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  • 51.
    Le, Hung-son
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pose variant face image searching2004In: Proceedings, Symposium on Image Analysis, 2004, p. 178-181Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Le, Hung-son
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Spline fusion technique on high dynamic range image rendering2007In: Proceedings SSBA 2007, 2007, p. 133-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Jevtic, Aleksandar
    Robosoft,France.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Fast edge detection by center of mass2013In: The 1st IEEE/IIAE International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Image Processing 2013 (ICISIP2013), Kitakyushu, Japan, 2013, p. 103-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel edge detection method that computes image gradient using the concept of Center of Mass (COM) is presented. The algorithm runs with a constant number of operations per pixel independently from its scale by using integral image. Compared with the conventional convolutional edge detector such as Sobel edge detector, the proposed method performs faster when region size is larger than 9×9. The proposed method can be used as framework for multi-scale edge detectors when the goal is to achieve fast performance. Experimental results show that edge detection by COM is competent with Canny edge detection.

  • 54.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Distinctive curve features2016In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 197-198Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Curves and lines are geometrical, abstract features of an image. Whereas interest points are more limited, curves and lines provide much more information of the image structure. However, the research done in curve and line detection is very fragmented. The concept of scale space is not yet fused very well into curve and line detection. Keypoint (e.g. SIFT, SURF, ORB) is a successful concept which represent features (e.g. blob, corner etc.) in scale space. Stimulated by the keypoint concept, a method which extracts distinctive curves (DICU) in scale space, including lines as a special form of curve features is proposed. A curve feature can be represented by three keypoints (two end points, and one middle point). A good way to test the quality of detected curves is to analyse the repeatability under various image transformations. DICU using the standard Oxford benchmark is evaluated. The overlap error is calculated by averaging the overlap error of three keypoints on the curve. Experiment results show that DICU achieves good repeatability comparing with other state-of-the-art methods. To match curve features, a relatively uncomplicated way is to combine local descriptors of three keypoints on each curve.

  • 55.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Distinctive curves: unified scale-invariant detection of edges, corners, lines and curvesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to broaden the scope of shape related features including edges, corners, lines and curves: 1) Edges, corners, lines, curves are all shape related features. In the past, the detection of each type of feature is usually solved independently under certain hypotheses. Our proposed distinctive curve detection method (DICU) solves the detection of all these type of features together. 2) Compared to the development in scale-invariant interest point detectors which have adopted more objective robustness measures using repeatability score, the research in line and curve features is still limited to “true/false positive” measures. DICU detection utilizes the scale-space concept and proves that curve features can be as robust as scale-invariant interest points. DICU has three advantages: 1) DICU outputs multi-type features which can benefit future computer vision applications. At the same time, the computational efficiency is unaffected, after detecting edges, only 5% additional computation is needed to detect corners, lines, and curves. 2) It is robust under various image perturbations and transformations and outperforms state-of-the-art interest point detectors and line detectors. At the same time, all types of detected features are robust. 3) Curve features contains more geometric information than points. Our curve matching test shows that curve matching can outperform interest point matching. 

  • 56.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fast edge filter and multi-scale edge detectionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first step of efficient edge detection is to use a filter to detect intensity change. The filter size is a parameter which affects the edge detection result. A filter of large size is less sensitive to noise while a filter of small size is more accurate when locating edges. This gives the user a choice of choosing the proper filter size depending on the situation. A more stable edge detection approach is multi-scale edge detection, which detects gradients using several filter sizes.  The time consumption of a conventional edge filter is usually  or , where w is the width of the filter. Therefore, using filters of large size or multi-scale filters is not very efficient. We propose an efficient edge detection method with  time consumption. It uses the center of mass concept and utilizes the power of integral images to achieve this efficiency. The results of our experiments show that the proposed edge detector is very stable and we also propose a simplified multi-scale edge detection scheme which can be used in practical operations.  

  • 57.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Scale-invariant corner keypointsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and efficient generation of keypoints from images is the first step of many computer vision applications, such as object matching. The last decade presented us with an arms race toward faster and more robust keypoint detection, feature description and matching. This resulted in several new algorithms, for example Scale Invariant Features Transform (SIFT), Speed-up Robust Feature (SURF), Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) and Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK). The keypoint detection has been improved using various techniques in most of these algorithms. However, in the search for faster computing, the accuracy of the algorithms is decreasing. In this paper, we present SICK (Scale-Invariant Corner Keypoints), which is a novel method for fast keypoint detection. Our experiment results show that SICK is faster to compute and more robust than recent state-of-the-art methods. 

  • 58.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Scale-invariant corner keypoints2014In: 2014 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING (ICIP), IEEE , 2014, p. 5741-5745Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and efficient generation of keypoints from images is the first step of many computer vision applications, such as object matching. The last decade presented us with an arms race toward faster and more robust keypoint detection, feature description and matching. This resulted in several new algorithms, for example Scale Invariant Features Transform (SIFT), Speed-up Robust Feature (SURF), Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) and Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK). The keypoint detection has been improved using various techniques in most of these algorithms. However, in the search for faster computing, the accuracy of the algorithms is decreasing. In this paper, we present SICK (Scale-Invariant Corner Keypoints), which is a novel method for fast keypoint detection. Our experiment results show that SICK is faster to compute and more robust than recent state-of-the-art methods. 

  • 59.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Restricted Hysteresis Reduce Redundancy in Edge Detection2013In: Journal of Signal and Information Processing, ISSN 2159-4465, E-ISSN 2159-4481, Vol. 4, no 3B, p. 158-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In edge detection algorithms, there is a common redundancy problem, especially when the gradient direction is close to -135°, -45°, 45°, and 135°. Double edge effect appears on the edges around these directions. This is caused by the discrete calculation of non-maximum suppression. Many algorithms use edge points as feature for further task such as line extraction, curve detection, matching and recognition. Redundancy is a very important factor of algorithm speed and accuracy. We find that most edge detection algorithms have redundancy of 50% in the worst case and 0% in the best case depending on the edge direction distribution. The common redundancy rate on natural images is approximately between 15% and 20%. Based on Canny’s framework, we propose a restriction in the hysteresis step. Our experiment shows that proposed restricted hysteresis reduce the redundancy successfully.

  • 60.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    i-Function of Electronic Cigarette: Building Social Network by Electronic Cigarette2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conferences on Internet of Things and Cyber, Physical and Social Computing / [ed] Feng Xia, Zhikui Chen, Gang Pan,Laurence T. Yang, and Jianhua Ma, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 634-637Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the role of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is considered in context of social networking and internet based help for smoking cessation or reduction in smoking behavior. Electronic cigarette can be a good conversation starter and interaction device. Its interestingness can be used for social network building and thus using virtual  communities (e.g. Facebook, Twitter etc.) to exchange experiences and to support each other. A framework of social network interaction through interact function (i-function) of electronic cigarette is presented which enables two e-cigarette users to immediate interact when they are in close range. The framework also presents a functional possibility of reflecting people’s emotion on social network websites.

  • 61.
    Li, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Independent Thresholds on Multi-scale Gradient Images2013In: The 1st IEEE/IIAE International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Image Processing 2013 (ICISIP2013), Kitakyushu, Japan, 2013, p. 124-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a multi-scale edge detection algorithm based on proportional scale summing. Our analysis shows that proportional scale summing successfully improves edge detection rate by applying independent thresholds on multi-scale gradient images. The proposed method improves edge detection and localization by summing gradient images with a proportional parameter cn (c < 1); which ensures that the detected edges are as close as possible to the fine scale. We employ non-maxima suppression and thinning step similar to Canny edge detection framework on the summed gradient images. The proposed method can detect edges successfully and experimental results show that it leads to better edge detection performance than Canny edge detector and scale multiplication edge detector.

  • 62.
    Li, Fei
    et al.
    Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yuting
    Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Jiulong
    Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Quantum Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm2014In: 2014 IEEE CONGRESS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION (CEC), IEEE Press, 2014, p. 1265-1272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel swarm intelligence optimization method which integrates bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) with quantum computing, called quantum bacterial foraging optimization (QBFO) algorithm. In QBFO, a multi-qubit which can represent a linear superposition of states in search space probabilistically is used to represent a bacterium, so that the quantum bacteria representation has a better characteristic of population diversity. A quantum rotation gate is designed to simulate the chemotactic step to drive the bacteria toward better solutions. Several tests are conducted based on benchmark functions including multi-peak function to evaluate optimization performance of the proposed algorithm. The numeric results show that the proposed QBFO has more powerful properties in convergence rate, stability and the ability of searching for the global optimal solution than the original BFO and quantum genetic algorithm. In addition, we applied our proposed QBFO to solve the traveling salesman problem, which is a well-known NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization. The results indicate that the proposed QBFO shows better convergence behavior without premature convergence, and has more powerful properties in convergence rate, stability and the ability of searching for the global optimal solution, as compared to ant colony optimization algorithm and quantum genetic algorithm.

  • 63.
    Li, Liu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Vibrotactile chair: A social interface for blind2006In: Proceedings SSBA 2006: Symposium on image analysis, Umeå, March 16-17, 2006 / [ed] Fredrik Georgsson, 1971-, Niclas Börlin, 1968-, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Institutionen för datavetenskap , 2006, p. 117-120Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present our vibrotactile chair, a social interface for the blind. With this chair the blind can get on-line emotion information from the person he / she is heading to. This greatly enhances communication ability and improve the quality of social life of the blind. In the paper we are discussing technical challenges and design principles behind the chair, and introduce the experimental platform: tactile facial expression appearance recognition system (TEARS)TM".

  • 64.
    Lu, Zhihan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Chinese Academy of Science, China.
    Halawani, Alaa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Palestine Polytechnic University.
    Feng, Shengzhong
    Chinese Academy of Science, China.
    Li, Haibo
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Multimodal Hand and Foot Gesture Interaction for Handheld Devices2014In: ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP), ISSN 1551-6857, E-ISSN 1551-6865, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a hand-and-foot-based multimodal interaction approach for handheld devices. Our method combines input modalities (i.e., hand and foot) and provides a coordinated output to both modalities along with audio and video. Human foot gesture is detected and tracked using contour-based template detection (CTD) and Tracking-Learning-Detection (TLD) algorithm. 3D foot pose is estimated from passive homography matrix of the camera. 3D stereoscopic and vibrotactile are used to enhance the immersive feeling. We developed a multimodal football game based on the multimodal approach as a proof-of-concept. We confirm our systems user satisfaction through a user study.

  • 65.
    Lu, Zhihan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Halawani, Alaa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Khan, Muhammad Sikandar Lal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    ur Rehman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH.
    Finger in air: touch-less interaction on smartphone2013In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia2013, Luleå, Sweden, luleå, sweden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a vision based intuitive interactionmethod for smart mobile devices. It is based on markerlessfinger gesture detection which attempts to provide a ‘naturaluser interface’. There is no additional hardware necessaryfor real-time finger gesture estimation. To evaluate thestrengths and effectiveness of proposed method, we designtwo smart phone applications, namely circle menu application- provides user with graphics and smart phone’s statusinformation, and bouncing ball game- a finger gesture basedbouncing ball application. The users interact with these applicationsusing finger gestures through the smart phone’scamera view, which trigger the interaction event and generateactivity sequences for interactive buffers. Our preliminaryuser study evaluation demonstrates effectiveness andthe social acceptability of proposed interaction approach.

  • 66.
    Lu, Zhihan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Khan, Muhammad Sikandar Lal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden..
    Anaglyph 3D stereoscopic visualization of 2D video based on fundamental matrix2013In: Proceedings of 2013 International Conferenceon Virtual Reality and Visualization (ICVRV 2013), 14-15 September 2013, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a simple Anaglyph 3Dstereo generation algorithm from 2D video sequence with monocularcamera. In our novel approach we employ camera poseestimation method to directly generate stereoscopic 3D from 2Dvideo without building depth map explicitly. Our cost effectivemethod is suitable for arbitrary real-world video sequence andproduces smooth results. We use image stitching based on planecorrespondence using fundamental matrix. To this end we alsodemonstrate that correspondence plane image stitching based onHomography matrix only cannot generate better result. Furthermore,we utilize the structure from motion (with fundamentalmatrix) based reconstructed camera pose model to accomplishvisual anaglyph 3D illusion. The proposed approach demonstratesa very good performance for most of the video sequences.

  • 67.
    LV, Zhihan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Feng, Shengzhong
    Chinese Academy of Science, China.
    Khan, Muhammad Sikandar Lal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ur Rehman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Foot motion sensing: augmented game interface based on foot interaction for smartphone2014In: CHI EA '14 CHI '14 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, 2014, p. 293-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed and developmented two games: real-timeaugmented football game and augmented foot pianogame to demonstrate a innovative interface based onfoot motion sensing approach for smart phone. In theproposed novel interface, the computer vision basedhybrid detection and tracking method provides a coresupport for foot interaction interface by accuratelytracking the shoes. Based on the proposed interactioninterface, wo demonstrations are developed, theapplications employ augmented reality technology torender the game graphics and game status informationon smart phones screen. The players interact with thegame using foot interaction toward the rear camera,which triggers the interaction event. This interfacesupports basic foot motion sensing (i.e. direction ofmovement, velocity, rhythm).

  • 68. Lv, Zhihan
    et al.
    Halawani, Alaa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Computer Engineering and Science Department, Palestine Polytechnic University, Hebron, Palestine.
    Feng, Shengzhong
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Touch-less interactive augmented reality game on vision-based wearable device2015In: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 19, no 3-4, p. 551-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in creating pervasive games based on emerging interaction technologies. In order to develop touch-less, interactive and augmented reality games on vision-based wearable device, a touch-less motion interaction technology is designed and evaluated in this work. Users interact with the augmented reality games with dynamic hands/feet gestures in front of the camera, which triggers the interaction event to interact with the virtual object in the scene. Three primitive augmented reality games with eleven dynamic gestures are developed based on the proposed touch-less interaction technology as proof. At last, a comparing evaluation is proposed to demonstrate the social acceptability and usability of the touch-less approach, running on a hybrid wearable framework or with Google Glass, as well as workload assessment, user’s emotions and satisfaction.

  • 69. Schüldt, Christian
    et al.
    Lindström, Fredric
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Claesson, Ingvar
    Adaptive filter length selection for acoustic echo cancellation2009In: Signal Processing, ISSN 0165-1684, E-ISSN 1872-7557, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 1185-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of coefficients in an adaptive finite impulse response filter-based acoustic echo cancellation setup is an important parameter, affecting the overall performance of the echo cancellation. Too few coefficients give undermodelling and too many cause slow convergence and an additional echo due to the mismatch of the extra coefficients. This paper proposes a method to adaptively determine the filter length, based on estimation of the mean square deviation. The method is primarily intended for identifying long non-sparse systems, such as a typical impulse response from an acoustic setup. Simulations with band limited flat spectrum signals are used for verification, showing the behavior and benefits of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, off-line calculation using recorded speech signals show the behavior in real situations and comparison with another state-of-the-art variable filter length algorithm shows the advantages of the proposed method.

  • 70.
    Shafiq, ur Réhman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden..
    Using Vibrotactile Language for Multimodal Human Animals Communication and Interaction2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Workshops on Advances in Computer Entertainment Conference, ACE '14, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 1:1-1:5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we aim to facilitate computer mediated multimodal communication and interaction between human and animal based on vibrotactile stimuli. To study and influence the behavior of animals, usually researchers use 2D/3D visual stimuli. However we use vibrotactile pattern based language which provides the opportunity to communicate and interact with animals. We have performed experiment with a vibrotactile based human-animal multimodal communication system to study the effectiveness of vibratory stimuli applied to the animal skin along with audio and visual stimuli. The preliminary results are encouraging and indicate that low-resolution tactual displays are effective in transmitting information.

  • 71.
    Sjögren, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Automatic detection of facial features for 3-D face models2004In: Proceedings, Symposium on Image Analysis, 2004, p. 9-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Son, Le-Hung
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ultra low bit-rate video communication: video coding = pattern recognition2006In: Proceedings of the 25th Picture Coding Symposium, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Sun, Jiong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    3-D physical motion-based bandwidth prediction for video conference2004In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 584-594Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Sun, Jiong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    A Wyner-Ziv coding approach to transmission of interactive video over wireless channels2005In: IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP05), Vol. 2, p. 686-689Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Sun, Jiong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Motion compensated Wyner-Ziv video coding2005In: International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP05)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Sun, Jiong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Price adaptive soccer video streaming on mobile phones2004In: Proceedings, Symposium on Image Analysis, 2004, p. 102-105Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Sun, Jiong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Price driven football video adaptation for mobile usersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Sun, Jiong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Trellis-based reconstruction in Wyner-Ziv codec for video2005In: IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications (IMSA)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Sun, Jiong
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Turn your mobile into the ball: rendering live football game by vibrationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Anonymous video processing for live street view2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conferences on Internet of Things, and Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 109-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method for hiding the identity of persons and objects in video sequences. This type of video sequence will be used in applications where the scene is important but the identity of persons should be unrecognizable, e.g., street view applications. Other parts, such as company logos, names on house doors or license plates on parked cars should not be recognizable as well. This is today solved in street view by blurring out parts of images that are compressed with standard encoding techniques. We propose a method that automatically will blur out parts that are moving but still show the motion. Our technique requires very low bitrates for video transmission; almost as low as for a still image. The low bitrate and the low computational complexity will enable video views of streets at the same costs as for still images.

  • 81.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Asymmetrical principal component analysis for video coding2008In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 276-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to encode video sequences at extremely low bit rates, e.g. 34.6 dB (PSNR) at 4.2 kbit/s. The same eigenvectors are used for encoding and decoding for this coding. Introduced is a coding scheme where eigenvectors for only part of the video frames are used for encoding but the eigenvectors for the entire frame are used for decoding. This is called asymmetric PCA coding. This reduces the complexity of encoding by ap5 times and at the same time increases the reconstruction quality for the facial part of the video with 0.4 dB (PSNR).

  • 82.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Asymmetrical Principal Component Analysis: Theory and Its Applications to Facial Video Coding2011In: Effective Video Coding for Multimedia Applications / [ed] Sudhakar Radhakrishnan, InTech Open , 2011, p. 95-110Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Customizing Lip Video into Animation for Wireless Emotional Communication2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universal Multimedia Access (UMA) engines are used to adapt the media content to suite different environments.

    The adaptation decision for content used over wireless networks is heavily dependent on the bandwidth needs since the transmission cost over wireless networks is high. We customize lip video into lip animations and through tests we challenge the assumption that the quality is reduced when the transmission cost is reduced. We show that animations are comparable with video when considering human emotion understanding and comparable with audio only when considering transmission cost. We argue that it is important to consider human cognitive and perceptive factors in the decision stage of a UMA engine. This can both improve the user’s perceived quality and lower the transmission cost.

  • 84.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Eigenspace compression for very low bitrate transmission of facial video2007In: IASTED International conference on Signal Processing, Pattern Recognition and ApplicationsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Emotion recognition and estimation from tracked lip features2004In: Proceedings, Symposium on Image Analysis, 2004, p. 182-185Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Emotion recognition and estimation from tracked lip features2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans transmit and display information through the visual image of our lips; information about our speech and our emotions and expressions. By being able to track the movement of the lips, computers can make use of the visual part of the information. This information can be used for multiple purposes. Other research has mainly been focused on using lip tracking for speechreading, but here we focus on how to make use of tracked lip features for emotions. We have found that people are better at interpreting basic emotions displayed through an animation of lips than interpreting the same emotions displayed through a real video sequence that shows the lower part of the face. We have successfully transferred three basic emotions from visual information into information from another modality; touch.

  • 87.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Full-frame video coding for facial video sequences based on principal component analysis2005In: Proceedings of Irish Machine Vision and Image Processing Conference, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    HD video communication at very low bitrates2009In: Recent Advances in Multimedia Signal Processing and Communications / [ed] Mislav Grgic, Kresimir Delac, Mohammed Ghanbari, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 295-314Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes compression of facial video, i.e., video where the face or head-and-shoulders of a person is the important information. This kind of video is used for communication between people and HD quality of this video makes it much more useful. When it is wearable so that the user is free to move it becomes an even more appealing application.

  • 89.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    High definition wearable video communication2009In: Image analysis: 16th Scandinavian Conference, SCIA 2009, Oslo, Norway, June 15-18, 2009. Proceedings / [ed] Arnt-Børre Salberg, Jon Yngve Hardeberg, Robert Jenssen, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin , 2009, p. 500-512Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High definition (HD) video can provide video communication which is as crisp and sharp as face-to-face communication. Wearable video equipment also provide the user with mobility; the freedom to move. HD video requires high bandwidth and yields high encoding and decoding complexity when encoding based on DCT and motion estimation is used. We propose a solution that can drastically lower the bandwidth and complexity for video transmission. Asymmetrical principal component analysis can initially encode HD video into bitrates which are low considering the type of video (< 300 kbps) and after a startup phase the bitrate can be reduced to less than 5 kbps. The complexity for encoding and decoding of this video is very low; something that will save battery power for mobile devices. All of this is done only at the cost of lower quality in frame areas which aren’t considered semantically important.

  • 90.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Principal component video coding for simple decoding on mobile devices2007In: Proceedings SSBA 2007, 2007, p. 149-152Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Representation bound for human facial mimic with the aid of principal component analysis2010In: International Journal of Image and Graphics, ISSN 0219-4678, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 343-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine how much information is needed to represent the facial mimic, based on Paul Ekman's assumption that the facial mimic can be represented with a few basic emotions. Principal component analysis is used to compact the important facial expressions. Theoretical bounds for facial mimic representation are presented both for using a certain number of principal components and a certain number of bits. When 10 principal components are used to reconstruct color image video at a resolution of 240 × 176 pixels the representation bound is on average 36.8 dB, measured in peak signal-to-noise ratio. Practical confirmation of the theoretical bounds is demonstrated. Quantization of projection coefficients affects the representation, but a quantization with approximately 7-8 bits is found to match an exact representation, measured in mean square error.

  • 92.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Re-use of Eigenspaces to encode new facial video sequencesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Side view driven facial video coding2013In: Advanced Video Coding for Next-Generation Multimedia Services / [ed] Yo-Sung Ho, InTech, 2013, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A video can be decoded from an encoded version of another video when there is correspondence between the pixels in the two videos. Asymmetrical principal component analysis allows decoding of the frontal view of a face based on an encoded version the side view, or the profile of the side, of the same face. If the side view is used for encoding instead of the frontal view the reconstruction quality is only lowered slightly ($\approx$ 1,5 dB PSNR). If the profile of the side of view is used to encode the video the complexity for the encoding is lowered with more than 99\% but the largest benefit of this coding is that the side view can be used for encoding instead of the frontal view. Filming the side view is far easier from a use-friendly point of view. This is a new kind of video coding where the information that is decoded does not have to be available for the encoding phase.

  • 94.
    Söderström, Ulrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Side view driven facial video codingArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Khan, Abdullah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Li, Haibo
    School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Interactive Feet for Mobile Immersive Interaction2012In: MobileHCI 2012: Mobile Vision (MobiVis) – Vision-based Applications and HCI, San Fransisco, USA: MOBIVIS , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a novel algorithm for foot-gesture tracking method in mobile phones. To evaluate our proposed algorithm we develop two application scenarios for mobile immersive interaction experience based on audio, vibrotactile and foot interactions. For current studies we have located and tracked foot-gesture using template matching algorithm. The strength of proposed algorithm is demonstrated based on a successful completion of the given tasks. In the first application scenario the user is presented with an immersive fun dialing, i.e. dialing desired phone numbers using foot-gestures, while in the second application scenario, the user is provided with an immersive music game for unlocking keypad using foot-gesture on a smart phone. Our algorithm not only successfully locates and tracks foot-gesture but also can detect and track shoe of any size. These studies show the effectiveness of foot-gesture on mobile phones in real life situations.

  • 96.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Khan, Muhammad Sikandar Lal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Liu, Li
    Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, China.
    Li, Haibo
    Media technology and interaction design, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden; Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, China.
    Vibrotactile TV for immersive experience2014In: Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA), 2014 Asia-Pacific, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio and video are two powerful media forms to shorten the distance between audience/viewer and actors or players in the TV and films. The recent research shows that today people are using more and more multimedia contents on mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones. Therefore, an important question emerges - how can we render high-quality, personal immersive experiences to consumers on these systems? To give audience an immersive engagement that differs from `watching a play', we have designed a study to render complete immersive media which include the `emotional information' based on augmented vibrotactile-coding on the back of the user along with audio-video signal. The reported emotional responses to videos viewed with and without haptic enhancement, show that participants exhibited an increased emotional response to media with haptic enhancement. Overall, these studies suggest that the effectiveness of our approach and using a multisensory approach increase immersion and user satisfaction.

  • 97.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Facial expression appearance for tactile perception of emotions2007In: Proceedings of Swedish symposium on image analysis, 2007, 2007, p. 157-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enhance the daily life experience for visually challengedpersons, the Facial Expression Appearance for Tactile systemis proposed. The manifold of facial expressions is used fortactile perception. Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) codingalgorithm is implemented for tactile display. LLE algorithmis extended to handle the real time video coding. The vibrotactilechair as a social interface for the blind is used to displaythe facial expression. The chair provides the visuallyimpaired with on-line emotion information about the personhe/she is approaching. The preliminary results are encouragingand show that it greatly enhances communication abilityof the visually impaired person.

  • 98.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    How to use manual labelers in evaluation of lip analysis systems?2009In: Visual speech recognition: Lip segmentation and mapping / [ed] Shilin W & Alan Liew, USA: IGI Global , 2009, p. 239-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is not to describe any lip analysis algorithms but rather to discuss some of the issues involved in evaluating and calibrating labeled lip features from human operators. In the chapter we question the common practice in the field: using manual lip labels directly as the ground truth for the evaluation of lip analysis algorithms. Our empirical results using an Expectation-Maximization procedure show that subjective noise in manual labelers can be quite significant in terms of quantifying both human and  algorithm extraction performance. To train and evaluate a lip analysis system one can measure the performance of human operators and infer the “ground truth” from the manual labelers, simultaneously.

  • 99.
    Ur Réhman, Shafiq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lip Localization and Performance Evaluation2007In: IEEE int'l Conf. on Machine Vision (ICMV' 2007), Pakistan, 2007, p. 29-34Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Liu, li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lip segmentation: performance evaluation criteria2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we determined the measure to compare and evaluate the performance of lip detection techniques.Despite of a number of methods used for lip-detecction/localization, a reliable method for comparing and determining the quality of the result is still missing. The proposed criterion ensures the clear and fair way to report the results so that mentioned results can be comparable and measurable to enhance the quality of lip detection and/or error rate. After applying the EM-like algorithm it is showed that performance of the specific technique can be evaluated.

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