umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
123456 51 - 100 of 271
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Eklöf, Vincy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) 80G>A and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) 1561C>T polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer: a nested case-referent study2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 68, no 5, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate uptake and metabolism may affect folate status and, thereby, the risk of cancer. In this nested case‐referent study, we related two such polymorphisms, reduced folate carrier (RFC1) 80G>A and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) 1561C>T, to the risk of colorectal cancer, taking into account pre‐diagnostic plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations and the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism, which were analysed in a previous study.

    Material and methods. Subjects were 220 cases and 414 matched referents from the population‐based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study.

    Results. The RFC1 80A‐allele was associated with reduced plasma folate and elevated plasma total homocysteine concentrations, but the result was statistically significant only for folate. In contrast, the FOLH1 1561T‐allele was associated with higher plasma folate and reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations, and the result was statistically significant only for homocysteine. Neither polymorphism was related to the risk of colorectal cancer, either in univariate analysis or after adjusting for body mass index, current smoking, recreational and occupational physical activity and alcohol intake. Further adjustment for folate or homocysteine status or the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism did not affect risk estimates. Subjects with the RFC1 80AA genotype in combination with low plasma folate concentrations or the MTHFR 677TT genotype had a reduced risk of colorectal cancer of borderline statistical significance.

    Conclusions. These findings suggest that although the RFC1 80G>A and FOLH1 1561C>T polymorphisms may influence folate status, they are not likely to have a major independent role in the development of colorectal cancer.

    Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365510701805431

  • 52.
    Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Haworth, Simon
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Allelic Variation in Taste Genes Is Associated with Taste and Diet Preferences and Dental Caries2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taste and diet preferences are complex and influenced by both environmental and host traits while affecting both food selection and associated health outcomes. The present study genotyped 94 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in previously reported taste and food intake related genes and assessed associations with taste threshold (TT) and preferred intensity (PT) of sweet, sour and bitter, food preferences, habitual diet intake, and caries status in healthy young Swedish men and women (n = 127). Polymorphisms in the GNAT3, SLC2A4, TAS1R1 and TAS1R2 genes were associated with variation in TT and PT for sweet taste as well as sweet food intake. Increasing PT for sweet was associated with increasing preference and intake of sugary foods. Similarly, increasing TT for sour was associated with increasing intake of sour foods, whereas the associations between food preference/intake and TT/PT for bitter was weak in this study group. Finally, allelic variation in the GNAT3, SLC2A2, SLC2A4, TAS1R1 and TAS1R2 genes was associated with caries status, whereas TT, PT and food preferences were not. It was concluded that variations in taste receptor, glucose transporter and gustducin encoding genes are related to taste perception, food preference and intake as well as the sugar-dependent caries disease.

  • 53.
    Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Saliva and tooth biofilm bacterial microbiota in adolescents in a low caries community2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 5861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oral cavity harbours a complex microbiome that is linked to dental diseases and serves as a route to other parts of the body. Here, the aims were to characterize the oral microbiota by deep sequencing in a low-caries population with regular dental care since childhood and search for association with caries prevalence and incidence. Saliva and tooth biofilm from 17-year-olds and mock bacteria communities were analysed using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq (v3-v4) and PacBio SMRT (v1-v8) sequencing including validity and reliability estimates. Caries was scored at 17 and 19 years of age. Both sequencing platforms revealed that Firmicutes dominated in the saliva, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria abundances were similar in tooth biofilm. Saliva microbiota discriminated caries-affected from caries-free adolescents, with enumeration of Scardovia wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Bifidobacterium longum, Leptotrichia sp. HOT498, and Selenomonas spp. in caries-affected participants. Adolescents with B. longum in saliva had significantly higher 2-year caries increment. PacBio SMRT revealed Corynebacterium matruchotii as the most prevalent species in tooth biofilm. In conclusion, both sequencing methods were reliable and valid for oral samples, and saliva microbiota was associated with cross-sectional caries prevalence, especially S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, and B. longum; the latter also with the 2-year caries incidence.

  • 54.
    Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Microbial complexes and caries in 17-year-olds with and without Streptococcus mutans2018In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 275-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streptococcus mutans is a key bacterial species in the caries process, which affects >90% of the population worldwide. However, other acidogenic and aciduric/acidophilic species may contribute to disease development. In Sweden, a country with low prevalences of caries and S. mutans, a significant portion of caries-affected adolescents lack detectable levels of S. mutans. The objectives of the present study were 1) to characterize the tooth biofilm and saliva microbiota of adolescents with caries disease, with or without detectable S. mutans, from tooth biofilm and saliva samples and 2) to assess taxa clustering in the tooth biofilm and saliva samples and relate this information to caries status. For 17-y-old participants ( N = 154), enamel and dentin caries (the total number of present carious surfaces in the enamel and dentin) and caries experience (the number of decayed and filled tooth surfaces) were recorded, dental biofilm and saliva samples obtained, and information on medical and lifestyle habits collected. Multiplex 16S rDNA (V3-V4) sequencing of bacterial DNA was performed with the Illumina MiSeq platform. The Human Oral Microbiome Database and the ProbeSeq pipeline were used in the HOMI NGS procedure. In subjects with caries experience, high levels of S. mutans were associated with a few species and low levels with a panel of saccharolytic species. Present caries was similarly associated with a panel of saccharolytic species in subjects without S. mutans. Furthermore, tooth biofilm microbiota could be used to establish 4 clusters of subjects with different caries experiences. In particular, high levels of S. mutans were associated with the presence of a few influential species in multivariate modeling, including Scardovia wiggsiae. By contrast, a panel of less avid lactic acid-producing species was influential in patients with undetectable or low S. mutans levels in such modeling. These findings support a prominent role of S. mutans in infected adolescents but also the ecologic concept, especially in S. mutans-free subjects.

  • 55.
    Esberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Haworth, Simon
    Brunius, Carl
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Carbonic Anhydrase 6 Gene Variation influences Oral Microbiota Composition and Caries Risk in Swedish adolescents2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6) catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide in saliva with possible pH regulation, taste perception, and tooth formation effects. This study assessed effects of variation in the CA6 gene on oral microbiota and specifically the acidophilic and caries-associated Streptococcus mutans in 17-year old Swedish adolescents (n = 154). Associations with caries status and secreted CA6 protein were also evaluated. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (27 SNPs in 5 haploblocks) and saliva and tooth biofilm microbiota from Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA (V3-V4) sequencing and culturing were analysed. Haploblock 4 (rs10864376, rs3737665, rs12138897) CCC associated with low prevalence of S. mutans (OR (95% CI): 0.5 (0.3, 0.8)), and caries (OR 0.6 (0.3, 0.9)), whereas haploblock 4 TTG associated with high prevalence of S. mutans (OR: 2.7 (1.2, 5.9)) and caries (OR: 2.3 (1.2, 4.4)). The TTG-haploblock 4 (represented by rs12138897(G)) was characterized by S. mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Treponema sp. HOT268, Tannerella sp. HOT286, Veillonella gp.1 compared with the CCC-haploblock 4 (represented by rs12138897(C)). Secreted CA6 in saliva was weakly linked to CA6 gene variation. In conclusion, the results indicate that CA6 gene polymorphisms influence S. mutans colonization, tooth biofilm microbiota composition and risk of dental caries in Swedish adolescents.

  • 56.
    Feldman, Adina L
    et al.
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge.
    Long, Gráinne H
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Griffin, Simon J
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Change in lifestyle behaviors and diabetes risk: evidence from a population-based cohort study with 10 year follow-up2017In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 14, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Promoting positive changes in lifestyle behavior in the whole population may be a feasible and effective approach to reducing type 2 diabetes burden, but the impact of population shifts of modifiable risk factors remains unclear. Currently most of the evidence on modifiable lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes risk on a population level comes from studies of between-individual differences. The objective of the study was to investigate the association and potential impact on disease burden for within-individual change in lifestyle behavior and diabetes risk.

    METHODS: Population-based prospective cohort study of 35,680 participants aged 30-50 at baseline in 1990-2003 in Västerbotten County, Sweden (follow-up until 2013). Five self-reported modifiable lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary fiber intake and dietary fat intake) were measured at baseline and 10 year follow-up. Lifestyle behaviors were studied separately, and combined in a score. Incident diabetes was detected by oral glucose tolerance tests. Multivariate logistic regression models and population attributable fractions (PAF) were used to analyze the association between change in lifestyle behavior between baseline and 10 year follow-up, and risk of incident diabetes.

    RESULTS: Incident diabetes was detected in 1,184 (3.3%) participants at 10 year follow-up. There was a reduced diabetes risk associated with increase in dietary fiber intake, odds ratio (OR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66, 0.96) for increase of at least one unit standard deviation (3.0 g/1,000 kcal) of the baseline distribution, PAF 16.0% (95% CI 4.2, 26.4%). Increase in the lifestyle behavior score was associated with reduced diabetes risk, OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.85, 0.99) per unit increase of the score.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support a causal link between lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes incidence. A small shift in lifestyle behaviors, in particular intake of dietary fiber, has the potential to reduce diabetes burden in the population and might be a suitable target for public health intervention.

  • 57. Ferrari, P
    et al.
    Roddam, A
    Fahey, M T
    Jenab, M
    Bamia, C
    Ocké, M
    Amiano, P
    Hjartåker, A
    Biessy, C
    Rinaldi, S
    Huybrechts, I
    Tjønneland, A
    Dethlefsen, C
    Niravong, M
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Linseisen, J
    Boeing, H
    Oikonomou, E
    Orfanos, P
    Palli, D
    Santucci de Magistris, M
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B
    Peeters, P H M
    Parr, C L
    Braaten, T
    Dorronsoro, M
    Berenguer, T
    Gullberg, B
    Johansson, I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Welch, A A
    Riboli, E
    Bingham, S
    Slimani, N
    A bivariate measurement error model for nitrogen and potassium intakes to evaluate the performance of regression calibration in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.2009In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 63 Suppl 4, no 4, p. S179-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests that 24-HDRs can be used as reference measurements at the individual and aggregate levels for potassium intake, whereas, for nitrogen intake, good performance is observed for between-centre calibration, but some limitations are apparent at the individual level.

  • 58. Ferrari, Pietro
    et al.
    Freisling, Heinz
    Duell, Eric J
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Nailler, Laura
    Polidoro, Silvia
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, Rosario
    Grioni, Sara
    Knüppel, Sven
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Quirós, Jose Ramón
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Huerta, José María
    Etxezarreta, Pilar Amiano
    Sánchez, María José
    Crowe, Francesca
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Ocke, Marga
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Peeters, Petra H M
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Wirfält, Elisabet
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Nicolas, Geneviève
    Gallo, Valentina
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Slimani, Nadia
    Challenges in estimating the validity of dietary acrylamide measurements2013In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1503-1512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a chemical compound present in tobacco smoke and food, classified as a probable human carcinogen and a known human neurotoxin. Acrylamide is formed in foods, typically carbohydrate-rich and protein-poor plant foods, during high-temperature cooking or other thermal processing. The objectives of this study were to compare dietary estimates of acrylamide from questionnaires (DQ) and 24-h recalls (R) with levels of acrylamide adduct (AA) in haemoglobin.

    METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, acrylamide exposure was assessed in 510 participants from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, sex, with equal numbers of never and current smokers. After adjusting for country, alcohol intake, smoking status, number of cigarettes and energy intake, correlation coefficients between various acrylamide measurements were computed, both at the individual and at the aggregate (centre) level.

    RESULTS: Individual level correlation coefficient between DQ and R measurements (r DQ,R) was 0.17, while r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.08 and 0.06, respectively. In never smokers, r DQ,R, r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.19, 0.09 and 0.02, respectively. The correlation coefficients between means of DQ, R and AA measurements at the centre level were larger (r > 0.4).

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that estimates of total acrylamide intake based on self-reported diet correlate weakly with biomarker AA Hb levels. Possible explanations are the lack of AA levels to capture dietary acrylamide due to individual differences in the absorption and metabolism of acrylamide, and/or measurement errors in acrylamide from self-reported dietary assessments, thus limiting the possibility to validate acrylamide DQ measurements.

  • 59.
    Fischer, Alexandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Sundström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Adherence to a Mediterranean-like Diet as a Protective Factor Against COPD: A Nested Case-Control Study2019In: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diet rich in nutrients has been suggested to have protective effects against the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since the traditional Mediterranean diet is high in nutrients, including antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals, it is of interest to study as a protective factor against COPD. Our aim was therefore to study its associations with development of COPD using population-based prospective data from the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) cohort. Data on diet from 370 individuals, who later visited the Department of Medicine at the University Hospital, Umea, Sweden, with a diagnosis of COPD, were compared to 1432 controls. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was assessed by a modified version of the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Cases were diagnosed with COPD 11.1 years (mean) (standard deviation [SD] 4.5 years) after first stating their dietary habits in the VIP at a mean age of 55.5 years (SD 6.6 years). Higher MDS was associated with a higher level of education and not living alone. After adjustment for co-habiting and education level, individuals with an intermediate MDS and those with the highest MDS had a lower odds of developing COPD (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.95; OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.86, respectively). These results remained also after adjustment for smoking intensity, i.e., numbers of cigarettes smoked per day (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.99; OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.97), respectively). To conclude, adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet seems to be inversely associated with the development of COPD.

  • 60. Freisling, Heinz
    et al.
    Moskal, Aurelie
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Nicolas, Genevieve
    Knaze, Viktoria
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Nailler, Laura
    Teucher, Birgit
    Grote, Verena A.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Clemens, Matthias
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Overvad, Kim
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Duell, Eric J.
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Amiano, Pilar
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Crowe, Francesca L.
    Gallo, Valentina
    Oikonomou, Eleni
    Naska, Androniki
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Palli, Domenico
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Polidoro, Silvia
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Ocke, Marga C.
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Wirfalt, Elisabet
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hjartaker, Anette
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Skeie, Guri
    Riboli, Elio
    Slimani, Nadia
    Dietary acrylamide intake of adults in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition differs greatly according to geographical region2013In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 1369-1380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methodological differences in assessing dietary acrylamide (AA) often hamper comparisons of intake across populations. Our aim was to describe the mean dietary AA intake in 27 centers of 10 European countries according to selected lifestyle characteristics and its contributing food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In this cross-sectional analysis, 36 994 men and women, aged 35-74 years completed a single, standardized 24-hour dietary recall using EPIC-Soft. Food consumption data were matched to a harmonized AA database. Intake was computed by gender and center, and across categories of habitual alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjustment was made for participants' age, height, weight, and energy intake using linear regression models. Adjusted mean AA intake across centers ranged from 13 to 47 mu g/day in men and from 12 to 39 mu g/day in women; intakes were higher in northern European centers. In most centers, intake in women was significantly higher among alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. There were no associations between AA intake and physical activity, BMI, or education. At least 50 % of AA intake across centers came from two food groups "bread, crisp bread, rusks" and "coffee." The third main contributing food group was "potatoes". Dietary AA intake differs greatly among European adults residing in different geographical regions. This observed heterogeneity in AA intake deserves consideration in the design and interpretation of population-based studies of dietary AA intake and health outcomes.

  • 61. Fretts, Amanda M.
    et al.
    Follis, Jack L.
    Nettleton, Jennifer A.
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    Ngwa, Julius S.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
    Houston, Denise K.
    Lahti, Jari
    Ericson, Ulrika
    van den Hooven, Edith H.
    Mikkilae, Vera
    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Rice, Kenneth
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Department of Clinical Sciences Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    North, Kari E.
    McKeown, Nicola M.
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Smith, Caren E.
    Garcia, Melissa E.
    Tiainen, Anna-Maija
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Manichaikul, Ani
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Dimitriou, Maria
    Raitakari, Olli
    Pankow, James S.
    Djousse, Luc
    Province, Michael A.
    Hu, Frank B.
    Lai, Chao-Qiang
    Keller, Margaux F.
    Peraelae, Mia-Maria
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Hofman, Albert
    Graff, Misa
    Kaehoenen, Mika
    Mukamal, Kenneth
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Ordovas, Jose M.
    Liu, Yongmei
    Maennistoe, Satu
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Deloukas, Panos
    Seppaelae, Ilkka
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Cupples, L. Adrienne
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Arnett, Donna K.
    Nalls, Mike A.
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Lehtimaeki, Terho
    Dedoussis, George V.
    Meigs, James B.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians2015In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 1266-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. Objective: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Design: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined l) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049-1n-pmon (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063-1n-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic loci known to influence fasting glucose or insulin resistance. Conclusion: The association of higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations with meat consumption was not modified by an index of glucose- and insulin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

  • 62. Funegård, Ulrika
    et al.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Franzén, L
    Ericson, T
    Nyström, H
    Henriksson, R
    Rat salivary gland function after fractionated irradiation.1997In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal effects of fractionated irradiation, with various total doses, on salivary gland function in the rat. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 Gy per day on five consecutive days. Irradiation was given to the head and neck region. Whole saliva was collected before and 2, 15 and 26 weeks after irradiation. In general the effects of irradiation on salivary gland function were found to be related to dose and time after exposure. Secretion rates were significantly decreased two weeks after irradiation with doses of 30 Gy or higher, after 15 weeks with 25 Gy or higher, and after 26 weeks with 20 Gy or higher. Response patterns to irradiation differed between the salivary constituents. Thus, the conclusions from this study are that early and late effects display different patterns and that the model used to study variations in salivary gland function after fractionated irradiation must be adjusted to the question addressed.

  • 63. Funegård, Ulrika
    et al.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Malmer, B
    Henriksson, R
    Ericson, T
    Can alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation reduce adverse radiation effects on salivary glands?1995In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 31A, no 13-14, p. 2347-2353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with antioxidant vitamins can reduce the adverse effects of irradiation on the salivary glands in the rat. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given a basic diet providing 0.6 mg alpha-tocopherol and no beta-carotene per day. In two groups the basic diet was supplemented with 3.4 mg alpha-tocopherol and 6 mg beta-carotene per day from 14 days before irradiation until 12 days after completed irradiation. One group of rats given basic diet and one group given supplemented diet were irradiated with 7 Gy daily for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol and pilocarpine-stimulated whole saliva was collected from all rats 2, 4 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Vitamin-supplemented irradiated rats had higher secretion rates on all three occasions compared with those of irradiated rats given basic diet. The changes in saliva composition seen in irradiated rats were less accentuated in vitamin-supplemented, irradiated rats. The proportions of acinar cells were significantly decreased both in parotid and submandibular glands 26 weeks after irradiation. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene did not alter the morphology of the glands.

  • 64. Gerdin, EW
    et al.
    Angbratt, M
    Aronsson, K
    Eriksson, E
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Dental caries and body mass index by socio-economic status in Swedish children2008In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 459-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between dental caries, childhood body mass index (BMI), and socioeconomic status in Swedish children. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 2303 10-year-old children with data on socioeconomic status, BMI at 4, 5, 7 and 10 years of age, and caries at 6, 10 and 12 years of age. Anthropometric measures were carried out by trained nurses according to standardized routines. The occurrence of caries was registered from county records, and the children were classified into one of five socioeconomic clusters based on their census registration address. Results: Caries prevalence decreased with increasing socioeconomic status at all ages, whereas childhood BMI and proportion of overweight/obese children were unrelated to socioeconomic status. Obese, but not overweight, children had more caries affected teeth than non-obese, and BMI had an independent, though weak, effect on caries variation in multiple regression. Interestingly, overweight/obese 4-year-olds, who had normal body weight at 5, 7 and 10 years of age, had significantly less caries than children who had normal body weight from 4 to 10 years of age. Conclusions: Overweight and caries prevalence are significantly associated in Swedish children. However, the association is weak. Nevertheless, the concept that child dental services and child welfare services can benefit from joint programs is supported.

  • 65. Gerdin, EW
    et al.
    Einarson, S
    Jonsson, M
    Aronsson, K
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in older people.2005In: Gerodontology, ISSN 0734-0664, E-ISSN 1741-2358, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in frail old people, residents at community care centers. Further, reliability and validity of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for dry mouth symptoms were determined within the study cohort. BACKGROUND: In old people functional, social and psychological impacts of oral conditions are associated with an overall sense of well being and general health. Subjective dry mouth and reduced saliva flow are common disorders in old people caused by disease and medication. Thus, dry mouth conditions may be determinants for compromised oral health-related quality of life in old people. METHOD: In total, 50 old people living at service homes for the old people were asked to answer questionnaires on subjective dry mouth (VAS) and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP14) for oral health-related quality of life. Saliva flow was estimated by absorbing saliva into a pre-weighed cotton roll. RESULTS: The final study cohort comprised 41 old people (aged 83-91 years). Significant associations were identified between both objective and subjective dry mouth and overall or specific aspects of oral health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION: Dry mouth (objective and subjective) is significantly associated with oral health-related quality of life strengthening the value of monitoring dry mouth conditions in the care of frail old people.

  • 66. Grøntved, Anders
    et al.
    Koivula, Robert W
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Østergaard, Lars
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk: A Cohort Study Among Swedish Men and Women2016In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 5, no 11, article id e004413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Bicycling to work may be a viable approach for achieving physical activity that provides cardiovascular health benefits. In this study we investigated the relationship of bicycling to work with incidence of obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance across a decade of follow-up in middle-aged men and women.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 23 732 Swedish men and women with a mean age of 43.5 years at baseline who attended a health examination twice during a 10-year period (1990-2011). In multivariable adjusted models we calculated the odds of incident obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, comparing individuals who commuted to work by bicycle with those who used passive modes of transportation. We also examined the relationship of change in commuting mode with incidence of these clinical risk factors. Cycling to work at baseline was associated with lower odds of incident obesity (odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.99), hypertension (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.95), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.94), and impaired glucose tolerance (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.96) compared with passive travel after adjusting for putative confounding factors. Participants who maintained or began bicycling to work during follow-up had lower odds of obesity (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.73), hypertension (OR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.90), and impaired glucose tolerance (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up.

    CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged men and women.

  • 67.
    Gyll, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ridell, Karin
    Öhlund, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Akeson, Pia Karlsland
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Vitamin D status and dental caries in healthy Swedish children2018In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vitamin D is crucial for mineralized tissue formation and immunological functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and dental status in healthy children with vitamin D supplementation in infancy and at 6 years of age.

    Method: Eight-year-old children who had participated, in a vitamin D intervention project when they were 6 years old were invited to participate in a dental follow-up study. They had fair or darker skin complexion and represented two geographically distant parts of Sweden. 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum had been measured at 6 years of age and after a 3-month intervention with 25, 10 or 2 (placebo) mu g of vitamin D-3 per day. Two years later, caries and enamel defects were scored, self-reported information on e.g., oral behavior, dietary habits and intake of vitamin D supplements was collected, and innate immunity peptide LL37 levels in saliva and cariogenic mutant streptococci in tooth biofilm were analyzed. The outcome variables were caries and tooth enamel defects.

    Results: Dental status was evaluated in 85 of the 206 children in the basic intervention study. Low vitamin D levels were found in 28% at baseline compared to 11% after the intervention, and 34% reported continued intake of vitamin D supplements. Logistic regression supported a weak inverse association between vitamin D status at 6 years of age and caries 2 years later (odds ratio 0.96; p = 0.024) with minor attenuation after an adjustment for potential confounders. Multivariate projection regression confirmed that insufficient vitamin D levels correlated with caries and higher vitamin D levels correlated with being caries-free. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with saliva LL37 levels.

    Conclusion: An association between vitamin D status and caries was supported, but it was not completely consistent. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with LL37 expression.

  • 68.
    Gylling, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Myte, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Schneede, Jørn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Häggstrom, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ulvik, Arve
    Ueland, Per M.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 897-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5#-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings. Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk. Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8.2 y. PLP, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid (PA), 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acids (XAs) were measured in plasma with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated relative and absolute risks of CRC for PLP and the ratios 3-hydroxykynurenine: XA (HK: XA), an inverse marker of functional vitamin B-6 status, and PA:(PLP + pyridoxal) (PAr), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress and an inverse marker of vitamin B-6 status. Results: Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), respectively]. HK: XA and PAr were both associated with increased CRC risk [OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.02) and OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.04), respectively] for the fourth compared with the first quartile. For HK: XA and PAr, the findings were mainly observed in study participants with,10.5 y of follow-up between sampling and diagnosis. Conclusions: Vitamin B-6 deficiency as measured by plasma PLP is associated with a clear increase in CRC risk. Furthermore, our analyses of novel markers of functional vitamin B-6 status and vitamin B-6-associated oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a role in tumor progression rather than initiation.

  • 69.
    Gylling, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Myte, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Ulvik, Arve
    Bevital AS, Laboratory building, Bergen, Norway.
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen and Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Midttun, Øivind
    Bevital AS, Laboratory building, Bergen, Norway.
    Schneede, Jørn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Häggström, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    One-carbon metabolite ratios as functional B-vitamin markers and in relation to colorectal cancer risk2019In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 144, no 5, p. 68p. 947-956Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One-carbon metabolism biomarker are easily measured in plasma, but analyzing them one at a time in relation to disease does not take into account the interdependence of the many factors involved. The relative dynamics of major one-carbon metabolism branches can be assessed by relating the functional B-vitamin marker total homocysteine (tHcy) to transsulfuration (total cysteine) and methylation (creatinine) outputs.

    Objective: We validated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre), and tHcy to cysteine to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status. We also calculated the associations of these ratios to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.

    Design: The relative contribution of potential confounders to the variance of the ratio-based B-vitamin markers was calculated by linear regression in a nested case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1211 matched controls. Total B-vitamin status was represented by a summary score comprising Z-standardized plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin, betaine, pyridoxal 5´-phosphate, and riboflavin. Associations with CRC risk were estimated using conditional logistic regression.

    Results: The ratio-based B-vitamin markers all outperformed tHcy as markers of total B-vitamin status, in both CRC cases and controls. Associations with CRC risk were similar for the ratio-based B-vitamin markers and total B-vitamin status (approximately 25% lower risk for high versus low B-vitamin status).

    Conclusions: Ratio-based B-vitamin markers were good predictors of total B-vitamin status, and displayed similar associations with CRC risk. Since tHcy and creatinine are routinely clinically analyzed, Hcy:Cre could be easily implemented in clinical practice to aid interpretation of tHcy results.

  • 70.
    Gylling, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Ueland, Per Magne
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Low folate levels are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a population with low folate status2014In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 2136-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A diet rich in folate is associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas the role of circulating levels is less clear. The aim of this study was to relate prediagnostic plasma folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations to the risk of colorectal cancer.

    METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study of 331 cases and 662 matched controls nested within the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Median follow-up time from recruitment to diagnosis was 10.8 years.

    RESULTS: Plasma folate concentrations were positively related to colorectal cancer risk; multivariate odds ratios were 1.62 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.08-2.42] and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.94-2.21) for the middle and highest versus lowest tertile, respectively. In subjects with follow-up <10.8 years, a statistically significant doubled risk was observed for the middle and highest versus lowest tertile, whereas findings for longer follow-up times were null. A positive risk relationship was also observed for tumor stage III-IV but not I-II. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were inversely associated with rectal cancer risk. Homocysteine was not significantly related to colorectal cancer risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based, nested case-control study, low plasma folate concentrations were associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. This protective role was mainly observed in subjects with higher tumor stage or shorter follow-up time between recruitment and diagnosis. Low circulating folate status may protect against colorectal cancer or suppress progression of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions.

    IMPACT: These findings may have relevance for the ongoing debate about mandatory folic acid fortification of flour.

  • 71.
    Hallmans, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Agren, A
    Johansson, G
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Periodontology.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Jansson, JH
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, B
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Nilsson, M
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort: evaluation of risk factors and their interactions.2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. Supplement Links, ISSN 1403-4956, Vol. 61, p. 18-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is, first, to describe the organization, sampling procedures, availability of samples/database, ethical considerations, and quality control program of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort. Secondly, some examples are given of studies on cardiovascular disease and diabetes with a focus on the biomarker programme. The cohort has been positioned as a national and international resource for scientific research.

  • 72. Hansen, Louise
    et al.
    Skeie, Guri
    Landberg, Rikard
    Lund, Eiliv
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Dragsted, Lars O
    Egeberg, Rikke
    Johnsen, Nina F
    Christensen, Jane
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Olsen, Anja
    Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort2012In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 131, no 2, p. 469-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon) and rectal cancer in the prospective Scandinavian HELGA cohort and to determine if fiber source (vegetables, fruits, potatoes, cereals) impacted the association. We included 1,168 incident cases (691 colon, 477 rectal cancer), diagnosed during a median of 11.3 years, among 108,081 cohort members. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of colon and rectal cancer were related to intake of total or specific fiber source using Cox proportional hazards models. For men, an inverse association was observed between intake of total fiber and the risk of colon cancer per an incremental increase of 10 g day(-1) , IRR (95% CI): 0.74 (0.64-0.86). Intake of cereal fiber per 2 g day(-1) was associated with an IRR of 0.94 (0.91-0.98), which was also seen for intake of cereal fiber from foods with high fiber content (≥5 g per 100 g product), where the IRR per 2 g day(-1) was 0.94 (0.90-0.98). In women, intake of cereal fiber per 2 g day(-1) was also associated with lower risk of colon cancer, 0.97 (0.93-1.00). No clear associations were seen for rectal cancer. Our data indicate a protective role of total and cereal fiber intake, particularly from cereal foods with high fiber content, in the prevention of colon cancer.

  • 73. Haworth, Simon
    et al.
    Shungin, Dmitry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Kwak, So Young
    Kim, Hae-Young
    West, Nicola X.
    Thomas, Steven J.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital Malmo, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Timpson, Nicholas J.
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Tooth loss is a complex measure of oral disease: determinants and methodological considerations2018In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Counts of missing teeth or measures of incident tooth loss are gaining attention as a simple way to measure dental status in large population studies. We explore the meaning of these metrics and how missing teeth might influence other measures of dental status.

    METHODS: An observational study was performed in 2 contrasting adult populations. In total, 62 522 adult participants were available with clinically assessed caries and periodontal indices from the Swedish arm of the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints Study (GLIDE) and the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in the Republic of Korea. Longitudinal measures of tooth loss were available for 28 244 participants in GLIDE with median follow-up of 10.6 years.

    RESULTS: In longitudinal analysis, hazard for tooth loss was associated with baseline dental status (previous tooth loss, periodontal status and caries status) and socio-demographic variables (age, smoking status and highest educational level). Analysis of cross-sectional data suggested that indices of caries exposure were not independent of periodontal status. The strength and direction of association varied between groups, even for measures specifically intended to avoid measuring tooth loss. Individuals with impaired periodontal health (community periodontal index [CPI] 3 or higher in any sextant) had higher standardized decayed and filled surfaces (DFS; number of DFS divided by total number of tooth surfaces) in GLIDE (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.05 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.07], but lower standardized DFS in KNHANES (IRR: 0.95 [0.92, 0.98]) than individuals with better periodontal health (CPI <3 in all sextants).

    CONCLUSIONS: Incident tooth loss is a complex measure of dental disease, with multiple determinants. The relative importance of dental caries and periodontal disease as drivers of tooth loss differs between age groups. Measures of dental caries exposure are associated with periodontal status in the studied populations, and these associations can be population-specific. Consideration of the study-specific properties of these metrics may be required for valid inference in large population studies.

  • 74. Haworth, Simon
    et al.
    Shungin, Dmitry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
    van der Tas, Justin T
    Vucic, Strahinja
    Medina-Gomez, Carolina
    Yakimov, Victor
    Feenstra, Bjarke
    Shaffer, John R
    Lee, Myoung Keun
    Standl, Marie
    Thiering, Elisabeth
    Wang, Carol
    Bønnelykke, Klaus
    Waage, Johannes
    Jessen, Leon Eyrich
    Nørrisgaard, Pia Elisabeth
    Joro, Raimo
    Seppälä, Ilkka
    Raitakari, Olli
    Dudding, Tom
    Grgic, Olja
    Ongkosuwito, Edwin
    Vierola, Anu
    Eloranta, Aino-Maija
    West, Nicola X
    Thomas, Steven J
    McNeil, Daniel W
    Levy, Steven M
    Slayton, Rebecca
    Nohr, Ellen A
    Lehtimäki, Terho
    Lakka, Timo
    Bisgaard, Hans
    Pennell, Craig
    Kühnisch, Jan
    Marazita, Mary L
    Melbye, Mads
    Geller, Frank
    Rivadeneira, Fernando
    Wolvius, Eppo B
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Malmö 202 13, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Timpson, Nicholas J
    Consortium-based genome-wide meta-analysis for childhood dental caries traits2018In: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 27, no 17, p. 3113-3127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies suggest dental caries traits in children and adolescents are partially heritable, but there has been no large-scale consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date. We therefore performed GWAS for caries in participants aged 2.5-18.0 years from nine contributing centres. Phenotype definitions were created for the presence or absence of treated or untreated caries, stratified by primary and permanent dentition. All studies tested for association between caries and genotype dosage and the results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Analysis included up to 19 003 individuals (7530 affected) for primary teeth and 13 353 individuals (5875 affected) for permanent teeth. Evidence for association with caries status was observed at rs1594318-C for primary teeth [intronic within ALLC, odds ratio (OR) 0.85, effect allele frequency (EAF) 0.60, P 4.13e-8] and rs7738851-A (intronic within NEDD9, OR 1.28, EAF 0.85, P 1.63e-8) for permanent teeth. Consortium-wide estimated heritability of caries was low [h2 of 1% (95% CI: 0%: 7%) and 6% (95% CI 0%: 13%) for primary and permanent dentitions, respectively] compared with corresponding within-study estimates [h2 of 28% (95% CI: 9%: 48%) and 17% (95% CI: 2%: 31%)] or previously published estimates. This study was designed to identify common genetic variants with modest effects which are consistent across different populations. We found few single variants associated with caries status under these assumptions. Phenotypic heterogeneity between cohorts and limited statistical power will have contributed; these findings could also reflect complexity not captured by our study design, such as genetic effects which are conditional on environmental exposure.

  • 75. Hermann, Silke
    et al.
    Rohrmann, Sabine
    Linseisen, Jakob
    May, Anne M
    Kunst, Anton
    Besson, Herve
    Romaguera, Dora
    Travier, Noemie
    Tormo, Maria-Jose
    Molina, Esther
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Rodriguez, Laudina
    Crowe, Francesca L
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    van Boeckel, Petra Ga
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Overvad, Kim
    Uhre Jakobsen, Marianne
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Masala, Giovanna
    Vineis, Paolo
    Naska, Androniki
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Bergmann, Manuela M
    Steffen, Annika
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Borgquist, Signe
    Manjer, Jonas
    Braaten, Tonje
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Mouw, Traci
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Slimani, Nadia
    Peeters, Petra Hm
    The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 169-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    METHOD: This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models.

    RESULTS: Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m2 lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m2). The association between WC and education level was also of greater magnitude for women: compared with the lowest education level, average WC of women was lower by 5.2 cm for women in the highest category. For men the difference was 2.9 cm.

    CONCLUSION: In this European cohort, there is an inverse association between higher BMI as well as higher WC and lower education level. Public Health Programs that aim to reduce overweight and obesity should primarily focus on the lower educated population.

  • 76.
    Holgerson, Pernilla L
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Vestman, Nelly R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Öhman, Carina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Tanner, Anne CR
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants2013In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli.

    Methods: A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri.

    Results: Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis.

    Conclusions: The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  • 77. Hruby, Adela
    et al.
    Ngwa, Julius S.
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Ganna, Andrea
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Houston, Denise K.
    Jacques, Paul F.
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    Manichaikul, Ani
    North, Kari E.
    Ntalla, Ioanna
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Djousse, Luc
    Grigoriou, Efi.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Lohman, Kurt K.
    Pankow, James S.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Yannakoulia, Mary
    Zillikens, M. Carola
    Hassanali, Neelam
    Liu, Yongmei
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Papoutsakis, Constantina
    Syvanen, Ann-Christine
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Viikari, Jorma
    Groves, Christopher J.
    Hofman, Albert
    Lind, Lars
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Mikkila, Vera
    Mukamal, Kenneth
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Cupples, L. Adrienne
    Dedoussis, George V.
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Hu, Frank B.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Kahonen, Mika
    Kao, W. H. Linda
    Kritchevsky, Stephen B.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Prokopenko, Inga
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Meigs, James B.
    McKeown, Nicola M.
    Nettleton, Jennifer A.
    Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies2013In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 143, no 3, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (In-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [beta = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P< 0.0001] and insulin (-0.020 In-pmo/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P< 0.0001]. No magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P= 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8and rs3740393 near CNNM2showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted. J. Nutr. 143: 345-353, 2013.

  • 78. Huang, Tao
    et al.
    Ding, Ming
    Bergholdt, Helle K. M.
    Wang, Tiange
    Heianza, Yoriko
    Sun, Dian-jianyi
    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
    Aslibekyan, Stella
    North, Kari E.
    Voortman, Trudy
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Smith, Caren E.
    Lai, Chao-Qiang
    Varbo, Anette
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    de Jonge, M. Ester A. L.
    Fumeron, Fredric
    Corella, Dolores
    Wang, Carol A.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Barroso, Ines
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hernandez, Dena
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Linneberg, Allan
    Zillikens, M. Carola
    Sandholt, Camilla Helene
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Hansen, Torben
    Schulz, Christina-Alexandra
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Chen, Tzu-An
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Allison, Mathew A.
    Rich, Stephen S.
    Sorli, Jose V.
    Coltell, Oscar
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Eastwood, Peter
    Hofman, Albert
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Chu, Audrey Y.
    Rose, Lynda M.
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Viikari, Jorma
    Raitakari, Olli
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Mikkila, Vera
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wang, Yujie
    Tucker, Katherine L.
    Ordovas, Jose M.
    Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.
    Province, Michael A.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Arnett, Donna K.
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Toft, Ulla
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Hu, Frank B.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Nordestgaard, Borge G.
    Ellervik, Christina
    Qi, Lu
    Dairy Consumption and Body Mass Index Among Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis of 184802 Individuals from 25 Studies2018In: Clinical Chemistry, ISSN 0009-9147, E-ISSN 1530-8561, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill defined.

    METHODS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using an established dairy intake-associated genetic polymorphism located upstream of the lactase gene (LCT-13910 C/T, rs4988235) as an instrumental variable (IV). Linear regression models were fitted to analyze associations between (a) dairy intake and BMI, (b) rs4988235 and dairy intake, and (c) rs4988235 and BMI in each study. The causal effect of dairy intake on BMI was quantified by IV estimators among 184802 participants from 25 studies.

    RESULTS: Higher dairy intake was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.03 kg/m2 per serving/day; 95% CI, 0.00–0.06; P = 0.04), whereas the LCT genotype with 1 or 2 T allele was significantly associated with 0.20 (95% CI, 0.14–0.25) serving/day higher dairy intake (P = 3.15 × 10−12) and 0.12 (95% CI, 0.06–0.17) kg/m2 higher BMI (P = 2.11 × 10−5). MR analysis showed that the genetically determined higher dairy intake was significantly associated with higher BMI (β = 0.60 kg/m2 per serving/day; 95% CI, 0.27–0.92; P = 3.0 × 10−4).

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides strong evidence to support a causal effect of higher dairy intake on increased BMI among adults.

  • 79. Huseinovic, Ena
    et al.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Changes in food intake patterns during 2000–2007 and 2008–2016 in the population-based Northern Sweden Diet Database2019In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 18, article id 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food intake patterns provide a summary of dietary intake. Few studies have examined trends in food intake patterns over time in large, population-based studies. We examined food intake patterns and related sociodemographic and individual characteristics in the large Northern Sweden Diet Database during the two time windows 2000–2007 and 2008–2016.

    Methods: In total, 100 507 participants (51% women) who had filled in a 64-item food frequency questionnaire and provided background and sociodemographic data between 2000 and 2016 were included. Food intake patterns were evaluated for women and men separately for the two time windows 2000–2007 and 2008–2016, respectively. Latent class analysis was used to identify distinct, latent clusters based on 40 food groups.

    Results: Among both women and men, a greater proportion of participants were classified into food intake patterns characterized by high-fat spread and high-fat dairy during 2008–2016 compared to 2000–2007. In the earlier time window, these high-fat clusters were related to lower educational level and smoking. Simultaneously, the proportion of women and men classified into a cluster characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables, and fibre decreased from the earlier to the later time window.

    Conclusion: From a public health perspective, the increase in clusters with a high conditional mean for high-fat spread and high-fat dairy and decrease in clusters with a high conditional mean for fruit and vegetables, during the time period 2008–2016 compared to 2000–2007, is worrisome as it indicates a shift away from the recommended food habits. Subgroups of women and men with less healthy dietary patterns in the time window 2008–2016 with lower education, lower age, higher body mass index, lower levels of physical activity and more smoking were identified and future interventions may be targeted towards these groups.

  • 80.
    Håglin, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Bäckman, L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Intake of vitamin B before onset of Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism and olfactory function at the time of diagnosis2017In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 71, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether vitamin-B density in the diet 2-8 years before diagnosis is associated with olfactory function at the time of diagnosis.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: This prospective nested case-control study included patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear paralysis identified between 2004 and 2009 in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. The case database (NYPUM study; Newly Diagnosed Parkinson in Umeå; n=147) was cross-linked to the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS). Identified patients (n=96) and controls (n=375) were matched for sex, age, year of health survey, sub-cohort and geographical area. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, and the brief smell identification test (B-SIT) was used to measure olfactory function at the time of diagnosis.

    RESULTS: There was no difference in vitamin-B or any other macro- or micro-nutrient densities, energy intake or body mass index (kg/m(2); BMI) between patients and controls at baseline at the time of the healthcare survey. A lower thiamin and folate density, amount per 1 megajoule, was reported in patients who scored below median on B-SIT (<7) when compared with that in patients who scored ⩾7 at the time of diagnosis. After adjusting for age, sex and BMI using linear and logistic regressions, an even stronger association was found between thiamin density and olfactory function.

    CONCLUSIONS: A low thiamin and folate density in the reported diet, 2-8 years before PD diagnosis, was significantly associated with olfactory dysfunction at the time of PD diagnosis.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 October 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.181.

  • 81.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg .
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Mis-reporting, previous health status and health status of family may seriously bias the association between food patterns and disease2010In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 9, no 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Food pattern analyses are popular tools in the study of associations between diet and health. However, there is a need for further evaluation of this methodology. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between food pattern groups (FPG) and existing health, and to identify factors influencing this relationship.

    METHODS: The inhabitants of Västerbotten County in northern Sweden are invited to health check-ups when they turn 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. The present study includes data collected from almost 60,000 individuals between 1992 and 2005. Associations between FPG (established using K-means cluster analyses) and health were analyzed separately in men and women.

    RESULTS: The health status of the participants and their close family and reporting accuracy differed significantly between men and women and among FPG. Crude regression analyses, with the high fat FPG as reference, showed increased risks for several health outcomes for all other FPGs in both sexes. However, when limiting analysis to individuals without previous ill-health and with adequate energy intake reports, most of the risks instead showed a trend towards protective effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: Food pattern classifications reflect both eating habits and other own and family health related factors, a finding important to remember and to adjust for before singling out the diet as a primary cause for present and future health problems. Appropriate exclusions are suggested to avoid biases and attenuated associations in nutrition epidemiology.

  • 82.
    Isehed, Catrine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Periodontology, Gävle County Hospital, Gävle, Sweden; Center for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Holmlund, Anders
    Renvert, Stefan
    Svenson, Bjorn
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lundberg, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Effectiveness of enamel matrix derivative on the clinical and microbiological outcomes following surgical regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis: A randomized controlled trial2016In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 863-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This randomized clinical trial aimed at comparing radiological, clinical and microbial effects of surgical treatment of peri-implantitis alone or in combination with enamel matrix derivative (EMD).

    Methods: Twenty-six subjects were treated with open flap debridement and decontamination of the implant surfaces with gauze and saline preceding adjunctive EMD or no EMD. Bone level (BL) change was primary outcome and secondary outcomes were changes in pocket depth (PD), plaque, pus, bleeding and the microbiota of the peri-implant biofilm analyzed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray over a time period of 12 months.

    Results: In multivariate modelling, increased marginal BL at implant site was significantly associated with EMD, the number of osseous walls in the peri-implant bone defect and a Gram+/aerobic microbial flora, whereas reduced BL was associated with a Gram-/anaerobic microbial flora and presence of bleeding and pus, with a cross-validated predictive capacity (Q(2)) of 36.4%. Similar, but statistically non-significant, trends were seen for BL, PD, plaque, pus and bleeding in univariate analysis.

    Conclusion: Adjunctive EMD to surgical treatment of peri-implantitis was associated with prevalence of Gram+/aerobic bacteria during the follow-up period and increased marginal BL 12 months after treatment.

  • 83. Jacobsson, B
    et al.
    Wendt, LK
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Dental caries and caries associated factors in Swedish 15-year-olds in relation to immigrant background.2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries and caries associated variables in 15-year-olds in relation to foreign background and to examine differences in the prevalence of caries in immigrant adolescents according to their length of residence in Sweden. All 15-year-old adolescents (n=143) at one public school in the city of Jönköping, Sweden were asked to participate in the study. The adolescents were divided into two groups according to their background: immigrants and non-immigrants. Data on caries prevalence were extracted from the dental records of the examination made when the participants were 15 years old. The proportions of immigrants and non-immigrants free from carious lesions were equal. Immigrant adolescents, however, had on average more enamel carious lesions. Adolescents born in Sweden of immigrant parents or who had arrived before 1 year of age had a caries prevalence similar to those of non-immigrant adolescents, whereas children who had immigrated to Sweden after 7 years of age had a caries prevalence that was 2-3 times higher. As the caries carious lesions in immigrant adolescents is mainly restricted to the enamel, and possibly reversible, early introduction of preventive programmes seems essential.

  • 84. Jakobsen, Marianne U.
    et al.
    Dethlefsen, Claus
    Due, Karen M.
    May, Anne M.
    Romaguera, Dora
    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire
    Norat, Teresa
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Teucher, Birgit
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Bergmann, Manuela M.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Naska, Androniki
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Palli, Domenico
    De Magistris, Maria Santucci
    Sieri, Sabina
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    van der A, Daphne L.
    Engeset, Dagrun
    Hjartaker, Anette
    Rodriguez, Laudina
    Agudo, Antonio
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Huerta, Jose M.
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Amiano, Pilar
    Manjer, Jonas
    Wirfalt, Elisabet
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Chajes, Veronique
    Slimani, Nadia
    Riboli, Elio
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Overvad, Kim
    Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 353-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95% CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95% CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95% CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95% CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over-or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95% CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.

  • 85. Jakobsen, Marianne U
    et al.
    Dethlefsen, Claus
    Due, Karen M
    Slimani, Nadia
    Chajès, Veronique
    May, Anne M
    Sørensen, Thorkild I A
    Halkjær, Jytte
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Teucher, Birgit
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Boeing, Heiner
    Schütze, Madlen
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Zylis, Dimosthenis
    Makrygiannis, George
    Palli, Domenico
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Tagliabue, Giovanna
    van der A, Daphne L
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B
    Rodríguez, Laudina
    Travier, Noémie
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Huerta, José M
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Amiano, Pilar
    Manjer, Jonas
    Wirfält, Elisabet
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Crowe, Francesca
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Riboli, Elio
    Peeters, Petra H M
    Overvad, Kim
    Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change2011In: Obesity facts, ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 312-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.

    METHOD: A total of 1,998 women and men participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 4.9 years. The associations between the proportion of plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 PUFA and change in weight were investigated using mixed-effect linear regression.

    RESULTS: The proportion of long-chain n-3 PUFA was not associated with change in weight. Among all participants, the 1-year weight change was -0.7 g per 1% point higher long-chain n-3 PUFA level (95% confidence interval: -20.7 to 19.3). The results when stratified by sex, age, or BMI groups were not systematically different.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the proportion of long-chain n-3 PUFA in plasma phospholipids is not associated with subsequent change in body weight within the range of exposure in the general population.

  • 86. Jakszyn, Paula
    et al.
    Agudo, Antonio
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Jenab, Mazda
    Navarro, Carmen
    Palli, Domenico
    Boeing, Heiner
    Manjer, Jonas
    Numans, Mattijs E.
    Igali, Laszlo
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Morois, Sophie
    Grioni, Sara
    Panico, CSalvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Huerta Castano, Jose Ma
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Amiano, Pilar
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Allen, Naomi E.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Jeurnink, Suzanne M.
    Peeters, Petra H. M
    Bamia, Christina
    Valanou, Elisabeth
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Bergmann, Manuela M.
    Lindkvist, Bjorn
    Stenling, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Overvad, Kim
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Skeie, Guri
    Ragnhild Broderstad, Ann
    Lund, Eiliv
    Michaud, Dominique S.
    Mouw, Traci
    Riboli, Elio
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Dietary intake of heme iron and risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study2012In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 130, no 11, p. 2654-2663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though recent studies suggest that a high intake of heme iron is associated with several types of cancer, epidemiological studies in relation to gastric cancer (GC) are lacking. Our previous results show a positive association between red and processed meat and non cardia gastric cancer, especially in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between heme iron intake and GC risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EURGAST-EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat intake, derived from the literature. Antibodies of H. pylori infection and vitamin C levels were measured in a sub-sample of cases and matched controls included in a nested case-control study within the cohort. The study included 481,419 individuals and 444 incident cases of GC that occurred during an average of 8.7 years of followup. We observed a statistically significant association between heme iron intake and GC risk (HR 1.13 95% CI: 1.011.26 for a doubling of intake) adjusted by sex, age, BMI, education level, tobacco smoking and energy intake. The positive association between heme iron and the risk of GC was statistically significant in subjects with plasma vitamin C <39 mmol/l only (log2 HR 1.54 95% CI (1.012.35). We found a positive association between heme iron intake and gastric cancer risk.

  • 87. Jenab, M
    et al.
    Riboli, E
    Ferrari, P
    Friesen, M
    Sabate, J
    Norat, T
    Slimani, N
    Tjonneland, A
    Olsen, A
    Overvad, K
    Boutron-Ruault, MC
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Boeing, H
    Schulz, M
    Linseisen, J
    Nagel, G
    Trichopoulou, A
    Naska, A
    Oikonomou, E
    Berrino, F
    Panico, S
    Palli, D
    Sacerdote, C
    Tumino, R
    Peeters, PH
    Numans, ME
    Bueno-de Mesquita, HB
    Buchner, FL
    Lund, E
    Pera, G
    Chirlaque, MD
    Sanchez, MJ
    Arriola, L
    Barricarte, A
    Quiros, JR
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Periodontology.
    Berglund, G
    Bingham, S
    Khaw, KT
    Allen, N
    Key, T
    Carneiro, F
    Save, V
    Del Giudice, G
    Plebani, M
    Kaaks, R
    Gonzalez, CA
    Plasma and dietary carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels and the risk of gastric adenocarcinomas in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition2006In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 406-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Its aetiology may involve dietary antioxidant micronutrients such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma levels of seven common carotenoids, their total plasma concentration, retinol and - and -tocopherol, with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort involving 10 countries. A secondary objective was to determine the association of total sum of carotenoids, retinol and -tocopherol on GCs by anatomical subsite (cardia/noncardia) and histological subtype (diffuse/intestinal). Analytes were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in prediagnostic plasma from 244 GC cases and 645 controls matched by age, gender, study centre and date of blood donation. Conditional logistic regression models adjusted by body mass index, total energy intake, smoking and Helicobacter pylori infection status were used to estimate relative cancer risks. After an average 3.2 years of follow-up, a negative association with GC risk was observed in the highest vs the lowest quartiles of plasma -cryptoxanthin (odds ratio (OR)=0.53, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.30-0.94, Ptrend=0.006), zeaxanthin (OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.22-0.69, Ptrend=0.005), retinol (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.33-0.93, Ptrend=0.005) and lipid-unadjusted -tocopherol (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37-0.94, Ptrend=0.022). For all analytes, no heterogeneity of risk estimates or significant associations were observed by anatomical subsite. In the diffuse histological subtype, an inverse association was observed with the highest vs lowest quartile of lipid-unadjusted -tocopherol (OR=0.26, 95% CI=0.11-0.65, Ptrend=0.003). These results show that higher plasma concentrations of some carotenoids, retinol and -tocopherol are associated with reduced risk of GC.

  • 88. Jeurnink, SM
    et al.
    Büchner, FL
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB
    Siersema, PD
    Boshuizen, HC
    Numans, ME
    Dahm, CC
    Overvad, K
    Tjønneland, A
    Roswall, N
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Boutron-Ruault, MC
    Morois, S
    Kaaks, R
    Teucher, B
    Boeing, H
    Buijsse, B
    Trichopoulou, A
    Benetou, V
    Zylis, D
    Palli, D
    Sieri, S
    Vineis, P
    Tumino, R
    Panico, S
    Ocké, MC
    Peeters, PHM
    Skeie, G
    Brustad, M
    Lund, E
    Sánchez-Cantalejo, E
    Navarro, C
    Amiano, P
    Ardanaz, E
    Quirós, J Ramón
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Johansson, I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lindkvist, B
    Regnér, S
    Khaw, KT
    Wareham, N
    Key, TJ
    Slimani, N
    Norat, T
    Vergnaud, AC
    Romaguera, D
    Gonzalez, CA
    Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition2012In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 131, no 6, p. E963-E973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Diets high in vegetables and fruits have been suggested to be inversely associated with risk of gastric cancer. However, the evidence of the effect of variety of consumption is limited. We therefore investigated whether consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruit is associated with gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    METHODS: Data on food consumption and follow-up on cancer incidence was available for 452,269 participants from 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 475 cases of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas (180 non-cardia, 185 cardia, gastric esophageal junction and esophagus, 110 not specified) and 98 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were observed. Diet Diversity Scores (DDSs) were used to quantify the variety in vegetable and fruit consumption. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to calculate risk ratios.

    RESULTS: Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in the consumption of vegetables and fruit combined and of fruit consumption alone were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (continuous HR per 2 products increment 0.88; 95%CI 0.79-0.97 and 0.76; 95%CI 0.62-0.94, respectively) with the latter particularly seen in ever smokers. Variety in vegetable and/or fruit consumption was not associated with risk of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas.

    CONCLUSION: Independent from quantity of consumption, more variety in vegetable and fruit consumption combined and in fruit consumption alone may decrease the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, residual confounding by lifestyle factors can not be excluded. © 2012 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 89.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Molecular Periodontology.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Åhren, Ann-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in relation to the incidence of myocardial infarction2011In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 55-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic infections and associated inflammatory markers are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1, is suggested to play a role in the regulation of local inflammatory responses in both CVD and periodontitis. The leukotoxin from the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has recently been shown to cause abundant secretion of IL-1 from macrophages. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of systemic immunoreactivity to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin in myocardial infarction (MI) cases (n=532) and matched controls (n=1000) in a population-based case and referents study in northern Sweden.

    Methods: Capacity to neutralize A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was analyzed in a bioassay with leukocytes, purified leukotoxin, and plasma. Plasma samples that inhibited lactate-dehydrogenase release from leukotoxin-lysed cells by 50 % were classified as positive.

    Results: Neutralizing capacity against A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was detected in 53.3% of the plasma samples. The ability to neutralize leukotoxin correlated to increasing age in men (n=1082) but not in women (n=450). There was no correlation between presence of systemic leukotoxin neutralization capacity and the incidence of MI, except for women (n=146). Women with a low neutralizing capacity had a significantly higher incidence of MI than those who had a high neutralizing capacity.

    Conclusions: Systemic immunoreactivity against A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin was found at a high prevalence in the analyzed population of adults from northern Sweden. The results from the present study do not support the hypothesis that systemic leukotoxin-neutralizing capacity can decrease the risk for MI.

  • 90.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Åhrén, Ann-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Systemic antibodies to the leukotoxin of the oral pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans correlate negatively with stroke in women2005In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 226-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic infections and associated inflammatory markers are suggested risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β is suggested to play a role in the regulation of local inflammatory responses in both CVD and periodontitis. The leukotoxin from the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has recently been shown to cause abundant secretion of IL-1β  from macrophages. The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of systemic antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitansleukotoxin in stroke cases (n = 273) and matched controls (n = 546) in an incident case-control study nested within the Northern Sweden MONICA and Västerbotten Intervention cohorts.

    Methods: Antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin were analyzed in a bioassay with HL-60 cells (leukocytes), purified A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin, and plasma. Plasma samples which inhibited lactate dehydrogenase release from leukotoxin-lysed cells by ≥50% were classified as antibody positive.

    Results: Antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin were detected in 18.8% of the women and 15.2% of the men. Women with those antibodies had a significantly decreased risk for stroke (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.13–0.59), but not men (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.52–1.51).

    Conclusion: The immunoreactivity to A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin correlates negatively with a future stroke in woman, but not in men. Further studies are needed to explain the underlying mechanisms, as well as the biological relevance of this finding.

  • 91. Johansson, G
    et al.
    Wikman, Å
    Åhrén, Ann-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Underreporting of energy intake in repeated 24-hour recalls related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, reported food intake, smoking habits and area of living.2001In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 919-927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the degree to which underreporting of energy intake by repeated 24-hour recalls was related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, smoking habits and area of living, and (2) to compare the dietary characteristics of underreporters with those of others. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Ten 24-hour recalls were performed during a one-year period. SETTING: The Västerbotten intervention programme of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Northern Sweden. SUBJECTS: Ninety-four men and 99 women in four age groups: 30, 40, 50 and 60 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of men and women with a food intake level (FIL; reported energy intake divided by estimated basal metabolic rate) below 1.2 was 44% and 47%, respectively. The youngest age group had higher FIL values than the oldest age group for both men (1.5 versus 1.1) and women (1.4 versus 1.1). The prevalence and magnitude of underreporting were directly related to body mass index (BMI; correlation coefficient: -0.47 (men) and -0.55 (women)). Smokers had a lower FIL value (1.1) than non-smokers (1.3). The nutrient density was lower for the group with high FIL values for protein and calcium and higher for fat and sucrose. The upper FIL group often had higher intake frequencies and larger portion sizes than the lower FIL group. CONCLUSIONS: Underreporting of energy intake is prevalent when 24-hour recalls are used, but the prevalence differs between sub-groups in the population. BMI was the main predictor of underreporting but also old age and smoking seem to contribute in this aspect. Socially desirable food items were not underreported to the same extent as socially undesirable food items. The intake frequencies and portion sizes partly explained the differences in FIL.

  • 92.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Bratt, P
    Hay, DI
    Schluckebier, S
    Strömberg, Nicklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Adhesion of Candida albicans, but not Candida krusei, to salivary statherin and mimicking host molecules2000In: Oral Microbiology and Immunology, ISSN 0902-0055, E-ISSN 1399-302X, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to identify salivary molecules affecting adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida krusei to salivary pellicles and epithelial cells. Strains of C. albicans (GDH18, GDH3339, CA1957, ATCC 28366 and ATCC 10321), but not C. krusei (strains ATCC 14243 and Ck9), bound to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and buccal epithelial cells. Parotid saliva fractions containing statherin, glycosylated proline-rich proteins (PRP) and as yet unidentified components mediated adhesion of strain GDH18; Fuc alpha 1-2Gal beta 1-4Glc partly inhibited the adhesion to those fractions not containing statherin. Pure statherin, but not PRP-1, mediated dose-dependent adhesion of C. albicans strain GDH18 to hydroxyapatite beads. Candida isolates (GDH18, GDH3339 and CA1957) bound somewhat more avidly to statherin/saliva relative to ATCC strains 28366 and 10321, while the opposite was true for adhesion to buccal epithelial cells. Adhesion of C. albicans strain GDH18 to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and buccal epithelial cells was completely (93%) and partly (43%) blocked by statherin-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, respectively. Control IgG antibodies did not block Candida adhesion. Blockage of Candida adhesion to epithelial cells also occurred with Fuc alpha 1-2Gal beta 1-4Glc (49%) and N-acetylglucosamine (38%), while statherin specific IgG antibodies in combination with Fuc alpha 1-2Gal beta 1-4Glc almost completely eliminated Candida adhesion (79%). In addition, statherin in solution blocked the adhesion of strain GDH18 to epithelial cells by inducing aggregation of Candida cells.

  • 93.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Eriksson, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Haworth, Simon
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Self-reported bovine milk intake is associated with oral microbiota composition2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0193504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bovine milk intake has been associated with various disease outcomes, with modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiome being suggested as one potential mechanism. The aim of the present study was to explore the oral microbiota in relation to variation in self-reported milk intake. Saliva and tooth biofilm microbiota was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and cultivation in 154 Swedish adolescents, and information on diet and other lifestyle markers were obtained from a questionnaire, and dental caries from clinical examination. A replication cohort of 31,571 adults with similar information on diet intake, other lifestyle markers and caries was also studied. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling separated adolescents with low milk intake (lowest tertile with <0.4 servings/day) apart from those with high intake of milk (≥3.7 servings/day) based on saliva and tooth biofilm, respectively. Taxa in several genera contributed to this separation, and milk intake was inversely associated with the caries causing Streptococcus mutans in saliva and tooth biofilm samples by sequencing, PCR and cultivation. Despite the difference in S. mutans colonization, caries prevalence did not differ between milk consumption groups in the adolescents or the adults in the replication cohort, which may reflect that a significant positive association between intake of milk and sweet products was present in both the study and replication group. It was concluded that high milk intake correlates with different oral microbiota and it is hypothesized that milk may confer similar effects in the gut. The study also illustrated that reduction of one single disease associated bacterial species, such as S. mutans by milk intake, may modulate but not prevent development of complex diseases, such as caries, due to adverse effects from other causal factors, such as sugar intake in the present study.

  • 94.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Research Unit Skellefteå, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden. .
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. .
    Dairy Product Intake and Cardiometabolic Diseases in Northern Sweden: A 33-Year Prospective Cohort Study2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dairy products are important constituents of most diets, and their association with adverse health outcomes remains a focus. We characterized dairy food intake and examined associations with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke among 108,065 Swedish men and women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in a population characterized by high milk tolerance. During a mean follow-up of 14.2 years, 11,641 first-time events occurred. Non-fermented milk intake decreased, whereas butter intake increased over the period. For high intake of non-fermented milk, the HR (95% CI) for developing T2D and MI was 1.17 (1.03, 1.34) and 1.23 (1.10, 1.37), respectively, in men. A greater intake of butter, fermented milk, and cheese tended to be associated with a reduced risk of T2D and/or MI. Non-consumers and those who chose low-fat variants of the targeted dairy products had increased risk for T2D, MI, or stroke compared to those in the non-case group. Generally, effect-sizes were small. This prospective study found that non-fermented milk was associated with an increased risk for developing T2D and MI and that subjects abstaining from dairy products or choosing low-fat variants were at greater risk. However, the overall cardiometabolic risk of non-fermented milk intake was judged as low, since the effect sizes were small.

  • 95.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Wikman, Å
    Biessy, C
    Riboli, E
    Kaaks, R
    Validation and calibration of food-frequency questionnaire measurements in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease cohort.2002In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 487-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reproducibility of, and to compare and calibrate, diet measures by the Northern Sweden 84-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24-hour diet recalls (24-HDR). DESIGN: Randomly selected respondents from the EPIC (diet-cancer) and MONICA (diet-cardiovascular disease) study cohort in Northern Sweden were invited to answer the FFQ twice over a one-year interval (FFQ1 and FFQ2), and to complete ten 24-hour recalls (reference method) in the months between. Plasma beta-carotene concentrations were determined from a subset of 47 participants. SETTING: Västerbotten and Norrbotten, Northern Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-six men and 99 women, who completed the study. RESULTS: The reproducibility of the FFQ was high in terms of both mean energy and nutrient intakes and relative ranking of participants by intake levels (median Pearson correlation of 0.68). Moderately higher food intake frequencies were recorded by FFQ1 compared with 24-hour recalls for dairy products, bread/cereals, vegetables, fruits and potato/rice/pasta, whereas meat, fish, sweet snacks and alcoholic beverage intakes were lower. The median Spearman coefficient of correlation between FFQ1 and the average of ten 24-HDR measurements was 0.50. Daily energy and nutrient intakes were similar for FFQ1 and 24-HDR measurements, except for fibre, vitamin C, beta-carotene and retinol (FFQ1>24-HDR) and sucrose and cholesterol Pearson coefficients of correlation between FFQ1 and 24-HDR corrected for attenuation due to residual day-to-day variation in the 24-HDR measurements ranged from 0.36 to 0.79 (median 0.54). Adjustment for energy had only very moderate effects on the correlation estimates. Calibration coefficients estimated by linear regression of the 24-HDR on the FFQ1 measurements varied between 0.30 and 0.59 for all nutrients except alcohol, which had calibration coefficients close to 1.0. These low calibration coefficients indicate that relative risk estimates corresponding to an absolute difference in dietary intake levels measured by the FFQ will generally be biased towards 1.0. Plasma beta-carotene levels had a Pearson coefficient of correlation of 0.47 with the 24-HDR measurements, and of 0.23 with FFQ1 measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The Northern Sweden FFQ measurements have good reproducibility and an estimated level of validity similar to that of FFQ measurements in other prospective cohort studies. The results from this study will form the basis for the correction of attenuation and regression dilution biases in relative risk estimates, in future studies relating FFQ measurements to disease outcomes.

  • 96.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Kressin, NR
    Nunn, ME
    Tanner, AC
    Snacking habits and caries in young children2010In: Caries Research, ISSN 0008-6568, E-ISSN 1421-976X, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 421-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children.

  • 97.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Lenander-Lumikari, M
    Saellström, AK
    Saliva composition in Indian children with chronic protein-energy malnutrition1994In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of paraffin-stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva was compared between two groups of 8-12-year-old Indian children-one group with severe to moderate chronic protein-energy malnutrition (PEM group) and an age- and sex-matched control group with normal protein status or mild PEM. The classification of PEM was based on anthropometric measurements compared with Indian standards. Stimulated saliva was analyzed for the following variables: electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, and PO4(3-)), total protein, hexosamines, fucose, sialic acid, and amylase. Unstimulated saliva samples were analyzed for total protein, salivary and myeloperoxidase, thiocyanate, lactoferrin, lysozyme, a bacteria-agglutinating protein (BAGP), total IgG, total IgA, and specific anti-S. mutans IgA. The results show that the PEM group had a reduced secretion rate of stimulated but not unstimulated saliva. Further, the Ca2+ and Cl- concentrations in stimulated saliva were significantly lower in the PEM group compared with the control group, but the other electrolyte levels were similar. No differences were found in total protein concentration or glycoprotein bound carbohydrates in stimulated saliva between the two groups, but the quantity of total protein secreted per min was reduced by 20% in the PEM group. Significantly lower levels of lactoferrin, BAGP, and anti-S mutans IgA were found in unstimulated saliva from children in the PEM group, but significantly higher levels of total IgG. We conclude that children with severe or moderate PEM, who have reduced secretion rate, buffer capacity, lower Ca2+, and protein secretion in stimulated saliva, also have impaired immunological and agglutinating defense factors in unstimulated saliva.

  • 98.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Milk and oral health2011In: Milk and Milk Products in Human Nutrition / [ed] Clemens R.A., Hernell O., Michaelsen K.F., S. Karger, 2011, Vol. 67, p. 55-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  • 99.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Dairy intake revisited - associations between dairy intake and lifestyle related cardio-metabolic risk factors in a high milk consuming population2018In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, article id 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between milk and dairy intake and the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, cancer and mortality has been evaluated in many studies, but these studies have had conflicting results with no clear conclusion on causal or confounding associations. The present study aims to further address this association by cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of the associations between exposure to various types of dairy products and metabolic risk markers among inhabitants in northern Sweden while taking other lifestyle factors into account.

    Methods: Respondents in the Vasterbotten Intervention Programme with complete and plausible diet data between 1991 and 2016 were included, yielding 124,934 observations from 90,512 unique subjects. For longitudinal analysis, 27,682 participants with a visit 8-12years after the first visit were identified. All participants completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Metabolic risk markers, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum (S) cholesterol and triglycerides, and blood glucose, were measured. Participants were categorized into quintiles by intake of dairy products, and risk (odds ratios, OR) of undesirable levels of metabolic risk markers was assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. In longitudinal analyses, intake quintiles were related to desirable levels of metabolic risk markers at both visits or deterioration at follow-up using Cox regression analyses.

    Results: The OR of being classified with an undesirable BMI decreased with increasing quintiles of total dairy, cheese and butter intake but increased with increasing non-fermented milk intake. The OR of being classified with an undesirable S-cholesterol level increased with increasing intake of total dairy, butter and high fat (3%) non-fermented milk, whereas an undesirable S-triglyceride level was inversely associated with cheese and butter intake in women. In longitudinal analyses, increasing butter intake was associated with deterioration of S-cholesterol and blood glucose levels, whereas increasing cheese intake was associated with a lower risk of deterioration of S-triglycerides.

    Conclusions: Confounding factors likely contribute to the demonstrated association between dairy intake and mortality, and other medical conditions and analyses should be stratified by dairy type.

  • 100.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    The National Board of Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Medicine, Skellefteå County Hospital, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden2012In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 11, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population- based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden.

    Methods: Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI.

    Results: Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women) or 2004 (men). A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women) and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking.

    Conclusions: Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (19861992) of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders, which coincided with introduction of a positive media support for low carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diet. The decrease and following increase in cholesterol levels occurred simultaneously with the time trends in food selection, whereas a constant increase in BMI remained unaltered. These changes in risk factors may have important effects on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

123456 51 - 100 of 271
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf