umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 51 - 81 of 81
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Johansson, Eva E
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Röjlar, Hanna
    Eriksson, Bodil
    Frisk, Kristina
    Gender differences in media portrayals of doctors: a challenge in the socialisation of next-generation doctors2008In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 226-226Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    From calling to a scheduled vocation: Swedish male and female students' reflections on being a doctor2007In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. e1-e8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: All over the world an increasing number of women are entering medical schools. Soon women will constitute half of the physician workforce in Scandinavia. However, specialty segregation persists. Reports have shown different motives among male and female doctors to be, but the impact of gender, i.e. how ongoing social constructions of femininity and masculinity influence the development of professionalism, is not fully described.

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to explore views and visions among second-year students at a Swedish Medical School, and to identify challenges for education and workforce planning.

    METHODS: After receiving research ethics board approval, all students participating in the course 'Professional development', including a task to write a free-text essay on the theme 'to be a doctor', were invited to share their essays for analysis. Of 138 (40% men) students in 2002, 104 (39% men) accepted. The texts were analysed according to grounded theory.

    RESULTS: Students held 'doctorship' to be an outstanding profession of commitment, authority and duty. Fears were exposed, especially among women, regarding how to fit demands of self-sacrifices and balancing a private life. Belonging to a new generation, they conceived gender equity as self-evident. Actual working conditions were met with disapproval, as did an all-embracing calling. A scheduled vocation was hoped for. They relied on the mass of women to implement change. Women's 'other' values, alluding to family orientation, were expected to alter working conditions and also give men more leisure time. Despite equity conviction, segregating gender patterns in students' representations, interactions with tutors and future prospects were disclosed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Students' arguments raise challenges for medical educators and planners regarding professional values, medical socialization and specialty recruitment. The new generation requires a renewed Hippocratic Oath, gender-aware role models and practice sites. Swedish students' arguments are compared with current international literature.

  • 53.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Vad händer i mötet? - En analys av kvinnliga värkpatienters konsultationserfarenheter.1998In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, Vol. 1-2, p. 24-27Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Women in pain: the meaning of symptoms and illness.2002In: Chronic myofascian pain.: A patient centered approach., Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxon , 2002, p. 58-70Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lindgren, Gerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Westman, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    "How could I even think of a job?": ambiguities in working life in a group of female patients with undefined musculoskeletal pain1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 169-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective - To explore the meaning of working life for a group of women sick-listed because of undefined, musculoskeletal pain disorders.

    Design - Repeated thematic interviews, analysed qualitatively according to grounded theory.

    Setting and participants - Twenty female patients, impaired by biomedically undefined pain and musculoskeletal disorders, were successively recruited at an urban primary health care centre in northern Sweden.

    Main findings - There were discrepancies between work aspirations and work experiences concerning economic maintenance, social interaction, and personal recognition. The women had low-income jobs in fields threatened by redundancy, such as cleaning, care, and service. Family considerations had a strong impact on organization and priorities in paid work. In a situation of pain and sick leave, family orientation strengthened and work aspirations declined. Social and personal recognition was sought in the unpaid ’duties at home, and economic refuge in ‘the state as supporter’.

    Implications - To understand women with undefined musculoskeletal pain as patients, we must also understand their aspirations and experiences as workers, mothers, and spouses. ‘Family considerations’, ’diminishing paid work’, and ’the state as supporter’ are important concepts for understanding the women’s sick role process.

  • 56.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lindgren, Gerd
    Westman, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    "How could I even think of a job?"--Ambiguities in working life in a group of female patients with undefined musculoskeletal pain.1997In: Scand J Prim Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 169-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Stensland, P
    Chapter 3. The illness experience.2002In: Chronic myofascial pain - a patient-centered approach., Oxford Medical Press Ltd: Oxford , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Westman, Göran
    Lindgren, Gerd
    The meanings of pain: an exploration of women's descriptions of symptoms.1999In: Soc Sci Med, ISSN 0277-9536, Vol. 48, no 12, p. 1791-802Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hovelius, Birgitta
    Kapitel 1. Begrepp och teorier.2004In: Kropp och genus i medicinen, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2004, 1, p. 35-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Is qualitative research scientific, or merely relevant? Research-interested primary care and hospital physicians' appraisal of abstracts.2003In: Scand J Prim Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 10-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Westman, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Gender bias in female physician assessments: Women considered better suited for qualitative research2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether physician assessment of scientific quality is biased by gender. DESIGN: Two fictive research abstracts on back pain treatment were constructed, one with a quantitative and one with a qualitative design. Authorship was assigned to either a woman or a man. SUBJECTS: 1637 randomly selected Swedish physicians were asked to judge the scientific quality of the two designs in a structured assessment form. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The assessments of 1364 abstracts (286 female and 394 male assessors) were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression. RESULTS: The quantitative design was judged the same, regardless of the gender of the author or assessor. The qualitative design, however, was ranked as more accurate, trustworthy, relevant and interesting with a female author. Women assessors upgraded female authors more than male authors, while male assessors reflected no gender differences. Assessor speciality interacted with judgement; physicians in primary care appreciated the qualitative abstract more than hospital physicians did (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.97-3.92). CONCLUSION: Gender seems to affect scientific evaluations. The results are worth considering in situations where research is judged and interpreted, in medical tutoring, research guidance, peer reviewing and certainly in forming evaluation committees for research funding.

  • 62.
    Johasson, Eva E
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Konsultationen ur ett genusperspektiv.2004In: Kropp och genus i medicin. / [ed] Hovelius & Johansson, Studentlitteratur , 2004, p. 117-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Lehti, Arja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Danielsson, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    "The Western gaze": An analysis of medical research publications concerning the expressions of depression, focusing on ethnicity and gender2010In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 100-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim of this study was to explore how authors of medical articles wrote about different symptoms and expressions of depression in men and women from various ethnic groups as well as to analyze the meaning of gender and ethnicity for expressions of depression. A database search was carried out using PubMed. Thirty articles were identified and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Approaches differ with regard to how depression is described and interpreted in different cultures in relation to illness complaints, illness meaning, and diagnosis of depression. Articles often present issues based on a Western point of view. This may lead to “cultural or gender gaps,” which we refer to as “the Western gaze,” which may in turn influence the diagnosis of depression.

  • 64.
    Lindström, Ulf H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Medical students' experiences of shame in professional enculturation2011In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 1016-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Despite the intentions of caregivers not to harm, medical encounters may involve intimidation and induce emotions of shame. Reflection is a critical part of professional learning and training. However, the role of shame in medical education has scarcely been studied. The aim of this study was to explore medical students’ reflections on shame-related experiences in clinical situations and to examine how they tackled these experiences.

    Methods: A 24-credit course in Professional Development is held at the Medical School of Umeå University, Sweden. A 1-day seminar on the theme of shame, which involves individual reflections and group discussions, is held in term 9. Medical students were invited to individually consider and write down their memories of situations in which they had experienced shame in clinical encounters. Of a total of 133 students, 75 were willing to share their written reflections anonymously. Their essays were transcribed to computer text and analysed by means of qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three themes emerged. These included: Difficulties in disclosing shame; Shame-inducing circumstances, and Avoiding or addressing shame. Initially, students experienced problems in recalling shameful incidents, but successively described various situations which related to being taken by surprise, being exposed, and being associated with staff imprudence. Students disclosed shame avoidance behaviours, but also gave examples of how addressing shame provided them with new insights and restored their dignity.

    Conclusions: Students’ reflections on shameful experiences elucidated the importance of attitudes, manners, standards and hierarchies in clinical situations. These are important issues to highlight in the professional enculturation of medical students; our emphasising of them may encourage medical teachers elsewhere to organise similar activities. Opportunities for mentoring medical students in tackling shame and adverse feelings, and in resolving conflict, are needed in medical curricula.

  • 65. Lindström, Ulf
    et al.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    [Professional development. Gradual introduction of the subject in medical education in Umeå]2008In: Lakartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 105, no 12-13, p. 909-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Lindström, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bodlund, Owe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Professionell utveckling: Så förs ämnet stegvis in i läkarutbildningen i Umeå2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 12-13, p. 909-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 90's a course called Professional Development (PD) runs through all terms of Medical School in Umeå. The course has continuously been reformed on the basis of course evaluations. Today there is a well-reasoned progression in the curricula to synthesize students' actual knowledge level, skills, and attitudes into professionalism. The teaching items and the pedagogical methods in PU all aim to develop the students' reflective stance, gender awareness, empathy, ethical reasoning and consultations skills. Taking communication as an example: During the first terms, theories and small-group training sessions are introduced. By clinical courses, students video-tape their own consultations and get structured feedback in tutor-guided groups. The last terms, role plays on difficult clinical situations are staged for training, but also to challenge attitudes on for instance ethnicity and sexuality. Finally, insights in communication theories and their applicability are examined in a written video case exam.

  • 67.
    Pihkala, Heljä
    et al.
    Psychiatric clinic, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Longing and fearing for dialogue with children: depressed parents' way into Beardslee's preventive family intervention2008In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 399-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a growing interest in prevention of mental disorders in children of mentally ill parents. Beardslee's preventive family intervention is a method recently introduced into Sweden. When asking parents to participate in this intervention it has become evident how sensitive the issue of parenthood is to our patients.

    Aim: The study aims at exploring what depressed parents considered as obstacles and facilitating factors for accepting Beardslee's family intervention.

    Methods: Ten parents from two psychiatric clinics and one primary health care centre in northern Sweden were interviewed by semi-structured technique. Nine of these parents had accepted and participated in Beardslee's family intervention, one parent had been offered but refused participation. Data were analysed according to grounded theory.

    Results: The main reason for taking part was the lack of dialogue these parents perceived with their children. There were difficulties in talking about and finding words to explain the depression. The parents were worried about their children, wishing to know how the children were actually feeling, and wanting the professionals to take a look at them. To open up was both frightening and tempting. It implied the consideration of many aspects: the right timing, shame and guilt, the partner's interest, the children's willingness and the involvement of professionals.

    Conclusion: The findings show the delicacy of the issue of children's well-being when a parent is depressed and they highlight some important topics to discuss with the parents when preventive interventions are offered.

  • 68. Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    et al.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Reumatiska sjukdomar.2005In: Läkemedelsboken, Bromma: Apoteket , 2005Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 69.
    Rentoft, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Johnsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Laurell, Goran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Coates, Philip J.
    Nylander, Karin
    RNA expression profiling of archival tongue carcinoma samples2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Johansson, Eva
    Gender awareness among physicians--the effect of specialty and gender. A study of teachers at a Swedish medical school.2003In: BMC Med Educ, ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 3, p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Gender perspective in medicine: a vital part of medical scientific rationality. A useful model for comprehending structures and hierarchies within medical science.2006In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, no 4, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: During the past few decades, research has reported gender bias in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. To prevent such bias, a gender perspective in medicine has been requested, but difficulties and resistance have been reported from implementation attempts. Our study aimed at analysing this resistance in relation to what is considered good medical research.

    METHOD: We used a theoretical model, based on scientific competition, to understand the structures of scientific medicine and how they might influence the resistance to a gender perspective in medicine. The model was originally introduced to discuss how pluralism improves rationality in the social sciences.

    RESULTS: The model provided a way to conceptualise different fields of research in medicine: basic research, applied research, medical philosophy, and 'empowering' research. It clarified how various research approaches within medicine relate to each other, and how they differ and compete. It also indicated why there might be conflicts between them: basic and applied research performed within the biomedical framework have higher status than gender research and other research approaches that are performed within divergent research paradigms.

    CONCLUSION: This hierarchy within medical research contributes to the resistance to a gender perspective, causing gender bias and making medical scientific rationality suboptimal. We recommend that the theoretical model can be applied in a wider medical context when different and hierarchically arranged research traditions are in conflict. In this way, the model might contribute to shape a medical community where scientific pluralism is acknowledged to enlarge, not to disturb, the scientific rationality of medicine.

  • 72.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Gender awareness among physicians - the effect of speciality and gender: A study of teachers at a Swedish medical school2003In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 3, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An important goal for medical education today is professional development including gender equality and awareness of gender issues. Are medical teachers prepared for this task? We investigated gender awareness among physician teachers, expressed as their attitudes towards the role of gender in professional relationships, and how it varied with physician gender and specialty. We discuss how this might be related to the gender climate and sex segregation in different specialties. METHOD: Questionnaires were sent to all 468 specialists in the clinical departments and in family medicine, who were engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of preceptor and student gender in clinical tutoring and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between family physicians, surgical, and non-surgical hospital doctors, and between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 65 %. There were differences between specialty groups in all investigated areas mainly due to disparities among men. The odds for a male family physician to assess gender important were three times higher, and for a male non-surgical doctor two times higher when compared to a male surgical doctor. Female teachers assessed gender important to a higher degree than men. Among women there were no significant differences between specialty groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was an interaction between physician teachers' gender and specialty as to whether they identified gender as important in professional relationships. Male physicians, especially from the surgical group, assessed gender important to a significantly lower degree than female physicians. Physicians' degree of gender awareness may, as one of many factors, affect working climate and the distribution of women and men in different specialties. Therefore, to improve working climate and reduce segregation we suggest efforts to increase gender awareness among physicians, for example educational programs where continuous reflections about gender attitudes are encouraged.

  • 73.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    A theoretical model for analysing gender bias in medicine2009In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 8, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades research has reported unmotivated differences in the treatment of women and men in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. There is an ongoing discussion on how to avoid such gender bias. We developed a three-step-theoretical model to understand how gender bias in medicine can occur and be understood. In this paper we present the model and discuss its usefulness in the efforts to avoid gender bias. In the model gender bias is analysed in relation to assumptions concerning difference/sameness and equity/inequity between women and men. Our model illustrates that gender bias in medicine can arise from assuming sameness and/or equity between women and men when there are genuine differences to consider in biology and disease, as well as in life conditions and experiences. However, gender bias can also arise from assuming differences when there are none, when and if dichotomous stereotypes about women and men are understood as valid. This conceptual thinking can be useful for discussing and avoiding gender bias in clinical work, medical education, career opportunities and documents such as research programs and health care policies. Too meet the various forms of gender bias, different facts and measures are needed. Knowledge about biological differences between women and men will not reduce bias caused by gendered stereotypes or by unawareness of health problems and discrimination associated with gender inequity. Such bias reflects unawareness of gendered attitudes and will not change by facts only. We suggest consciousness-rising activities and continuous reflections on gender attitudes among students, teachers, researchers and decision-makers.

  • 74.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    "Important...but of low status": male education leaders´ views on gender in medicine2011In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 613-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The implementation of and communication about matters associated with gender in medical education have been predominantly perceived as women's issues. This study aimed to explore attitudes towards and experiences of gender-related issues among key male members of faculties of medicine.

    Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 male education leaders from the six medical schools in Sweden. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using a modified grounded theory approach.

    Results The core category -'important... but of low status'- reflects ambivalent attitudes towards gender-related issues in medicine among male education leaders. All informants were able to articulate why gender matters. As doctors, they saw gender as a determinant of health and, as bystanders, they had witnessed inequalities and the wasting of women's competence. However, they had doubts about gender-related issues and found them to be overemphasised. Gender education was seen as a threat to medical school curricula as a consequence of the time and space it requires. Gender-related issues were considered to be unscientifically presented, to mostly concern women's issues and to tend to involve 'male bashing' (i.e. gender issues were often labelled as ideological and political). Interviewees asked for facts and knowledge, but questioned specific lessons and gender theory. Experiences of structural constraints, such as prejudice, hierarchies and homosociality, were presented, making gender education difficult and downgrading it.

    Conclusions The results indicate that male faculty leaders embrace the importance of gender-related issues, but do not necessarily recognise or defend their impact on an area of significant knowledge and competence in medicine. To change this and to engage more men in gender education, faculty measures are needed to counteract prejudice and to upgrade the time allocation, merits and status of gender implementation work. Based on our findings, we present and discuss possible ways to interest more men and to improve gender education in medicine.

  • 75.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Centre for Gender Excellence, research programme Challenging Gender, Umeå University, Umeå, SE-90187, Sweden.
    Westman, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Centre for Gender Excellence, research programme Challenging Gender, Umeå University, Umeå, SE-90187, Sweden.
    Attitudes toward and experiences of gender issues among physician teachers: a survey study conducted at a university teaching hospital in Sweden2008In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 8, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Gender issues are important to address during medical education, however research about the implementation of gender in medical curricula reports that there are obstacles. The aim of this study was to explore physician teachers' attitudes to gender issues.

    METHODS: As part of a questionnaire, physician teachers at Umeå University in Sweden were given open-ended questions about explanations for and asked to write examples why they found gender important or not. The 1 469 comments from the 243 respondents (78 women, 165 men) were analyzed by way of content analysis. The proportion of comments made by men and women in each category was compared.

    RESULTS: We found three themes in our analysis: Understandings of gender, problems connected with gender and approaches to gender. Gender was associated with differences between women and men regarding behaviour and disease, as well as with inequality of life conditions. Problems connected with gender included: delicate situations involving investigations of intimate body parts or sexual attraction, different expectations on male and female physicians and students, and difficulty fully understanding the experience of people of the opposite sex. The three approaches to gender that appeared in the comments were: 1) avoidance, implying that the importance of gender in professional relationships was recognized but minimized by comparing gender with aspects, such as personality and neutrality; 2) simplification, implying that gender related problems were easy to address, or already solved; and 3) awareness, implying that the respondent was interested in gender issues or had some insights in research about gender. Only a few individuals described gender as an area of competence and knowledge. There were comments from men and women in all categories, but there were differences in the relative weight for some categories. For example, recognizing gender inequities was more pronounced in the comments from women and avoidance more common in comments from men.

    CONCLUSION: The surveyed physician teachers gave many examples of gender-related problems in medical work and education, but comments describing gender as an area of competence and knowledge were few. Approaches to gender characterized by avoidance and simplification suggest that faculty development programs on gender need to address and reflect on attitudes as well as knowledge.

  • 76.
    Risberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Westman, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Gender in medicine - an issue for women only? A survey of physician teachers' gender attitudes.2003In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: During the last decades research has disclosed gender differences and gender bias in different fields of academic and clinical medicine. Consequently, a gender perspective has been asked for in medical curricula and medical education. However, in reports about implementation attempts, difficulties and reluctance have been described. Since teachers are key persons when introducing new issues we surveyed physician teachers' attitudes towards the importance of gender in professional relations. We also analyzed if gender of the physician is related to these attitudes. METHOD: Questionnaires were sent to all 468 senior physicians (29 % women), at the clinical departments and in family medicine, engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on five visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of physician and student gender in clinical tutoring, and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 65 %. The physicians rated gender more important in consultation than in clinical tutoring. There were significant differences between women and men in all investigated areas also when adjusting for speciality, age, academic degree and years in the profession. A higher proportion of women than men assessed gender as important in professional relationships. Those who assessed very low were all men while both men and women were represented among those with high ratings. CONCLUSIONS: To implement a gender perspective in medical education it is necessary that both male and female teachers participate and embrace gender aspects as important. To facilitate implementation and to convince those who are indifferent, this study indicates that special efforts are needed to motivate men. We suggest that men with an interest in gender issues should be involved in this work. Further research is needed to find out how such male-oriented endeavours should be outlined.

  • 77. Sandström, L
    et al.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Kap 28. Depression i läkemedesannonser.2004In: Kropp och genus i medicinen., Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2004Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 78. Sandström, Lotta
    et al.
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    [Depression--a gender-disease in drug advertisement]2004In: Lakartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 101, no 7, p. 582-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79. van Tongeren-Alers, M
    et al.
    van Esch, M
    Verdonk, P
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lagro-Janssen, A
    Gender-related considerations about work-life balance and speciality preferences among new Dutch and Swedish studentsIn: Teaching and learning in medicine, ISSN 1040-1334, E-ISSN 1532-8015Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 80. van Tongeren-Alers, Margret
    et al.
    van Esch, Maartje
    Verdonk, Petra
    Johansson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lagro-Janssen, Toine
    Are New Medical Students' Specialty Preferences Gendered?: Related Motivational Factors at a Dutch Medical School2011In: Teaching and learning in medicine, ISSN 1040-1334, E-ISSN 1532-8015, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know importance stipulated to motivational factors. Aim: Our study investigates new medical students' early specialization preferences and motivational factors. Methods: New students at a Dutch medical school (n = 657) filled in a questionnaire about specialty preferences (response rate = 94%; 69.5% female, 30.5% male). The students chose out of internal medicine, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, surgery, gynecology and family medicine, " other"or "I don't know." Finally, they valued ten motivational factors. Results: Forty percent of the medical students reported no specialty preference yet. Taken together, female medical students preferred pediatrics and wished to combine work and care, whereas male students opted for surgery and valued career opportunities. Conclusions: Gender-driven professional preferences in new medical students should be noticed in order to use competencies. Changes in specialty preferences and motivational factors in pre- and post graduates should further assess the role of medical education.

  • 81.
    van Tongeren-Alers, Margret
    et al.
    Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Primary and Community Care, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Verdonk, Petra
    VU Medical Centre, Department of Medical Humanities, EMGO INstitute for Health and Care Research, School of Medical Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bor, Hans
    Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Primary and Community Care, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lagro-Janssen, Antoine
    Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Primary and Community Care, Gender and Women's Health Unit,Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    How gender or culture affects first year Dutch and Swedish students' preferences for specialties and work-life issues2014In: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 4, p. 214-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We determine how gender or culture influence new medical students' specialty preferences and work-life issues and explore the relation between work-life issues and each specialty preference.

    Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed first year Dutch and Swedish medical students (N=1173, cohorts from 2006-2009) on their preferences for specialties, full-time or part-time work, and agreement to eleven work-life issues. We tested differences by gender or culture using chi square and logistic regression.

    Results: Over 93% of all students responded (N=1095). Almost no male first year student preferred gynecology as a specialty. Dutch male students were more often interested in surgery, Dutch female students in paediatrics. In the Netherlands, male students in particular preferred full-time work. In Sweden gender did not influence working hour preferences. Women in both countries expected equality in career-opportunities and care-tasks more than men, and agreed more often that their career would influence their family life. Women with a preference for surgery most often emphasized equality in career opportunities and care tasks. In most preferred specialties female gender related to a lower degree to full-time work. A gender gap in preferred working hours was larger for Dutch students preferring surgery or paediatrics than for Swedish students. For most of the specialty preferences studied, Swedish students anticipated childcare by day cares and Dutch students' informal day care.

    Conclusions: Early in training, medical students have gendered specialty preferences and work-life preferences which relate to each other. Gender differences are signifi-cantly more pronounced in the Netherlands than in Sweden.

12 51 - 81 of 81
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf