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  • 51.
    Birky, Geoffrey
    et al.
    Georgetown University.
    Campbell, Connie M
    Millsaps College, USA.
    Raman, Manya
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Sandefur, James
    Georgetown University.
    Somers, Kay
    Moravian College, USA.
    One problem, nine student-produced proofs2011In: The College Mathematics Journal, ISSN 0746-8342, E-ISSN 1931-1346, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 355-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context of this paper is a project aimed at meeting the challenges of teaching an introduction-to-proof course at our own institutions. These courses are typically taken by second year students intending to major in mathematics or computer science and are taught in sections of 15 to 24 students. These students benefit from being given the freedom to explore different methods of proof without the presumption that they will use a certain method.  This is the story of how what could have been a routine, closed problem became an open one.

  • 52. Björkqvist, Ole
    et al.
    Gjone, GunnarJohansson, BengtKristjánsdóttir, AnnaLithner, JohanUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Wallin, HansUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Preparation of researchers in mathematics education: Nordic symposium Umeå, August 17-20, 19951996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Blomqvist, Charlotta
    et al.
    Berghemsskolan, Umeå.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Att kommunicera om likamedtecknet2013In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, no 4, p. 39-42Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel beskriver en lärare och en forskare sitt arbete med att utveckla den muntliga kommunikationsförmågan inom matematik i en fjärdeklass. Aktionsforskning utgör bakgrunden för arbetet och likamedtecknet står i fokus när eleverna utmanas i sitt matematiska tänkande med hjälp av lappar.

  • 54.
    Boesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Helenius, Ola
    Göteborgs universitet och Örebro universitet.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Developing mathematical competence: from the intended to the enacted curriculum2014In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 33, p. 72-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of a national reform in Sweden introducing mathematical competency goals. Data were gathered through interviews, classroom observations, and online surveys with nearly 200 teachers. Contrasting to most studies of this size, qualitative analyses were conducted. The results show that teachers are positive to the message, but the combination of using national curriculum documents and national tests to convey the reform message has not been sufficient for teachers to identify the meaning of the message. Thus, the teachers have not acquired the functional knowledge of the competence message required to modify their teaching in alignment with the reform. The results indicate that for complex reform messages, such as the competency message, to have intended impact on classroom practice, special attention needs to be put on the clarity of the message. To have high-stakes tests, for example, does not alone seem to be sufficient. 

  • 55. Boesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Assessing mathematical competencies: an analysis of Swedish national mathematics tests2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 109-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, education reform has been directed towards describing educational goals that go beyond topic and content descriptions. The idea of mathematical competencies describes such goals. National tests have been seen as one way of communicating these goals and influence teaching. The present study analyses Swedish national tests in mathematics, and seeks evidence about the extent to which they represent these competencies and may play a role in reforming teaching. The results show that the national tests assess all competencies. However, the study also shows a limited focus on the competencies’ interpretation and evaluation aspects. Thus, the tests do not fully capture the complex nature of the competencies. This may cloud the reform message and restrict the possibilities for the tests to function as levers for reform.

  • 56.
    Boesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The relation between types of assessment tasks and the mathematical reasoning students use2010In: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 89-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between types of tasks and the mathematical reasoning used by students trying to solve tasks in a national test situation is analyzed. The results show that when confronted with test tasks that share important properties with tasks in the textbook the students solved them by trying to recall facts or algorithms. Such test tasks did not require conceptual understanding. In contrast, test tasks that do not share important properties with the textbook mostly elicited creative mathematically founded reasoning. In addition, most successful solutions to such tasks were based on this type of reasoning.

  • 57.
    Boström, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Formativ bedömning: en enkel match eller en svår utmaning? Effekter av en kompetensutvecklingssatsning på lärarnas praktik och på elevernas prestationer i matematik2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research reviews have shown that the use of formative assessment in classroom practice can substantially improve student achievement. However, a strong research base about how to support teachers’ implementation of such formative classroom practice is lacking. In this thesis, I investigate the effects of a comprehensive professional development programme (PDP) in formative assessment on teachers’ classroom practice and students’ achievement in mathematics. In addition, I identify reasons for the changes made in the teachers’ formative classroom practice. Fourteen randomly selected year - 7 mathematics teachers participated in the PDP. The teachers’ formative classroom practice before and after attending the programme was analysed and described, and reasons for their change in practice were explored. The effect of the changes in formative classroom practice on students’ mathematics achievement was examined using pre- and post-tests administered to both the intervention group and a control group. A mixed methods approach with classroom observations, teacher interviews, questionnaires and student achievement tests in mathematics was used in the studies included in the thesis.

    The results show that the teachers used aspects of formative assessment in their classroom practice before the PDP, but that there was plenty of room for development towards a more effective formative assessment practice. Several possibilities for developing the practice were identified. After the PDP the teachers believed in the idea of formative assessment and were motivated to make changes towards a more formative classroom practice. The teachers included new formative assessment activities in their classroom practice, but in different ways and to different degrees. The characteristics of these changes were identified, and also the characteristics of the PDP that the teachers found to be influential for their development of the formative classroom practice. Results also show that the teachers’ motivational beliefs held after the PDP was an explanatory factor for their changes in practice. However, the formative assessment practice the teachers implemented did not have a significant effect on their students’ achievement compared to the control group. In addition, there was no correlation between the number of formative assessment activities implemented by the teachers and their students’ achievement gains. Reasons for these non-effects on student achievement, and for the teachers’ degree and type of implementation of formative assessment in the classroom practice, are discussed in the thesis.

  • 58.
    Boström, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    The impact of a teacher professional development program in formative assessment on mathematics teachers’ classroom practice2014In: Development of mathematics teaching: Design, Scale, Effects, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a sub study in a project about a comprehensive professional development program (PDP) for mathematics teachers in formative assessment (FA). My aim is to investigate in which ways the participating teachers’ classroom practice change, due to the delivered PDP, and also to identify reasons for the changes and the variation in changes. Fourteen randomly chosen mathematics teachers in secondary school participated in the PDP. The teachers were interviewed and their classroom practice observed before and after the PDP. They have also answered two questionnaires. Preliminary results show that all teachers were motivated to change and did change their practice, but to varying degrees. Factors that were important for the change to take place have been identified.

  • 59.
    Boström, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    The impact of a teacher professional development program in formative assessment on mathematics teachers’ classroom practice2013In: Spaces for learning: past, present and future. Proceedings of the FMSERA 30th annual symposium in Vaasa, November 6-8, 2013 / [ed] Röj-Lindberg, A-S., Burman, L., Kurtén-Finnäs, B. & Linnanmäki, K. (in, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a substudy in a project about a comprehensiveprofessional development program (PDP) in formative assessment (FA) formathematics teachers. My aim is to investigate in which ways the teachers’classroom practice change, with respect to FA, after participating in the PDP andwhat some of the reasons may be for these changes. Fourteen randomly chosenmathematics teachers in secondary school participated in the PDP. The teachers wereinterviewed and their classroom practice observed before and after the PDP.They have also answered two questionnaires. The PDPand the analysis about the teachers’ change is based on Dylan Wiliam and his colleagues’framework of FA. Preliminary results showthat all teachers were motivated to change and did change their practice, butto varying degrees.

  • 60.
    Boström, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Changes in teachers' formative classroom practice after a professional development programme, and important conditions for changeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formative assessment has been shown to have the power to positively affect student achievement, but support for teachers to substantially develop their formative classroom practices have been frequently unsuccessful. In this study, a random selection of year-7 teachers participated in a professional development programme (PDP) in formative assessment. The PDP was designed in accordance with many of the characteristics known to be important for teachers’ possibilities to develop their practice. Classroom observations, questionnaires and interviews are used to investigate the changes made in the teachers’ classroom practices after the PDP, and the conditions and barriers they perceived to have been important in their endeavours to developing a formative classroom practice. The results show how all teachers developed their practice, but to different degrees, and that a majority of the implemented activities focus on the teacher as the responsible agent for the formative assessment process. The teachers were satisfied with most of the conditions provided during the PDP, but experienced barriers for change from the teaching conditions at their schools after the PDP. A comparison is made with a parallel PDP for year-4 teachers that resulted in large teacher changes and significant effects on student achievement.

  • 61.
    Boström, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Motivational beliefs as an explanation for the effect of professional development programmes in formative assessment on teacher practiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has identified characteristics of professional development programmes (PDPs) which are successful inchanging teachers practice and improving student achievement. However, these characteristics do not predict and guarantee the outcomes of a specific PDP. Through teacher interviews and questionnaires, we investigated why randomly selected teachers in schoolyear-7, after participating in a PDP on formative assessment, changed their practice in ways identified in an earlier study and why these changes differed from those of teachers in schoolyear-4 participating in a similar PDP. The results show that the teachers’ motivational beliefs held after the PDP is an explanatory factor for their changes in practice. We discuss how differences in these beliefs may have developed by connecting characteristics of the teachers, the school, and the PDP to the mechanisms of change identified in a model of teacher growth.

  • 62.
    Boström, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The impact of a specific formative assessment practice on student achievement in mathematicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that formative assessment can enhance student learning. However, there is a great variety in how formative assessment is conceptualized and implemented, and in the size of the effects found on student achievement. A need has been identified for experimental studies both carefully describing the characteristics of the implemented formative assessment practice and its impact on student achievement. This study examines the effects on student achievement of the changes in a random sample of 14 secondary school mathematics teachers’ formative classroom practice that followed a professional development input. The practices were described, and student achievement were measured with pre-tests and post-tests. Results show that there were no significant differences in learning gains between the classes in the intervention group and the control group. The results also show no significant correlation between the number of formative assessment activities implemented by the teachers and the change in students’ achievement

  • 63.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Johnels, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Swine flu and Tamiflu®: context-based chemistry in Swedish upper secondary school2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Difficult to read or difficult to solve?: The role of natural language and other semiotic resources in mathematics tasks2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When students solve mathematics tasks, the tasks are commonly given as written text, usually consisting of natural language, mathematical notation and different types of images. This is one reason why reading and interpreting such texts are important parts of being mathematically proficient, at least within the school context. The ability utilized when dealing with aspects of mathematical text is denoted in this thesis as a mathematical reading ability; this ability is useful when reading mathematical language, for example, in task text. There is, however, a lack of knowledge of what characterizes this mathematical language, what students need to learn regarding the mathematical language, and exactly which mathematical language that tests should preferably assess. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge of aspects of difficulty related to textual features in mathematics tasks. In particular, one aim is to distinguish between a difficulty that has to do with a mathematical ability and another that has not. Different types of text analyses are utilized to capture textural features that might be demanding for the students when reading and solving mathematics tasks. Aspects regarding vocabulary are investigated both in a literature review and in a study where corpora are used to analyse word commonness. Other textual analyses focus on textual features that concern mathematical notation and images, besides natural language. Statistical methods are used to analyse potential relations between the textual features of interest and both task difficulty and task demand on reading ability. The results from the research review are sparse regarding difficult vocabulary, since few of the reviewed studies analyses word aspects separately. Several of the analysed textual features are related to aspects of difficulty. The results show that tasks with more words that are uncommon both in a mathematical context and in an everyday context, may favour students with good reading ability rather than students with good mathematical ability. Another textual feature that is likely to be demanding for students, is if the task texts contains many meaning relations, for example, when several words refer to the same or similar object. These results have implications for the school practice both regarding textual features that are important from an educational perspective and regarding the construction of tests. The research does also contribute to an understanding of what characterizes a mathematical language.

  • 65.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Relations between various semiotic resources in mathematics tasks: a possible source of students’ difficultiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading and solving mathematics tasks often involves reading and interpreting different semiotic resources such as natural language, mathematical notation and images. In the current study the purpose is to enhance the knowledge about how meaning relations (cohesive ties) between and within different semiotic resources are related to how difficult mathematics tasks are to read and solve. Statistical analyses are conducted of relations between the presence of different types of cohesive ties in relation to quantitative measures for how difficult the tasks are to read and solve. The results reveal a difficulty aspect related to the extent to which a task has cohesive ties, of any kind, but that a non-mathematics specific reading demand is not part of this difficulty aspect. For cohesive ties between different semiotic resources there is only a week relation between presence of such ties and task difficulty.

  • 66.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The role of semiotic resources when reading and solving mathematics tasks2016In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One part of being proficient in mathematics is to be able to read and solve mathematics tasks where mathematics is represented using different semiotic resources (i.e. natural language, mathematical notation, and different types of images). In the current study, statistical methods are used to investigate the potential meaning that the presence and co-occurrences of semiotic resources have for how demanding a mathematical task is to read and solve. The results reveal that the number of different semiotic resources in a mathematical task is not related to difficulty, but that difficulty is related to the particular combinations of semiotic resources where pictorial images are one of the resources. The results also indicate that the difficulty related to these semiotic characteristics is not related to an unnecessary reading demand.

  • 67.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Which textual features are difficult when reading and solving mathematics tasks?2017In: Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME10) / [ed] Dooley, T., Gueudet, G ., Dublin: Dublin City University , 2017, p. 1412-1413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the digital revolution much of the mathematics practiced in schools is still tightly bound to two-dimensional texts. This emphasis on text is neither surprising, nor inadequate, since mathematics has developed through a long history with the use of written text, consisting of natural language, mathematical notation and images. Natural language is our native language consisting of letters and words (see e.g., www.oed.com). Different features of the mathematics text are also important in written tests, since reading the text is part of the assessment. If the text is hard to read, that difficulty can be relevant as part of assessing the communicative competence in mathematics. Crucial is, however, whether potentially difficult textual features are part of what the assessment aims at. This issue is investigated in the current study, using a synthesis of statistical results and qualitative analyses of task text.

  • 68.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Uncommon vocabulary in mathematical tasks in relation to demand of reading ability and solution frequency2015In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 5-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the relation between commonness of the vocabulary used in mathematics tasks and aspects of students’ reading and solving of the tasks. The vocabulary in PISA tasks is analyzed according to how common the words are in a mathematical and an everyday context. The study examines correlations between different aspects of task difficulty and the presence of different types of uncommon vocabulary. The results show that the amount of words that are uncommon in both contexts are most important in relation to the reading and solving of the tasks. These words are not connected to the solution frequency of the task but to the demand of reading ability when solving the task.

  • 69.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Charles Darwin University.
    Route description in Iwaidja: grammar and conceptualisation of motion2016In: PNA, ISSN 1886-1350, E-ISSN 1887-3987, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 53-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focussed on the effect of grammar of Iwaidja, an indigenous Australian language, on mathematical conceptualisation. It investigated route description in Iwaidja. Spatial concepts such as direction, height and movement in relation to another object are briefly described using examples. Differences between English and Iwaidja are used to illustrate the some of the impact of grammar on mathematical conceptualisation. The implications are discussed in terms of how understanding these grammatical features can help teachers, especially when children are not fluent in the language of instruction, as well as providing keys to cross-linguistic investigations of mathematical cognition.

  • 70.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    The grammar and conceptualisation of motion in Iwaidja2015In: Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME9, 4-8 February 2015) / [ed] Krainer, Konrad & Vondrová, Naďa, Prague: Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Education and ERME , 2015, p. 1361-1367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different languages have different ways of using spatial language, grammatically and conceptually. This paper reports on aspects of the language of motion in Iwaidja, an indigenous Australian language. The way that Iwaidja groups and separates spatial concepts such as direction, height and movement in relation to another object are briefly described using examples from a route description task. The implications are discussed in terms of how understanding these grammatical features can help teachers of Indigenous students, as well as providing keys to cross-linguistic investigations of mathematical cognition.

  • 71.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Comparing mathematics tasks in different languages2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 151-151Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Stress och påverkan på de nationella provresultaten för åk 32014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur upplever 9-10 åringar de nationella proven i åk 3? Påverkar upplevelsen prestationen? Påverkas något matematikdelområde mer eller mindre av upplevelsen? Skiljer sig olika uppgifter åt beroende på om de har mer eller mindre text respektive bilder? Vad kan man som lärare tänka på och göra i allmänhet och i synnerhet vid prov/förhörssituationer?

    Läsåret 2012/13 genomfördes en studie med 624 st elever i åk 3 för att bringa klarhet i ovan frågor. Eleverna fick göra olika arbetsminnesövningar och svara på frågor om stress, motivation och attityder, etc. Teoretiskt tror man nämligen att allt för hög nivå av t ex stress (prestationsångest) sänker ens prestation på ett prov/förhör. Resultaten på de olika nationella delproven i matematik kördes därför statistiskt mot nivå av självrapporterad stress/ångest och uppskattad eller egentlig prestationsförmåga hos eleverna.

    Uppskattad eller egentlig förmåga att prestera i matematik för elever kan mätas genom t ex deras arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en kognitiv förmåga som är väl klarlagd för att väsentligen påverka prestation och utveckling inom t ex matematik- och läsförståelse hos både vuxna och barn (Menon, 2010). Det finns dessutom starka kopplingar mellan arbetsminneskapacitet och skolprestation i teoretiska ämnen. Majoriteten av de elever som har inlärningssvårigheter i skolan verkar även ha svag arbetsminnesförmåga (Gathercole et al., 2006).

    Arbetsminnet kan förenklat beskrivas som bestå av tre olika specialiserade komponenter. En huvudcentral som t ex kontrollerar, fördelar, uppmärksammar och processerar information, och hämtar/lagrar information från/i långtidsminnet. Till sin hjälp har denna huvudcentral en visuell-spatial del för hantering av bilder, former och dimension, samt en auditiv del för behandling av lingvistik (Baddeley, 1986). Matematik innefattar olika områden som beror av olika kognitiva förmågor (t ex huvudräkning, problemlösning), vilka i sin tur är relaterade till visuell-spatial och/eller auditiv fakta (Rasmussen & Bisanz, 2005).

    ”Provstress” eller ”provängslan” är en etablerad term för att beskriva elevers påverkan och upplevelse av prov. Termen innefattar ofta för barn observerbara beteenden (t ex gå på toan, vicka på stolen, titta sig omkring), tankar/oro (t ex jag kommer aldrig att klara det här, mina föräldrar kommer att bli arga om jag misslyckas), autonoma/somatiska reaktioner (t ex svettas, ont i magen, varm om kinderna) (Zeidner, 2007). Man tror att provängslan är ett inlärt beteende som väcks tidigt i skolåren (Pekrun, 2000). Det är ett väldigt inskränkande tillstånd (Rothman, 2004) som starkt kan begränsa elevers prestation i alla åldrar (Birenbaum & Gutvirtz, 1993). Även om ett visst mått av provängslan är nödvändigt för att öka fokus, motivation och förberedelse (Gregor, 2005), kan det i allt för höga nivåer negativt påverka en elevs prestation och resultat på ett prov (Zeidner, 2007), särskilt i matematik (e.g. Putwain, 2008). 

    Om och hur stark den kognitiva störningen är av provängslan används alltså i vår studie som ett mått eller symptom på elevers ev. underprestation. Vi undersöker också om eleverna uppvisar mer eller mindre av beteenden, autonoma reaktioner eller tankar relaterat till provängslan. Slutligen summerar vi våra resultat mot undervisning och prov/förhörssituationer. En jämförelse kommer även att göras med Finländska och Kinesiska åk-3 elever.

  • 73.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Factors of importance for mathematics performance in grade 3: working memory capacity, teat anxiety and self-regulation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Accounting for situated experience in socio-cultural-historical inquiry: Bakhtinian utterance in a mathematics classroom2010In: Proceedings of the Second International Interdisciplinary Conference on Perspectives and Limits of Dialogism in Mikhail Bakhtin, 3-5 June 2009, Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Karin Junefelt, Pia Nordin, Stockholm: Department of Scandinavian Languages, Stockholm University , 2010, p. 148-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses two cases of instruction from within a mathematics classroom, in which the situated experience of participants is informed using Bakhtinian utterance as analytical construct. The first illustrates situatedness and shared reference between teachers and students in the social speech of the classroom, with reference to the generic ‘When we multiply, we add’ in the teaching-learning of exponents. The second discusses the sharing of experience and the shaping of reason by students solving a problem as a group, in relation to a graph depicting the movement of an elevator between two floors where the word ‘stop’ is used to both convince and be convinced by the other. Located within a socio-cultural-historical study and accounting for the materiality of language in which individual intention, meaning and experience is populated, a Bakhtinian analysis enables access to both individual and collective thinking. This approach in turn informs the nature of active knowing in the teaching-learning of mathematics and its authoritative word.

  • 75.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. City University of New York (CUNY).
    Adopting a theory/practice stance for educational action: Three examples from mathematics classrooms2013In: Action Research Network of the Americas (ARNA) Inaugural Conference 1-2 May 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA, Session Abstracts, San Francisco, 2013, p. 7-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I shall demonstrate my conduct of action research at Grades four and eight in Sweden. By drawing on cultural-historical and/or Vygotskian perspectives, I shall explore the nuances of its theory/practice approach with three examples from ongoing classroom practices. In the first I shall draw on the theory of explicit mediation1 to rectify the faulty use of the = sign by students and share my collaboration with a teacher at Grade four. In the second, I shall draw upon exploratory talk and report my work with the same teacher in relation to the topic of measurement, within a project on communication and mathematics for which she had obtained funding. Finally, I shall present my conduct of an action strategy with two teachers at Grade eight, situated as their classrooms and school were in a wider environment facing consequences of global recession. In doing so I attempt to unravel the interplay between existing research/theory and situated practice, which together informed the taking of collaborative educational action as practitioners. 

  • 76.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Homi Bhaba Centre for Sciecne Education (HBCSE), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India.
    Analysing appropriation in a mathematics classroom: The case of a textbook and a mnemonic2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The appropriation of cultural resources in any social environment is of theoretical interest in order to understand Vygotsky's contention of how skills that are interpsychological become intrapsychological, allowing the individual to direct attention to elements that are necessary to carry out a particular task at hand. The analysis of appropriation is of methodological interest to be able to obtain explanatory power and understand as Rogoff argues how students comprehend their roles, transform practice through appropriation and relate their participation from one activity to another. Combining a theoretical and methodological interest, this paper discusses two instances of appropriation by students who utilise a textbook and a mnemonic in meeting instructional goals in the classroom teaching-learning of mathematics. Leont'ev distinguished the process of appropriation as unique to human ontogenetic development, one that takes place in an objective world of cultural resources. In analysing embedded goals, mastery of cultural resources and transformation of practice, an understanding is sought of the complex, collaborative and situated conditions that facilitate the process of appropriation and the cultural nature of human development.

  • 77.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. University of Oxford.
    Analysing two group-tasks and a collaborative classroom practice with Engeström’s activity theory2014In: Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics (BSRLM) Volume 34 Number 1 / [ed] Patrick Barmby, 2014, p. 43-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two teachers, Olaf and Knut, conducted two group-tasks in succession, early in the academic year at a gymnasium or upper secondary school in Norway. In doing so they steered classroom practice away from traditional instruction, with Olaf alone as teacher, to cooperative learning in small groups with guidance from both. While the first group-task titled When Together initiated cooperative learning by students in small groups, the second titled How Heavy initiated student groups to build upon group cooperation and work with other groups in a collaborative classroom practice. It was Olaf and Knut’s intention to have their students cooperate in small groups at all times and collaborate with students from other groups on occasion. A few months into the year, Olaf and Knut’s students’ groups had opportunity to discuss rules of cooperation whereupon their collaborative classroom practice became the norm. Using examples of students’ attempts at both group-tasks, I portray Olaf and Knut’s initiation of such a practice. Using Engeström’s activity model I shed light on how students' participation was transformed to meet with their intentions.

  • 78.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Høgskolen i Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Artefact mediated classroom practice2007In: Relating practice and research in mathematics education - Proceedings of Norma05 / [ed] C. Bergsten, B. Grevholm, H. S. Måsøval and F. Rønning, Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press , 2007, p. 257-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a classroom study of meaning being made by students working in small groups in a mathematics classroom at an upper secondary school. A naturalistic study, it observes student activities within the classroom from a socio-cultural-historical perspective. It addresses the artefact mediated classroom practice, wherein student participation and meaning making is guided and apprenticed by the teachers. Mediated by artefacts within intentional practices, the mathematics classroom constitutes a culture which is also the medium for meaning making.

  • 79.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Close-to-practice classroom research by way of Vygotskian units of analysis2012In: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Mathematics Education (ICME), 8-15 July 2012, Seoul, Korea, 2012, p. 4312-4321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the potential of Vygotskian units in researching classroom practices. Adopting a close-to-practice approach and action research where possible, an attempt is made to shed light on ongoing practices across grades 4-6, 7-9 and the gymnaisum. The theory/practice approach adopted keeps alive the relationship between theory-which-informs and theory-being-built, as well as existing-practice and steered-practice in these studies. The potential to inform researcher reflexivity and guide educational action along with the ability of units to grasp complexity, from as many perspectives as possible, and ascend to the concrete is brought forward. Such a strategy is deliberate, geared towards informing practitioner inquiry in ongoing classrooms. 

  • 80.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Narrative as unit of analysis for teaching-learning praxis and action: Tracing the personal growth of a professional voice2011In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nurtured as a teacher and mentored as a mathematics education researcher, the reflective voice of a teacher‐researcher‐educator is portrayed in this paper. While drawing upon experience of creating teaching‐learning environments, the author outlines the growth of praxis within her practice. She then outlines her coming upon narrative as a deployable unit of analysis with which to grasp teaching‐learning practice. With narrative inquiry as strategy, she finally outlines examples of educational action research she is able to conduct. She argues in favour of empowering the praxis of teachers, recognising their language of practice and urges us to listen to their individual voice.

  • 81.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Narratives of students learning mathematics: Plurality of strategies and a strategy for practice?2010In: Mathematics and Mathematics Education: Cultural and Social Dimensions: Proceedings of MADIF7, the Seventh Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Stockholm, January 26-27, 2010 / [ed] Christer Bergsten, Eva Jablonka, Tine Wedege, Linköping: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning (SMDF) , 2010, p. 102-112Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Oneself in practitioner research, with Vygotsky and Bakhtin2016In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 403-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practitioner action and reflection are understood as central to practitioner research in this paper. While Vygotskian based premise highlight instructional practices and intervention as central to practitioner understanding, Bakhtin based dialogical premise draw on relational constructs and attend to practitioner being, answerability and authorship. Vygotskian and Bakhtinain units of analysis used are viewed as means with which to conceive practitioner action/reflection and build a community of practitioners. Taken together practitioner knowing is found inextricable with practitioner ontology, making practitioner research of ongoing instructional practices more human in line with Dewey.

  • 83.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Practitioner collaboration at a Grade four mathematics classroom: by way of relational knowing and relational agency2014In: Promoting change through action research / [ed] Franz Rauch, Angela Schuster, Thomas Stern, Maria Pribila and Andrew Townsend, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2014, p. 35-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on narrative inquiry as well as activity theory perspectives, in this chapter I examine three aspects in relation to research conducted with a mathematics teacher Lotta, as Charlotta is known, at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden. First, the nature of relational knowing which, born of practitioner narratives, led us to collaborate and take action (Hollingsworth, Dybdahl & Minarik, 1993).

  • 84.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Research as praxis, en route theory/practice teacher-researcher collaboration: a self-study2017In: Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 5-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper relates to project related instructional interventions, conducted via teacher-researcher collaboration in a Grade Four mathematics classroom. Drawing upon cultural historical activity theory or CHAT perspectives, such conduct exemplifies research as praxis. While CHAT perspectives argue for a theory/practice approach, enabling practitioners to act on their reflexivity and address contradictions found in ongoing practice; research as praxis views practitioner reflexivity as central to pursuing openly ideological work and practising in empirical inquiry what one preaches in theoretical formulations. Such pursuit led to our becoming stakeholders in each other’s professional practice and the conduct of interventions becoming the shared object of both teaching and research. In teacher-researcher collaboration realising expansive learning activity, it was possible to question modernist assumptions which view abstract theory as applicable to any concrete practice and take political action in dialectic with theory.

  • 85.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Researcher reflexivity leading to action research in a mathematics classroom: enabling Nelly to multiply again through deconstruction and reconstruction2011In: Proceedings/Abstract of papers of the International Society of Cultural and Activity Research (ISCAR) International Conference, 5-10 September 2011, Rome, Italy, 2011, p. 280-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies, at grade six and grade four in Sweden with a mathematics teacher Lea, are drawn upon in this paper to discuss the active role of researcher reflexivity made possible when situated narrative, classroom talk and mediated action are deployed as units of analysis. While in the first study, situated narrative provides access to voices and strategies of students in their attempts at learning the mathematics being demanded of them; the deployment of classroom talk and mediated action as additional units in the second allows further access to students' participation in activities specially designed to promote communication within mathematics. With greater insight into classroom teaching-learning, researcher reflexivity is now encountered in empirical terms, preparing the ongoing study for desirable intervention if necessary. Such an opportunity arises and is utilised when Lea shares with the researcher, her stumbling upon of the faulty use of the equality sign by her students. With activities now designed and conducted to trace the root of the problem and facilitate appropriate use as background, the personal travails of a student Nelly with the multiplication demanded of her also surface. Nelly is found able to multiply in a manner as mandated by the textbook, yet brakes down when unable to respond to a question in Lea's test that seeks the finding of pattern. The processes of deconstruction and reconstruction then lead the researcher to trace as well as resolve Nelly's predicament, allowing Nelly to regain her lost sense of control over her computational abilities as well as confidence. Drawing upon reflexivity substantiated in empirical terms, it thus becomes possible for the researcher to shift her role from a practical to a critical-emancipatory one, as well as – sustain an action research cycle, develop actionable knowledge and crucially, empower Nelly, her teacher and research.

  • 86.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    School: as teacher, researcher, educator2011In: Under the Imli tree: fifty years of Vidyaranya, Hyderabad, India: Vidyaranya Alumni Foundation , 2011, p. 42-43Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This is a reflective article, written for a volume commemorating fifty years of the school in Hyderabad, India, at which I taught for over twelve years. The 'Imli tree' in the title of the volume, refers to the 'Tamarind tree' which has stood beside the school for all these years.

  • 87.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Students' meaning making in a collaborative classroom practice as initiated by two teachers2011In: Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, vol. 2: Developing Mathematical Thinking / [ed] Behiye Ubuz, Ankara, 2011, p. 2-361-2-368Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the nature of classroom practice that afforded students' meaning making at an upper secondary mathematics classroom in Norway. The participation of both teachers and students in the collaborative classroom practice they jointly establish is outlined. A longitudinal and person-in-practice view sheds light not only on the meaning producing foreground that was initiated, but also the nature of its growth. An artefact of instructional practice of two teachers Olaf and Knut is thus evidenced. In this there is opportunity to appreciate mathematical content, pedagogy and students' thinking in an integrated manner – making such knowledge useful and usable by practising as well as prospective teachers of mathematics.

  • 88.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Studying classroom problem-solving instruction and learning via mediated action and talk2011In: Problem Solving in Mathematics Education: Proceedings of the 12th ProMath Conference, 10-12 September 2010, Jena, Germany / [ed] Kinga Szücs, Münster: WTM Verlag für wissenschaftliche Texte und Medien , 2011, p. 48-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to synergise the recognised need for studying classroom problem-solving instruction and learning and the promise of such study with socio-cultural-historical and activity or CHAT perspectives. A doctoral and longitudinal study is drawn upon to illustrate the insight that is possible when two of its constructs, namely mediated action and spoken language or talk are utilised as units of analysis. The writings of A. R. Luria are specially drawn attention to enable analysis of various instances within teaching-learning in which the higher mental function of spoken language makes the development of other higher mental functions possible. It is argued that occasion to develop numerous such functions within classroom instruction could contribute to the repertoire of skills that are necessary for solving mathematical problems by students.

  • 89.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. University of Oxford.
    Surface area to volume ratio and metabolism: analysing small group-task as Vygotskian activity2013In: Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics (BSRLM) Volume 33 Number 3 / [ed] C Smith, London, 2013, p. 25-30Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three students Dan, Levi and Thor, attempt a group-task containing worksheets A and B. While worksheet A asks students to calculate and compare surface area to volume ratio of a sphere for six successive units, worksheet B asks them to consider the metabolism of living cells and the bearing the ratio has on their functioning and size. While Levi and Thor own the group-task, follow its instructions and deliberate on its questions, Dan declares his intention of observing Levi and Thor and takes a free ride. Based on students inscriptions and transcript of audio-recordings, I show how Levi and Thor work through calculations required in worksheet A with ease, even coming up with conjectures. In attempting worksheet B they are able to correlate better metabolism in cells with a smaller radius, yet question if that model is indeed borne out in reality. The concept of activity in Vygostkian theory is used to study students attempts at the group-task. Three constructs from cultural historical activity theory and/or CHAT namely leading activity, germ cell of activity and learning activity are utilised to shed light on attempts by Dan, Levi and Thor at their group-task. 

  • 90.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Taking collective action through exploratory talk: The case at a grade four mathematics classroom2014In: CARN BULLETIN 17: Towards Creative Action: Transformations and Collaborations in Practice / [ed] Sally Hardy, Manchester Metropolitan University, 2014, p. 55-61Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Teacher research as self-study and collaborative activity2015In: LEARNing Landscapes, ISSN 1913-5688, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 173-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights two insightful methods for advancing teacher research: practitioner self-study in relation to a range of texts, with which to examine one’s educational landscape; and classroom interventions conceived as a Vygotskian activity, via teacher-researcher collaboration. Both approaches allow teachers and collaborating researchers to share individual expertise across institutional boundaries and engage in creative local action.

  • 92.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Teacher-researcher collaboration as transformation – A case study2014In: Abstract of papers of the International Society of Cultural and Activity Research (ISCAR) International Conference, 29 September - 3 October 2014, Sydney, Australia, 2014, p. 18-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details researcher collaboration with Lotta, a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school. This began with a six month study during which I observed Lotta's classroom teaching at Grade six. My pursuit of narrative perspectives in this study, created room for intersubjectivity and endeared Lotta and me to collaborate thereafter. Lotta's application for project funding from national school authorities, then paved way for researcher intervention in Lotta's teaching, at her now Grade four. Our conceiving teaching-learning in Vygotskian terms allowed for two kinds of interventions. Talk based interventions geared towards correlating mathematics and communication as part of Lotta's project and specific interventions relating to say mathematical problem posing and students' use of the mathematical = sign. In Lotta next being employed by national school authorities themselves, our collaboration shifted to reflecting and reporting on our interventions by means of co-authorship. The trajectory from participant observation to co-authorship in our collaboration thus corresponds to my reference to Lotta as Lea in my first study, to her theorising and facing up to public scrutiny as herself. Lotta is since Rektor of a school at which we intend to widen our collaboration. 

    While recognising agentive understanding as teacher and researcher to be a result of intervening in Lotta's instructional practice, it is purpose, goals and outcomes of teacher-researcher collaboration that is of interest. With its transformative manner as backdrop and in line with writings led by Anna Stetsenko I examine three specific aspects. First, in what way did our collaboration qualify as leading activity, enabling research to capture our selves as evolving in our interventions. Second, how did our actions exemplify a transformative activist stance that promoted human knowing and becoming, rooted in the ideals of social justice. Finally, how did our attempts at collaborative purposeful transformation stem out of social practice, through social practice and for social practice we set out to change. In line with a practical-theoretical endeavor, such analysis sheds light on a transformatory vision of human development in terms of a dialectical, non-reductionist, non-dualist, non-additive relational ontology as played out in our case of teacher-researcher collaboration. 

  • 93.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    The solving of problems and the problem of meaning: the case with grade eight adolescent students2012In: Proceedings of the 13th ProMath conference, September 2 – 4, 2011, in Umeå, Sweden, Problem solving in mathematics education: learning problem solving and learning through problem solving / [ed] Tomas Bergqvist, Umeå: Umeå university , 2012, p. 5-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of loss of meaning in schooling and teaching-learning of mathematics is explored in a study with adolescent students at two grade eight classes in Sweden with five frames of reference: deploying CHAT theoretical perspectives, incorporating student agency and identity, conduct of an action strategy, the design of meaningful mathematical tasks and the situatedness of these in local contexts of classroom and school. Exemplary of second-order action research, the conduct of five mathematical tasks enables reformulating the situated social practice in the classrooms, evidencing overt display of student identity in the fifth and final task. The addressing of problems posed by students in this open-ended task e.g. What is your favorite sport? Have you tested smoking? allows students to combine mathematical knowing and a sense of achievement, along with their selves as perceived in their local contexts. The inclusion of problems/mathematical tasks related to students' self is thus sought for in the curriculum of mathematics for adolescent students. 

  • 94.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Theory in service of the concrete: Cultural studies, schooling and critical mathematics education2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As different from building theory from research the ability of theorising for action research at two Grade eight classrooms is discussed, by deploying cultural studies and problematising how students and teachers are (dis)empowered by cultural, political, global and economic forces. Moving beyond adoption of a neutral outlook to schooling and mathematics, the practice of mathematics education research necessitates careful and critical thinking through of content, context and agency. An attempt is made to narrate a better story of what could transpire within four walls of a mathematics classroom - situated as classroom and school themselves are in wider societal contexts. 

  • 95.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    To choose or not to choose mathematics: voices of students schooling at a gymnasium2012In: Proceedings of Norma 11: the sixth Nordic Conference on Mathmatics Education in Reykjavík, May 11.-14. 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 2012, p. 267-277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper portrays voices of students pursuing mathematics at their gymnasium. Obtained through narrative interviews, the students voiced were observed and interacted with through their academic year. The opting out by one of the students from the standard level course for another course less demanding, forms backdrop to voices reported. An attempt is made to look beyond the label of modernity and seek to understand how the learning of mathematics by students is intimately connected to their experience of schooling. An example of close-to-practice research, highlighting tensions and contradictions of classroom practice, is presented.

  • 96.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Two small stories about self and world at grades four and five: informing close-to-practice research of mathematics classrooms2012In: Responsible Research: Papers from the Fourth Qualitative Research Conference / [ed] Petri Salo, Åbo: Åbo Akademi University, The Faculty of Education , 2012, p. 34-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deliberates upon two small stories offered by Sara and Eva at a grade 4-6 Swedish school. The two narratives allow research to examine the notion of students' subjectivity within teaching-learning of mathematics and schooling more broadly. Offered as talk-in-interaction these are analysed with respect to what Sara and Eva did with their talk, as well as the nature of self that either was able to accomplish. There is opportunity to examine the role played by these stories in mediating the lived world and told world that either experienced. While Sara examined writing in story books, Eva examined babysitting her siblings. The positioning of either as social beings in their contextual tellings, informs agency and actions of either in their respective lives. Such analysis informs research about students' identity or their who in addition to the how of their participation, vital to initiating any educational action.

  • 97.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. City University of New York, Oxford University.
    Unpacking teacher-researcher collaboration with three theoretical frameworks: a case of expansive learning activity?2015In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 603-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the experiential and relational nature of collaboration; relational agency, draws on activity theory perspectives and identifies the change in the purpose of collaboration, from initially conducting classroom interventions to co-authoring research. Finally, cogenerative dialogue, deploys hermeneutic-phenomenological perspectives and investigates the dialogue that transpired between Lotta and the author, as they co-authored their research report. Such analysis sheds invaluable light on a case of expansive learning activity. 

  • 98.
    Gade, Sharada
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Blomqvist, Charlotta
    Grisbacka Primary School, Umeå.
    Investigating everyday measures through exploratory talk: whole class plenary intervention and landscape study at grade four2018In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 235-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an exploratory talk based, whole class plenary intervention, in relation to students' understanding of everyday measures and measurement, in a grade four classroom at a grade 4-6 school in Sweden. Extended, project related, teacher-researcher collaboration forms basis for such cultural historical activity theory or CHAT based efforts. As formative intervention, the conduct of the plenary is not pre-determined but embedded in ongoing curricular realities, with the agency of students and teacher promoted, pedagogical ideas reutilised and the role of researcher viewed as supporting design and growth of the intervention. Under Charlotta's guidance as teacher, the plenary is opportunity for her students to examine improbable scenarios such as, Can Eva and Anton measure the length of Sweden on foot, Can Lars and Iris measure their age in decimeters. A zone of proximal development is created, in which students make the transition from spontaneous to scientific concepts and learn how various units of measurement are objects-that-can-be-used-for-certain-purposes. With opportunity for critical and reflective inquiry, in a plenary designed to lead development, Charlotta's students look beyond the making of rote measurements and articulate a theory of measure in nascent terms. Such a landscape of teaching-learning is finally understood in terms of the nature of talk that was facilitated, the manner of pedagogy utilised, the style of teaching exercised and the kind of learning that was demanded of her students.

  • 99.
    Gade, Sharada
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Blomqvist, Charlotta
    Grisbacka Primary School, Umeå, Sweden.
    Shared object and stakeholdership in teacher-researcher expansive learning activity2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: volume 2: research reports / [ed] Csaba Csíkos, Attila Rausch and Judit Szitányi, Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, p. 267-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) perspectives are used to shed light on an extended teacher-researcher collaboration, at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden. Beginning with participant observation and emerging forms of engagement like co-authorship of research reports, the collaboration is understood as expansive learning activity. Treating the practices of teaching and research as distinct yet collaborating activity systems within this, provides an opportunity to analyse the manner in which joint conduct of project related instructional interventions became shared object. This also enabled teacher and researcher to become active stakeholders in each other's practice. Dialectical realisation of stakeholdership and shared object led to reconceptualisation and transformation of the very horizons of our work.

  • 100. Helenius, Ola
    et al.
    Engström, ArneMeaney, TamsinNilsson, PerNorén, EvaSayers, JudyÖsterholm, MagnusUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Development of Mathematics Teaching: Design, Scale, Effects: Proceedings from Madif9: The Ninth Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Umeå, February 4-5, 20142015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
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