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  • 51.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Roxy - en utvärdering av nätbaserat lärande: Delrapport i projektet Roxy2000Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Some notes from an observational study of gymculture in Sweden1997In: The Second Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, August 20-23, 1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Some notes from an observational study of the gymculture in Sweden1996In: The 4th International Conference on Sport Sciences for Young Scientists, October 16-19, Tartu, Estonia, 1996Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Studenternas uppfattningar om datorkommunikation inom nätuniversitetets medicin- och vårdutbildningar2004Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teaching online: The handbook dilemma in higher education2011In: International Journal of Cyber Ethics in Education, ISSN 2155-6903, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 10-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines adult online education by investigating the complex relationship between technology and community. The aim was to explore online teaching in relation to the handbook dilemma teachers meet in their teacher profession by focusing on participation and sharing opportunities. This study analysed several handbooks that aim to help teachers design and implement online education. The advice in the handbooks was contrasted against two empirical cases. Specifically, the study examined how two cases – online adult education courses and special needs teacher training courses – implemented online education with respect to participation and sharing. The analysis suggests that pedagogy is the crucial point and a planned pedagogy is absolutely necessary for designing and implementing effective online education, education that encourages participation and sharing. The findings showed that some handbooks offer meaningful guidance regarding the development of online education, but other publications were not helpful which creates a dilemma for teachers.

  • 56.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    The attractiveness of gym culture2006In: The NERA´s 34th congress, Örebro, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    The logic of gym culture2007In: Local Sport in Europe. 4th EASS Conference Munster 2007, Germany, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Varför används inte IT av studenter?1997In: IT i universitetsundervisningen: Erfarenheter från Datavetenskap, Informatik och Pedagogik, Umeå universitet, Umeå , 1997, p. 41-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Varför används inte IT av studenter?1998In: Fem år med distanskurs i pedagogik och IT, Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, Umeå , 1998, p. 52-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Varför används inte IT av studenter?1997In: Utbildning i förändring: universitetspedagogisk konferens i Umeå 20-21 februari 1997 : konferensrapport, Enheten för personalutveckling, Umeå universitet, Umeå , 1997, p. 142-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Varför gym?2000In: Svensk idrottsforskning, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vilka relationer finns mellan fotbollsdistriktens resultat med distriktens storlek, antal lag på elitnivå och geografi?2012In: SVEBI-konferensen, Umeå universitet, 14-15 november, 2012: Perspektiv på idrottens prestationssystem – från debut till avslut, Umeå: Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien rapporterar empiriska data från projektet ”fotbollens talangsystem”. Projektet syftar till att fördjupa kunskaperna om fotbollens systemmässiga organisering av distriktsverksamheten med syfte att identifiera talanger att bygga svensk fotbolls framtid på (www.svenskfotboll.se, se även Petterson, 2004, 2011). Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om Sveriges fotbollsdistriktsförbund matchresultat på elitlägret i Halmstad och distriktslagscupen för flickor respektive pojkar har beröringspunkter till distriktens storlek, antal lag på elitnivå och geografiska lokalisering.  Det material som studien utgår ifrån är sammanställning av samtliga 24 distrikts matchresultat från elitlägren och från cup kommunal och cup byggnad mellan 2001-2011 (cuperna har bytt namn genom åren).  Totalt är ca 60 matcher registrerade för varje distrikt (30 matcher från elitlägret och 30 matcher från gruppspelet i cuperna). Vidare har strukturella data om distrikten som antal licensierade spelare, antal elitlag i distriktet samt distriktets geografiska lokalisering samlats in. Analyserna av distriktens resultat mellan 2001 och 2011 visar att det finns ett antal framgångsrika distrikt och ett antal distrikt som inte lyckas lika bra. Det är emellertid inte så att ett framgångsrikt distriktpå pojksidan följs av framgångsrika tjejer i samma distrikt. Här varierar det. Analyserna visar också att det i vissa fall sker stora skiftningar mellan elitlägrets matcher och de matcher som spelas i distriktscuperna året efter då distrikt som varit framgångsrika tappar sin konkurrenskraft markant och viceversa. Resultaten visar på aggregerad nivå att det finns ett samband mellan resultat på elitläger och cupmatcher och antal licensierade fotbollsspelare och hur många lag som finns på elitnivå i distriktet för pojkarna. För flickorna återfinns det sambandet enbart i de äldre åldrarna (cupmatcher) medan prestation på elitlägret inte uppvisar något samband med antal licensierade eller antal elitlag i ett distrikt. När det gäller frågan om distriktets geografiska lokalisering har någon relation till distriktets resultat visar analysen inga tydliga samband. Här återstår det dock att nyansera denna bild genom att föra in fler komponenter för att bättre förstå de processer som påverkar fotbollens talangsystem. 

  • 63.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    WWW - från information till interaktion1998In: Fem år med distanskurs i pedagogik och IT, Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, Umeå , 1998, p. 62-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Söderström, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Är IT en angelägenhet för universitetsundervisning?1996Report (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brusvik, P
    Lund, S
    The organization of Swedish talent development in soccer: Impact on performance2013In: 18th European College of Sport Science, June 26-29, 2013, Barcelona, Spain: Unifying Sport Science / [ed] National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This study reports empirical data from a project that investigates talent development in the 24 soccer districts in Sweden. The paper draws attention to the structural dimensions of specialization (roles and activities), standardization (rules, policies, procedures) and centralization (hierarchical positions and decision making) within the districts. The purpose is to explore whether the structural dimensions are related to and impact on soccer performance.

    Methods: The material that the study is based on is an analysis of organizational form (Kikulis et al., 1989), data on the number of licensed players and elite teams in the district, the district's geographical location and a compilation of all 24 districts match results against other districts at 15 years age and at the age of 16. A total of 60 matches between 2001-2011 were registered for each district. The analysis of the district organizations was based on a content analysis of documents describing the structure and implementation of talent development. The documents were classified based on the structural dimensions of specialization, standardization and centralization. 

    Results: The results show that the specialization in the districts varies from explicit roles and responsibilities for different actions to a low degree of specialization. Similarly, the standardization varies from extensive rules to very low with few formal policies and that centralization differs from high to low. The analysis of performance between 2001 and 2011 shows that there are a both successful districts (won many matches) and less successful districts and that successful boy teams are not always followed by successful women teams in the same district. The results show that there are no significant relationships between organizational dimensions and performance. The relationship that arises is that there is a correlation between performance at 15 and 16 years of age and the number of licensed football players and number of teams at the elite level in the district for the boys. For the girls this correlation is only visible at the age of 16. 

    Discussion: Although no significant differences between organization and performance were found, the data indicate that larger districts are more specialized and standardized. However, there is a need for more research, both quantitative and qualitative, to enable a wider understanding of the talent development system in Swedish soccer.

     References: Kikulis, l. M., Slack, T., Hinings, B., & Zimmerman, A. (1989). A structural taxonomy of amateur sport organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 3, 129-150.

  • 66.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brusvik, Peter
    Svenska fotbollsförbundet.
    Lund, Staffan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Den relativa ålderseffekten och framgång för länslagsfotboll2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brusvik, Peter
    Svenska fotbollsförbundet.
    Lund, Staffan
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Relative age effects and impact on performance: A study of Swedish U15 district soccer teams2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brusvik, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lund, Stefan
    Department of Education and Teachers’ Practice, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Factors underlying competitive successin youth football: A study of the Swedish national U15 football talent system2019In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 10, p. 139-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of Sweden’s 24 football districts analyses whether contextual factors (number of players, number of elite teams, and number of elite players on each district team) influence the district teams’ relative age effect (RAE) and the way in which contextual factors and RAE correlate with the U15 teams’ competitive success. The analysis is based on register data on district players (4,516 girls and 4,501 boys, all 15 years old) who attended an annual elite football camp: birthdate, the total number of players aged 15, club membership, senior elite clubs, proportion of elite players on the district teams, and match outcomes. Based on the birthdates of the players born between 2001 and 2012, a relative age index was constructed for each district. The results showed a relative age effect (RAE) for the selected district players (boys and girls) compared to the general 15-year-old football population; however, birthdate only affected the competitive success of the boys’ district teams. The analysis points out that contextual factors such as the number of football players and the presence of elite clubs are important to consider in order to understand how RAE is produced and its relationship to the success of winning matches for boys’ district teams.

  • 69.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bäck, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eliasson, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Persson, Emil
    Svenska Innebandyförbundet.
    Forskningen synar ny spelarutvecklingsmodell2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 38-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dahlgen, Ethel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Always on duty: the contradictory working conditions of online tutors2006In: University of the Fraser Valley Research Review, ISSN 1715-9849, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 9-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Catching communication on the net2002In: The Annual Conference of the European Educational Research Association, Lisbon, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Online Education - new working conditions for the teacher?2006In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the International Conference of Information Communication Technologies in Education, 2006, p. 264-269Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Who occupies space on the net?2004In: The NERA´S 32th congress, Reykavik, Island, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eliasson, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Long term athlete development in Swedish floorball: creating conditions for sport development for children and youth?2016In: Sport in the City – Mobility, Urbanity and Social Change: 13th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference : Book of Abstracts / [ed] Adam B. Evans, Glen Nielsen, Lone Friis Thing and Laila Ottesen, Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport 2016 , 2016, p. 83-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floorball is the second largest team sport in Sweden. Although it's popularity the number of children who play floorball decreases from age 10 and drops dramatically after age 15 (Swedish Floorball Federation, 2012). To overcome this situation and to counteract exclusion and early specialization the Swedish Floorball Federation adopted a new player development model, the Swedish Floorball Development model (SFD), inspired by the LTAD model (Ford et al., 2011). The main aim with SFD is to allow for better opportunities for all children and youth to develop their skills, regardless of age, sex, ambition and date of birth (Persson & Blååth, 2011). SFD is based on six development levels in which the player should be able to progress between the levels based on growth and maturity. The implementation work started 2012 through information of the concept to all 22 districts and leadership courses. The purpose of this study is to analyze the consequences of the implementation. Data consists of interviews with representatives of 14 out of 22 floorball districts. The results showed that the classification of teams that would be part of a league changed to be based on the development level instead of age, which means that the younger teams can play in a league of elder teams and vice versa. The interviewees point out that the SFD model contributes to more focus on development rather than results, everyone's right to participate but also that individual players can be moved up and down between ages based on their knowledge and skills. Some of the representatives notes that there are risks with the SFD. It could legitimize elite teams at young ages resulting in, for example, exclusion. The study shows overall that SFD contributes to both desired and undesired effects.

  • 75.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sport debut, adolescent talents and expert performance in sport as adult2013In: Sociology and Sport in Face of New Challenges: The 10th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference / [ed] Álvaro Rodríguez Díaz, David Moscoso Sánchez, Jesús Fernández Gavira, José Vinas Rodríhuez and Francisco Pires Vega, Cordoba: European Association for Sociology of Sport , 2013, p. 96-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has showed that expertise, expert performances and differences between more and less skillful individuals, depend on experience (Coté et al, 2007; Ericsson, 2006). In this study we have investigated relationships between sport debut, perceived ability in sport during childhood and adolescence, and sport participation in adulthood among those who have not reached expertise levels. Result from the questionnaires (n 573) show that 93 percent of the respondents have practiced organized sport in their youth. A majority (63 %) are still active members in a sports club. Moreover, 19 percent made their sports debut before the age of five, 59 percent between the ages six and eight and 22 percent after the age of eight. By their own estimate, one third of the students were among the best athletes in their region before the age of 13 and 50 percent were selected to regional talent groups as teenagers. Those of them who practice organized sport today ranked their ability during childhood and adolescence higher. Many of those who made their sport debut early stated that they were selected to talent groups during their adolescence. One conclusion is that selections in sport not only impact on those who reach expertise levels, but also shape recruitment to broad sports. A second conclusion is that the effects of early sport debut and being selected to talent groups as adolescents are small with regard to expertise and expert performances in adulthood. On the other hand it is evident that early sport debut is positively related to being selected to talent groups. These findings can be understood in the light of Ericsson’s (2006) arguments that experience develops ability faster in the beginning of a learning process but that a continued development is harder to predict, even if one has been deemed talented and promising.

  • 76.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Yu, J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Participation in non-elite sport in early adulthood: the impact of athletic ability in childhood and adolescence2015In: 20 th annual Congress of the European college of Sport Science, (ECSS), 24th - 27th June 2015, Malmö – Sweden: book of abstracts / [ed] Radmann, A., Hedenborg, S., Tsolakidis, E., 2015, p. 294-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Understandings of, explanations to, and predictors of adult participation in organized sport, on the one hand, and expert performances in organized sport as adults on the other hand have received a lot of attention as separate entities by scholars in the areas of sport participation and sport expertise alike. Although scholars in both fields share an interest in tracing explanatory factors and predictors, it is evident that sport participation research has not investigated the impact of factors that are in focus in sport expertise research and vice versa. Thus, in this paper we aim to explore relationships between sport performance during childhood and adolescence and participation in sport in adulthood.

    Methods Data were derived from Web-based questionnaires completed by university students between 2005 and 2012. In total, 572 students (290 men and 282 women) completed the questionnaires. These students were at the beginning of their studies in sports science (n=357) and physical education teacher education (n=215). The questionnaire gathered information about the following topics: • Biographical data: date of birth; • Sport debut: age they started to participate in organized club sports; • Sport performance: self-estimated sporting skills and participation in regional talent groups during childhood and adolescence. • Sport involvement: previous and present involvement in organized club sports;

    Results Results from questionnaires reveal that early sport debut and date of birth positively correlate to strong sport performances during childhood and being selected for talent groups. These variables, in turn, are positively correlated to strong sport performances during adolescence and being selected for talent groups. Strong sport performances during adolescence do not correlate to expert performance as adults. However, strong sport performances during adolescence are positively correlated to sports club membership as adults.

    Discussion These results suggest a need to further explore how factors found to be important for elite sport practice and expert performance, also influence non-elite sport participation in adulthood. Our findings suggest that talent development system selecting children and youth to develop their abilities and to become elite athletes, not only develops potential elite athletes but also shapes the larger recruitment of adults to sport at non-elite levels and participation in general exercise activities.

  • 77.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Athletic ability in childhood and adolescence as a predictor of participation in non-elite sports in young adulthood2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 1686-1703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we contribute to the discussion on factors affecting adult participation in organized sport. To this end, we examine whether explanations regarding sport expertise can also add to the understanding of non-elite-level sport participation in young adulthood. Results from questionnaires (n = 572) revealed that date of birth and early sport debut positively correlated to strong sport performance during childhood, which, in turn, were correlated to strong sport performance and being selected for talent groups during adolescence. Finally, strong sport performance during adolescence was positively correlated to sports club membership as young adults. As relative age effects seem to remain throughout childhood and adolescence, we conclude that the underlying variable that affects the selection process and sport participation in young adulthood is date of birth. The results indicate that being active in sport as young adults is contingent on sport-specific variables previously not investigated in research on sport participation.

  • 78.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, JosefUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.Wickman, KimUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    People in motion - bridging the local and global: Book of abstracts: The 8th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference, May 18-22, 2011.2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Motives for training among sport students2009In: 6th EASS Conference, Rome 2009, Italy: Sport, Bodies, Identities, Rome: European Association for Sociology of Sport , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    GIH, Stoclholm.
    Some notes on the sport science education and the development of sport2010In: 7th EASS Conference Porto 2010, Portugal, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Blir det någon förändring på planen?: utvärdering av implementeringen av Svenska Fotbollförbundets spelarutbildningsplan2016Report (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Frohm, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stödberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Törnquist, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Designing Sustainable Online Education Environments: A Department Perspective2012In: 2012 Eden Annual Conference, Open learning generations: Closing the gap from "generation Y" to the mature lifelong learners / [ed] Morten Flate Paulsen, Andras Szucs, European distance and e-learning network , 2012, p. 49-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    From, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löfqvist, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Törnquist, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    From distance to online: educational management in the 21 century2011In: Learning and sustainability: the new ecosystem of innovation and knowledge / [ed] Morten Flate Paulsen, András Szűcs, European Distance and E-Learning Network, 2011 , 2011, p. 2-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing interest in distance education for Umea university is related to a couple of factors in society. First, the state in Sweden has historically had an interest in distance education to ensure education to citizens. Secondly, the location of Umea university in the northern part of Sweden contribute to a responsibility to develop the sparsely populated region and to educate people with limited possibilities to read campus courses. And Thirdly, the Swedish educational system for higher studies is partly dependent on number of students to succeed, since the economic support to the University is based on how much the students have completed i.e. output based.  Among their innovations in the competition for students, universities have turned to distance education using information and communication technologies to attract students. Today 70 % of the new students at Umea University are distance or online students. The trend is that more and more courses are carried out in online environments without physical meetings (online education). The focus in this paper is the shift from distance to online education by investigating the courses at department of education from an educational management perspective. The aim is to describe and analyse the development of distance education from the beginning of 1990s to 2010 in terms of driving forces behind the development and the consequences of it, with the department of education at Umea university as a case in point. The description and analysis derives from economical, staff and student data, policy and strategy documents regarding ICT and learning. The data has been categorised according to number of courses, total yearly income of distance and campus courses, registered students at distance courses, output of students.

     

    The department of education has had a long interest in distance courses. A strong interest of using technology in education contributed to that video conferences were used in the early 1990s in distance education. In the middle of 1990s ICT, email and world wide web, started to replace the delivery of the course material. From the beginning of 1995 to 1998 the teaching on the web changed character from delivery of information to possibilities to interact with teachers and peer students. In the 1990s it was teachers with an interest for learning and ICT that worked with the development of learning management systems and implementations of ICT tools in education. In year 2001 an ICT educationist was employed which was followed late 2002 with a new employment of one more ICT educationist. Today there are three ICT educationists employed at the department. However, despite this stronger emphasis on ICT as a tool for teaching it took many years before everyone at the department had to work with ICT in their teaching. In the ICT policy from 2002 the ambition was that ICT should be used and integrated in teaching but also to initiate ICT-pedagogic development. In the document information and communication strategy from 2008 the role of ICT in teaching and online education is much more explicit expressed about how ICT should be used to support the teacher and the students to enable for distance and flexible studies. In year 2010 the decision was made to not have any particular ICT Policy since it is fully integrated in the daily activities at the department.

     

    The results from the investigation of economical, staff and student data shows that both the number of courses and the number of students increased for distance and online education. The number of registered distance students increased in high extent and especially from year 2005 and forward and increased dramatically 2007 which also was the first time when all distance courses shifted to totally online courses. In year 2008 the department determined to promote courses in 100 % study pace totally online. The results show that these courses attract much more students compared to the traditional campus courses which over the years attracted less and less students. The extreme increase of number of students might not only be dependent on the online mode. At the moment there are a lot of possible students in Sweden due to large birthrate in the late 1980s and early 1990s which also is combined with a low conjuncture in society. The income from online courses totally 2010 was 778 700 Euro and 55 800 Euro from campus courses. The transition from distance to online courses has contributed to more students (economy of scale) which make it possible to release resources for pedagogic development work. The online courses have also contributed to better working conditions for the teachers. Without the conscious educational management strategy the alternative might have been to discontinue general educational courses, which had been a serious threat for education as an academic subject. One conclusion we draw is that ICT pedagogical development needs both technical and pedagogical support in combination with support from a strategic leadership.

  • 84.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    From, Jörgen
    Umeå University.
    Lövqvist, Jeanette
    Umeå University.
    Törnquist, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    From distance to online education: Educational management in the 21st Century2012In: Best of EDEN 2011, no Special Issue, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    From, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lövqvist, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Törnquist, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The transitions from distance to online education: Perspectives from the educational management horizon2012In: European Journal of Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1027-5207, E-ISSN 1027-5207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, higher education has moved away from distance education, including physical meetings, to online education with no physical meetings at all. This article focuses on the shift from distance to online education using an educational management perspective that is based on economic, staff, and student data collected between 1994 and 2010 (Department of Education, Umeå University). The results showed that in 2005, the number of distance education students increased significantly. In 2007, when all distance courses shifted to online courses, the number of students increased even further. The online courses attract many more students compared to traditional campus courses. Overall, the transition from distance to online courses has contributed to more students, an economy of scale that makes it possible to increase pedagogic development work. The online courses have also contributed to better working conditions for teachers. Without a deliberate educational management strategy, general educational courses might have been discontinued, a choice that would threaten the study of education as an academic discipline per se. As a result of these conditions, we believe ICT pedagogical development needs technical and pedagogical support as well as strategic leadership.

  • 86.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hamilton, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dahlgren, Ethel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Premises, promises: connection, community, and communion in online education2006In: Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, ISSN 0159-6306, E-ISSN 1469-3739, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 533-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an essay on the discursive politics of education. Data from a small study, combined with a review of the related literature, suggest that the overarching concept “community” lacks coherence when used in online education. At least three contrasting forms of connection can be discerned: communion among participants, exchange between participants, and attachment to an ideal. In turn, we believe that this incoherence is not a trivial semantic problem, but rather a central concern in current efforts to remodel, reform and globalize distance education.

  • 87.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Häll, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nilsson, Tore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    How does collaborative 3D screen-based computer simulation training influence diagnostic skills of radiographic images and peer communication?2012In: Contemporary Educational Technology, ISSN 1309-517X, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 293-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the influence of two learning conditions – a screen-based virtual reality radiology simulator and a conventional PowerPoint slide presentation – that teach radiographic interpretation to dental students working in small collaborative groups. The study focused on how the students communicated and how proficient they became at radiographic interpretation. The sample consisted of 36 participants – 20 women and 16 men – and used a pretest/posttest group design with the participants randomly assigned to either a simulation-training group (SIM) or conventional-training group (CON) with three students in each collaborative group. The proficiency tests administered before and after training assessed interpretations of spatial relations in radiographs using parallax. The training sessions were video-recorded. The results showed that SIM groups exhibited significant development between pretest and posttest results, whereas the CON groups did not. The collaboration in the CON groups involved inclusive peer discussions, thorough interpretations of the images, and extensive use of subject-specific terminology. The SIM group discussions were much more fragmented and included more action proposals based on their actions with the simulator. The different learning conditions produced different results with respect to acquiring understanding of radiographic principles.

  • 88.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Häll, Lars O.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Computer Assisted Simulations - Students' experiences of learning radiology?2010In: Paper presented at AARE conference, Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 28 - Dec. 2, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Häll, Lars O.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nilsson, Tore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Computer Simulation Training in Health Care Education: Fuelling Reflection-in-Action?2015In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 805-828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Drawing on Donald Schön’s concepts, this article investigates the links between computer simulation training and the concepts of reflection-on-action and reflection-in-action while participating in dental and nursing trainingAim This article explores how collaborative simulation training and collaborative conventional training affect students’ reflection processes when learning to interpret radiographic images.Method This qualitative study uses interviews from 11 nursing and 18 dental students to compare the experiences of conventional training (CON-dental students) with intra-oral radiography simulation (SIM-dental students) and cervical spine simulation training (nursing students).Results The analysis showed that the simulation and conventional training influenced reflective thought processes in different ways. The SIM students concentrated on the visual information before and after they made their choices, whereas the CON students, in the absence of three-dimensional characters and reference points, focused on discussions and mutual agreements within the group to achieve a solution. The visual feedback and opportunities for manipulation provided by the simulation training encouraged the SIM-students to examine their assumptions and actions (to reflect-in-action) while solving the task. Prior knowledge served as a theoretical and methodological scheme guiding the learners’ actions and directed their reflection on their existing anatomical knowledge.Conclusions SIM and CON training provide different conditions for students’ reflective thought processes, and these differences influence how well the groups learn radiological principles.

  • 90.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Häll, Lars Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.
    Nilsson, Tore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.
    How Group Size and Composition Influences the Effectiveness of Collaborative Screen-Based Simulation Training: A Study of Dental and Nursing University Students Learning Radiographic Techniques2012In: World Journal on Educational Technology, ISSN 1309-1506, E-ISSN 1309-0348, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 180-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses how changes in the design of screen-based computer simulation training influence the collaborative training process. Specifically, this study examine how the size of a group and a group’s composition influence the way these tools are used. One case study consisted of 18+18 dental students randomized into either collaborative 3D simulation training or conventional collaborative training. The students worked in groups of three. The other case consisted of 12 nursing students working in pairs (partners determined by the students) with a 3D simulator. The results showed that simulation training encouraged different types of dialogue compared to conventional training and that the communication patterns were enhanced in the nursing students ́ dyadic simulation training. The concrete changes concerning group size and the composition of the group influenced the nursing students’ engagement with the learning environment and consequently the communication patterns that emerged. These findings suggest that smaller groups will probably be more efficient than larger groups in a free collaboration setting that uses screen-based simulation training.

  • 91.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Häll, Lars-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.
    Nilsson, Tore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.
    Patterns of interaction and dialogue in computer assisted simulation training2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences: vol. 46, 4th World Conference on Educational Sciences (WCES-2012) 2-5 February 2012 Barcelona, Spain / [ed] Gülsün A. Baskan, Fezile Ozdamli, Sezer Kanbul and Deniz Özcan, Elsevier, 2012, p. 2825-2831Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study was to explore how computer assisted simulation training mediates dialogue and if there is a relationship between group size and the groups´ dialogue patterns. It is based on two cases, one consisted of 18+18 dental students randomized into either collaborative 3D simulation training or conventional collaborative training, performed in triads. The other case consisted of 12 nursing students working in self-made pairs with the 3D simulator. The results showed that simulation training encouraged different dialogue patterns in comparison to the conventional training and that these characteristics were enhanced in the nursing students´ dyadic simulation training.

  • 92.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Häll, Lars-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nilsson, Tore
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology.
    How does computer based simulator-training impact on group interaction and proficiency development?2008In: Proceedings of ICICte 2008: Readings in Technology and Education, 2008, p. 650-659Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Olofsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    The project design as a mean for changing sport activities2007In: Local Sport in Europe. 4th EASS Conference Munster 2007, Germany, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Olofsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Vad betyder handslagsprojekten för de mindre idrotterna?2007In: Svensk idrottsforskning, Vol. 16, no 3-4, p. 78-81Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Have smaller sports the same chance as larger sports2009In: 6th EASS Conference, Rome 2009, Italy: Sport, Bodies, Identities, Rome: European Association for Sociolgy of Sport , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Developing police students’ professional knowing through scenario training: The impact of preparation, implementation and debriefing2016In: EDULEARN16 Proceedings / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres, 2016, p. 5930-5935Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When educating new police officers, using scenario training is an integral part of the educational program including a variety of practical exercises where students´ should act as police officers. The aim of this paper is to provide a holistic analysis of empirical data on preparation, implementation and debriefing of a critical incident in the Swedish police education program and conditions provided for developing professional knowing through scenario training. The approach was explorative and the methods used to collect data were observations, video-observations, interviews and surveys. The unit of analysis focused how students acted in and how they made sense of the activities. The analyses were influenced by a sociocultural and dialogical framework, in which learning is seen as a social activity. The results showed that using scenario training in professional education is a complex endeavor in which the social aspects of simulating have to be acknowledged. The analyses showed that the situated activities i.e. preparation, implementation and debriefing have to be linked to each other in way that enables the participants to; first, produce a situation with authenticity and second, to use previous experiences and coordinate them with new ones from the training in order to create good conditions for learning. With the support of and communication with others can students through scenario training, borrow, reshape and gradually develop professional knowing. It is about applying predetermined knowledge and skills but also about "... learning to perform and cope when encountering something for which one does not feel fully prepared" (Hopwood et al., 2014, p. 9). One conclusion is that students need to be challenged, but also get support for coordinating experiences from the situated activities with previous experiences to develop professional knowing. This means acknowledging that the stance of scenario training needs to be longer than just the actual scenario. How situated activities are embedded in the education program and how gaps in students knowing are to be bridged after the scenario training, need to be considered. The main implication of the results is that the use of scenario training in professional education require a specific pedagogy. Aspects that need to be taken into consideration is for example the fact that a simulated situation as scenario training is a hybrid and never a mirror of a professional situation and that creating simulation competence among both teachers and students is important in order to make the scenario work (i.e. how to act in different roles, how to produce authenticity, what is to be included and what is to be ignored). The pedagogy also has to acknowledge that focus needs to be on how to support the participants’ learning and not assume that there is a direct connection between participation and learning. To conclude, the detailed study of scenarios, preparation and debriefing draw attention to how they are linked together and build on each other which is central for understanding the conditions for learning through scenario training in police education.

  • 97.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    On the relationship between computer simulation training and the development of practical knowing in police education: 2019In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 231-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the practical knowing that is central in police education. Drawing on perspectives about tacit knowledge and embodied learning (e.g. Merleau-Ponty, 1945/1997; Polanyi, 1966; Argyris and Schön, 1974) as well as empirical examples, this paper discusses the design of and what can be expected from computer simulation training for the development of police students’ professional knowing.

    Design/methodology/approach: The discussion is based on lessons learned from working with two different computer simulation training situations designed to prepare the students for an upcoming practical training by facilitating the understanding of complex situations as they should be handled in the physical training situation.

    Findings: The experiences from the training sessions showed that the different characteristics of the simulations mediate how the training session was performed, e.g., unplanned trial and error vs focused and attentive, but also group discussions about how to act and appropriate actions in relation to the situation to be solved in the simulation.

    Originality/value: Based on the lessons learned from working with the two different computer simulations, it is posited that the use of computer simulations for practical scenario training is a complex endeavor that needs, in various degrees, to be supported by pedagogical steering. The design of computer simulation training (both the simulation and how the training is designed and performed) need to consider the specific aspects that surround tacit knowledge and embodied learning in the “real sense” (anchored to the practical training) to be of relevance for police students development of professional knowing.

  • 98.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Lindgren, Carina
    Umeå University.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University.
    Tacit knowing: Implications for the design of computer simulation training in police education2018In: ICICTE 2018 - The!International!Conference!on!Information! Communication!Technologies in!Education!2018: Proceedings / [ed] L. Morris & C. Tsolakidis, ICTE , 2018, p. 235-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the practical knowing that is central in police education.Drawing on perspectives about tacit knowledge and embodied learning (e.g.,Argyris & Schön, 1974; Merleau-Ponty, 1945/1997; Polanyi, 1966) as well asempirical examples, this paper will discuss the design of and what can beexpected from computer simulation training for the development of policestudents' professional knowing. Based on the the lessons learned fromworking with computer simulations in police education we argue thatcomputer simulations can be a useful aid for practical training, but they cannotreplace exercises in scenario training or drill exercises.

  • 99.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Söderlund, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Widing, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Virtual Police Cases: Impact on Performance in Practical Scenario Training2015In: 8 th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation: Conference Proceedings / [ed] In L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres, 2015, p. 3970-3975Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police students must learn skills to manage different complex situations. Students must master both specific practical techniques and the thinking and decision-making required to use these techniques effectively. This is normally learned through a variety of practical exercises such as drill exercises and practical scenario training where students´ should act as police officers (Söderström, et al, 2014). Practical scenario training, which is in focus in this article, is usually arranged in such a way that students are prepared for the training through a teacher-led lesson before the actual scenario training. However, since practical training generally requires large investments, limiting opportunities for sufficient training, there is a need to raise the students' level of knowing for increasing possibilities to learn through scenario training. Therefore a virtual case was developed that allow students to practice tactical skills, decision making and receive feedback on their actions based on the national basic police tactics manual (Polishögskolan, 2005). This study compares the influence of two learning conditions – a virtual police case and conventional teacher led lesson – that prepare police students for the upcoming practical scenario training. The study focused on a) how the students´ experienced the different learning conditions and how it prepared them for the scenario training and b) how the different learning conditions influenced their task completion in the practical scenarios. The sample consisted of 66 participants and used a comparative group design with 35 participants assigned to a virtual case training group (VCASE) or conventional-training group (CON) with 5-6 students in each group. The VCASE group worked 1.5 hour with a virtual police case to perform two exercises (a stolen car incident and observation of a house with suspects). The CON group had a teacher led lesson with the same content. This was followed by practical scenario training. The objectives with the practical scenario training was that the students should learn to perform various police tasks and acquire an understanding of these tasks based on the national basic police tactics manual (Polishögskolan, 2005). A questionnaire was used to collect the students´ experiences of the both the preparation and practical scenario training. A blind expert assessment, by police officers, was used to collect students´ performance in the practical scenario training. The results showed that a majority of the students in both groups believed that the task they did before the practical training was meaningful and motivating. However, the results showed (independent t-test) that the VCASE group in significantly higher extent thought that the preparation helped them when they conducted the practical training (e.g. confident how to act, sufficient knowledge to solve the situation, a feeling of being sufficiently prepared). The expert assessment of a stolen car incident during practical training showed (independent t-test) that the VCASE group performed better according to three out of five base tactics measurements (stop the car and approach the suspects, reporting and treatment of the arrested). To conclude, the different learning conditions produced different results with respect to how they prepared for practical scenario training.

  • 100.
    Söderström, Tor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Söderlund, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Widing, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Virtual police cases: impact on performance in practical scenario training2015In: ICERI 2015: 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, 2015, p. 3970-3975Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the influence of two learning conditions - a virtual police case and conventional teacher led lesson - that prepare police students for a practical scenario training. The study focused on how the students' experience the different learning conditions and a) how they prepare them for the scenario training and b) how they influence their task completion in the practical scenarios. The sample consisted of 66 participants and used a comparative group design with 35 participants assigned to a virtual case training group (VCASE) and 31 participants to a conventional-training group (CON) with 5-6 students in each group. The VCASE group worked two hours with a virtual police case to perform two exercises. The CON group had a two hour teacher led lesson with the same content. This was followed by practical scenario training. A questionnaire was used to collect the students' experiences of both the preparation and practical scenario training. A blind expert assessment, carried out by police officers, was used to collect the students' performance in the practical scenario training. The results showed that a majority of the students in both groups believed that the task they did before the practical training was meaningful and motivating. However, the results showed (independent t-test) that the VCASE group in significantly higher extent thought that the preparation helped them when they conducted the practical training (e.g. confident how to act, sufficient knowledge to solve the situation and a feeling of being sufficiently prepared). The expert assessment of a stolen car incident during practical training showed (independent t-test) that the VCASE group performed better according to three out of five base tactics measurements. To conclude, the different learning conditions produced different results with respect to how they prepared for practical scenario training.

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