latter but not on the former means of reproduction is ethically unjustified. It is not defensible to tolerate parental ignorance or abuse in natural reproduction and subsequently in natural parenting, whilst submitting assisted reproduction and parenting to invasive scrutiny. Our proposal is to guarantee equal (ethical and legal) treatment to people engaging in either form of reproduction or parenting.

  • 75.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department for Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, and The Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Chan, SarahUniversity of Manchester, Institute for Ethics, Science and Innovation.
    Families - Beyond the Nuclear Ideal2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines, through a multi-disciplinary lens, the possibilities offered by relationships and family forms that challenge the nuclear family ideal, and some of the arguments that recommend or disqualify these as legitimate units in our societies. That children should be conceived naturally, born to and raised by their two young, heterosexual, married to each other, genetic parents; that this relationship between parents is also the ideal relationship between romantic or sexual partners; and that romance and sexual intimacy ought to be at the core of our closest personal relationships - all these elements converge towards the ideal of the nuclear family. The authors consider a range of relationship and family structures that depart from this ideal: polyamory and polygamy, single and polyparenting, parenting by gay and lesbian couples, as well as families created through current and prospective modes of assisted human reproduction such as surrogate motherhood, donor insemination, and reproductive cloning.

  • 76.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. The Department for Health, Ethics and Society, Maastricht University, and The Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chan, Sarah
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Introduction: perspectives on private and family life2012In: Families – Beyond the Nuclear Ideal / [ed] Daniela Cutas and Sarah Chan, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Harris, John
    University of Manchester, Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation.
    The ethics of ageing, immortality and genetics2007In: Principles of Health Care Ethics / [ed] Richard Ashcroft, Angus Dawson, Heather Draper, John McMillan, John Wiley & Sons, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The questions we address are the following: Are we entitled to access life extension therapies? Must we draw the line at some point (say 120 years, the maximum life span so far, or maybe even earlier) and decide that that’s that and now we must die? Are there considerations that might make either living or making it possible to live after a certain ages immoral? Does justice require foregoing life extension therapies or does it require the development and application of these therapies?

  • 78.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hens, Kristien
    Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Preserving children's fertility: two tales about children's right to an open future and the margins of parental obligations2015In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sources, extent and margins of parental obligations in taking decisions regarding their children’s medical care are subjects of ongoing debates. Balancing children’s immediate welfare with keeping their future open is a delicate task. In this paper, we briefly present two examples of situations in which parents may be confronted with the choice of whether to authorise or demand non-therapeutic interventions on their children for the purpose of fertility preservation. The first example is that of children facing cancer treatment, and the second of children with Klinefelter syndrome. We argue that, whereas decisions of whether to preserve fertility may be prima facie within the limits of parental discretion, the right to an open future does not straightforwardly put parents under an obligation to take actions that would detect or relieve future infertility in their children—and indeed in some cases taking such actions is problematic.

  • 79.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, Göteborgs Universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Shaw, David
    Basel, Switzerland; Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Writers blocked: on the wrongs of research co-authorship and some possible strategies for improvement2015In: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1315-1329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The various problems associated with co-authorship of research articles have attracted much attention in recent years. We believe that this (hopefully) growing awareness is a very welcome development. However, we will argue that the particular and increasing importance of authorship and the harmful implications of current practices of research authorship for junior researchers have not been emphasised enough. We will use the case of our own research area (bioethics) to illustrate some of the pitfalls of current publishing practices – in particular, the impact on the evaluation of one’s work in the area of employment or funding. Even where there are explicit guidelines, they are often disregarded. This disregard, which is often exemplified through the inflation of co-authorship in some research areas, may seem benign to some of us; but it is not. Attribution of co-authorship for reasons other than merit in relation to the publication misrepresents the work towards that publication, and generates unfair competition. We make a case for increasing awareness, for transparency and for more explicit guidelines and regulation of research co-authorship within and across research areas. We examine some of the most sensitive areas of concern and their implications for researchers, particularly junior ones, and we suggest several strategies for future action.

  • 80.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Smajdor, Anna
    Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes2015In: Hypatia, ISSN 0887-5367, E-ISSN 1527-2001, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 386-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we look at the implications of a prospective emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes (sperm and eggs derived from non-reproductive cells) have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and will bring new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that postmenopausal motherhood has raised – and the implications that the successful development, and use in reproduction, of artificial gametes might have for such concerns. The concerns addressed include arguments from nature, risks and efficacy, reduced energy of the mother, and maternal life expectancy. We also consider whether the use of in vitro derived gametes to facilitate postmenopausal motherhood would contribute to reinforcing a narrow geneticized account of reproduction and a pro-reproductive culture that encourages women to produce genetically related offspring at all costs. 

  • 81.
    Cutas, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Smajdor, Anna
    The moral status of the (nuclear) family2017In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 5-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family is commonly regarded as being an important social institution. In several policy areas, evidence can be found that the family is treated as an entity towards which others can have moral obligations; it has needs and interests that require protection; it can be ill and receive treatment. The interests attributed to the family are not reducible to those of its members – and may even come into conflict with them. Using Warren's criteria for moral status, we show that, although the status of the family is not explicitly described in terms of moral status, the way in which it is treated implies that it has such status. 

  • 82.
    Cutaş, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. University of Gothenburg.
    On Love2018In: Analize – Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies, ISSN 2344-2352, no 11, p. 5-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Dageryd, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    A Comprehensive Buck-Passing Account of Value2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84.
    Dahlin, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Moraliskt ansvar och slump2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85.
    Dal Cero, Luca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Proper Names: a Verbal Dispute: An investigation of the concept of reference2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper sets out to investigate whether the contrast between Description theories of reference and Direct Reference theories constitutes what Chalmers calls “a broad verbal dispute” on the concept of reference.      I begin by describing Chalmers’ “method of elimination” concerning verbal disputes, according to which, in order to find out whether a dispute is verbal or whether it expresses a substantial disagreement on matters of fact, the key concept involved is barred and substituted by two new concepts defined according to the frameworks of the respective theories.   I limit the domain of my enquiry to proper names. I outline the version of Descriptivism advanced by Searle and the version of Direct Reference pictured by Kripke. The definition found for the Descriptive framework consists in reference being the thing that best fits a set of descriptions commonly known and associated with a proper name. In turn, the definition found for the Direct Reference framework consists in reference being the thing once baptized with the proper name used.   In order to concretely explicitate a substantial difference between the definitions of reference within the two framework, I use Dagfinn Føllesdal's general definition of reference, according to which reference is the thing that is talked about when a proper name is used. The Descriptive framework is consistent with Føllesdal's definition, while in Kripke's framework reference cannot be determined in terms of the thing that is talked about. I conclude that the role reference is asked to play differs distinctly within the two frameworks.   As a last step, I investigate whether the concept of reference of the Description Theory and the concept of reference of the Direct Reference Theory are acceptable respectively for the theorist of the opposing field. Statements are constructed in which the two terms expressing reference according to each framework are used and on which both frameworks can agree concerning their truth value.   The fact that the concept of reference in the two fields are substantially different and at the same time that they can be accepted by the opposing field points towards the conclusion that the dispute between the Descriptive theory and the Direct Reference theory can be understood, in Chalmers' terms, as broadly verbal.

  • 86.
    Danielsson, Joseph
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Tid och relativitet: Utmaningen från den Speciella relativitetsteorin för Presentism2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar upp två filosofers argumentation kring konflikten mellan Presentism och denspeciella relativitetsteorin: D. H. Mellor och Theodore Sider. Utifrån detta ges ett försvar avPresentism i ljuset av speciella relativitetsteorin och Mellor´s och Sider´s argument. Försvaretgår ut på att visa att denna konflikt inte innebär inkompatibilitet. Möjligheten att försvaraPresentism genom att påpeka olika tolkningar av speciella relativitetsteorin som empirisktlikvärdiga ges.

  • 87.
    De Vries, Bouke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    ‘I am your son, mother’: Severe dementia and duties to visit parents who can’t recognise you2019In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly assumed that many, if not most, adult children have moral duties to visit their parents when they can do so at reasonable cost. However, whether such duties persist when the parents lose the ability to recognise their children, usually due to dementia, is more controversial. Over 40% of respondents in a public survey from the British Alzheimer’s Society said that it was “pointless” to keep up contact at this stage. Insofar as one cannot be morally required to do pointless things, this would suggest that children are relieved of any duties to visit their parents. In what appears to be the only scholarly treatment of this issue, Claudia Mills has defended this view, arguing that our duties to visit our parents require a type of relationship that is lost when parents no longer remember who their children are. This article challenges Mills’ argument. Not only can children be duty-bound to visit parents who have lost the ability to recognise them, I argue that many children do in fact have such duties. As I show, these duties are grounded in any special interests that their parents have in their company; the fact that visiting their parents might allow them to comply with generic duties of sociability; and/or the fact that such visits allow them to express any gratitude that they owe their parents.

  • 88.
    Dumisic, Sanjin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Choice of Pre-Birth Genetic Modification: Through Kant´s Ethics in the 21st Century2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay discusses, departing from Kant’s deontological ethics, and deals with the ques- tion of which types of pre-birth genetic modification are acceptable from the perspective of Kant’s ethics theory? The conclusion is that Kant’s ethics can be in line with certain thera- peutic interventions. Yet the same ethics disapproves with any sort of pre-birth modifica- tion based on personal design, preferences and commodification of the process.

  • 89.
    Enqvist, Kimberly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Skyldigheten att hjälpa de gamla att hålla sig vid liv: ett alternativ till skyldigheten att dö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle tar man allt mindre ansvar för omhändertagandet av de gamla. Detta innebär att man upplever de äldre som en börda. Utifrån detta har John Hardwig föreslagit att de gamla bör ta livet av sig, istället för att familjen ska behöva vårda dem. I kontrast till detta utgår Felicia Nimue Ackerman och Nancy S. Jecker från upplevelsen av att vara gammal och sårbar; att vara en börda är en vanlig mänsklig upplevelse och inte en anledning att ta sitt liv. Därför har både individen och samhället ansvar för de gamlas välmående. Denna uppsats undersöker skyldigheten att hjälpa de gamla att hålla sig vid liv som ett alternativ till skyldigheten att dö.

  • 90.
    Eriksson, Ann-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mening i livet - vem bryr sig?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 91.
    Eriksson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Holding No One Responsible: A Critical Assessment of David Copp's Collective Moral Autonomy Thesis2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att kritisera David Copps collective moral autonomy thesis. Denna tes säger att det är möjligt för kollektiv att ha moraliska förpliktelser och vara moraliskt ansvariga trots att ingen av dess medlemmar har motsvarande egenskaper. Copp har fört fram två argument och tre exempel till stöd för sin tes. Jag kommer att diskutera dessa utifrån den kritik som förts fram mot tesen. Min slutsats är att Copps tes, om ändå konceptuellt möjlig, inte stöds av de argument och exempel som Copp presenterar. Jag kommer huvudsakligen argumentera för att dessa är fall där ingen agent – varken ett kollektiv eller en individ – kan hållas moraliskt ansvarig.

  • 92.
    Eriksson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Unstructured Collective Harm: An Overview of Accounts of Moral Obligation for Loosely Organized Groups2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att klargöra vad vi rimligtvis kan kräva av teorier om moraliska förpliktelser i gruppsituationer. Jag fokuserar på en typ av fall där oorganiserade grupper har möjlighet att förhindra att skada sker, trots att ingen av gruppens medlemmar har denna möjlighet. Tre specifika fall av denna sort diskuteras i syfte att presentera problem som rör moraliska förpliktelser. Därefter presenterar jag en översikt av olika teorier som avser att redogöra for dessa problem. Översikten syftar till att avgöra vad vi kan kräva av en teori om moraliska förpliktelser i löst sammansatta grupper. Jag argumenterar for tesen att vi bör kräva av nämnda teorier att de ska redogöra för förpliktelser i de berörda fallen.

  • 93.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Att Analysera Begreppet Sjukdom genom Searles Allmänna Teori om Institutionella fakta2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay describes and summarizes contemporary philosophical discussion of how to analyze and conceptualize the notion of disease through a naturalistic and a normativistic standpoint. In concluding that the notion of disease have one stem in naturalistic reasoning, and one stem in normative reasoning, both hybrid theory and Ereshefsky’s “alternative approach” are investigated and shown not to be satisfactory. The essay then investigates how both the naturalistic concept and the normativistic concept of disease could be unified through John Searle’s theory of institutional facts. If the concept of disease could be analyzed and conceptualized through Searle’s theory, the effect would be that both naturalistic and normativistic reasoning about the notion could be handled, though the normativisitic approach will have a conceptual priority towards the naturalistic approach. Some further questions regarding the construction of such facts are also identified and believed to being able to further the understanding how to correctly analyze the concept of disease.

    Keywords: Disease, Illness, Naturalism, Normativism, Hybrid theory, Ereshefsky, Social Construction, Searle

  • 94.
    Eriksson, Felicia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Altruism, gåvor och organdonation i Sverige: En filosofisk undersökning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 95.
    Fazlhashemi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Österberg, EvaHistoriska institutionen vid Lunds universitet.
    Omodernt: Människor och tankar i förmodern tid2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan vi idag ha något att lära av de klassiska, medeltida och tidigmoderna kulturerna? Många skulle svara ja på den frågan, men det finns också de som skulle beskriva det förmoderna som irrationellt, traditionsbundet, kollektivistiskt och framför allt otidsenligt.

    Att behålla kontakten med det förmoderna behöver inte betyda att man bekräftar ett "arv" från det förflutna eller ägnar sig åt återbruk av äldre tiders idéer. Bättre är att omvandla, utveckla eller avveckla tidigare tankar eller kritik kring sociala och estetiska mönster. I antologin Omodernt - Människor och tankar i förmodern tid medverkar elva forskare som representerar en rad humanistiska discipliner. Deras texter berättar på mångfacetterade sätt om idéer och föreställningar, språk och texter från antiken till 1600-talet som är relevanta än idag. De argumenterar för vikten av kunskap om de perioder som ligger före vår moderna tid och ger konkreta exempel på forskning i den andan.

    Det viktiga är att uppmuntra kommunikation över seklen, viljan att vidga sina egna associationer kring mänskligt handlande, att fördjupa sina insikter om hur människor i historien försökt att hantera sin existentiella och samhälleliga situation. Genom sådana perspektivbyten kan vi i bästa fall få klargörande idéer även om vår egen tid.

  • 96.
    Fjellström, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics. Filosofi.
    A Sketch of Equal Human Value2007In: SATS: Nordic Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 97-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An account of the widely accepted but vague idea that all humans have equal value is sketched. The essay evolves from a concept of inherent value as distinct from final, instrumental, and preconditional value. There is no supervenience base to inherent human value, it is argued. Still, it can be characterized, namely in terms of being worth loving. An account can also be given of its constitution, which would be by the agape-like love of an ideal observer faced with human beings in their wholeness. And its function as a master value of ethics can be analyzed; this is shown to depend on an essential bond with the value of human life

  • 97.
    Fjellström, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics. Filosofi.
    Behövs ideal och värden för fostran?2001In: Fostrar skolan goda medborgare?: Ett mångvetenskapligt perspektiv på eleven, skolan och samhället., Iustus förlag, Uppsala , 2001, p. 256-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Fjellström, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics. Filosofi.
    Betygssättandet etik2002In: Att bedöma eller döma: Tio artiklar om bedömning och betygssättning, Skolverket, Stockholm , 2002, p. 172-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Fjellström, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Consequentialism, Containers, Channels and Contrary-to-fact Equal Human Value2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Fjellström, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Därför låter vi barnen svälta2008In: Aftonbladet, Vol. Kultursida, no 11 juniArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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