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  • 51.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Meaning-making across languages: a case study of three multilingual writers in Sápmi2017In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 124-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sápmi is a geographical area that runs across the Kola Peninsula in Russia to northern Finland, Norway and Sweden. All Sami languages have been going through a rapid language change process and many of the traditional language domains have disappeared during the last decades due to previous national and local language policies. Nevertheless, recent growth of positive attitudes towards Sami languages and culture both within and outside the Sami group has given new momentum to the language revitalisation process. At the same time, English is becoming more present in the Sami context through tourism, media and popular culture. This study investigates 15-year-old writers' meaning-making in three languages they meet on a daily basis: North Sami, the majority language Finnish/Norwegian/Swedish and English. Data were collected in schools where writers wrote two texts in each language, one argumentative and one descriptive. Using a functional approach, we analyse how three writers make meaning across three languages and two genres. Results show that writers made use of similar ways of expressing meaning on the three levels we investigated: ideational, interpersonal and textual, but also how the production differed between the texts, and how context and content interacted with writers’ meaning-making in the three languages.

  • 52.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Revising at the leading edge: shaping ideas or clearing up noise2019In: Observing writing: insights from keystroke logging and handwriting / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Kirk P H Sullivan, Leiden : Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, 1, p. 346-365Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Mellenius, Ingmarie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Att identifiera talare - ett problem för rättslingvistiken2008In: Texter till Thomas: festskrift till Thomas Kihlberg april 2008 / [ed] Git Claesson Pipping, Göteborg: Livréna , 2008, p. 136-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Olsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Provoking Dominance Shift in a Bilingual Swedish-American English 4-Year-Old Child2005In: ISB4: proceedings of the 4th international symposium on nilingualism / [ed] James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan, Somerville, MA, USA: Cascadilla Press, 2005, p. 1750-1764Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjørg
    Jönköping University.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Researching writing development to support language maintenance and revitalization: design and methodological challenges2019In: Perspectives on Indigenous writing and literacies / [ed] Coppélie Cocq and Kirk P.H. Sullivan, Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 165-185Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Sjöström, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Eriksson, Erik J
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    A bidialectal experiment on voice Identification2008In: Working Papers,: Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund University, Sweden, Vol. 53, p. 145-158Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 57. Spelman Miller, Kristyan
    et al.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The psycholinguistic dimension in second language writing: Opportunities for research and pedagogy using computer keystroke logging2008In: TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58. Spelman Miller, Kristyan
    et al.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Keystroke logging: an introduction2006In: Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing: Methods and Applications, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, p. 1-9Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the reader to keystroke logging of writing processes as a research method and places this method at the centre of writing research. We overview the features of the keystroke logging software that is currently available, indicate its domain of application and set the stage for the topics interrogated in this volume.

  • 59.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Enever, Janet
    London Metropolitan Universtiy.
    Language Europe?2009In: Globalisation and europeanisation in education in Europe / [ed] S.L. Robertson, & R. Dale, Oxford, Engand: Symposium Books , 2009, 1, p. 215-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Studying Professional Degrees via the Internet: Challenges, Issues, and Relevance from the Student's Perspective2014In: Cases on Professional Distance Education Degree Programs and Practices: Successes, Challenges, and Issues / [ed] Kirk P H Sullivan, Peter E Czigler and Jenny M Sullivan Hellgren, Hershey PA, USA: IGI Global, 2014, p. 1-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case places the student in focus and through a reflective case study considers four distance professional degree programs. The author of this case followed these programs as life-long learning professional activities. The case considers the nudge, the study, and degree completion. The reflection is structured around the themes of initial contact, communication, support, deadlines, work, and keeping going. These themes reveal challenges, issues, and questions of relevance for the student and university. Key skills to assist the student towards completion are suggested along with what the potential student should consider prior to enrolling in a professional degree program that is delivered via the Internet. The growth in distance profes- sional degrees, including professional doctorates, demonstrates the importance of the challenges, issues, and questions of relevance considered in this case from the student’s perspective. 

  • 61.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Belancic, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The global in the local: young multilingual language learners write in North Sámi (Finland, Norway, Sweden)2019In: Teaching writing to children in Indigenous languages: instructional practices from global contexts / [ed] Ari Sherris and Joy Krefft Peyton, New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 235-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary globalization trends might be a threat to Indigenous language revitalization efforts, or might act as catalysts that stimulate interest in learning and writing in Indigenous languages. This chapter presents a snapshot case study of young multilingual writers of North Sámi and considers the interaction of supercomplexity and the super dimensions of Sápmi on North Sámi literacy. Using illustrations taken from 126 young writers' narratives texts collected from 12 schools across the North Sámi speaking area of Sápmi in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, this chapter discusses how these young writers express in written North Sámi what they do in their lives, their understandings of their identities, and how these reflect the global and the local dimensions that they engage in on a daily basis. Based on our analysis, together with earlier research, we argue that young writers have the literacy skills necessary for meaning making, but that more possibilities for exposure to North Sámi are required, coupled with structural support from policy makers, society generally, and education opportunities, to raise the linguistics competencies for more nuanced North Sámi writing.

  • 62.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Czigler, Peter E
    Örebro University.
    Using writing to support student professional development during periods of practical training: a case study2016In: Writing for professional development / [ed] Giulia Ortoleva, Mireille Bétrancourt and Stephen Billett, Leiden, The Netherlanda: Brill Academic Publishers, 2016, p. 170-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting the development of professional skills is a central role of professional degree programmes. This case study considers how one audiology degree programme implemented reflective writing to support student professional development during periods of practical training. In particular, the case considers how much and what type of reflection can be seen in the students' reflective writing, and whether improvement in reflection based on formative feedback is a valid base for differential grading. An analysis of 72 pages of student reflective writing written during the final long period of practical training in the clinic showed that both the way reflective processes were taught and how it was to be assessed framed and limited the quality of the reflection. For example, the taught model of reflection was strictly followed and, in all cases, the catalyst chosen was the extraordinary event. On the basis of our analysis we propose that reflective writing to support professional development should not form part of a student’s assessment. Supporting the development of reflective skills without the stress of being assessed, we believe, will give the students space to reflect upon the everyday and feel less restrained by the taught model of reflection.

  • 63.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Czigler, Peter E.Örebro University.Sullivan Hellgren, Jenny MUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Cases on Professional Distance Education Degree Programs and Practices: Successes, Challenges, and Issues2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although internet technologies have transformed the concept of professional development by providing the opportunity for virtual learning environments in a non-traditional setting, the implementation of professional distance education programs still poses a challenge.

    Cases on Professional Distance Education Degree Programs and Practices: Successes, Challenges, and Issues examines the best practices for executing technology applications and the utilization of distance education techniques. This publication will serve as a reference for academics and instructors coordinating distance education programs, initiating distance education courses, and implementing such programs for those earning professional degrees.

  • 64.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Egan Sjölander, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Mother tongue classes: A parental choice, but does choice equate with parental involvement and engagement in learning?2019In: Education in the North, ISSN ISSN 0424-5512, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, all children who speak a language other than Swedish at home have a right to mother tongue classes when there are five children in the municipality who request the language as a mother tongue class. This paper reports on ongoing research that is investigating parental involvement and engagement in their children’s learning of their mother tongue language. Even though mother tongue classes require an active parental choice and the filling in of an application form, some children drop out of their mother tongue classes claiming the classes are boring and uninteresting, and teachers find that some children do not meet the requirement of using the language as an active home language. Through examination of young learner and school-aged students’ mother tongue provision and prompted reflection with parents, we tease apart the elements of agency necessary for parents to feel involved and engaged in their children’s mother tongue lessons.

  • 65.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Langum, VirginiaUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Proceedings of the second Faculty of Arts Doctoral College Conference2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, EvaUmeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education.
    Computer keystroke logging and writing: methods and applications2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Digital tools for the recording, the logging and the analysis of writing processes: Introduction, overview and framework2006In: Writing and Digital Media, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, p. 153-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This subchapter provides an introduction to the possibilities and limitations of digital tools for recording of writing processes, a comprehensive framework in which the digital tools that are explained further in the subchapters 2-5 are integrated and a critical perspective to the characteristics of the tools, their usage and related automatic analyses.

  • 68.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    Self-assessment in autonomous computer-aided L2 writing2002In: ELT Journal, ISSN 0951-0893, E-ISSN 1477-4526, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 258-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results of a study carried out in Sweden to investigate the promotion of self‐assessment and reflection in the adult second language (L2) classroom. A method is proposed in which the computer is used first to record a writing session, and later to replay the entire text production in retrospective peer sessions. The method provides the students with an opportunity to look into their own composing processes both linguistically and holistically, as they view and discuss the reasons behind the different actions during the writing process. Results show that after using the method, all writers experienced useful, although different, insights into their own writing behaviours. Furthermore, this method is not restricted to an L2 environment, but is likely to be effective in other learning situations where reflection is useful for the acquisition process.

  • 69.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting Learning, Exploring Theory and Looking Forward With Keystroke Logging2006In: Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing: Methods and Applications, Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, p. 203-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Keystroke logging is an approach to writing research that cart also be used in teaching and exploring existing theories. This chapter overviews how keystroke logging call be used, and has been used, in the writing, language and translation classroom, illustrates how keystroke logging can provide new insights that call be used to interrogate theory and considers how keystroke logging's capabilities can be extended to provide a bright future for this technology.

  • 70.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Mellenius, Ingmarie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Att studera skrivande med hjälp av loggning2008In: Tekniken bakom språket / [ed] Rickard Domeij, Norstedts Förlag, 2008, p. 189-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnaeus University.
    Muntliga språkliga interaktioner för lärande2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel handlar om hur undervisning kan utformas för att stödja elevers muntliga språkliga utveckling. Först beskrivs faktorer relaterade till fysisk miljö, lärtillfällen och interaktioner som har visat sig viktiga för att skapa en språkutvecklande undervisning. Därefter presenteras ett observationsverktyg som lärare kan använda för att identifiera styrkor och utvecklingsbehov i syfte att skapa en mer språkutvecklande undervisning.

  • 72.
    Sullivan, Kirk P.H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Langum, Virginia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Education is not sufficient: exploring ways to support and research indigenous writing and literacies2019In: Perspectives on indigenous writing and literacies / [ed] Coppélie Cocq and Kirk P.H. Sullivan, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 215-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Language for tomorrow: teaching and innovation for language revitalization and maintenance2013In: HICE conference proceedings, Honolulu: Hawaii International Conference on Education , 2013, p. 1395-1400Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Torstensson, Niklas
    et al.
    Kommunikation och information, Högskolan i Skövde.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The Court Interpreter: Creating an interpretation of the facts2011In: International Journal of Law, Language & Discourse, ISSN 1839-8308, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 59-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fair trail is impossible without an interpreter when anyone taking part in the court proceedings does not know the national language, yet the use of an interpreter affects the judging of an immigrant and perhaps their right to a trial as fair as the one offered to a native speaker of the national language. At times courtroom conversation using an interpreter gets confusing, interrupted, and breaks down. These disfluencies can be the result of a lack of linguistic and cultural insight by any of the parties. This paper focuses on how interpreters and legal staff perceive the court interpreter’s role, and the creation of the interpretation. Using qualitative semi-structured interviews, it became clear that the interpreter and the lay judge hold different views. The interviews also revealed a degree of mutual mistrust.. Yet, in spite of this, a feeling that the bilingual communication in the courts works reasonably well most of the time also came through in the interviews and that with better education for all parties the courtroom could become a fairer legal context.

  • 75.
    van Doorn, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    An acoustic investigation of the Swedish child’s acquisition of obstruent place of articulation2008In: Acoustics'08 Paris : June 29 - July 4, 2008, Paris: Société Française d'Acoustique (SFA) , 2008, p. 681-686Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech produced by children in the initial stages of development does generally not uphold as many phonetic distinctions as speech sounds produced by adults. A child's productions of different target words may therefore have similar acoustic properties and result in homonyms being perceived by the adult observer. This study presents a longitudional investigation into the development of place of articulation from non‐distinctive to distinctive productions in word‐initial obstruents produced by 22 Swedish children (aged 18 ‐ 48 months). The data was collected through monthly recordings, approximatelly one year per child. The acoustic correlates analysed were spectral diffuseness, spectral skewness and spectral tilt for plosives and spectral skewness, spectral kurtosis, spectral variance and F2 onset frequency for fricatives. The results show a developmental trend in spectral skewness that is indicative of a increasing number of acquired phonetic contrasts. Spectral tilt change, F2 onset frequency, spectral mean and spectral variance provide evicence of within‐category refinement wich is argued to be caused primarilly by advancements in motor control.

  • 76.
    Vinka, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kroik, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Developing a spoken corpus for South Saami language teaching and learning2015In: Språkdidaktik: Researching Language Teaching and Learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren & Janet Enever, Umeå: Department of Language Studies, Umeå University , 2015, p. 75-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chapter 5 Mikael Vinka, Christian Waldmann, David Kroik and Kirk Sullivan consider the creation of corpora in the Saami language and how these can be used to support minority language education in pre-school. Using examples both from the CHILDES database and from South Saami they illustrate how corpora may support the development of culturally relevant teaching materials.

  • 77.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Dockrell, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. UCL Institute of Education.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Att stödja elevers talspråksutveckling: lärmiljöer, lärtillfällen och interaktioner i klassrummet2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Dockrell, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. UCL Institute of Education.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting indigenous bilingual children's oral language development2015In: ALAA/ALANZ/ALTAANZ 2015: Learning in a Multilingual World, Adelaide, November 30-December 2, 2015, 2015, p. 132-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that children from minority groups have the right to learn, use and develop their indigenous/minority languages, and a primary goal for the Sami school in Sweden is to support each child’s functional Sami-Swedish bilingualism. However, Sweden continues to receive criticism from the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe for the lack of a comprehensive and structured approach towards minority language education, resources, materials, and teacher training. Oral language development is central to a child ́s ability to access the curriculum and develop literacy skills. All children need an environment supportive of oral language development, and opportunities and interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners to practice and develop oral language skills. Little is known about how bilingual children’s oral language development in Sami and Swedish is supported. Teachers can be supported by tools that they can use to describe the language learning environments, opportunities and interactions, and to develop their professional practice in the area of effectively supporting young bilingual children ́s oral language development. We report on a pilot study that has adapted the Communication Supporting Classrooms Observation Tool to the Swedish school context. This adaption is a first step towards adapting and using this tool in bilingual North and South Sami (pre)schools. The results of the pilot study are discussed in relation to the challenges of setting up a research project examining the support of oral language development in both the indigenous Sami languages and the national language Swedish.

  • 79.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Dockrell, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. UCL Institute of Education.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting language learning environments, opportunities and interactions in bilingual Sami-Swedish (pre)school contexts2016In: 14th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Education, Honolulu, January 3-6, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that children from minority groups have the right to learn, use and develop their indigenous/minority languages:

    In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language. (Article 30).

    In Sweden, the parliament affirmed the right of national minorities to learn, use and develop their minority languages in 2005, and in 2009 this right was written into Swedish law (the Swedish Language Act 2009:600, and the Act on National Minorities and National Minority Languages 2009:724). However, Sweden continues to receive strong criticism from the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (2015) for the lack of a comprehensive and structured approach towards minority language education, resources, materials, and teacher training.

    Oral language development “is central to a child´s ability to access the curriculum and develop literacy skills” (Dockrell et al 2010). In a minority language context, supporting oral language skills is central for language maintenance and revitalization, and for developing a functional bilingualism. A primary goal for the Sami school in Sweden is to support each child’s functional Sami-Swedish bilingualism. Considering the importance of oral language, all children need an environment supportive of oral language development, and opportunities and interactions with more knowledgeable conversational partners to practice and develop oral language and communication skills for all languages. Supporting and enhancing oral language skills for the diverse learners in school settings can be challenging, and little is known about how bilingual children’s oral language development in Sami and Swedish is supported. Teachers can be supported by tools that they can use to describe the language learning environments, opportunities and interactions, and to develop their professional practice in the area of effectively supporting young bilingual children´s oral language development. In this presentation, we report on a pilot study that has adapted the Communication Supporting Classrooms Observation Tool (Dockrell et al 2015) to the Swedish school context. This adaption is a first step towards adapting and using this tool in bilingual North and South Sami (pre)schools. The results of the pilot study are discussed in relation to the challenges of setting up a research project examining the support of oral language development in both the indigenous Sami languages and the national language Swedish.

  • 80.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kroik, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting minority languages: issues and problems with creating and using spoken language corpora2014In: AILA 2014 Abstract book, 2014, p. 214-214, article id OR2439Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation considers creation of spoken minority language corpora and how these can be used to support minority language education across the entire educational spectrum. The Saami languages are a group of minority languages spoken in Northern Scandinavia, Finland and Russia. In the Saami context there is currently one major language project that focuses on North Saami, Davvisámegiel mánáid giellaovdáneapmi (DASAGO), and is building two longitudinal corpora, one for monolingual acquisition and one for bilingual North Saami/Norwegian. Of the Saami languages, North Saami is the most widely spoken with approximately 25 000 speakers. The DASAGO project has no explicit educational objectives, yet its findings will be of relevance for the development of educational materials for North Saami. Another project creating an oral language corpus for a Saami language is Mávulasj, a spoken Lule Saami documentation project that has explicit educational objectives. Lule Saami has approximately 500 speakers. Creating spoken language corpora that are of relevance for education is complex. Drawing on the experiences of creating these corpora, we explore the complexities of spoken minority language corpus creation through an ongoing South Saami project based in Umeå, Sweden. South Saami is a language with circa 500 speakers and in contrast to North Saami the speakers are spread over a large geographic area. The low number of speakers, the geographical spread, and the even lower number of advanced first language speakers, poses additional problems for the South Sami spoken corpus’ construction, and its use in the development of education materials. Using examples, we illustrate how corpora can be used to support the development of culturally relevant innovative teaching materials that can assist in language revitalization, and illustrate how corpora can be misused and result in linguistically incorrect teaching materials.

  • 81.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linneaus University, Växjö.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    How the materiality of mobile video chats shapes emergent language learning practices in early childhood2019In: Emergent practices and material conditions in learning and teaching with technologies / [ed] Teresa Cerratto Pargman and Isa Jahnke, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 217-229Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language learning practices are shaped by their material conditions. Using an action research case study intervention, this chapter shows how the introduction of mobile video chats for children learning a home language creates the material conditions for language engagement and participation practice to emerge that encourage the learning of the home language in additional contexts. The mobile video chat's concomitant role in enacting change in the children's home language learning practices facilitates home language learning in authentic and meaningful interactions. The material characteristics of the microphone, the web-camera, the loudspeaker, Skype and the portability of the tablet together with the material characteristics of their physical environment have the potential to enact change in children's additional language learning through listening, seeing, speaking, moving, and showing in virtual interaction with a grandparent as adult conversational partner.

  • 82.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Syntax rules and (un)grammaticality2019In: Applied linguistics for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse learners / [ed] Nabat Erdogan, Michael Wei, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2019, p. 103-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with syntax rules and grammaticality judgments in the teaching and learning of English as a second and foreign language for linguistically diverse learners. Grammaticality judgment tasks are used in linguistic research to probe speakers' implicit knowledge about the syntactic rules of language. This chapter discusses grammaticality judgment tasks in educational contexts and proposes a method for teaching syntactic rules of English based on the grammaticality judgments of second and foreign language learners of English. The chapter also attempts to raise grammatical consciousness for teaching of English as a second or foreign language as well as illustrating how various media can be used to design and present grammaticality judgment tasks to support language learning and learner engagement, participation, and motivation.

  • 83.
    Wintersparv, Spoke
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren Leavenworth, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Teaching fiction in the age of measurability: Teachers’ perspectives on the hows and whats in Swedish L1 classrooms2019In: L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1578-6617, Vol. 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown a slow but steady change in reading habits among students in Swedish upper secondary schools. The frequency with which they read fiction on a daily basis has decreased and reading comprehension has declined. Consequently, Swedish politicians and school authorities have taken measures to reverse these trends. Fiction reading has traditionally been a part of the Swedish subject, but whereas the course syllabi in the upper secondary school stipulate that fiction be taught, they pay little attention to how. This study examines how teachers describe the process of literary education. In doing so, it suggests that monitoring students is central to teachers’ didactic decisions, and that both teachers and students regard printed books more highly than both audiobooks and e-books. The data was collected using two focus groups interviews with upper secondary school teachers of Swedish, seven female and five male, age 28 to 61. The analysis was grounded in a phenomenographic examination of experience, allowing themes to emerge through iterative coding. The findings show that the teachers’ view on literary education is associated with instrumentality and teacher-centered activities—the discussions circled around practical aspects, with no mention of teaching objectives, approaches, or literary experience.

  • 84.
    Zhao, Huahui
    et al.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Sullivan, Kirk P H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Teaching presence in computer conferencing learning environments: effects on interaction, cognition and learning uptake2017In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 538-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study examined how the level and nature of teaching presence impacted two online forum discussions from three dimensions: participation and interaction, cognitive presence, and knowledge development via assimilating peer messages. Effects on participation and interaction were graphically depicted. Effects on cognitive presence and knowledge construction via assimilating messages were suggested via statistical analysis, followed by qualitative interpretations. Twenty-six tertiary online learners with varied demographic backgrounds participated in the study for 6 weeks. The results showed that the nature of teaching presence in the study, specified to teacher initiation, roles of teaching presence and means of making teaching presence, largely shaped the impact of teaching presence on learning. A higher level of teaching presence was observed to be associated with a lower level of student participation, peer interaction, cognitive presence and learning uptake. Based on the results, implications for integrating and researching teaching presence in computer conferences were provided.

  • 85.
    Zhao, Huahui
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk PH
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Mellenius, Ingmarie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Participation, interaction and social presence: an exploratory study of collaboration in online peer review groups2014In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 807-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated in the study. Content analyses of discussion protocols were performed in terms of participation, interaction, and social presence.

    The results indicate that collaboration does not occur automatically in asynchronous computer conference. Collaboration requires participation because no collaboration occurred in the two groups with low student participation; however, participation does not lead to collaboration, evidenced by student postings receiving no peer responses. Collaboration requires interaction but does not end with interaction, substantiated by different levels of collaboration across different interactional patterns. Social presence helps to realise collaboration through establishing a warm and collegial learning community to encourage participate and interaction, exemplified by the contrast of the group with the highest level of social presence and the group with the lowest level of social presence. A model of understanding and assessing collaboration in online learning is recommended, consisting of participation, interaction and social presence.

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